Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 2



         


  "!$#&%(') *+%-,/.0 .)*+%-,
1 2')34 65 3879
:<;>=@?BA"DFC E8GIH<JLK$M ? KNKPORQSKPGFTUJSVWQSDYX :[Z]\ D<E4VLT^K_EBK$KPORE ?BC ` KPQSDYa8T^EbH<QST^DBc
:F:F:F:d:F:<:F:d:F:F:F:]:F:<:F:d:F:F:F:d:F:F:<:]:F:F:F:d:F:F:<:
e KPORQSKPJLG<T^JSVLQLDfX :[g]\ DFEIhFVWhFT^K_hFEBhdK$hFKPh<ORhFEhd?BC hF` hFhFKPh]QSD]hFaBh<T^hFEBhdH<QLhFTUhFDBhFc hdhFhFh<h]hFhFhFhdhFhFh@:
ikj ?lH<C O^K_JmJSDFEnO^DFJpoqH<OUDFQLK_JlrBK$O^DFJlQSKPGFTUJSVLQLDFJsX Z e X g rBK_J AB?tKPC Jur8KNK_JSVWH<J"rBDFJ"T^EBJvVWQ ?B\P\ T^DFEBK_Jxw
y4zk{ |<}~€|B[}~‚|B„ƒ
y4zk{I…|Fƒ†~€|B[}~‚|B„ƒ
‡ˆ;‰ O^G ? EBDFJ \ D `YAB? VWH<rBDFQSKPJpVLT^K_EBKuTUEBJSVLQ ?B\_\ T^D<EBKPJtK‹Š A O ŒC \ TVxH<J A H<QLHŽK‹ŠˆVWQLH<KPQ ? E \ H `fA DH<QSaBTUVLQWH<QST^DNrBK
? E]QLK_GFT^JvVWQLDurBKl ‡ a8TUVWJ e \ DFO^D \ H<QSO^DmKPEdO^D<J‘aBTVWJ ` KPE8DFJ†JLTUGFEBT’ \ HqVLTUo<DFJ‘rBKpD<VWQSD“QLK_GFT^JvVWQLD ;<” Hu’bG ? QWH
JLT^G ? T^K_E4VLK `? K_JSVWQLHYO^HD A KPQWH \ T D<C E•c
31 j i 0

31−j bits j−i bits i+1 bits


0
0 ... 0
31−(j−i)+1 bits j−i bits
– E \ DFEIVWQLH<QO—HqJ†JLK \P? K_E \ T^H `(H<C J \ DFQSVWH“rBK"T^EBJvVWQ ?8\P\ TUDFEBK_J™˜šœ› = M ? KlKŠ@VLQWH<TUGIH“KPO \ H `YA D \ D `YA QLK_E@ž
rBT^rBD]K_EIVWQLKNO^D<JlaBTUVLJlŸ‘ 0¡ e]¢   :[g rBK_ORQLK_GFT^JvVWQLDfX :¤£ e O^D \ D<O^DˆM ? KNK_EK_ORQLK_GFT^JvVWQLDYX : ¡ ;
 ;¦¥ JWHqEBrBDN§Na8TUVWJ `Ž? OUVLT A OUT \ HqQ ‡4¨ª©œ«•A DFQ¬ ¨ª©œ«­? VWTUO^T^®PH<EBrBD¯K_O A QLT ` K_QH<OUGFDFQLTV ` DurBK"O^H `Ž? OUVLT A OUT \ H \ T D<C E ;
§ ; ˜ ? OUVLT A OUT \ H<Q ‡ ¨ª©œ« A DFQ" ¨ª©œ« ? VWTUO^TU®¤H<EBr8D]KPORJLK_G ? EBr8D°H<OUGFDFQSTUV ` DŽr8KNO^H `? OVWT A O^T \ H \ T DFC E ;
±ˆ; ˜ ? OUVLT A OUT \ H<Q ‡ ¨ª©œ« A DFQ" ¨ª©œ« ? VWTUO^TU®¤H<EBr8D]KPO•VWK_Q \ KPQmH<O^G<DFQLTV ` DŽrBK$O—H `Ž? OUVLT A OUT \ H \ T D<C E ;
£@;¦² TUoˆT^rBTUQl¡ ¨ª©œ« KPEIVWQSK ‡4¨ª©œ«³? VWTUO^T^®PH<EBrBDŽ§faBTVWJ e K_O A QLT ` K_QlH<OUGFDFQLTV ` DŽrBK$O^Hdr8TUoˆT^JST DFC E ;
¡ ;¦² TUoˆT^rBTUQl¡ ¨ª©œ« KPEIVWQSK ‡ ¨ª©œ« ? VWTUO^T^®PH<EBrBDŽ§faBTVWJ e K_ORJLK_G ? EBrBDfH<OUGFDFQLTV ` DŽrBK$O^Hdr8TUoˆT^JST DFC E ;
Z@;¦² TUoˆT^rBTUQl¡ ¨ª©œ« KPEIVWQSK ‡ ¨ª©œ« ? VWTUO^T^®PH<EBrBDŽ§faBTVWJ e K_O•VWK_Q \ K_QmH<O^GFD<QLTUV ` D´rBK$O—H]rBTo@TUJLT DFC E ;
g@; ikj ?lH<C OµKPJ]O^HQLK A QLK_JLK_E4VWH \ T DFC E+aBT^EbHqQLT—Hš –™–¬– ¡ ± §¶rBK_OµE ?BC ` KPQLDnž h8; ¡ ± ¨ª©œ« KPE·JLT `fA OUK e KPE·rBDFaBOUK
A QLK \ T^JST DFC Ebw
:[h@; ik¸ ?tK$C E ?BC ` KPQSD]rBK \ T ` H<O•QSK A QSKPJLK_EIVxHfO^HJLTUG ? T^K_EIVWK A H<O^H<aBQWHK_Eš –¬–¬– ¡ ± §Iw
:F:[h<hFhFhFhFh@:[h8:[hFh<hFhFhFhFh<hFhFhFhFh<hFhFhFhFh<hFh<hFh
:F:<;>=@?B` H<Q†O^D<JE ?BC ` K_QLDFJ h8;¹± ¨ª©œ« e ž h8; §FI¡ ± ¨ª©œ« KPEYaBT^EbHqQLT^D ? VWTUO^T^®PH<EBrBDuKPObH<OUGFDFQSTUV ` Dur8KlJ ?B` H¯KPE AB? EIVWD
º D<VxHqE4VLK e J ?BA D<EBT^K_EBrBDM ? KJLK ` H<EIVLT^KPE8KPE+§aBTVWJYrBK A QLK \ T^JST DFC EKPE(O^H ` H<EIVWTUJWH e Z aBTVWJYrBK
K‹Š A D<EBKPEIVWK ;
:„‡ˆ; ˜ ? UO VLT A OUT \ H<QtOUDFJµE ?BC ` KPQSDFJ 8h ; ± ¨ª©œ« e ž h8; §II¡ ± ¨ª©œ« K_Ena8T^EbH<QST^D ? VWT^OUT^®PH<EBrBDK_ORH<OUGFDFQLTV ` D´r8K `Ž? OUVLT A OUTž
\ H \ T DFC EfKPE AB? EIVLD º D<VWH<EIVWK e J ?8A DFE8T^KPE8rBDM ? K“JSK ` HqE4VLT^K_EBKPE&§ŽaBTUVLJtrBK A QLK \ T^JST DFC EfKPE O^H ` H<EIVWT^JLH
e Z aBTUVLJlrBK$K‹Š A D<EBKPEIVWK ;