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Ship Dimensionin

Ship Dimensionin

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Manuel Ventura

mventura@mar.ist.utl.pt

Summary

Ship Dimensioning

Owners Requirements

Traditional approach

Generic Ship Dimensioning Process

Most common implementation methods:

Optimization methods

Excel Solver

Matlab fmincon() function

Annex A.

Annex B.

Annex C.

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Ship Dimensioning

Ship Dimensioning

The determination

of the main

dimensions and

characteristics of

the ship is the first

step of the

preliminary design

stage.

Yang & al (2006)

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Ship Dimensioning

Owners Requirements

The starting point is a set of Owners requirements defining

mainly the ship type, cargo capacity and speed

Example of requirements:

Type of ship:

Mission:

Deadweight:

Max. Draught:

Cargo capacity:

Service speed:

Autonomy:

Cargo Equipment:

Other:

Service Line Setubal - Antwerp

9,500 dwt

8.0 m

750 TEU, including 20 reefers

17 knots

20,000 miles

2 cranes of 40 t x 26.5 m

Accommodations for 15 people

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Ship Dimensioning

DW (input)

Assumed a (DW/ Displacement) ratio empirically

Displacement = DW / (DW/ Displacement)

Lpp = f (Displacement, Vs )

Cb = f ( Fn, Displacement, Vs )

B, T, D are functions of:

Space requirements (cargo and ballast volumes, max.

dimensions)

Intact stability

Free Board

Reserve of flotation

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Selection of the Cb

Number

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Ship Dimensioning

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Ship Dimensioning

Watson and Gilfillan (1976) presented the following

procedure to obtain the main dimensions of a ship with the

required displacement

( ) ( )

3

L 2 B

B

T

L=

(

)

1

.

025

1

s

C

L

B=

L

B

B

T=

B

T

D =T D

T

( )

( )

( )

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and Cb are obtained

from statistical data of

similar ships

as 1.20

(1+s) is a coefficient

related to the hull

appendages

Ship Dimensioning

Ship Dimensioning

10

Generic Ship

Dimensioning

Process

Modern approach

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Ship Model

Type of Ship

CDW, TEU, Lane Length

Vs

Autonomy

Etc.

Lpp, B, D, T, Cb

Etc.

Design

Variables

Mission

Requirements

Ship Model

Possible

Solution

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Specific Fuel Oil Consumption

Etc.

Technical

Design

Parameters

Displacement

Cm, Cwl, Kb, Lcb, BMT, BML, Sw

Lightship Weight, Kg, Lcg

GMt

DW, CDW

Cargo Capacity

Ballast Capacity

Propulsion Power

Length of Engine Room

Length of Cargo Area

Etc.

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11

Weight based design (Ex.: Tankers, bulk-carriers,..)

Homogeneous cargoes

CDW is the measure of cargo capacity

Depth = f(Vcargo)

Unitized or packed cargo

Number of TEU is the measure of cargo capacity

Lane length for vehicle stowage is the most common measure of

cargo capacity

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12

Constraints

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13

Economical Assessment

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14

Initial ship cost

The initial ship cost is not by itself a good indicator, some

design options only become economically advantageous on the

long run

running costs of the ship along its entire operational life

The most common are:

Required Freight Rate (RFR)

Present Value (PV)

Internal Rate of Return (IRR)

voyage is required

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15

Typical Voyage

The specification of the typical ship voyage allows a more

comprehensive analysis of the economic aspects

It may include:

The number of ports visited during the round trip

The distance between ports

The cargo-handling capabilities available and the corresponding

handling rates and costs

Port fees and taxes

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16

Specification

Itinerrio

1

2

3

Carga

1-2

2-3

Ritmos de carga/descarga

1

2

Termos de carga/descarga

Custos porturios do navio

1

2

Custos porturios da carga

1

2

Frete

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Setbal

Anturpia

Sines

600 teus x 14 t

400 teus x 16 t + 200 teus vazios

60 teus/hora shinc

70 teus/hora shinc

Li-Lo

10,000 + 0.5xGT

30,000 + 0.5xGT

100/teu cheio, 50/teu vazio

120/teu cheio, 70/teu vazio

RFR (frete mnimo requerido)

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17

fio

fiost

li-lo

shinc

sshex

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Ship Registry (conventional flag/convenience flag)

MAR

Capital Interest Rate (bank loans)

10%

355 d (10 d)

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20

10

Parametric Studies

The independent variables are obtained by variation between

the lower and upper limits assumed

Require more computing time when the number of design

variables is high

No guarantees that the solution found is the optimal

Optimization Methods

The independent variables are obtained from an optimization

algorithm

Possible to find a better and faster solution

Only provides information about the optimal point found (single

objective methods)

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21

Parametric Studies

11

System of 5 equations

11 variables

3 variables fixed based on

the Owner requirements

(DW, CCAP, V)

= L B T Cb

= LWT + DW

PMCR = f ( L, B, T , Cb,V )

D = f ( L, B, Cb, PMCR , CCAP )

which are relatively stable for each ship type,

are suited for a good initial estimate

Introducing these additional three relations, the solution of

the displacement equation it is transformed in the solution of

system of eight non-linear equations.

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23

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24

Functional

Diagram of the

Dimensioning by

Systematic

Variation

The system of nonlinear equations is

solved by an iterative

process

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12

Main Dimensions

The main dimension can be obtained from the ratios and

coefficients used as independent variables

For example:

The ratio k can be obtained

from statistics:

1

= DW

k

DW

k =

T=

L B

Cb

B T

B

B = T

T

L

L = B

B

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25

Optimization Methods

13

Single-Objective

most important, is selected

Multi-Objective

Several objectives can be in conflict between them

Hybrid

objective

One of the objectives is selected as the most important and

the other are converted into a set of constraints that are

varied parametrically

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27

Linear Methods:

Newton

Non-Linear Methods:

Gauss-Newton

Levenberg-Marquardt

Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP)

Artificial Neural Networks (ANN)

Genetic Algorithms (GA)

Simulated Annealing (SA)

Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO)

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14

Linear Successive Approximations

The functions are expanded in Taylor series around the initial

point, considering only the linear terms

The constrains and the objective functions are linearized in a

similar way and the problem is solved as linear.

Random Search

between the lower and upper limits.

The values that do not comply to the constrains are eliminated

and are not used in the next functions.

The process stops when all the variables comply to the criteria

defined.

Direct Search

sequence of point that converge to an optimal point where the

function has a minimum.

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Advantages/Disadvantages

Linear Successive Approximations Fast process but where

the non-linear behavior of the relations is lost due to the

linearization of the initial stage.

Random Search Slow process where the optimum point can be

missed due to the contraction process. It can be applied to

multi-modal functions.

Direct search Based on local search and global movements.

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15

Global

Is able to search through the entire design space to find

the optimal solution

Local

Can converge to a local solution, missing possible solutions in

other regions of the design space

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31

Excel Solver

16

Available algorithms:

LP - Linear Programming (assumed only if selected in <Options>)

Non-Linear Programming (assumed by default)

GRG2 - Generalized Reduced Gradient (Lasdom et al, 1998)

The Solver approximates the Jacobian matrix (partial

derivatives) using finite differences and re-evaluates it at

the beginning of each iteration

Limits

200 variables

100 implicit restrictions

400 simple restrictions (upper/lower limits)

Usage:

<Tools>/<Solver>

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Multiple range

<Changing Cells> can be

indicated separated by

commas:

$C$4, $C$6:$C$8

<Equal To> define the type of problem (maximize, minimize, equal to)

<Changing Cells> are the ones that contain the design variables (to be

optimized) and must be all in the active sheet

<Constrains> list the constraints to be applied

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17

The simplified Model used on the example is based on the

one presented in Xuebin (2009)

Objective Function

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35

The following set of 14 constraints is applied:

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18

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37

In order to make the model formulas more readable and

easy to debug and maintain, cell and range names should be

used instead of just references

Cell names are created by:

<Insert/Name/Define>

The use of cell names avoids the need to use absolute cell

references (Example: Lpp instead of C$4$)

Define all the cell names BEFORE entering the formulas

Define explicitly the units of all the values

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19

Constraints associated to intervals must be split in two.

Example:

To be split into:

DW >= 25000

DW <= 50000

example:

<yellow>

input cells

<orange> constraints

<red>

objective function

<gray>

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39

internal (inner breadth of cargo hold) multiple of the width of the

standard container (8.0ft = 2.44m)

These conditions can be converted into additional constraints

For example for the Breadth of the ship:

Module(B/2.46) < 0.01

NOTES:

The value 2.46 results from taking into consideration the width of

the container plus the interval between containers (abt. 25 mm)

In Excel the expression will be:

mod(B; 2.46)

where the function mod(a;b) returns the remainder of the division

a/b

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20

objective in the optimization process

Although the <Solver> is a single objective method, multiple

objectives can be taken into consideration by creating an objective

function which is the result of a weighted sum of several

contributions:

Fobj = w0xF0 + w1xF1 + w2xF2

The weights wi will be assigned by the designer in accordance to

the relative importance of each contribution and their sum will be

always equal to 1.0:

w0 + w1 + w2 + = 1.0

The sign of each weight will be positive, if the corresponding

contribution is to me minimized, or negative, if it is to be

maximized

It is convenient to scale the different contributions to the same

order of magnitude. For example each contribution can be scaled to

be in the interval [0, 1]

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41

The initial values for the variable cells should be

representative of the values expected at the optimal

solution, rather than arbitrary values such as all zeroes.

The Excel Solver is a local optimizer -> different sets of

initial variables values should be tested to check the

consistency of the results and to help to find a global

optimum

The process can be made automatic by creating a macro to

define the design variables, the constraints and the

objective function and to run the Solver

The macro can be converted into a VBA (Visual Basic for

Applications) function

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21

The first draft of a

program can be obtained

by recording a sequence

of commands (macro)

using the macro

recorder:

<Tools/Macro/Record

New Macro>

Next the macro code can be run and edited in the VBA Editor

<Tools/Macro/Macros/Run> or /Edit>

The code should be extensively commented in order to make its

debugging and maintenance easier

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43

Sub OptimumShip()

'

' OptimumShip Macro

' Macro recorded 2010-09-22 by Manuel Ventura

'

' Keyboard Shortcut: Ctrl+Shift+S

'

' Clear Solver options

SolverReset

' Minimize Objective Function

SolverOk SetCell:="$K$17", MaxMinVal:=2, ValueOf:="0", _

ByChange:="$C$4:$C$9

' Constraints

' Lpp <=

SolverAdd CellRef:="$C$4", Relation:=1, FormulaText:="$C$24"

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22

' T <=

SolverAdd CellRef:="$C$7", Relation:=1, FormulaText:="$C$25

' T <=

SolverAdd CellRef:="$C$7", Relation:=1, FormulaText:="$C$26"

' L/B >=

SolverAdd CellRef:="$C$11", Relation:=3, FormulaText:="$C$27"

' L/D <=

SolverAdd CellRef:="$C$12", Relation:=1, FormulaText:="$C$28"

' L/T <=

SolverAdd CellRef:="$C$13", Relation:=1, FormulaText:="$C$29"

' Cb >=

SolverAdd CellRef:="$C$8", Relation:=3, FormulaText:="$C$30"

' Cb <=

SolverAdd CellRef:="$C$8", Relation:=1, FormulaText:="$C$31"

' Fn <=

SolverAdd CellRef:="$G$15", Relation:=1, FormulaText:="$C$32"

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45

' GMT >=

SolverAdd CellRef:="$G$31", Relation:=3, FormulaText:="$C$33"

' DW >=

SolverAdd CellRef:="$G$20", Relation:=3, FormulaText:="$C$34

' DW <=

SolverAdd CellRef:="$G$20", Relation:=1, FormulaText:="$C$35"

' Vs >=

SolverAdd CellRef:="$C$9", Relation:=3, FormulaText:="$C$36

' Vs <=

SolverAdd CellRef:="$C$9", Relation:=1, FormulaText:="$C$37"

' Run Solver and

allow the user to decide to keep or not the obtained result

SolverSolve userFinish:=False

End Sub

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23

The Solver can be fine-tuned by changing the default

options

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47

The <Max Time> and the <Iterations> edit boxes control the

Solvers running time.

The <Show Iteration Results> check box instructs the

Solver to pause after each major iteration and display the

current "trial solution" on the spreadsheet. In alternative

the user can simply press the ESC key at any time to

interrupt the Solver, inspect the current iterate, and decide

whether to continue or to stop.

The <Assume Linear Model> check box determines whether

the simplex method or the GRG2 nonlinear programming

algorithm will be used to solve the problem.

The <Use Automatic Scaling> check box causes the model to

be rescaled internally before solution.

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24

The <Assume Non-Negative> check box places lower bounds

of zero on any decision variables that do not have explicit

bounds in the <Constraints> list box.

The <Precision> edit box is used by all of the optimizers and

indicates the tolerance within which constraints are

considered binding and variables are considered integral in

mixed integer programming (MIP) problems.

The <Tolerance> edit box is the integer optimality or MIPgap tolerance used in the branch and bound method.

The GRG2 algorithm uses the <Convergence> edit box and

<Estimates>, <Derivatives>, and <Search> option button

groups.

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Matlab Optimization Toolbox

25

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51

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26

Objective Function

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Non-Linear Constraints

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27

The simplified Model used on the example is based on the

one presented in Xuebin (2009)

This is a part of the Matlab code to call the optimizer:

% Initial point

Lpp = 185.0;

B = 26.0;

D = 14.5;

T = 10.5;

Vs = 15.0;

Cb = 0.70;

x0 = [Lpp B D T Vs Cb];

% Call optimizer

[x, acc, exitflag, output] = fmincon( @CalcModel, x0, [], [], ...

[], [], [], [], @mycon, options );

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The file <CalcModel.m> defines the sequence of the

calculations required to compute the objective function:

function [annualCargoCost] = CalcModel( x )

% Design independent variables

Lpp

= x(1);

B

= x(2);

D

= x(3);

T

= x(4);

Vs

= x(5);

Cb

= x(6);

displ = 1.025*Lpp*B*T*Cb;

% Froude Number

Fn = 0.5144*Vs/sqrt(9.8065*Lpp);

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Dimensioning

annualCargoCostShip

= aoc/nvr/cdw;

56

28

The file <mycon.m> contains the definition of the constraints:

function [c, ceq] = mycon( x )

global

Fn dw;

Lpp = x(1);

B = x(2);

D = x(3);

T = x(4);

Vs = x(5);

Cb = x(6);

% Stability

kb = 0.53*T;

bmt = (0.085*Cb - 0.002)*B*B/T/Cb;

kmt = kb + bmt;

gmt = kmt - (1.0 + 0.52*D);

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The file <mycon.m> with the definition of the constraints:

% Inequality Constraints defined as

% ax + b <= 0

c = [-Lpp/B+6.0 Lpp/D-15.0 Lpp/T-19.0 ...

T-0.45*dw^0.31 T-0.7*D-0.7 ...

25000-dw dw-500000 ...

0.63-Cb Cb-0.75 ...

14.0-Vs Vs-18.0 ...

Lpp-274.32 Fn-0.32 ...

-gmt+0.07*B];

% NO equality constraints

ceq = [];

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29

Final results of the optimization :

Algorithm used : medium-scale: SQP, Quasi-Newton, line-search

No. of iterations = 18

No. function calls = 133

Optimum Ship:

Lpp = 221.855 m

B = 36.976 m

D = 19.821 m

T = 14.575 m

Vs = 14.000 knots

Cb =

0.720

ACC =

7.972 US$/t

The results are quite similar to those obtained from the Excel

spreadsheet using the Solver.

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Ship Dimensioning

30

Introduction

Linear Programming (LP), is an Operations Research

technique that was first applied during the Second World

War to help solve troop-supply problems.

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61

MatLab Optimization Toolbox

Quadric and Linear Programming

LP Solve (ANSI C)

Current version: 5.5 (CD-ROM#68)

Current version: 1.10 (CD-ROM#68)

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31

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35

and Processing

some initial knowledge can be obtained from the analysis of the

existing ships

existing ships of the same type and in a similar range of cargo

capacity should be structured in a small Data Base

To improve the quality of the process, the Data Base should first

be cleaned from:

building yard and year) and data source (journal, web site, etc.)

will help to check and improve the data quality

M.Ventura

Ship Dimensioning

72

36

The registries of Lloyds Register and other classification

societies are good data sources

A Spreadsheet can be used for data storage and for the

statistical analysis and graphic display of the results

The main topics of interest are:

Hull dimensions

Propulsion machinery and electric generators

Cargo capacity and equipment

Others (ballast capacity, crew)

Name

Built

Year

IMO

No

M.Ventura

Lpp

Lwt

DW

Vs

Main

Engine

MCR

Ship Dimensioning

Electr.

Power

73

The measure(s) of the cargo capacity used depends of the ship type:

Ship Type

Cargo

Equipment

Tankers

Bulk carriers

Volume cargo tanks/holds

Cargo pumps

Cranes

Container carriers

on deck, reefers)

Cranes

Cell guides

Ro/Ro

RoPax

Ferries

/ number of trailers

Number of passengers

Ramps, lifts

Passenger Ships

M.Ventura

Number of passengers

Ship Dimensioning

74

37

Other information also useful about ship systems, crew, etc.

(if available)

Vol.

Ballast

Ballast

Pumps

M.Ventura

Vol. FO

Vol. DO

Crew

Ship Dimensioning

75

Based on the data compiled, a set of ratios can be computed

These ratios help to characterize the ship class

Allow the definition of the bounding limits to the variation

of the design variables

Support the estimative of values for which there is no

information to support a computation, even if approximated

L/B

M.Ventura

Cb

LWT/(L.B.D)

CSR WB/DW

Ship Dimensioning

%TEUdeck

%TEU hold

%TEUref

76

38

Data Source

Notes

exchange.dnv.com

Search by Name or IMO Number

www.sea-web.com

polship.cto.gda.pl

M.Ventura

Ship Dimensioning

77

Data Source

Notes

Motor Ship

www.motorship.com

Digital version available only by subscription.

Ingenieria Naval

Journal of the association of Spanish naval architects that

www.ingenierosnavales contains some ship descriptions (in Spanish). Digital version

available only by subscription.

.com

Naval Architecture

Significant Ships

most representative ships of each year, including General

Arrangement drawing and lightship weight information. Also

available in CD-ROM.

M.Ventura

Ship Dimensioning

78

39

Dimensions of the Ship

Physical Limitations

Physical limitations can be associated to the geographical

route that the ship uses

Limitations can be due to the existence of canals, straights,

bridges, ports, locks systems

The dimensions affected can be the Length, the Breadth,

the Draught and the Air Draught

M.Ventura

Ship Dimensioning

80

40

Air Draught

Designation given to the

vertical distance measured

from the load waterline up

to the upper extremity of

the ship (top of the mast,

chimney,..)

Limited to 4.50 m in many

inland waterways in central

Europe due to the

existence of bridges

M.Ventura

Ship Dimensioning

81

Lmax

[m]

Bmax

[m]

Tmax

[m]

Air

Draft

max [m]

DW Max.

[t]

TEU Max.

Panama Canal

294.13

32.31

12.04

--

65,000

4,000

Panama Canal

(after 2014)

427.00

55.00

18.00

--

Kiel Canal

315.00

40.00

9.50

--

St. Lawrence

Canal

222.50

22.86

9.10

35.50

Suez Canal

---

--

20.12

--

240,000

17,000

Strait of Malacca

---

---

21.00

--

300,000

18,000

M.Ventura

Ship Dimensioning

Updated

on Jan. 2010

12,000

82

41

Transportation

M.Ventura

Ship Dimensioning

83

Panama Canal

M.Ventura

Ship Dimensioning

84

42

Adapted to Post-Panamax ships

Dimensions of the new locks (eclusas):

L = 427 m

B = 55 m

T = 18 m

Cost: 5.5 billion US$

Beginning of work: 2007

Conclusion:

M.Ventura

2014

Ship Dimensioning

85

M.Ventura

Ship Dimensioning

Updated

on Jan. 2010

86

43

Section Dimensions

M.Ventura

Ship Dimensioning

87

Strait of Malacca

M.Ventura

Ship Dimensioning

88

44

Length

Leixes/

tankers

Breadth

Station B = 200 m

Station C = 100 m

Leixes/

Other ships

Draught

Air Draught

Station B = 9 m

Station C = 5.8 m

?

Aveiro

140 m

8m

Figueira da Foz

100 m

4.7 m

Lisboa

Trafaria = 235 m

Barra= 10.5 m

(dep. on the tide)

Liscont = 10 m

Sta.Apol. = 8 m

Trafaria = 12 m

Barreiro = 9 m

Seixal = 5m

Setbal

250 m

Barra= 9.5 m

(dep. on the tide)

Sines

M.Ventura

Gen.Cargo = 125 m

Petrol.= 28 m

Grain.= 17 m

Gen.Cargo= 5.5 m

Ship Dimensioning

Petrol.= 23 m

Grain.= ?

89

M.Ventura

Viana do Castelo

Leixes

Aveiro

Figueira da Foz

Peniche

Lisboa

Cascais

Sesimbra

Setbal

Sines

Lagos

Faro

V. R. Sto. Antnio

Ship Dimensioning

90

45

www.portosdeportugal.pt

www.portodeaveiro.pt

www.portodelisboa.pt

www.portodelisboa.pt

www.portodesines.pt

www.portodesetubal.pt

www.apdl.pt

M.Ventura

Ship Dimensioning

91

www.pancanal.com

(Panama Canal)

www.suezcanal.gov.eg

www.kiel-canal.org

(Kiel Canal)

www.greatlakes-seaway.com

www.atlas.com.eg/scg.html

www.nnc.egnet.net/suezrules.htm

www.portguide.com

M.Ventura

Ship Dimensioning

92

46

Measures of Merit

The type of measure of merit used depends on the previous

knowledge of the earnings of the ship

Known Results

Net Present Value (NPV)

Internal Rate of Return (IRR)

Unknown Results

Required Freight Rate (RFR)

Present Value (PV)

Average Annual Cost (AAC)

M.Ventura

Ship Dimensioning

94

47

Often used when the funds for investment are limited and

the maximum income tax possible is required.

NPV =

P W

(Q

FR ) PW

(AOC )

PW

( C 0 )

where:

PW() - Present Worth

Q

- Total quantity of cargo carried annually

FR

- Freight Tax

AOC Annual Operating Costs

C0

- Initial ship cost

M.Ventura

Ship Dimensioning

95

Represents the tax of return which originates equal values

for the Present Value of the results and of the costs, i.e.,

for which NPV = 0.

Allows more effective comparisons between entirely

different alternatives

While NPV is expressed in currency units (Euro, US$), the

IRR is expressed in percentage (%)

One advantage of the IRR is that it can be computed without

the need to estimate the cost of the capital

When the IRR is used, the criterion is to select the projects

whose IRR exceeds the cost of the capital

M.Ventura

Ship Dimensioning

96

48

exploitation results is not available.

ships of different sizes.

entirely the operation costs and to guarantee the specified

income tax from the capital invested.

RFR =

AOC + Ci

Q

residual value of the ship

Ci = CRF ( C0 PW VR )

M.Ventura

Factor

Ship Dimensioning

97

still guarantees a specified income tax.

single installment, it is determined by an iterative

process.

or in the acquisition of second-hand ships, and in the

comparison of those prices with the current ship prices and

freight values.

M.Ventura

Ship Dimensioning

98

49

Capital Recovery Factor - is factor that converts a present

value into a stream of equal annual payments over a specified

period of time at a given interest rate.

CRF =

i (1 + i )

(1 + i )

where:

N No. years of ships life

i

Interest rate

future amount into a present amount

PW = (1 + i )

M.Ventura

Ship Dimensioning

99

Bibliography

9 BTE (1982), An Estimate of Operating Costs for Bulk, RoRo and

Containers Ships, Bureau of Transport Economics, Camberra.

9 Watson, D.G.M. (1998), Practical Ship Design, Vol.1, Elsevier.

9 Y-S Yang, C-K Park, K-H Lee and J-C Suh (2007), A Study on the

Preliminary Ship Design Method Using Deterministic Approach and

Probabilistic Approach Including Hull Form, Structural and

Multidisciplinay Optimization, Vol.33, No.6, pp.529-539. (CDROM#50)

M.Ventura

Ship Dimensioning

100

50

Web Site

Description / Notes

www.awes-shipbuilding.org

Shiprepairers

www.cesa-shipbuilding.org

Associations

www.dataloy.com

www.priyablue.com

www.bunkerworld.com

Historic record and trends.

www.brs-paris.com

about the marine transport market

www.equasys.org

M.Ventura

Ship Dimensioning

101

Web Site

Description / Notes

e-ships.net

Search by Name, Type, DW, etc.

www.shippingdatabase.com

registration)

M.Ventura

Ship Dimensioning

102

51

M.Ventura

Ship Dimensioning

103

52

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