Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 16

Copyright 2015 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without prior written
consent of Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.

Trademarks and Permissions


and other Huawei trademarks are the property of Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
All other trademarks and trade names mentioned in this document are the property of their respective holders.

Notice
The product, service, or feature that you purchase should be restricted by
the Huawei commercial contract and the clauses in the contract. All or a
part of products, services, or features described in this document may not
be purchased or used. Every effort has been made in the preparation of this
document to ensure the accuracy of the contents, but the statements,
information, and recommendations in this document do not constitute a
warranty of any kind, expressed or implied.
The information in this document is subject to change without notice. Every
effort has been made in the preparation of this document to ensure the
accuracy of the contents, but the statements, information, and
recommendations in this document do not constitute a warranty of any
kind, expressed or implied.

Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.


Address: Huawei Industrial Base
Bantian, Longgang
Shenzhen 518219
People's Republic of China
Website: http://www.huawei.com
Email:
support@huawei.com

Mobile Video Service Performance Study


Whitepaper Series: 2

Video Coverage

A Video-Centric Mobile
Network Planning Methodology

Building a better connected world

October 2015

Contents

With the emergence of experience economy, operators are performing a


revaluation of priority criteria changing from network centric to experience
centric operation. Providing diversied services based on the basic network
capability has become one of the primary requirements of operators.
More and more people are readily willing to pay for a better online video
experience. User experience has become an important way for operators to
improve efciency and enhance user satisfaction and loyalty. This document
describes how mobile video services support core functionality and explains
the video experience evaluation method used to provide guidelines on
how to plan and construct the mobile network based on video experience
standard. This document is aimed at providing quality assistance to
operators for the creation of differentiated competitiveness through mobile
video services.

1. Introduction.........................................................................01
2. Video Industry Insights........................................................02
3. User Experience Is the Standard of MBB Network
Construction Quality...............................................................05
4. Video Coverage Methodology........................................07
5. Benefits.................................................................................11
6. Appendix: Global vMOS Insight........................................12

1. Introduction
Changed Operation Perspective
Experience economy gradually becomes the core strategy and primary source of prot and revenue in
the service industry. As basic telecom service providers, operators are altering their perspective from
network centric to experience centric operation. Providing diversified services based on the basic
network capability has become one of the primary demands of operators, and therefore, they can obtain
extra operation value. As a basic service provided by operators, video service is hot. Providing good video
service experience is the key to differentiated competitiveness for mobile broadband (MBB) operators.

Family
Health

UGC
Video = New Voice

TV/
Movie

Family
Time

SNS
Sharing

Enterprise
UC

Online
Education

Vertical
Application

Public
Safety

Entertainment
Communication

Users' Willingness to Pay


User experience is important for improving operators' ROI, which is worth considering even if consumers
are price-sensitive. However, consumers are capable of making informed decisions in the selection of
products with better service and quality and are willing to pay for better user experience when costs
are acceptable. How much extra prot operators can be obtained by providing good user experience? A
study about online video services in China shows that:
Approximately 36% of participants are willing to pay for better video service experience.
Depending on the economic status of the sales region, statistics reveal that users in eastern areas have
the freedom to support funding for such products.

01

Users' Willingness to pay for better online video services in China

Willing to pay for better video experience (average)

36%

Willing to pay for better video experience (eastern areas)


Willing to pay for better video experience (middle

38%
32%

and western areas)


It is fortunate that online video service users in China are willing to pay for better user experience.
However, prot is not the only criterion when improving user experience. The predominant purpose of
experience operation improvement is to enhance user loyalty by cost-efcient high-quality services as a
mechanism to encourage added consumption.

User Experience Standard Building


Users are willing to pay for HD, ultra HD, and 3D video experience, but are perhaps unwilling to pay for 4
Mbit/s, 8 Mbit/s, or 16 Mbit/s videos. User experience is an example of subjective perception and cannot
be simply assessed by data rate. Mean opinion score (MOS) is used to evaluate voice quality. In the data
era, a standard similar to MOS is required to evaluate video quality from various networks and devices in
different scenarios.

User Experience-oriented Planning Methodology


Complex mobile network planning and construction are operator's fundamental capability and
production force. In voice service based network era, with voice quality as the core constituent, a
comprehensive planning system including various KPIs is constructed through vigorous preparation,
planning, and research. The following questions arise after mobile network entered the data era.
How to evaluate network experience in the data era?
In addition to bit error rate, access availability, and consistent rate experience in different geographical
areas, what other KPIs should be considered to evaluate network experience?
How to plan and construct a network based on the preceding KPIs?
How do we construct the experience-oriented network planning methodology and apply it to actual
networks?

2. Video Industry Insights


Longest Video Watching Time Spent on Mobile Devices
Users used to watch scheduled TV programs on TV or online videos on PC or laptop. It is apparent
from research and conducted studies that among all video watching terminals, users spend most time
watching videos on mobile devices.

02

Time spent on mobie devices and tv


US Daily Average(Min)
Source: Flurry Analytics
180
170
160
150
140
130
120
110

177

168

168

162

158

168

168

109

Q1 2012

Q1 2013

Q1 2014

Q3 2014

Mobile devices have become the primary choice for information acquisition. Commercial enterprises
adopt the mobile-preferred strategy, with major news pushed on mobile devices. This strategy causes
higher mobile trafc requirement, accelerating the MBB network development.

SNSs Calling for Fast Development of Video Services


Mobile Internet leads to not only the vigorous development of social media, but also the emergence of
user-generated content (UGC). With UGC, every user can be a content broadcast source. For example,
the Periscope enables a user to publish live videos to users all around the world. The author of a content
is the broadcast of social media. New video production ways emerge.
In mobile Internet era, 44% users use cameras on mobile phones per day. About 90% users use the
cameras at least once a week. Simplied video clip APPs, such as the Snapchat, Instagram, and Meipai
diversify the UGC propagation. GoPro, the first-person perspective action camera, brings about the
boom of extreme-action videography. About 4000 videos are uploaded on the GoPro channel of
YouTube. Social live video APPs increase the consumption of mobile data. About 300-hour videos are
uploaded to YoTube every minute. Half times of YoTube video watching are over mobile devices. The
trafc consumption on mobile devices accounts for 40%. About 75% video watching on Facebook are
performed on mobile devices. Social videos develop in a specialized and high-quality direction, allowing
social APPs to consume the majority of mobile video trafc.
Facebook user`s video sharing and uploading increases dramatically.
Times of video watching per day: billion

4.5

Other video related statistics:

3.5

50%+ active users watching 1 or more


times videos(American)

2.5

53% watched via sharing

2
1.5
1

75% watched via mobile devices


1

0
Q3 14

Q4 14

Q1 15

03

Mobile HD Video Is the Beginning


As technology develops and the cost of HD screens decreases, the resolution of smartphones becomes
higher. According to the survey performed by Huawei mLAB on newly delivered smartphones during the
rst half of 2015, the resolution of 77% of smartphones is higher than 720p and that of the agship
models for each device manufacturer is higher than 1080p. A 720p screen has become the basic
conguration of smartphones. The hardware capability of mobile devices has been fully equipped with
the ability to support the display and popularity of HD videos of 720p or higher. A large proportion of
videos uploaded are higher than 720p, which increase the consumption on videos. For example, the
proportion of higher than 720p videos uploaded on YouTube reaches up to 51%.
From the perspective of network, the bit rate of a 720p video differs depending on encoding
technologies. However, the average bit rate of 720p videos is about 1.5 Mbit/s. Networks with 3 to 5
Mbit/s bandwidth can provide favorable 720 video service experience, with considering the initial waiting
delay, handovers in mobile scenarios, and fast fading. The deployment of LTE network in large scale can
provide a 5 Mbit/s data rate any time anywhere.

Terminal Ready

Content Ready

Network Ready

Terminal with higher than 720P


resolution

Content with higher than 720P


resolution

Global MBB throughputs

Source: Huawei mLab, 2015

Source: Youtube, 2015


16

77%

51%

55%
38%
23%

Source: Open Signal, 2015

10%

18%

31%

15

>5Mbps Countries

14 13
10

9 8
7

5 3

opt10
opt9
opt8
opt7
opt6
opt5
opt4
opt3
opt2
opt1

In high-end eld, 2K resolution becomes the competitiveness of leading operators. There are various
types of 2K resolution. In the movie projection industry, 2K resolution means 2048 x 1080 pixels.
The resolution of iPhone6 Plus is 1920 x 1080, which is very close to 2K resolution. The standard 2K
resolution of mobile phones refers to four times of 720p, equal to 2560X1440. Currently, there are
40 types of 2K mobile phones. It is expected that more than 10% newly delivered mobile phones are
2K mobile phones until next year. The 2K video experience will be the target of mobile networks and
become the mainstream.

Video Is the Strategy


Services, such as videos are required to help operators become the industrial chain leader from pipe
services. Voice, instant communication, and a small number of Internet of Things (IoT) are not enough. A
large number of future services will be carried on basic videos. After several years of exploration, mature
video business models are formed. For example, the South Korean LG U+ binds the main package with
self-managing video content, which implements the fast go-to-market and profit of video services.
Vodafone cooperates with OTT providers and implements channel service values by binding the large
traffic package with OTT content. Verizon acquired AOL to build global digital media platform and
ecology. AT&T becomes the leader of PayTV by the acquisition of DirectTV. The global leading operators
are moving to the upstream of video industry chain with its ubiquitous high-quality network and videobased service, embracing the Internet and ecology.

04

3. User Experience Is the Standard of MBB


network Construction Quality
What makes a good MBB network? What qualifies as a positive MBB experience? What is the
relationship between user experience and networks? Can user experience be the evaluation standard for
network construction? The answers to these questions have continually been researched and discussed.
However, these issues still pose challenges to network planning and construction. Investing limited
capital to network construction is the ultimate choice for operators' strategy makers. However, there are
many disputes over what should be considered the standard. From the KPI system to the KQI system, a
comprehensive quality evaluation is available. However, the standard is rarely adopted because it requires
complex calculation and KPIs, as well as the actuality that a good KPI result does not bring good user
experience.
The MBB development, especially the rapid development of video services, shows that user experience of
video services can be measured as the network construction standard. The performance of mobile video
services directly affects user behavior, which inevitably affects operators' service revenue. Operators can
meet the increasing user requirements of video service performance by the evaluation and planning
of video services on networks. Mobile network planning is targeted from coverage- and throughputoriented to user-experience-oriented.

Throughput Is Not Equal to User Experience for Video Services


Mobile users expect the ability to view video without stalling at any time and place. However, the
traditional throughput-based single KPI evaluation system cannot reect user experience. According to a
survey by Huawei mLAB, the top 5 factors affecting mobile video service performance are initial buffering
delay, stalling times, stalling duration, video resolution, and the screen size of mobile devices.
Top 5 factors affecting mobile video performance
initial buffering delay

screen size

video resolution

stalling times

stalling duration

2014Q4mLab consumers survey

Experience-based Planning Target Is the Result of Market Strategy


Network planning based on video service experience should consider geographical differences. User
video consumption behavior (such as video playback duration, resolution requirements, and tolerable
waiting delay) differ from region to region. Therefore, consumption behavior should be analyzed prior to
network planning to identify various types of video consumption areas, such as heavy video consumption
area or light video consumption area. This is to set appropriate video performance targets for specic
areas, mapping the planning objectives and marketing strategies.

05

Urban area: heavy-medium


video service consumption
area@good experience

Stadiumheavy video service


consumption area@excellent
experience

Suburban area: medium


video service consumption
area@good experience

CBDheavy video service


consumption area@excellent
experience

Change from Coverage- and Throughput-oriented to UserExperience-oriented Network Planning and Construction
Connection experience is the core of the differentiated competitiveness for operators' networks. Ensuring
connection experience is the main objective for network planning. Video service performance involves
multiple dimensions, such as larger access bandwidth and lower end-to-end delay. However, traditional
network planning cannot generate all KPIs and predict experience improvement. Therefore, planning
efciency is low. The video experience-based planning method uses normalized KPIs and displays the
planning results visually. As a result, improvements in video experience are evident during the planning.
Currently, HD video services have the highest requirements on mobile networks. Therefore, video-based
mobile network planning and construction can meet the experience requirements of video services as
well as web pages, SNSs, and music services.

06

4. Video Coverage Methodology


Faced with MBB network planning challenges, Huawei has introduced methodology based on video
coverage experience for mobile network planning and construction.

4.1 Procedures
Video Coverage mainly covers the following three key steps:
1. Network evaluation and target setting: Quantify the mobile video performance based on objective
KPIs. Analyze video consumption habits and identify the target planning areas.
2. Gap and root cause analysis: Locate the problems and causes of areas where the video performance
does not meet the requirements.
3. Solution implementation and iteration-based optimization: Perform network coverage and capacity
planning based on the root causes. The solution includes carrier expansion, sector splitting, site addition,
and the deployment of new features. Iteration planning continuously improves the compliance ratio.

vMOS baseline

Network evaluation
and target setting

Evaluation and target setting


50*50m grid-level displaying

Problem location

Gap and root


cause analysis

Gap analysis
Root cause analysis

vMOS simulation and forecast

Network planning
and solution
implementation

Iteration-based optimal planning


Solution implementation

4.2 Network Evaluation and Target Setting


The vMOS Is Used for Mobile Video experience Evaluation
Back in 2012, the ITU-T released the vMOS evaluation standards for video services. The vMOS references
the denition of the speech MOS, monitors video quality loss after the network disconnects, detects
video QoE, and locates problems. The streaming media transmission mechanism changes. The adaptive
streaming over HTTP replaces the progressive download over HTTP and becomes the main streaming
media transmission mechanism. The vMOS standard does not consider the streaming mechanism change
and the impacts of different resolution videos on user experience. Therefore, requirements for network
construction based on operator experience cannot be met.
Huawei believes video evaluation standards centered on user experience should be built to evaluate user
experience of various videos from different networks, screens, and scenarios. Together with ergonomic
experiments, sample research, and in-depth technical research, Huawei mLAB discovers that the top3
factors applicable to all scenarios are sQualtiy, sLoading, and sStalling. Huawei has put forward a new
evaluation standard, the U-vMOS. Therefore, video experience evaluation can be dened, measured, and
managed.

07

= f(sQuality, sLoading, sStalling)

vMOS

Latency<=100ms
Stalling Ratio=0%
4.9

4.9
4.8

4.8

vMOS

value

Excellent

Good

Fair

Slightly annoying

Poor

Annoying

Bad

Very annoying

4.5

4.5
4
4

2.94
2.7

2.88
Latency=3s
Stalling Ratio=10%

2.4
720

1080

2K

User perception
Imperceptible
Perceptible but not annoying

4K Resolution

Mapping Video Experience-based Planning with Business Goal


Operators also focus on investment income when user experience is improved. Accurate investments
in different areas to achieve higher return on investment (ROI) becomes a main business objective for
operators.
Performance requirements of mobile video services vary in different areas. Based on insights into video
trafc distribution, video resolution, and mainstream video APPs, high and medium video consumption
areas are discovered. Along with user behavior and operator strategy, the vMOS target is determined to
plan the networks in high and medium video consumption areas. Therefore, video service performance is
improved, trafc is increased, and more benets are brought for operators. The video coverage planning
strategy is determined based on the insight results. Networks can be divided into the following areas.

Characteristics
Heavy video consumption area

Planning strategy
1080p/2K ultra-HD video quality is planned to build competitiveness.

Medium video consumption area

720p HD video quality is planned everywhere to stimulate video consumption.

Light video consumption area

720p HD video quality is planned everywhere to cultivate video consumption


habits.

4.3 Gap and Root Cause Analysis


Grid-level Visualized Analysis
Based on the video performance evaluation on the live network, the vMOS value is geographically
displayed as a 50 x 50 m grid. If the value is lower than the target vMOS value, a grid not complying
with the requirements is formed. In this case, root cause analysis and specied network planning are
performed.

08

Target vMOS=3.8
2.7 and below
2.8~3.2
3.3~3.7
3.8 and above

Conversion and Mapping Between the Video Experience Target and Traditional Network KPIs
The traditional network KPIs, such as coverage, interference, and number of active users cannot be
directly used for measuring video performance. By analyzing mass data on the live network, Huawei
converts these traditional KPIs to vMOS KPIs of video performance using data mining. As a result, a
precise mapping model of traditional KPIs to vMOS KPIs is formed.

vMOS mapping model


Coverage

Interference

Active users number

PRB/TCP resource

This process covers several important steps: identifying factors, data clustering and classifying, key
feature selection, and tting to a model. Firstly, nd out network KPIs related to the vMOS. Then, select
the most relevant data to t the relationship curve between the vMOS and traditional network KPIs.
Finally, the best vMOS mapping model is formed.

09

Identifying factors

Data clustering and classifying

Key feature selection

Fitting to a model

For example, for 720p videos, interference, transmitted carrier power, and the number of active users
are used for tting to the initial buffer delay model. This model maps traditional network KPIs and the
vMOS. Then, the vMOS is used for network planning and construction.

er time

Initial buff

ati
er

ois

ln

na

Sig

r
we
po
r
e
i
r
car
ted
t
i
nsm
Tra

4.4 Solution Implementation and Iteration Planning


Solution Implementation
The Video Coverage method is used to perform coverage, capacity, and network structure optimization based
on the root cause of each grid value lower than the vMOS value. Optimization includes capacity expansion,
sector splitting, site addition, deployment of new features, and CDN sinking to ensure that each area reaches
the preset video performance goal.
Edge performance improvement introduces inter-site carrier aggregation and adaptive inter-cell interference
coordination to improve cell edge coverage.
Indoor performance improvement deploys micro base stations in office buildings and shopping malls to
improve the indoor capacity.
The end-to-end delay optimization deploys TCP optimization, video scheduling, adaptive bit rate, and CDN
sinking to reduce initial buffering delay.

Iteration Planning Achieves Continuous Improvement


The vMOS scores are the nal target. Network planning stops until the vMOS scores meet requirements.
Then, the planning simulation is determined.

10

Before planning

Iteration planning simulation1: Grids

Iteration planning simulation2: Grids

compliance rate>75%

compliance rate>90%

5. Benefits
Iteration optimization is used to reduce network planning times and costs. Therefore,
network planning efciency is improved and network construction costs are reduced.
Precise planning implements the mapping between the market objectives and network
construction.
In the previous network construction, channels were built. However, user experience has become the
target objective now. With precise planning, the Video Coverage method establishes mapping between
video experience and network KPIs. Therefore, a certain standard of video quality and performance can
be expected. As a result, optimal mapping between business objectives and network construction is
achieved and prots are increased.

Network Construction Case


A leading operator quickly learns the importance of video services in the MBB era. However, this
operator's video score ranked lower than its competitors during a third-party test due to long delay and
stalling time, leading to a poor user experience.
This operator adopts Huawei Video Coverage methodology and sets the target vMOS value to 3.5 in
key areas (over 90% grids meet the requirement). After the solution is deployed, the operator reaches
its target. Areas with vMOS scores lower than 3.0 are eliminated and video performance is greatly
enhanced. As a result, data trafc is increased, with the average consumption per user increasing from 1.3
GB to 1.5 GB and operator`s prot is increased.
Before:

After:

vMOS: 2.9
20%

38%

vMOS: 2.2

1.3GB

vMOS<3
grid rate
video trafc
rate
average
trafc

vMOS: 3.5
5%

50%

1.5GB

vMOS: 3.1

11

6. Appendix: Global vMOS Insight


User experience is much less satisfactory. The aim of LTE networks is to provide videos
with 4.0 vMOS scores.
To study the present state of video service experience, Huawei mLAB uses the Speed video client to select
samples of 4G mobile networks in seven cities around the world. The study shows that the average video
experience vMOS score on most networks is lower than 3.5 with unsatisfactory user experience. The
evaluation score of stalling is higher than 4.0. The evaluation score of initial buffer delay is lower than 3.5.
Therefore, improving initial buffering delay is the key to improving user experience.
Test APPSpeedVideo (Downloaded at http://mbblab.tk, supported by Huawei mLAB)
Test Time2015.7-2015.9
Test Results

Global vMOS Test Result

Source: Huawei mLAB

Test samples: sampling video experience data from seven cities in the world. Sampled video are YouTube
720 HPD, YouTube 1080P Dash and YouTube 2K Dash. The initial buffer time for HPD video is 8 seconds,
and for Dash video is 2 seconds.

City

Video Streaming

Samples

Seoul

YouTube 2K* -DASH

4228

Dubai

YouTube 1080p -DASH

2459

Mexico City

YouTube 1080p- DASH

1883

Sydney

YouTube 1080p- DASH

107

Riyadh

YouTube 1080p- DASH

100

Chon Buri

YouTube 720p- HPD

190

Rio de Janeiro

YouTube 720p- HPD

207

* YouTube 2K resolution is 2560*1440.

12

End-to-end (E2E) round trip time (RTT) becomes the constraints of video experience.
The E2E RTT for a good video experience on LTE network is less than 40 ms and that
on UMTS network is less than 80 ms.
Huawei mLAB nds that for the same video initial buffer delay, different E2E RTTs correspond to different
bandwidth requirements. The shorter the initial buffer delay is, the greater the E2E RTT impact is and the
greater bandwidth gains the RTT brings. To achieve better video experience, LTE network should support
the smooth playing of videos higher than 1080p and the E2E RTT should be less than 40 ms. UMTS
network should support the smooth playing of 720p videos and the E2E RTT should be less than 80 ms.
The network capability requirements are as follows when the target initial buffer delay is two seconds.

Target Initial Buffering Time = 2S


Mbps
30
27.2
25
20
15
10
5
0

10.6
8.4

6.7
5
4.1

4.4
3.1
2.4
2.1
720p

E2E Latency

14.6

10.6

1080p
40ms

60ms

2k
80ms

100ms

Reference
Mobile Video Service Performance Research,
http://www.huawei.com/minisite/hwugm15/mobile-vmos.html

13