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Greek

Basic Course
Volume 1

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

PREFACE

'reeI 8o.Ic Cur... oI..me , roviles introdu.ctory mterils moden


Greek lr tle stlent lo wisles aclieve working commd tle lngllge
cUl7'ently spoken by educated Greeks. Tle style is neitler entirely J_t/c (coUoquilJ
strictly lorml. Tle Greek ortlogrply is used lrom tle beginnig so l tle student
lens red lI Ie Ias leamed .

FS'

soken

Subsequent volumes are plnned carry tle stulent lurtler no tle grr_r nJ
vocabulary soken Greek nJ to introduce grdully tle more _ spoken and
wriuen lorms kown QS l'tlNo.a. used 10rm occsions by educated -Greeks
and commonly encountered tle press.
Tle

linguist

clrge lB

pro;ect is Serge Obolensky,

Clairmn tle Deprt.

Near Estem nd Alrican Languages.


Greek te"S Iave been provided by
Pangiotis S. Spoutzis nJ Bps liki Sapountzis, lnguge instructors.
Tlese

ment

ulors collaborted 1e

writing, clssroom testing, revision and tpe recorrling tle


entire volume, wlicl Mrs. Sapoutzis also typed. lomes C. BoBt reviewed tle Englisl
portions tle te"t lr IJtyle and cL4rity e"pression.
Tle accompnying e

direction

Gary

recorrJings were f'rodu.ced tle FSI stlios unJer t"e

lley.

lames R. Fritl, Den


Sclool Languge Studies
Foreign Service Institute
Deprtmen Stte

111

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

. . . .. . ..... ....
........ ........... .......... . .

Pref'ace
Introduct1on
Un:1t

111
x:ii1

. ....... . .. .... . .... . . ..

Symbo18 UBed

Ba8ic Dialogue

Note

Transcr1ption used

1.1

8.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .
Consonants
. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .
Wr1t1ng systell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Assimilat10n
. .. . . . . . . .. . ... . . ... ..
Vwels

.3

1.4

1.5
Unit

!' vwels

3
5
6
9
12

Bas i c

Dialp;us

Naatiw

Note

'18'.

2.1

'1sn't'.

Def'1n1te Art1cle
AS81Jnilat1on
Un1t 3

Narrat1ve

14

'aren't'

!' vwels

3.1

Gender and agreement

3.2

Indef'1n1te article

3.3

Def'in1te art1cle-plural

Un1t 4

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Bas1c D1alogue

Nt.e

.. . .......
. . . . . . -. . . . . . . . . . . . -.. . . . . . . .
. . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

'are'.

Palatal1zat100

8.

1 .3

4!1

. . . .... . .. . ....... ..

. . . . . . . . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .
. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....
.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21
22

24
25
26

Ba8ic D1alogue

)0

Narrat1ve

32

Note 4.1

4.2

Ass:iJilatioo

34

Personal prooouns

35

Verb classes

35

i,v

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. . . .... ...

Imp. and Perf. stems


Pres. tense, Class

verbs

36
36

..............

Pres. tense verb 'be'

37

Unit 5
Basic Dialogue
Narrative
Note 5.1

..... .. .......
. . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . .. ... . . .. . . . ...

41

45

Assimilation of vowels

47

Assimilation of /s/

47

Cases
Articles:

. . ... .. . .. ...... .
....
....... ...............

Accusative

48

Stress

. . . . . . .... . ..... . . ...........

Declension

... ....................

Plural
Accusative case

Noun:

Adjective:

50
50

51
51

......... .. .. .... . ..
. .. . .. . ... ... ..........

Accusative case

Class 11 verbs

47

53
54

Review (Units 1-5)


Greek writing system

.. .. . ... .
. . . .... ..... . ...

............

Review Drills

58
62

'Polite' expressions

64

Narrative

65

. ... . . . ....... . . ....... ... . . ..

Unit 6
Basic Dialogue

Narrative.
Note

66

... ... . . ......... . ...


verbs: Future.
. ........ ..... . .. . . . ...
verbs: Future continuous
....... .........
verbs: Simple Future
....... ...........
verbs: Perfective stem forms
..............

69

Class

6.1.1 Class

Class

Class

Class

verbs:

Persona:.endings

7?

Class

verbs:

Irregular perfective stem forms

73

6.1

6.1.2

Notation.
Class

verbs:

Subjunctive

. . . . .. ... . .. ....... .
........ . . . .. .... .. .

71
71
71

72

74
74

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

6.7

Impersonal verb /prepi/.

75

6.8

Verb /br/ .

75

6.8.1

ImpersOI1al use ! /bori/

76

6.9

Use ! /kmos/

76

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .
Adjective /polis/ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Expressions of Time

6.11

76
76

Unit 7
Basic Dialogue.
Narrative
Note 7.1

. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .
... .. .. ... . . .. .... ...... .
. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .

uSB

genitive case

81
84

85

7.1 .1

Genitive case-articles.

86

7.1.2

Genitive case-nouns

87

1st and 2nd Declensions

. .. ... .. . . . . . . . .. .. .. . ..

87

Irregular declens ion.

90

Adjectives:

Declension

90

Adjectives:

/aft6s/,

92

7.5

Adjectives:

/pOlis/

92

7.6

Use of

Imalista/.

93

7.7

Use ! /piyno/

93

7.8

Use of

/pueena/

94

Basic Dialogue.

97

7.3

.. . .. .. .. . .. ... . .. .. .

/os/.

Unit 8

~arrati

Note 8.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. ... ..

Possessive prononns

100
103

Personal pronouns used as direct and indirect objects

103

Demonstra ti pronouns.

106

/arts/, /ekin05/

107

~nestion

~.1Se of

.. .. . ... .. . .... . . .. ....... .

words.

108

/180/

109

vero

Unit 9
Basic Dialogue.

Narrative

.. . .. . . .. . . ... . . .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . .

113

,16

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

ot 9.1

3~ declensio neuter nouns 1n

/-ma/.

118

3!:~ declension nouns /to y6.1JJ./ and /to kreas/

118

Ba81c D1alogue

,a,

Narrat1ve.

123

9.1 .1

Un1t

Nte 10.1

.
. . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . .. .. . .. .
.
. . .. . . . . . .
. . . . . .... . ...
.. .. .. . ... . . . . . .. . ......

Verb 'be

verb:

Past tense personal endings.

Class

10.3

S1Jple

10.4

Use ! verb /arO/

1)0

0.5

Use ! verb /kond!Jvo/ .. ..

1 )1

Past

1 )

6 -

Dr:i1la.
Narrat1ve

. . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .
.
. . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .. ... . .

,27
127

,)4
'37

.1

Basic Dialog11e

Narrat1ve.

. . . . . . .. . .. . ... . . . . . .. . . . .

Note 1,.,

Clas s

Un1t

126

10.2

R81ev (Un1S

Un1t

Past tense

cont1nuous past

145

, .2

Past verb /iJxo/. .. ..

,46

11.3

Verb /erxOlM/

146

verb8

140

. . .. .. . . . ... . . . .. .. . ..

,2

Ba81c D1alogue ..

1 S.

Narrat1ve.

'53

Note 12.1
,2.2
12.2.1

.. . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . .. . .. . . . .... . ....
. . . . . .. . . . . . ... . .. . . . . .. . . . ..

Vocative.
Class

verbs:

Iperative.

156

Perfect1ve Imperat1ve ..

157

Cont1nu0U8 Imperat1V8

157

1JIIpersona1 verb /ny.zi/


Un1t

'SS

. . .. . . . . . . . . . . .... ....
. .. . . . . . . .. . . . ... .. ...

158

1)

Ba81c

D1al~e

Narrat1w.
Nte

verbs - Present

".

. . ..

. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

'3.'

Class

,).2

Future and .Bubjunct1ve continu0U8


tati.

.. . . .. . . ... . . .. ....

16,
163

16S
166

166

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Unit 14
Basic

Dialo;ue

Narrative

14.1

. . . . .. . ... . . . . . . . ... .... . . .......


. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . ... . . .

169
171

3~2 declensin

173

Feminine nouns in !. i81

173

. . . . . .. . . . .. . . . .- .. .

. . ... . .. . . . .. . ...

14.1 .2

Feminine noW1S in -{a,

14.1.3

Feminine nus in I~tital

175

14.2

Masculine nouns in

175

14.3

Numerals

175

14.4

atharevus4

-4.oal

. . . .. .. . .... . . .. . .. .
-asl . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . .. .
. . . .. . . . ..... . . ... . . .... . . .

case

174

176

Basic Dialogue.

181

Narrative

185

enings.

Unit 15

Note 15.1

. .. . . . . .. . . . . . ...
Class

verbB:

Perfective stem fonn

. . . . . . . . . . . ...
.. . . . . . . . . . . ..

187

15.1.1

Class 11 verbs:

5imple future and subjunct1ve

188

15.2

Class 11 verbs:

5imple Past

15.3

~lass

Continuus

199

15.).1

Continuous Past in -ayal

1-89

15.4

Irregular verb IVol

190

15.5

Thid declension neuter nouns in

190

15.6

Adjective:

15.7

Indeclinable

11 verbs:

Shitt
uns

past

. . . . . . .. . .. .. . .. . . . .

.. . . .. . . . . . . . .. . .
I-on/ . . . . .. . . . . . . . .
. . . . .. . . . .. . ... . .
. . . . . . ... . . . . . . . .. . . ....

stress

19C1'
191

Review (Units 11 - 15)


.

195

Narrat1ve.

200

Hasic Dialop:ue.

202

Narrative

205

.Jrills

Unit 16

Note 16.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. ..
.... .. . . ...... .....
. . . .. . . . . . ... . . . .. .. . . . . . .

Aaverbs

Adverb1als

tiJne

208
208

16.3

Ccnparat1ve.

..

209

16.4

Superlative.

210

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

Cond1t1onal

. .. . . .

Adject1ve:

katharewsa Muter [ iD /- n/

. . . . .. . . ... .
. . . . . . ... . . .

210
211

Un1t 17

Ba81c D1alogue.
an-at1~

Note 17.1

UD1t

.
. . . .. .. . .... . . . . . . . .... . . . .
. ... . ... . . . . . . . . . . .. ..
.. .
.
nUDlrals

17.2

Decl1nable

17.3

ltemat1ve pertect1ve 8tID torm ! /lJlo/

217
218
219

18

B81c D1alCJg\l8.

Rarrat1w
Note 18.1

18.3

UD1t

Ipel't1ve

Clas8 11 verb8:

212

l'

.. . . . . . . . . . ... . . .. . . . . . . ... . . .. . . ..
.
. . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . ... . .
.
...

. . . .. . . . . . . . .. . .. . ... . . ... . ...


.. . ...
......
.. . . . . .. . .. .
.. . ....
m
. .. . . . .. . ... . ...

lote

19.1

223
225

Verb8 v1th pret1xe. ..

226

Pl8t

227

tense augent /e-/

Past P8rtect.

Clu. 111

wrb

1~.2 1

Clu8 111

y1iM

19.2.2

Clas.

wrb

Sten tornat1ve

Pre8ent

C1a8.

230

233

.---.--""

sutt1xe.

ruture aad 8ubjunct1ve

19.,

220

Pre8ent Pertect

Ba81c D1alogu.e
Ilarrat1w

235

235
236
237

wrb8

S1Jple

Future and Subjunct1"

19.3.2 Nta10n
.1 80

:B881c

D1alc::-.

Nan-at1ve
Note .20.1

,.

.. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . .. . . ......
. .. . . ... . ... . ... ....
.. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .
... . . . .. . . . . .. . . ..
.
. .. . . . .... . . .. . . .. . . .
.

Fonnat1on

wrb

20.1.1

Cla8s 1

20.1.2

Class 11

20.1.3

Clus

pertect1ve

BteJ

21

243
246

246

erb8.

246

erb8

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

ote

20.2

Cla8s 111 verbs - 5iJnple Paa't.

247

Reviev CUnits 16 - 20)


Dri1l.s

Narrat1ve

. . . . . ... . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . .
. .. . . .. .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . .. . . .. . . .

2$0

257

Uni't. 21
Ba81c Dialogue.

2 S9

Narrat1ve . .. .

26t

Note

21.1

3!2

declensin

21.2

US8

!l/

Class

neuter uns 1 /-08/

264

". ..

2~

erb8

Use /ik6s/.
~1't.

Inperat1ve.

.. . . . . . .' "

.. .. .. . . .. .. .. . . . .. . . . . .. ..

264

265

22

Ba81c Dialogue.

267

Narrati.... .' - .. -. ". . . . . .' .. . . . . . . _.

269

Adjective& in /-1&/

ote 22.1

Un1't.

22.2

c:aae

22.3

Verb /1p4.rxo/

22.4

word

wrb8;

. .. . .. . . . . . . . .
.. . . . . . . ..... . . .. . . ... .
. . .. . . . . . . . . . ... ..... ...

Prab1bit.1ve

/rMJJdri!

. . .. . ... . .. . ..

IJperat1Ye.

271

"

a)

Ba8ic Dialogus. .

271

Narrat1e

276

Nte 23.1

. . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . .

Pa.st part1ciple -. _.
Class 111 verbs Irregular pertect.1ve

_t.e8s.

278

280

'M1xed' conjugation .

280

Ba81c D1alogue.

.aea

Narrative

ae5

Un1't. 24

Pret1x

/uana-/

.... . . ... . . . ... . . . .....

Presen't. active participle

28

289

Bas1c D1a1o-. -.

291

Un1't.

2$

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

Note 25.1

0rd1nal8.

. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . ...

297

Rsvie (Un1t8 21 - 25)

Dr1U8

.. . .... . . . .. . . . . .. . . . ... . . . . ....


. .. . . . . . . . . .. ... . .. . ... . .. .....

Narrat1v8
Tel1ing

)01
)03

305

01088817'

306

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

/'

)
,/

...n

,..,.

'"'"
GREECE
InIernalional boundary
IndefInile boundary
DhIamerisma (RegIon)
boundary
National capital

ms

cenIer

Ra.Iroad
Road
40

40

"

80 MiIes

i
80 Kilometers

xii

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G REEK BASIC COURSE

INTRODUCTION
Greek 1s the off1c1al language of the present day k1ngdom of Greece.
than 95 percent of 1ts populat1on are nat1ve speakers of Greek.

More

Other languages

spoken 1 Greece are those of small m1nor1t1es: Turk1sh. Bu1gar1an. Serb1an.


Sephard1c (spoken ma1n1y 1 Thessa1on1k1 by the descendents of Jews former1y
res1d1ng

Spa1n and Portuga1). A1ban1an and some others.

Outs1de the 11m1ts of Greece Greek 1s spoken

the ne1ghbor1ng 1s1ands.

such as Bozca Ada and Imbroz (Turkey). Cyprus. as we11 as 1 surround1ng countr1es. e.g. southern A1ban1a. southern Yugos1av1a. Bulgar1a and Turkey (Istanbu1).
It 18 a1so spoken by 1arge Greek commun1t1es 1 the Amer1cas (p.S.A Canada.
Argent1na. Braz11). 1 Europe. Afr1ca and Austra11a.
L1ke Eng11sh. Greek be10ngs to the 1arge Indo-H1tt1te (Indo-European)
fam11y

1anguages and spread over the Ba1kan pen1nsu1a somet1me dur1ng the

second m111en1um B.C.


Anc1ent Greek appears to have been d1v1ded 1nto four ma1n groups
d1a1ects:

Arcad1an-Cypr1ot1c. Dor1an. Aeo11an and Ion1an-Att1c.

the 4th century B.C. the Ion1an-Att1c d1a1ect spread

11

Beg1nn1ng

over the Greek speak1ng

terr1tor1es wh11e other d1a1ects began to dec11ne and then d1sappeared comp1ete1y 1 the'f1rst centur1es ! the Chr1st1an era.
Modern Greek presents a rather comp1ex 11ngu1st1c p1cture.
hand th1s 1anguage 1s the
older Greek;

re8~1t !

the one

a norma1 11ngu1st1c evo1ut1on from the

the other hand. however. 1ntense nat1ona11st1c sent1ments

dur1ng certa1n per10ds of Greek h1story have preserved 1ntact many morpholog1cal,
syntact1c and 1ex1cal e1ements ! archa1c Greek. As a result there are two
broad types ! 1anguage used 1 modern Greece. the IpopularI,or dh1mot1k1. and
the Iforma1 I or katharevusa. The former 1s the every-day 1anguag8 ! the
peop1e conta1n1ng 1oanwords from other languages wh1ch have been 1ncorporated
1nto the Greek 1anguage 1 the course ! 1ater Greek h1story. 'Dh1mot1k1' 18
pr1mar11y a 8poken language. that ! Greek songs and ba11ads. and does not have
a f1xed orthography. but 1s largely used by modern wr1ters ! poetry and flctlon.
The 1atter (katharevusa) 1s a consc1ous and art1f1c1a1 return to older
Greek. and 1s taught 1 schoo1s and used for off1c1a1 purposes and
1ess Ipure I form by newspapers.

a more or

S1nce the 2nd century B.C. the Greeks have d1sputed among ,themselves about
the1r 1anguage.

At that t1me 11terary men scorned colloqu1al usage. consc1ously

1m1tat1ng the c1ass1cal style


days.

the1r works.

The sch1sm has cont1nued to Our

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G REEK BASIC COURSE

Flna11y. a klnd of compromlse form. drawlng unsystematlca11y from both


Idhlmot1k1 ' and 'katharevusa has evo1ved. Thls ~xture of the two. ca11ed
'
thls Course 'kathom11umenl I 1.e. Ievery-day 1anguage I has now become the

standard speech of Greece.


Not a11 standard speakers of modern Greek. however. can be assumed to use
the same m1xture of katharevusa

dhimotlk1 e1ements

the1r speech.

ratl0 may vary not on1y from speaker to speaker. but a1so may depend
sltuat10n

whlch the speaker uses the 1anguage.

The
the

Thus the same speaker may

use the extreme var1ety of dh1mot1k1 whl1e buy1ng th1ngs at a market p1ace and
then sw1tch to the extreme katharevusa when address1ng a un1verslty professor.
The genera1 trend 1s toward dh1mot1k1 wh1ch 1s the normal 'lnforma1

'
1anguage. but kathareusa 1 1ts var10us degrees ! Ipur1ty' cont1nues to be
used as the off1c1al 1anguage 1 government work (Para11ment. Courts. Rad10
broadcasts. etc.).
The spoken Greek may be represented graph1ca11y as fo11ows:

--

L U

--

- - .-

atharevusa

D1fferences of sty1e are even more consplcuous 1 the wrltten 1anguage. Bes1des
Govgrnment other publlc announcements. documents. off1clal correspndence.
etc. al1 publlc slgns

Thus.
for example. the word for f1sh1ng shop 1 every-day language 1s 'pSaradhlko I
but the slgn"over the store sayR I1khth1opolfon I ; the word grocery store
1s Ibakallko I but the s1gn says Ipandopo1ion I etc.
1 ~owns

and v111ages are wr1tten 1n katharevusa.

As far a8 the press ls concerned the


1

con~ervat1ve

newspapers are wrltten

katharevusa;'those or1ented towards the center. 1 kathoml1umen1; and those


the extreme left. 1 the extreme and sometlmes even 80mewhat art1f1c1a1

dh1mot1k1.

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The wr1tten language, therefore, may be graph1cally represented thus:


katharevusa

kathom11 unen1

dh1mot1k1

Older L1terature

Modern L1terature

Off1c1al Language
Moderate Press

Conservat1ve Press

Every-day Usage

Th1s Course
The Greek descr1bed

th1s Course 1s representat1ve

the kathom11umen1

the 'standard ' speech ! educated Greeks.


1nfluences from the other styles ! Greek the natural speech

var1ety, 1.e. that


person vary

acord1ng

As the
!

an educated

to the speaker and thus create a great var1ety

'correct I

utterances, both the most common dh1mot1k1 and kathaverusa forms are represented
the Bas1c D1alogues and Grammat1cal Notes. At the same t1me the use
extreme dh1mot1k1 or Ioverpure I katharevusa 1s carefully avo1ded.

75 un1ts and 1s d1v1ded 1nto three volumes,


each volume conta1n1ng 25 un1ts. After every f1ve un1ts there 1s a Rev1ew cons1st1ng ! a Narrat1ve whlch 1 based the vocabulary ! prev10us un1ts. 1
~dd1t1on to th1s the Revlew Un1ts ! Volume 1 have Rev1ew Dr111s 1 whlch the
student 1s supposed to supply proper forms ! g1ven words. These dr111s are
cont1nued 1 more advanced un1ts 1 connect1on w1th the katharevusa grammat1cal
forms.
atharevusa 1s systemat1cally 1ntroduced 1 the narrat1ves ! Volume 111
and the rules ! katharevusa grammar are d1scussed 1 the subsequent grammat1cal
notes. Thus the student who has completed Volume 111 ! th1s Course should
have a good foundat1on for read1ng off1c1al documents as well newspapers
wr1tten 1 katharevusa.
The follow1ng parts may be found 1 a Un1 t:
Sample Dr111s
Bas1c D1alogue
Subst1tut1on Dr111s
Response Dr111
Transformat1on Dr111s
Useful Words
tPo11te Express10ns
Correlat1on-Subst1tut1on Dr111s
'
Response Exerc1se
Narrat1ve
Top1cs for D1scuss1on
Grammat1cal Notes
The whole Course cons1sts

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GREEK BASIC COURSJ

Bas1c D1a1ogues and Response Dr111s are found


w1th Un1t 2.

1.

The occurrence

each un1t.

Narrat1ves beg1n

other parts may vary.

Use

Th1s Course

Most Bas1c D1a1ogues cons1st

10 sentences.

Bas1c D1a1ogues

d1a1ogue may be d1v1ded 1nto two or three parts

more advanced un1ts the

10 to 14 sentences.

The 1nstructor reads the Greek. 1tem by 1tem. repeat1ng each 1tem (a bu11dup or a sentence) tw1ce for each student.
1tem

1mm~d1ate1y

c1at1on.

Each member

the c1ass repeats the

after the 1nstructor. try1ng to lm1tatehls (or her) pronun-

the

1nstru~torIs 110

the 1tem 1s m1spronounced by the

student. the 1nstructor repeats 1t at norma1 speed w1th the student repeat1ng
after h1m (or her) as many t1mes necessary.

After the c1ass hours each

student goes over the Bas1c D1a1ogue by 11sten1ng to the tape and repeat1ng.
dolrtg thls untl1 he knows the d1a1ogue by heart.
After the sentences
students take part
!

the D1a1ogue have been thorough1y memor1zed the

act1ng out the D1a1ogue.

the parts the f1rst t1me or two.

The 1nstructor may take one

Thls procedure 1s to be contlnued unt11

any student can take part and go through thedla10gue 11ke


2.

actor.

Response Dr1l1s
Response dr111s cons1st

and narrat1ve st1uat1ons.

~nd

quest10ns and answers based

are d1v1ded 1nto 'Response Dr111

the d1a1ogue

referr1ng

the d1a1ogue and IResponse Dr111 referr1ng to the narrat1ve. One 'rea1
s1tuat1on I 1s g1ven by the d1a1ogue and another one by the narrat1ve. The
answers to the quest10ns are. therefore. pred1ctab1e . and the student 1s
supposed to know them.

Thus. for examp1e. 1! 1t appears from the d1a1ogue that

the restaurant 1s Just across the street from the mov1e theatre. the student
must accept 1t as a 'real

'

fact and say

when answer1ng the quest1on:

1s the restaurant?I
the f1rst 15 un1ts the answers to the quest10ns
are g1ven w1th the dr111s.
dr111ed

the same way

'Where

the Response Dr111s

Therefore. these quest10ns and answers must be


the sentences

the Bas1c D1alogues.

Beg1nn1ng

w1th Un1t 16 response dr111s conta1n on1y quest10ns and the student 1s supposed
to formulate the answers

h1s own words. but h1s answers must be pert1nent to

the g1ven s1tuat1on. From Un1t 16 the Response Dr111s are 10nger dr111ed
1 the same way as Bas1c D1a1ogues. but rather take the form ! a free conversat10n based

the facts g1ven by the d1a1ogue or the narrat1ve.


xv1

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G REEK BASIC COURSE

3.

Useful Words and rPo11te Expressions

memor1zed by the student


4.

'

must be dr111ed by the 1nstructor and

the same way as the Bas1c D1alogues.

Narrat1ve
The narrat1ve presents

that represented

expos1tory style e1ther a s1tuat1on s1m11ar to

the Bas1c D1alogue.

a s1tuat1on related to 1t. w1th

broader vocabulary.
The 1nstructor goes through the sentences 111ustrat1ng new vocabulary
1tems

the same way as for Bas1c D1alogue.

After the students have thus

fam111ar1zed themselves w1th the new vocabulary. the 1nstructor reads through
the whole narrat1ve at a normal speed.
closed.

The students summar1ze

narrat1ve.

The students 11sten w1th the1r books

Eng11sh as much as they understand

The narrat1ves
1

Response Dr111

and the students

''

The narrat1ves are 1ntended to be memor1zed at home and retold

the student's own words

and

the

Then the students read and translate the narrat1ve 1nto Eng11sh.

The 1nstructor then asks the quest10ns


answer them.

class the next day.

Un1ts 2 through 5 are presented both

the Greek wr1t1ng system.

transcrlpt10n

subsequent narrat1ves the transcr1pt1on

18 om1tted.

5.

SampIe Dr111s are to be treated

the same way as the sentences

Bas1c

D1algou8s.

6.
used

7.

Subst1t~t1on.
1

Transformat1on and Correlat1on-Subst1tut1on Dr11Is are to be


accordance w1th the 1nstruct1ons g1ven at the beg1nn1ng each dr111.

Response Exerc1se
Response Exerc1ses occur at the very end

each un1t.

The quest10ns of

these exerc1ses are not necessar1Iy reIated to any part1cuIar un1t.


as the student's vocabulary 1ncreases, these quest10ns beoOme
character.

The purpose

more general

a Response Exerc1se 1s to 1nduce the student 1nto a

free conversat1on with1n the scope

GraduaIIy.

h1s vocabulary.

Un1ts 2. 3. and 4 all poss1ble answers to the quest10ns are g1ven.

these answers should be dr11Ied

the same way as the sentences

AIl

the Bas1c

D1aIogues.
Beg1nn1ng w1th Un1t 5 these exerc1ses cons1st

quest10ns only, and the

student 1s supposed to be abIe to answer the quest10ns by h1mseIf.


Any answer g1ven by the student 1s cons1dered correct
and 1s good Greek.

The answer 1s corrected by the 1nstructor

1t 1s appropr1ate
1

necessary.

The student repeats the corrected answer.

11

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G REEK BASIC COURSE

8.

Top1cs for D1scuss1on


These dr111s appear 1n the advanced. un1 ts

11eu of Response

Exercisc~s.

The 1nstructor presents the topics one by one and asks the members of the
c1ass to take part

the d1scuss1on.

One of the students 1s asked to develop

the top1c further and g1ve h1s reasons for agree1ng w1th the problem ra1sed by
the 1nstructor.

Another student should present h1s arguments to derend the

oppos1te po1nt of v1ew.


the two posltlons.

Another one should try to f1nd a comprom1se between

Then other students jo1n

the d1scusslon.

When one toplc

has been fully d1scussed the 1nstructor ra1ses the next controversla1 questlon.
The exerc1se goes

unt11 a11 top1cs of the un1t have been thoroughly d1scussed

and tota11y exhausted.

GLOSSARY
At the end of each volume there 1s an alphabetlcal 11st of a11 the vocabu1ary 1tems 1ntroduced

that volume.

Follow1ng each verb 1s a number 1nd1cat1ng the unlt

whlch the other

forms of the verb are 11sted.

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\!

GREEK BASIC COURSE

~~~~_~~_~~_~~!:_~~~!_~!!l~~!!_!~_!~_~~

~~~!:!!!!_~2~!

the ~Us!! I!~.. parentheses and quota on marks are used toge :~her (,

a more Uteral tranalation is given


Brackets [

] are used

addition to the ord1nar'j EngUsh equ1valent.


~11sh

indicate vords in the

equ1valent vhich do not

equ1valent in Greek.

ParentbeSe8

) 1Ddicate vordB vhich are in the Greek but no a noral EnElish

equ1valent.
'n1e Eng11sh side 1s not a Uteral trans1at1on
speakers ord1nar11y Ny1n ISUch a s1tuation.
bo shuld aa

explained
On

on1tted.

slant line

o~

'1be use

the Greek. but

o~

parentheses

un

Englisb

brackets

the s1tuat1on clear 1n each case.

Greek s1de. parentheses are used to 1nd1cate sounds vh1ch are

Alternate pronunciat1on

o~

8lDt1es

the same word or alternate vords are given atter a

/.

Granatical Motes, slant lines /

phrases or _entence. 1n

trnacr1pt1on vi th1n

/ are used to or~ Greek sounda, word8,


an EngU8h text.

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

Unit ,

Good norn1ng (Iyour good da ).

sas.

kalimra

kal1s~ra

Good arternoon. 2!: Good

sas.

evening. (Iyur good arternoon/


.1 ).

kalintxta sa5.

Good n1ght. (said parting).

~rete.

He110.

.C .

'-

81.

su.

p6s

bow

&/

isee/iste

you

&;

p6s

KC
,

Hw

:!e?

_11

erxar1st6

thanks (11 thaDk l

and

you

. ' !;

kesis?

and

ka1A

C ., .'!;

erxar1st

kesis?

yu?

IIJD rine, tbanks, and you?

Yes.

n.

C.c.

a,r.

are you1

!;

Good bye.

ka1l.

2!:

a::

mflista.

'..

61.

paraka16.

Please.

: Yu1re

( beg l

'~f~!~~!

aried

t.'umbers

tvo

velcOIe.

).

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G REEK BASIC COURSE

~C:

trfa

three

~:

t~sera

Eur

,,~

p&nde

five

~.

Sks1

six

~f./~f.

ept4/eft'

6K~/6x~

okt610xt6

eight

l;""f:/l"".f.

eMa/erry4

nine

~ka

ten

Grammat1cal Notes

-----------------

Modern Greek
1

wr1tteo 10 Greek 1etters 1nher1ted from auc1eot Greek.

to a large extent h1stor1cal aod

In order to

ak

therefore not cons1stent on a number

1t ea81er for the student the t1rst '0 un1ts

both 10 Greelc cbaracters and 10 transcr1pt10n.


10 Greelc scr1pt and the transcr1pt10n
Tbe traDscrlpt10n used here

Greelc 1etters for a tn.

It

polnts.

th1s course are vr1tten

Beglnning ,,1th the un1t

adaptat10n

11

Qverything 18

Lat1n ]etters for l1IOst sounds and

not stric1tly speaking a 'phonetlc transcriptlon.

exp1e the 1etter / stands for one sound before

le,1/.

used only occaslonally io grammatica1 notes.

1 a

The spelllng

la,o,u/

For

and for another sound before

510ce the pronunc1ation 1s predictab1e the basis ! vhere lt occurs, a s1ng1e

letter may be used for both sounds.


The transcrlption used

th1s course cons1sts

the follov1ng 1etters and other

yi>ols:
Voels:

a,

u, e, 1

Consnants:

t,

t, ts,

V01ce1ess:

Volced:

b, d, b, g, , v, dz, , r, 1, , n,

Ic,

The acceot mark 1ndicates the 10udest syllab1e a p}rase 01 sentence and
1ndlcates a 1ess 10ud (IsecondaryI) stress.
1

The weak stress 1s unmarked.

iso1at10n (as 1n the bu11d-ups) 111 regu1ar1y have a primary stress

thls may be replaced by secondary or even by weak Btress (unmarked).

1'1.

word sa1d
1n a sentence

The stress 1n Greek

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

falls a1vays

one

the last three sy11ab1es

a word.

There are three types ! phrase endings (~~: 'junctures') 1n Greek:


(the spec1a1 signs for these are
These punctuat10n

narks

11/, 1111

and

are not used

either Eng1ish or Greek ordinary spe111ng.


to the punctuat10n
'T'he cona

per10d

1.1

and

respect1ve1y).

the same vay or v1tb the

B8Jll vlI~ues

as 1n

The system used here ass1gns spec1f1c values

narks.

1,1

by a ra1sed pitch

1#1

1,1 111

1nd1cates that the intonation pattei-n precediw 1t 1s character1zed

the last stressed syllab1e

1.1 1s

the phrase.

used to 1nd1cate the end ! a pbrase accompan1ed by fal1ing p1tcb.

It may or may not correspond to a period e1ther in Greek or 1n Eng11sh spe111ng.


quest10n nark

Quest10ns

111

Greek

1ndicates a r1sing p1tch 1 questions.

w~y

be div1ded 1nto tvo categories:

,) QuestioDS vbich begin v1th a quest10n vord (such, for examp1e, as 'vbo', 'vben',
'vhere', 'hw', etc.), e.g. ,wbere are you g01ng1'

'Wbat d1d be say?' etc.

2) Quest10ns vithout quest10n vords (usually beg1nn1ng v1tb a verb 1n Greek) sucb as,
'Are you g01ng there1'

'D1d be

sa

tbat1', etc.

The bighest p1tcb in quest10ns

tbe first category

tbe quest10n vord, tal11ng

gradually to the 1ast syllab1e.


Quest10ns

the second

categ~ry

have tbe bighest p1tch

tbe stressed syllab1e

tbe 1ast vord.


Tbe p1tch 1eve1s are"

! curse,

not abso1ute, but are bigb or

lor

relat1ve to each

other.
Stress (vh1ch 1s 10udness) and p1tch (vh1ch 1 be1gbt tone) lIIWJt be caretul1y
d1st1ngu1shed.

S1nce tbe 10udest syllab1e 1s otten tbe bigbest 1n p1tcb, there

frequent1y a tendency to con!use tbe tvo.


Very spec1al attent10n

ust

be pa1d to the 1ntonat1on ! each Greek sentence.

should never be treated as i f 1t vere an Eng11sb sentence.

Tbe punctuat10n

narks

It

vill

he1p the student to say tbings correctlyj but only careful l1sten1ng, and 1mitat1on as
vell as constant and pers1stent dr111

111

g1ve

a correct prcnunc1at10n.

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G REEK BASIC COURSE

Tbere are

/1/

1 voe1

Soevhat

sounds in Greek:

l1ke

!!~!!!!!!,

k1rfa, k6r1,

but

h1gher, tenser and v1thout the

gl1de

1r{n!, {stera

voe1.

that

Tedhn1cally: a h1gh front


unrounded e1 [1].

/8/

L1ke e

1et.

e&6, ker6s, It1mos,

----

T8chn1cally: a (h1gber) n1d

mSros

tront unrounded voe1 [e].

/./

SOJllvhat 1jke

! 10

!!~~!:' but

kill, 4na,

RUch shorter 11 unstressed.


Techn1cally: a
w1

/0/

parakal6, pot!mi

unrounded

{a].

thch l1ke

ecbn1cal1:=

c10th.

e06, 6ra, p6ros,

a h1gher-IIIid

etxar1st6

rounded back Toel [].

/uI

.S08Vhat l1ke
~'

00 1

boot or u 10

kun6, kuldr1,

but h1gher, tenser, and

v1tbout the

g11de

kalu, ualfa

English.

Techn1cally: a h1gh back rounded


voe1

[u].

Pronunc1at1oo Dr111s

G.D.I.2

/1/
k{rios
1or6tas

fkaros

efirerfoa

1mSra

ae!na

korits1

nda

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

/e/
leoforlo

et!lete

~repe

miMn

perno

t!na

patates

ner6

p~nde

Ha

/a/
trfa

6ra

4I-ostos
aeli:

kal$.

patE!ras
dra

/0/
6ra

aft6s

p6nos

mikr6s

korn

sor6s

6noma

6mikroD

ak6ma

/u!
ur4

kut6s

us{a

kun6

Ute

uJ.

kald

urans

ut!teros

Note 1.3. Consonants

/b/

L1ke b ! bob.
--Techn1cally: a voiced b11ab1al

br,

bamb4a, buk411

bt!no, blka

stop [b).

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UNIT ,

GREEK BASIC COURSE

/d/

Like d

dot but with the tongue

touching the teeth.


Techn1cally:

dn, knd,

pandd,

pand6fles

a voiced dental

stop [~]

/f/

L1ke f 1 fOM.
Technically: a voiceless

f40, falakr6s, f6ros

----

furd, fflos, fe16s

labiodental sp1rant [f].

/g/

L1ke

~ 1 ~~~.

Rare except after

grernn6s, grfnya
4ngelos, 4ng1ra, 4nglos

Technically:
stp

/k/

a vo1ced dorso-velar

[gJ.

L1ke c

cot but wi tho~t

strong purf

before /1/ and


Technically:

breath.

k6ta, kano, kdpa

Fronted

/e/.

kd, kfrios

a vo1celess

dorso-velar stop [k].

/1/

be like

! !!~! (before /o~u,

a/), fronted bere /e/ aM /1/

(v1th

!l

B~PE

speakers almost l1ke

before /1/).

lA01, luluo1
lost6s, lekls, leksik6
1fma, 11p6n, 11ym6s,
l1manj, lituryf.

Technically: a yoiced apico-dental


lateral [1].
/r./

Like !!! -!

~;

may be fronted

(toards ~) iJefore /1/.

maSima,

akros, m6Xos

mikr6s,

ra, ~o

Techn1cally: a b1lab1al

/rj

Like ~ ! ~~ bef~re /a,o,u/, fronted

na6s, n01163, nus

before /e/ and /i/.

~oB,

Tech.~ical1y: 3D

n1sf, nfxta

apico-dental nasal

/n/.
~

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

//

ot P2S but wi thout the strong

Like

puff

tri,
,

breath.

pueen

paraka16,

pern6

Techn1cally: a voiceless bilab1al


stop

/r/

(].

Usually a single flap or tap

tbe

tongue against the ridge behind the


upper teeth.

r6nd, 6ra, rUxo, r'vo, p6ros


korItsi,

rev1

Technically: an

alveolar flap [r'].

/s/

Like !!

! !!~~!.

s4mos, sU1a, sovar6s

Technically: a

vo1celess apico-dental spirant

Isya, 'se,

(s]

/t/

L1ke t

tot but without the

strong puff

tfnos, poti, t4ksis

breath, and with

the tonguetQuch1ng the teeth.


Techn1cally: a vo1celess apicodental stop (t J.
//

L1ke

V ! !!~!.

e'o, ',

Technically: a

vo1ced lab1o-dental sp1rant //.


//

Made by friction
tbrough as
r~r

vun6

vfxas, v6rio8

air pass1ng

tongue 1s in position

/k/.

Before /a,o,uI (or before consonants

xar4, xor6s, xdfta

follwed

oxtd,

by one

these

wlB)

the sound 1s back, l1ke German


!~!!, ~~~!!, before
follwed

by one

2~ f

/e,1/ (or consonants

these

vwels)

sound 1s front, more l1ke ch

xta61

x1m6nas,

x!rete,

xees,

:xeB

the

1 Oran

1ch.

Technically: a vciceless dorso-velar


sp1rant

(].

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UT

G REEK BASIC COURSE

//

L1ke

~ ! ~~!!.

a voiced apico-denta1 spirant


//

6,

Technica11y:

Made by frict10n

through as tongue is

[).

pzo, zIte, zaxari

zum

air pass1ng
1

pos1tion

ayor4,

_1,

yra,

ynost6s

4yuros,

for / gf. (It 1 a vo1t:ed counterpart


//).

TechrI1cal1y: a v01ced

dorso-ve1ar 3p1rant

/'6/

L1ke

~~ ~~~!!:.

().
6, ad, d108

Tecbnically: a
(].

vo1ced ap1co-dental s11t sp1rant

/8/

~~ ! ~h!!!.

L1ke

1, ~ndro, 16, eks14

aniBema, B41asa, 86108

Techn1cal1y: a

auk1&~18,

v01ce1ess apjco-dental s11t sp1rant

81savr6s.

(8).

/ts/

L1ke ts

nets. Techn1ca11y: a

kor:l'ts1, ts1iEndo, tsCY

v01celess ap1co-dental aftr1cate [cJ.


/dz/

//

L1ke

<!!

1 !!:!!~.

kafedz:ls, dz{dz1kas

Techn1cally:

a v01ced ap1co-dental affr1cate

{].

L1ke l

1 l!!!~.

tsuv411, ts1 yUO

Techn1cal1y:

~,

palatal gl1de .

pe&y4,

X1ya, 6,

ky4to, y1Mka, pyite,


yeory6s,

ytona8,

al)a,

yatr6s, J4ro.,

4)"108, ya

The Qr.eek alpbabet Coos1at8

!:!~~!!:

24 1etters:

!!!!!~!:!~!~

letter
-------------

8
1

Greek:

!!!~!:!!!!~!:!~!:

/a/

Icpc

/Il.ta/

/./

/nta/

//

cf( )

/-.

/'6/

--(

/~1ta/

/e/

/lpsllon/

//

~(

/Zfta/

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G REEK BASIC COURSE

Letter

!!~~~~!~E~!~~

Name ! letter
--------------

in Greek:
--------

!~_~!~~~~~!E~!~~:

/1/

/I.ta/

-&

/e/

-&

/eita/

/1/

y/JJ

/y6ta/

/k/

~()

/k~pa/

/1/

()

/Uda/

/m!

/i:

/rr/

/nI/

/ks/

/ksr/

/0/

SKO

/6mikron/

//

//

/r/

6/

/r6/

'~

/s/

/siyrra/

/t/

/t&r/

/1/

/:rpsilon/

/f/

/fi/

//

//

/ps/

//

/0/

/of'ra/

Renarks

Follw1ng

8equences

1etters are used to represEnt a s1ng1e

und:

a) !..~!:!!
~g~~~~~_~f_!~~~~~~

~~5?!~:!

/u/

/lu.1/

'nour'

/e/

/onOI1'Azete/

lit 1s called l

/1/

/1r1nikf/

'peacefu1'

-&

/1oeet6/

'

1168/

';'

.. Used

Sound

adopt'

final posi tion only


10

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

b) ~~~~~!::~!!~:!

5equence

word initial position:

letters

Sound

~!~~

/b/

/bor6/

'

can l

/1.'

/d5.no/

'

dress'

/,;

/ grmn6s/

'prec1p1ce'

After

voels

the coll1blnatlons

usually stand for the sequences

/rrb/,

/rJ/,

/yJ respectlvely, e.g.

/lMr6s/

'bright'

lfv

/.rJra.s/

'an'

/.t:)l,I'fno/

/rd</

The pronunClation //, /nt/,


follwed

approvp.-t

occurs when the comblnations , ,

are

by a v.:>lceless consonant, malnly in foreign loanwords.

The combination

occurs only in t1le

niddle !

! English 'finger', 'longer' etc. e.g.

the word and represents the soI,nd

/f)r/

/4ngelos/ 'angel'.

The sound /ts/ and /dz/ are represented in Greek orthography by (- f:inal
poslt:ion)

am

respective1y, e.g. .~o

/tsi'!r/ 'clgarette '

/dzfdz1kas/ 'clcada'.
The corrbjnat:ion -YX-1n the iddle ! the ",ord corresponds tc the sound
x~

/nx/,

e. g.

/sinxorfte/ 'excuse!'.

c) Y~!~2~!~~~

The comb:inatlons and stand for /av/ and /ev/ before vowels an vclced
consonants, e.g.a:Iy6 /avy6/ 'egg f ,

a:~

/4vra/ 'breeze', uCa:

/eviJfW!rfa/

'prosperlty', and tor /af/ and /ef/ before volceless consonants, e.g.a:Cv /aftokfn1to/
Icar', a: /eftlxfa/ 'happ1ness l , a:.

/efxarist6/ 'thank yOU I

2) ~~!!!~!~!!_

The gemination (doubling)

consonants occurs only in scrlpt, not in speech.

double consonants represent slngle scunds, e.g.

/.s/ 'other', ~

/alayf/ 'change','vv /'-na/ 'Ann'.


3) ~!:!:~!!~:!

There are three accents: the acute accent /'/, the grave accent /'/, and the

11

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(;RI:EK

5 (OLR~E

c1rcnmflex accent -.
4) ~~!:~!!~!~~

The signs
1r~tia1

vcwels

and

1'1

co~1nat10ns.

traditionally called 'breath1ngs' are written above a11

These signs have

mean1ng

modern Greek.

!~~_!e~!~!~e~~ 1'1 13 used to iDdicatethe 10s8 a wl, .. 't 'a'tCv.'t


/taftokini tol the car , \' \

lna.ncv61

that go up .

The diaeresis / / is wr:itten 011 or

to indicate that the comb1nat.lon !

v are

or repregerts either a di?hthong (when or

unstressed), e.g.

li,~()

/4ipnosl

'sleep1ess' or two separate vowe1 scunds (when t or ~ are stressed), e.g. ! lr"!
norn1ng'

~~~~~!~!:!~~

1,1

1s a sign ritten under some we1B withut affecting the

r.ronunc1ation, e.g. & ~'ljl

Ina

QtIs11 1" that he give'.

6) ~!~!!~~

The punctuat10n signs are 1dentica1


mark

the

Greek and Engl1sh

ece:'t

for the quest10n

senico1on.

The question ark jn Greek 1s


~~t.! ~:.5_ Phono1ogy:

ka1A

Ass1Jrd1ation

efxsrist,

kesIs7

),hen a word end1ng

lil

and the semdco1on 1s

! vwe1s.

Fme, thank
a

11.

vme1

1"

yu, and

follw

1 by

you7
!

Iieg1M11ng "11th the

1. VC1e1,

! the w1B is ass1rnHated, th'.1l1 Ikef/esS/=/kess/.

"\

51n1lar

vowe1 asII1JTd1at1cn occurs "11th certa1n other ccmb1nat1ona

vcnela

(see

later un1ts).

12:

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UNIT a

G REEK BASIC COURSE

vtor.

\)

s1nxorHe.

Excuse

!.

\)

p't1

vhere

Ine

(he, she, 1t) 1s,(the7)

1 prezvIa

(the)

. ;
.

p't1 In(e) 1 prezv!a?


ek81a

Iberf.l

eIJassy

18 the

r1ght,

Eba8BY?

the r1Iht.

on the r1ght
. ..

or6

1 rrezv!a, :!ne eksi.

The &nbaBBY 1s the r1gbt.

prokseno

(the) consulate

aakr1i

tar

Im6/In'

ap6/ap

!rom

eb6

here

apo6

froJl

or6

4 LO"ra, .

!ne proksenlo 1I'.akr1a,


apo!S?

Is the Consu1ate far froa


he ?

m411sta. Ine.

Yes, 1 18.

.O"r

arjster4

1eft

O"r.6

(the) 8tat1cn

11. 'r0&6 .or;

staem6s

In(e) staeIIIs

Is the stat10n the 18?

arjster4?

~o
61. ~

not

1ne.

, 1

1s not.

13

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G REEK BASIC COURSE

~'~t

kate!efan

stra1ght

o~

brost~

in front

~' ~r; o~

katefefan brostci

Sra1ght

~~6 ; ~'~t
o~.

sta,6s, :lne

ahead

The station 15 straight ahead.

katefefan brostci.

p'ra

very

<

pol

III1ch

~ <.

sas efxar:ist p.ira

Thank you very much.

[>.

Narrat1ve

~~6 ~2~!~.

stams

6 o~, ~~

to proksen:io :ine konda. a1d i

1 1~ooc4.

'near by'
'but'

prezv13 :ine makri4.


:fstera

'then', 'afterwards',
'after'

' ( < '

1 ?rezvfa,

6 .

:lne kond', 314

o~,

~~6 .

'~ '~~ .

eks1',

u~n

:lne po1f makr14 apto proksen:io.

staem6s, :lne makr14.

kistera katefe:lan

br~3t4.

:ine

proksen:io stams ki prezv1a,:ine 1 makr14

t, ~~6 '

apcM.

< '.

t!

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

ka1Wra 88, pc)S 11


88

s1nxrte.

UNITa

ka1B etxarist kesfs?

pU in(e) 1 prezv!af

1 prezv!a ine eks1.

ine proJen!o ukr1& ap1

8lista, to prokaemo in.

pol! .JcrU. _.

in(e) staI ar1stera1


B8Se ine katetan broat8.

in(e) 1 presv!a ar1steraf

!ne to

6:1, 1

prolen:to e kcnaf

:1.,

:!n(e) 1 prezna k8 to prolenio kond8f

to

prezna :!ne
proledo

&eIa1.

ine _k:r1J apoM.

6xi, 1 prezvU k8 t.o

prok8edo

:Ine

pol

8kr1A.

Grammat1cal Notes

-----------------

!~!_!~!

Verb: '1s" '1sn't', 'are',

'are~'t'.

EY~ d &6 ~~;

!n(e) ar1ster47

l the stat10n the

-OX~, Y~.

61, 4 tne.

, 1 1sn't.

a&6 K~'

The stat10n and the Eb7

Y~ 6 zpu~.

pol akr1A.

The above examples 111ustrate the use


'-' 1:

k1 prezv!a !ne

18ft?

are tar.

the Greek equ1valent to the I:ngli8h verb

the ~~ person s1ngular or plural (affinative negat1ve).

'1'".11':

EY~
and

// means either (he,

she, 1t) 18 ~!: they are

Y~ / ine/ means either (he, she, 1t) 1sn't ~!:

:Jote 2.a

they aren't

Phonology: l'alatalization

/kalinta sas/

'good night'

/xi/

'no'

/mlista/

']e8'

/to

, (1) consulate'

rksen/

15

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G REEK BASIC COURSE

'lbese exarnp1es 111ustrate


the tongue

'pa1atal1zed conscnants, i.e.

c.

a sim11ar position to

in saying

in

oonscnl:nts

Ergl1sh.

The fo11ov1ng consonants are pa1ata11zed (more cr 1ess, dependinc;


followed by the scund

!: /1/, Im/,

before the sounds 1 and

//.

Consonants

made w1 th

/1</

speaker) when

and // are a1an palatal1zed

Exarnp1es:
/kir10S/,

/I<!.pos/,

/1i.Brd./,

/pa]i/,

/k1tos/, /ke/, kerSs/, kp.fal1/


pol:/

/mikrs/, /mikos/, /rn1o/

/meni/, /keni/, /z6ni/


/x1JM/, /xlios/, /xwa/, /xerete/, /xeU/, /xena/.

All consonants are pa1ata1ized

befor~ //, e.g.

/nyta/, /nys/, /-qni/

/paxya/,

/lyanizna/, /lypesi/, /p~/6/

/kyo staonCs, : oeksii/, /r:rite/


/kyar1stera/, /1 maya/
/to /, /anipsy/, /arn.yCme/
'..'hen /! occurs before /8/ or /:/ the result1ng comb1nat1o~1 ! sounds 1s /mn7 a/ or

/r:r/ reSective1 (1.e. the ccb1nat1()n ! /m/ w1th a very palatel1zed // ard /."i/or //;,

/rrJa/,
~~~_~~~

/rrWazo/, karr.nYa/, /<amnyr.1/, etc.

Noun: Gender - Definite Artic1e.

1. ~ c-&6 &.~&;

:() ~ staGmS ar1stera?

\; 1. ~ ;

:(e)

1. ~6 u&

ine ~ prckeroo, makr1.{

cm !;

f;I'OUPS

wi th

re'ard

be dece1ved by these lal1e15 int.o beUcV1ng

frc

~;herels the :rmy?

prezvla'l

1 thc (!or.SI!};itofor fro;l! herfJ7

:>?

Greek nouns fall 1nto three


lJo

1 the stat10n or. thc 1eft?

the examp1es above

( stat10n ,

lIIascu1ine;

to ecnd'!r:

gerder

ascul1ne,

is a matter

feJllinine and ncuter.

Yu C

sox.

IEr.r;aSS;I', fer.irdr.e; Co;lsulate ,

neuter)

that gender is a gramatical .1'eat\:re 0.1' \ ( question ! the1r ~~~r;;!!) re.t.her t!lan a
~~~~~~

t"roups

feature (determ:ined

! un 1

"

their meaniT![s).

Greek, and .1'or

rn0st

p..ort,

'he

best way to pt:t 1t

1: thor~

YI='U car.not determ1ne what

~rcllp

are

!:!,,~

a nrun tJe1on:o;s

,6

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UIT

G REEK BASIC COURSE

to by considering what the


F~1ish

As in

means.
!

there are two kinds

artic1es

Greek: definite ('the I )

~nd

1ndefinite ('a').
definite artic1es are under1ined 1 the exanp1es above.

1118scuUne defini.te artic1e,

/1/

the fininine, and

~6

Thus

/o/1s the

/to/ the neuter difinHe Sortic1e.

('1he 1ndefinite artic1e i9 disc\lssAd in Note 3.:?).


Greek nouns 1118 have varius end1ng9, e.g. - /-<a/, - /-as/,
-

/-/,

r- /-1/, - /-a/,

etc.

In Modern Grcek t."e

f~~

of a

offcrs

oe deree !

predictacility

tc 1t.s

gender, e.g. alost a11 ncuns ending 1 - /-<- /-on/ in Katr.arevusa) are neuter; a greet
number nouns end1n in - / -a/ are fer.dr..1ne;
l-iOst animate nouns end::'nr, in - / are fiJr.ininc, 10Ihereas inanilllllte n01Jnsendir.g in

- . /1/ are neuter.


-

(It should be n()t..ed~hat feminj.ne nouns endir= in

/-1/ are spelled

whereas noter nouns end"\.ne 1 /-1/ are spelled - . rer.ardlcss ! whetr.er they are

animate or

1naninate ).

'lbe major1ty ! uns (but ~: all) ending 1 -/-/ are 1118sculine.

However, the gender


endings.

a great mJl'lber

nouns r:anJ"1Ot. be predicted at a11 from

'lbe 8tudent, therefore, is advised to 1earn t:e artic1es w1th the

1e

In this

Course the art1c1e 115 regu1ar1y given whenever a new noun 18 introduced as a build-up,
cn.f6

.;.

/0 sta9Ds/.

!!~~!_~:.~ Ph0llCl10gy:

AssiJllilation

/-e/

the word /ke/ 'and'

ke8is

'and you'

kfstera

'and then'

kyo staOms

'and the st.t1"n'

1 the word /ke/ 1s fcl10wed b;' a ,",ord which begins with a w1 tl:e assimi1ation

patterr8 are ..

olln

/ke/+/e/-/ke/, . [ . /kes!.s/

(/kc/t/cs9/)

/ke/t/1/-/d/, .. /l<istera/

(/ke/+/stera!)

/kc/t/a/-IkYa/, .. ,!)q'aristera/ (/kcAi'aristerc(/)


/ke/+:/:Iku/, . G. ~.'\);,)e!X>te/

(/ke,4-/lJ!lepot,:?/)

/ke/+/o/-/lro/, c..f!<c sLa)l'1s/ (jk,+/ starns/).

17

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

Pronunciation Drills

-------------------

ut1i

kuM

lem6s

ltara

lioyald

pa1Jn6s

ka1B

t.rav1&s

la.

k1ir

/r/
~

pern6

rUmeli

amzo

arnild

pr-yna

str&na

feros

rrsis

rmi

//

xar4

Mrarx.

xeri

irxondas

axins

X'Jra

s:lx

.an

mro
-/

y.Uos

meylos

Y01'jona

dyuros

.r

aypi

ayor'

nsis

a\'Sri

ylik6s

/6/
')6

ekrom

(~riJ\1a

siiiirronos

Ii6ti

~.

pDrl:~no

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urr

GREEK BASIC COURSE

pe

Mndro

M:Ja

ua

//

arerit1s

Oa_sia

irea

e.a

enUs1azm6s

ana9er.a

Oalasa

irro

GraIIIIIIItical Dr111s

------------------

:n86.

1ned

staems7

1 prezvia 1ne6.

1neM i

prezVa7

to prok8en!o
BJB

to

1ne Bn

prclen!o 16.

staODSs, 1 prezv!a ke

to prok8erno7

1ne stamds k1 prezVa7

k1 prezna 1.

Bns ke

ine

1ne:J.

ke to prek8en!o7

1neM staeOs, 1 prezv!a ke to prolenio1

prokseno, 1.

!n(e) stans7

&

!ne

18.

!n(e) 1 prezv!a7

1 prezv!a !ne

be~:s1a.

!n(e)

to prouen:!o7

to prok8en!o !ne eks1a.

BnB

BmB k1 prezVa, oeks18.

ln (e)

k1 prozv!a1

pU !n(e) stam 1 prezv:ta ke to proksen!o1

1 prMv!a ke to prokseno,

eks1a.
BtB

Bms

!n(e) ar1stera.

:tne kate1un broat8.

1 prezv!a !n(e) aristera.

1 prezvia !ne katefe!an brosa.

to proksen!o !n(e) aristera.

to proksen!o !ne katefe!an brosa.

Be

k1 prezv!a !n(e) aristera.

BmB k1 prezv!a katefe!an brosa.

BeS

1 prezv:ta ke to proksenio, in(e)

Bm 1 prezv!a ke

ar1stera.

to proksenio, !ne

katefeian brost&.

19

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~
G R.EEK BASIC COUR.SE

11sta,

xi,

ineU6,

ie6,

i prezv!a?

""118ta, !ne.1 xi, ine.

ie6,

to proksenio?

U118ta, . cSXi,

inc.

ista, !.1 cSxi, 6

:lne.

ine,

staem6s?

staooos, i prezvia ke to

ine..1

ine.

proksenfo?

kal1Jra
l

8&S, ps !see?

_inxor!te.

pU !n(e) 1 prenia?

ka14 efxari8tl ka14 efxari_t, kesSt

i pre.-da 1ne eks1t/ !ne k&teteanbrostl


!() apocS, ar1_tenl

_kr1A
!

to prOk8m!O akri' apo7

6xi,

ar1_tera?

!n(e) BeS'l

!n(e) 1 prema aristera7

ek81a/ne lO11

_11_~
!() _s

lne

{nel to
to

prolaen1o !() e&

pr0k8eno

!ne

kond8/

pol kr18 apo.

_11sta, mel cSxi, Mn :tn(e) ari_tera, :tne


katet!an

bro8t8/

ka tetei8l1

bro8t8.

fne &la18, d8tera

in(e) e& knd&/ !ne pU-a po1:l _kr1.i apo&d.


i11B !l

cSxi, .. in(e) ari8tera. 1ne

ela18.

ine to proksen!o

e kc:I8'l

!n(e) 1 prezvia ke to prokseno kmd8'l

au.ata,

{ne/6xi !ne . .kJ

1 pren!a !ne kood8,


1Ikr181

W to

apo&.

prolaen1o

cSxi, !ne pha po1:l ...kJ

!ne

ao

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urr

GREEK BASIC COURSE

kanena (ne1Jter ton)

MS

ka16

'f6

. 6

(.)

! kanena kal~ ksenoooxlo 18 there a (Iryl)

na

(.)

, n()

no

good bo

here7

xi]yretro

to

'f K~ n.

nobody,

(the) hotel

arod

, . , ..6

Boe,

good

ksenooXo

to

any,

(the) kiloeter

ena, ena

xj.]ymetro akr

Ye8 there i8 one, a

kiloeter

(f'ar) f'ro here.

apoO.

c5:.6

. ~K.6;
'fv6

expensi ~
18 it expensi~7

!n(e) akriw7
ttin (.)

rea80nable, chep

ex1

he (8he, ) hu

orea (..)

beautitul. n1ce

ci

eyil.a (..)

l.arge

" .,

akr1v (.)

...

'f6

ci'f.

to

'fci

ci'f.

ta omtia

. 'fv6 ..

y~ ci'f..

~or.tio

(t."e) roo

(the) ros

1, !ne ft.in6, kx1

orea ke meyala /l\itia.

!\, it is reuonable and hu

nice (and) large rooms.

UnciPXEI.

ip8rx1

there i8, there ex18ts

!;

episis

a180

'f6

to

&.

i'f6.

t 6

estiatrio

iparxi ep:sis ena

(the) restaurant
ka

Is there a1so a good restaurant

21

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

lana't6p 1.0 ! XOV't6:;

estiatrio eoo !<0nJ.a?

. "6

nearby?

mikr (.)

6: Iocrra, . .6

small

maiista, ena mikr

&.n6:, &6: ( 6.

aristera, al<i 1:

'Yes, there i8 a small, :Jut

1.

ver:y good , on tre 1eft.

'tt

t!

t-lhat

i ra

(the) hur

l:J .;

t! ra ine?

"'hat time is it1

. .

lne !.

It's two o'c10ck.

't6
.

't6 i:;

6 ~oo . .6:.

to efr:

(the) bus

inc to 1eofono?

\~nere i8 the bus?

tc 1eofono iJeksia.

The bU8 1s the rir,ht.

Narrative

!~_~~~~~~ . .6.

~_~~~

6:. 't.

iparxi ena

6:..

ine mikr.

'(the) bath(roam),

;;or.atio

'vith'

banyo.

'

'or'

~.!:~.!:~~~!E~

~~~~~~

'kilometers'

6 .

to ~lo ksenooo:clo

'other' (.)

"6, &'~~!~ . 6. ka1, aH. !!~~, ine pol ka1. 'th1 s (.)'

!f~ ~~~ ~~I~~~ !~~!~~_


. ! xoV't6:.

~~}~~!!_~!:_';!!~J.,!!! ~!~~,
6 kond8.

- . 't'
a'tcf. . ..6't "u '
. . 't6, .

cf 't. ..
6 la't.a't6p.o.

''.

..

't .
.

'a good and b1g taV8rn'

.''t6 ~x.

:n, .
.6. KOV'tcX a'ta&-

ena kseno6oxio, ine J{atef3ian brost8.


na ilyr.etro makria apOO.

ln(e)

fti,

a18 exi orea ke m"(8la t1a ne :>'nyo.


xi episis ena ka1 estiatrio.
xilymetra

ksen06oxio.
:Jomatia.

ena:! oio

rnakria ':), in(e) ena alo ka


cyaft e:d pol or~a

a18 ine ke pol: akrivc.

ke meyala
eM kond&,

22

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mrr

GREEK BASIC COURSE

6.

~~6

~~~6~o.

!n(e) staOros. stams,

~x~ ~ 6

~Ex~ xC

ka1 estiatrio.

~~o !

exi ena

exi episis ke mia kali

to estiatrio, oe ine mea1o,

~ , ! xC ,

taverna.

! .

ine mikr6 ke ftin6, a18. i taverna, ine po1i


mei1i.

ariem:

Mt/X

endeka/en8eka

e1even

Mt

60eka

twe1ve

Mt

5ekatra

thirteen

Mt

-)ekatesera

fO\Jrteen

O~

fifteen

Mt

ekaeksi

sixteen

XT/Mt

~ekaefta~ekaepta

seventeen

MtOX/MtO

6eka0xt6/5ekaokt6

eighteen

Mt

oekaenea

nineteen

'

kosi

twenty

~~!!~-~!!!

pu

in(e) ena

1::;cno()oXo~

na

ksenobox!o, in(e) ena xiJ.ymetro ma)r.ria

apoQ.

alista,

exi meila

:tne ftin6?

~lista,

ine ftin6.

c:d.

, xi

rnc,,:-&la

kyor,~a

:'omatia7

estiat6rio7

pU in(e)

na

ena

ka1

ke 1'0 l:. orea matia.

estiatOrio.

en(a) 810 ksenoox!o, in(e)

8:10 ksenoi)ox!07

ena

xilyrretra makria apOOo.

exi afto orea ke meya1a

60~~tia7

a1ista, It

exi orea ke meila octia,

me banyo.
in (e) akriv6 af'to to

pU in(e)
cxi

ksenoooX07

alista,

staGmos?

staemos

in(e) akriv6.
ineO

konda.

ma1ista, staGms !

staGmos estiat6ri07

ena

xi. af't to estiatrio

w(e) art to est.iatrio mey810 kyakriw7

kal6

est.iatrio.

ine m1kr ke 1n.

23

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

ar1n

ke p8nd.e

8Ilea

ekapMde.

ke tera

olctO ke tr!a
eca8k81 ke
eka ke

ekat8sera

okt

erdeka.
tA8era

&:10

ekap8nde.

k8na

ekapDe.

kna

ko.I.

k;yolctO

ekaeksi.

ept ky~

eka&li.

1eka k;iks!

ZIekaepU.

eka I;yept8

ZIekaenea.

ekaokt ke

Gramnat1cal

~_~~.!.

Adjective:

Gender

:lkDsi.

ok.

eksi

ekatria ke

ZIelcaenea

ekatr!a.

!koI.

Note8

Agreeent.

Bl~

:tne

kanna kal ksenooxo

eo

MOV-rt;

k0nd87

Bl~ K~;

:lne akriv67

wOx~, ~ -rv.

6xi. :lne

El~ ~ ~K ~-rt,

:lne

~ yt -rv.

ena

18

t i) .

d.

These sentences iUustrate the use

Is there a good hotel around

[1n.

mikr~ ar1stera,

poll ka1b.

here7
1 1?

1s
,

1t 's reasonab1e.

There 1s a small, very


good the 1eft.

kall ke eyiutaverna. good and big tavern.

adject1ves, wh1ch have d1fferent end1ngs for each

the three genders.


Adjectives wh1ch mooify nouns 'agree' witlI them 1n gender.

In

/ka10 !/, the noun 18 neuter, and the af"jective has neuter end1ng, 1n

24

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tJ

GREEK BASIC COURSE

'tf

/ka1l taverna/ the noun is teminine, and the adjecti has a tem:inine ending.

. &.6

Adjectives which refer to a noun a1so 'agree' with the noun, as


/!ne akriv7/ ., . 't6

/xi, ine ttin/, both reterring to the neuter noun

/Oro1. 0/.

There are severa1 difterent classes

adJectives, according to their endings.

most frequent i8 that which has -; /-os/ in the ma.sculine, -


-

/-0/

/-i/

'1be

in the teinine, and

in the Duter, e.g.


.

F.

't6;

/ttins/

~1j

/ttini/

~6

/ttioo/

'cbtap'

6;

/b16s/

1j

/kal/

/ka1/

'1001'

y~o;

/meyi10s/

y~

/mea1i/

y~o

/mea1o/ 'b1g'

.6;

/1krs/

.1j

/rd.kr/./

.6

/rd.kz6/

/or~a/

An other adjective c1ass 18 represented by:

.-

/orf:os/

.;

Rear:l1' an

adjec:t1w vith

'l\o adJectives

n-

.-

/orlJo/ 'beaut.Uul'

ead1Jg 1n. wrel (_ 1 /. ./) 81'8

/enas/ '' and

ot tb:18 VPe.

; /kanenas/ '~, 80118' have the

tolloing orns:

F.

/ma/ ~~

.~

/rr18/

/4nas/

/kanena8/ /kama/~! .~ /karnY/

Other classes

adJectives

111

/4na/
/kanna/

be discussed in 1ater units.

Beg1nn1ng with Un1t 4 the three forms (nascul1ne, feminine am neuter) ! a11

adjectives "i11

follos:

gi.ven in the build-ups

6; ,

-1j, -6

ka1s,

'good'

y~o;, -, -

e10B, .-i, -

;, -, -

oreos, -a,

Sce adj.Ct1W8 vith 81088 end1ng 1

6;

-1.,

/Jake/Ibed I ; 1n.:

/k/

'bie'

'beautiful'

baw an a1ternate

!Ia'd./

K.~

.tc.

tea:1D1n. on 1n/-'/,

/IaJq./.

!~-2:.!. ID:ie.t1n1te Art1cle

1he atject1w

/mas/, /ma/2!:

, /,

Wa/,

/la/ow' 18 alo

2$

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

equivalent

the English 1ndefinite article (1;,:1, 'an'):

F.

/eMs staerSS/

w~

/! 6ra/

~~ . l:pa

'a

/rrW&

staticn'

'an

indefinite art1 cle occurs only w1 th

!i2~_~~. ou:

singlar

r/

hur'

'n

'one station'

la 4n / onio/

'a

hour'

1'0011'

'one

1'0011'

nouns.

Definite Article. Plural

' ' .

/~

the rooms'

()omB tial

' /ta/of neuter def1nite article

This exaJJlple illustrates the plural fonn

'6

/to/.
The def1nite article

Eons

you have encountered up to here can be

sumar1zed

follows:

2i.

Pl.

Mascul1ne

/0/

/i/

Feminine

/1/

Neuter

'6

/1/
/to/

'

/ta/

Graatical

Dri1ls

1parn na ka ksenoooxio e8 kond81

!ne kan meyUo ksenooxio e knd.i1

iPrxi

ine kanena JJleyalo est1atrio e knd.i1

ena kal estiatri e kond8?

ipArx:i. ella

ka ()nAtio

!ne kanna JJleBlo leofono e kond8?

kond&1

1parxi ena kald loofor!o kond8?

:tne kanna JJleyalo omati kond.&1

iparxi kanella nikr ksenooxio k0nd41

!ne kanena oreo lJenoox!o kond.&1

iparxi lnena JJI1kr estiatr10 eM koncl.&?

ine kaneD8 oreo estiatrio e koncl.&1

1pirxi

kanena JJi.1' ()ona10 eM koncl.&?

:tne kaneD8 oro ti e kond.&1

prx1

kanena

:n1.kr

leo.fono eM koncl.&1

!ne

kanena

oreo leofor!o e knd.i1

26

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:!ne

kamy

!ne

lcanyi m:ilcr! tave1a

kal! taverna

!ne kanenas kals stanS kond41

kond8?

:!ne kanenas meyllos staems koooa?

k0nd8?

!ne kaJny8 eyll taverna e ko~?

ine kany8 or_ taverna ko~?

!ne kannas oreos e koma?

kanenas mikrs koma?

mili8ta, :!n (e)

cSx1,

maUsta,

6xi,

!ne

kannas 1kr.

kannas

or80s

()

k0nd4.

:Ine kan4nas eM k0nd.8.


nas

!ne

kond8.

1caMaB e

kond8.

mallsta, m(e) 8naS kond8.

kond81

6xi,

!De

naB e

koma1

:lne kaMnas

miusta,

::n (e) naB

61,

!ne

kond4.

eM k0nd4.

kanSnas e

kond8.

miusta, :!ne m!a e kond8.


, ~

!ne Jauny8 ey111 tav1rna e koooa1

!De

kanyi

tt1n!

tavma e

koma?

Ine kam!a

_Usta, ine

da e

!ne

k:an e

usta,

!ne

da .

konda.

kond8.
kond8.

kond8.

6:d., n :Ine lc8d kond8.


!e k8ny4

or8a

tavema

dllsta, !ne m!a eM kond&.

konda?

61, .n

ine Jnena ka1D estiatrio

e6c)

kond?

Icoma?

eM koma?

oro 8stiatri e

kannas

or&!s ke

na

kond&.

!ne kan8na
!)

e knd.

ena

!ne kaneM

na

!ne kanena

k0nd8.

kond8.

koma.
konda.

ma1ista !n(e) na eM koma.

kom.a?

6xi,
ine

k0rd8.

mallsta, !n(e)
6xi,

:lne kanena

t\n

milista,

6xi,
:te kanna m:ikro estiatr10

k!a

dUsta, !n(e)

6%1,
:te Jn8na t.1n estiatrio e

ine

mealos staems

on

ni1ista,

ine kanena konda.

xi,

k0nd41

kondI.

!n(e) enas
kanenas

eO kord&.

27

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

ine kamnya nikr orea ke ft1n:l taverna

m4lista, m!a eM kond!.

eO kndc?

6%1, ine lua e kaooa.

kanera

mal1sta, () na e kn:a.

ine

mey:il0 oreo ke ftin estiatrio

cSx:i.,

kondA?

ine kanena

kond&.

COrre1ation-8ubstitution Dr1lls

------------------------------Substitute the 1Iords in parentheses !or the underlined 1Iord (or 1Iords)
sentences and change the fonns

articles ard. acljectives as necessary to agree with

the noun substituted.


G.D.3. ,
~_~~~_~~~~~~ koroa.

~_m1~~!_~_~~~!_~~~in (e) aristera.

(taverna)

(taverna)

~}~~!~_!~E!~! !n(e) aristera.

!_~~!!_~~_~~~~..!!!!!~ine ka~!an brost8.

(leofono)

(stams)

i mikri taverna ine katefeian brosta.

~_~~~_~!_!~~~_!~!~!~ eksia.

(staems)

(oatio)

!_~~~_~!~!'~ in(e) aristera.

~_~!~_~_~~~_~~1ne.

(ksenoOox:o)

(Jcsenooxo)

~_'!!~~!~_!!~!!~~~:tne \eksit.
()

ftin ksenooox!o !ne


-------------------

to

(prenia)
kntefe:tan ~rost8.

(taverna)

G.D.

3.2

iparx:i. _~!~_~!~~..2 e kond8?

(tAverna, omatio, BmB)

1parxi ~~!~_~!:~_~!~~e k0nd8?

(tavema,

estiatrio, )emati)

\~st.iat6r:io, leoforio, stans, taverna)

28

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

pi k(e)

ena poli kal ksnOOono,!ne pnde xi~tra

na kal ksenoox!o1

aakr1& apOO/ 1n(e) e&c)

pol! makr1i/

kondi/ !ne p4ra

n lparX e

kond8 8na

kalC> kSenooxio/ () ena,kat.eteian

brost8, a18 ine pira pol! akrivd/ in(e)


na, eea X:~tra akr1a prok8en!o.
:!

&oMt1a

pol ora ke 8eyla II8tla/ 8 pol

8:1

a18

pol 1kr ona tla/

exi pira

poli kal8 cat1a ae bMyo.


:1ne l't1Jl6 art to Inoox!o?

maUata.

akr1w,

pol

al& kB

f'tin, 14

rt1n6/6x1. !ne pira pol!

pr

pol!

kal/

ke

kal/

!ne

pol

!ne f't1n6, a18

para poli n1krO/ !ne f'tin, ko kal.


B11sta,x:i

8na

pol ey810 ke kal

est1atr1o/ .usta, xi na lllikr,

!ne

pol kal/ ix: ,

akrlw/8x: ,

aU

n 1 eat1atl'io,

a1A !ne

a18

a18

pol

ine poli kal/

xi

aia .ey&l1

-in(e) oeu x11,7etra aakri8 apto


ut1atSr1o/ !n(e)

ine

&ea:tJ . ut.1atoo/1n(e) ecS ~.

katefe!an bro8U,

ine

1 {(8) .58"

arl8ter' to or!o/

CStera eka18.

pd X:1yetra

k8en0od/ !ne p8r~

xi 8taI e8t1atrio7

a14

ex1

ex1 ena, _18

_kr18 apto

poli .akri8.

l. pol!
n

kal

kali tavema/

ine poli ka1O.

ine m/ pnde/ ept&/ / cSeka.

ora ine?

ine katef'e1an brost /

pU ine to leo!'orio1

xilyetra

k(e) 1

makria apoM.

29

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G REEK BASIC COURSE

!~_~~I~~~~

'breakfast '

&f

~10

&f""

e~1ete

you want
(the) cup

want

",,6

"";:6:.

",,6

""0'6:.'

(the) tea

ka'!

(the) corree

ef"" "";:6:.

""O'6:t

~ xff;

fi1dz4n1

e~1ete ~B

fi1dz4n1

Would you l1ke ('do you want')

, kar~?

a cup

tea or corree?

;:6:

1 zixar1

(the) sugar

",,6

(the) 1ellOn

ef ~

6.

f o~

""O'6:t

;:6: 6..

1em6n1

!10 !na .
zlxar1

ke

me

pol

1'd 11ke tea with a

1eni.

10 !

sugar and [a p1ece or] 1elllOn.

'

esfs

you (1. or p011te s1ng.)

""

pfnete

you dr1nk

'Ea ""

Kaff

",,6

p6s p!nete to(n)

[Hw abut]

gart 8&S?

';

",,6

af"",

e81s.

-,

to(m)
-

you?

dr1nk

unsweetened, p1a1n

xorfs

w1thout

",,6

(the) m1k

6 af""o
6:.

-y41a

to(m) blno sk~to ke


xorfs

Ala.

do you

6:

Hw

talce ('dr1nk') your corree?

sklt08. -1,

dr1nk

dr1nk 1) w1thout sugar


and w1thout m11k.

30

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G REEK BASIC COURSE

mpoB

~xo
~xete

kul6r1

ta

ku1-ya

vdt1ro

1 marme1'Zla
Iff) ~x~ !., ~

ndpos t!xete kul11rya,

. o!~o xt -

psond

~:

mar1ie1.Zla7

ne

wtiro ke

Do

you by any chance have

doughnuts or bread and


butter and [some) uralade7

~xo

~JCUne

.~

friyanY

(the) toast

friyany~s

1.

~6 .

to

. &~ fv .
..

~;

we have

~H

6JC1, a14

(the) honey

~xume fr1'Yan~s

ke _11.

etlete%

but

'

honey.

have toasts and


Do you vant

16

11m th1rsty

~6 o~~.

(the) glass

krfos,

-, -

potIr1
-,

co1d

6 6

6<

p6so

hv

&

k4no

~,

~o

k'nun

they

xt ..

-/ . 6.
&vo;

rf, ke

ner6

16.

(tbe) vater

B4110 41na

potlr1 lcrJo ner6.


p6so

kMU1

a]%

mucb

Yes, and

ake,

'.

tbey do

tb1rsty.

11ke a glass
Hv

do

l d
'

cold water.

much 1s ('do they

naJce 1)1

x~

1 ora.xmi

(the)

i oraxmSs

1.

dracbna

)'

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

~6
.

~6 .

purbu.r

or~s.

eMa

(the) tip
!ka ne'

drachmas.

to purbuAr.

Ten W1th the

t1p.

arXzo

arxizi

he. (she, 1t) starts,

start,

beg1n

beg1ns
x.~6o

( . K.~6-

k1nimat6yrafos

: ra aMdzi

(the)

What t1me does the mov1e

kjnjrnatyrafos?

nov1

start1

at.

C1~( K~

st1s okt6

at eight

krima

It's a pityl

.6~.

oi6t1

because

f~vyo

ya

~ ~

1 p4tra

Patras

~( x~.

, .6~.

kr!ma.

stis okt6.

1t1

1.

leave

e1ght.

That's bad, 8

C1~( ~ . ~~

st1s eptA r~vyo ya

I'm leaving ror Patra8

~.

t1(m) b4tra.

Be.

Narrat1ve
~ 1 .

!~~-~!!~~~.

1 p4tra 8kr1! !e~!~

Athens'

:!.

6 ~..

'tr1p'

Q!_!~~!e~~s .

~_:~!!!~! ~ t!xun '141&.

A~6 !~_~~!!~~!2 1.

a.ft

~6.

'rrOJ

karen:!o :!ne

'taverns'
'car~'

tt1n6.

~.!:!~!! <;

~~P!~:! pol1

Are

!~!~S 3. !.

!!~~~ e~li

'he/th1s'

!~_!!~~!~~~ . .6.

~2_~~!~!!~2 :!n(e) akriv6.

kat4.

"~I~~~

you

th1rsty?'

't1cket'
they have

32

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URl'f 4

GREEK BASIC COURSE

p:!nete E~~~ ts4y.

~ &~ ~a&.

'always'

E~ ~& ~y ~6 y~&

st1s ept4,

~~ n&~pa.

b4tra.

ae:!na.

al4 :!1 :!ne 0"0.

n&~pa ~ o~ v&

4~ 'A~, 4& ~6 ~~ ~
o~~ .
.

n&~pa ~ o~ &

Ex~ a~~~6~, ,

~ .
yua;

~a&'

8~ 6

Ixovv

, &

~6 ~a& x~ xou~

ptra

:!ne

ptra

me

pol

:!ne

pol meyll1.

ksenooDa,

pr6yevma1

makr1A apt1n

est1at6r1a,
.1

~xun kati,

y4la k8

ts4y.

~ ~ &.

friyan~s

me wtiro ke _11,

ste?

p:!nete.na pot:!r1 kr:!o ner6.

~6yo ~6 ~ o~ d:~6.

ptra 41

k'na me-y4lo k1n1mat6yrato.

6 a~~~~o x&~ 6x~ x~

k1niatyratos

o~~~ 60 6.

lva

n&~pa x~

x~ 6 x~~6yo. x~

4pxtte~ ~~ 6x~.

'6 ~

4, I.6~~ 6x~ ~y ~6 ~

kt.

okt6 f.vyo ya

~ ra tvy1

_kr14,

leotor:!o?
1 p4tra apt1n

aef~7

~ ' 1 :4tral

akr1y68.

raxms,

kyarx:ls1

krt_,

11

st1.

:!1.

:!ne pol:! 8BkriA apt1n aa:!na.

_l1rt.a,

tak.ld1 or401

leotor:!o teyY1 .t1. epU.

ptra

alA

..

: marme1'a.

!!

att6s, :!ne

1s1t:!r1o kAni okt6

pMda st1s

tCl..

ts4y .xete kul11rya f

pso!

~ ~ V~ ~~v
~i~;

tanrnes ke katena.

,a katen:!a

me

1()

leofor:!o ya

1 p4tra

totalc81d1

'1

po1f -orfo.

katenfa, e.t1at6ria, tayfrne.

ke ksenoooDa.
~

'xun t.a

.teda'l

ta

()

p6s p:!nete e.l. to(n) gat'?

'xun .ta katen:!a


6

keun

ra t~vyete
1

ptra

ts1y

ests ya

b:!no

8l1sta,

ku1'ya7

kat'.

kateda ~xun

~8?

1()

b4tra?

k1n1mat6yrato?

me

Irat.,. y4la

sk~to,

ke xorfs

yl1a.

lxun.

purbu4r, k4nun

ey ya
1,

ke ku16rya.

brUJlll&s.

t1(lII) b!tra stis tlpt4.

1 p4tra

'1

'na(n) bo1f _y410

k1n1matyrato.
: ra

arx:lz1

k1n1atyratos?

m4l1sta, :!ne polf

:!n(e) akr1v6s?
p6S0 k4n1

~na

k1n1matyrafos

1s1t:!r1o?

arx:!z1 p4nda st1s

kt.

akr1vs

na 1s1t:!r10 k!n1 okt6

ra~s.

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GREEK HASIC COURSE

eretznata

Greetings.

6 . o~

xronya

Many happy returns.

1ete

DIU

Pleaa8 tell

poli

eps1s

ard.: 8a8

8'"kal

SaIe

to you.

6 .

ka1D

K~ ..

kal! nd8os1

Good-by8 t1U

X~.

sinxarlt.ria

Congratulat1ons.

peras~

Get.

. .
acnf;

. .
~A ~x

taks

Have a n1ce tr1pJ

...

meet
againo

e .

perte

Af'ter 1'0'1.

st1n iy8

&n exete tin ka1Dsinl

Would

d.

1'our hea1th.

:rou

be k1nd

..

IIIU

etxarstos

G1ad1y.

K~ !..

! ep1 tixU

Good 1uck (tor any

k8net.e

x8ri

Do

taOr.

undertak1n)

..ra1&s

'.

~.

Grammat1cal Notes
!~!_!t.:.l

Phon010gy: Assim1lation
/p6s plMte to(n) gaf~ sas'l/

' do 1'ou take 1'our cottee?'

() no sk~t.o/

'1 take ('drlnk') vithout sugar'.

/4vo ya 1() b4tra/

'1' 1eav1ng

above exa1es sho

/n/

p1us // replaced by

/m/

/n/

tor Patras.'

plus /k/ rep1aced b1' /ng/ (/tO!! ~~/_ /tO!! Iafd/ and

/tO!! fn!-/t!!! ~fno/ and /t1!! ~tra/.=/ti~ 2'tn/).

Voise1ess consonants //, /,

/k/

becore /b/,

/d/, /g/

vhen preceded by

/n/

C10S8

sequence.
r0110s

the

/n/ +/k/,. /ng/

as 1

/'ran gaf./

2!: /ra gaf'/

/n/+/p/= /rrb/

as 1

b:(no/

~ /to b!no/

The consonant ass1m11at10n

/n/-t/t/=

/rd/

to11oing

patterns:

(e.g. /10 ~nan denek'/ ~! /~ra denek~/ tor

/e'10

'ran tenekl/ '1 a can').

3b

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

~~~~_~~~

Pronoun: Fersona1 pronouns.

Au~6 L L6.

/aft ine 1 akriv/

'it JS very expensive'

u~6 ~L .

/afts

'he wants coffee'

These are examp1es


set

S1nce

eIhat1c.

proncuns

3e1i kaf~/

i t' and

he

persona1 pronouns:

/6/

!!

/e8i/

you

~6

/a!t6s/

he

U~~

/a!ti/

8he

-6

/aftrJ/

/em!s/

/es1.s/

you (plural po11te 1n.)

U'fOt

/aft!/

they

(asc.)

/art's/

they

( )

&

/aft4/

th8y (neut.)

end1n !

are RI1chless used

(fad.l1ar)

the verb 1nd1cates the person ofthe subject, personal

Greek than they are

Attent10n 1s dravn

per_on8 are. d01ng

1 Enl1sh.

poun

When they are used, they are s11ght],y

the fact that this part1cular person 1s, or these part1cular

oeMn.

should be noted that the th1rd person forms are al80 equ1valent

Erg118h 'th1s 1

Ithat"t (do-6c,-~,-6 /aft6s. -, -6/), and 'these' (U'fOt,-lc,-& /aft!, -48,


!~_~~~

persoD s1neular, present tense.

(and

l1sted

d1ctionar1e_)

1 !

-4/).

the nrst

Tbus, for ex.aple, the verb 'vant' 1s 11sted as

(11 ".nt'); 11eave' as /~yo/ (' 1eave l

),

Beg1nn1ng vith Un1t S &11 verbs occurr1ng as bulld-ups

etc.
111

but the1r Eng11sh equ1va1ents 111 be glven as 1nf1nitives, e.g.


'

2!:

Verb Classea

Greek verb8 -are referred

/eI10/

be 11sted

that fON,
/arxizol

start', etc.
Greek verbs faH

three classes. a ccord1ng

the patt.ern

the1r 1nflect10n:

Class ~ - Verbs end1ng 1 unstressed - /:0/ 1 the first person s1ngu1ar, present tense.
(a) . ~~~!~~~~~_!!!~~.! i.e. verbs which have tvo sy1lab1es tu tbe t1r8t persOD s1ngular

35

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

pre8nt~ such
'

atI

/88-10/ ' "ant'

-&

/pi-no/ ' dr1nlc'

/'~o/

fxw

have' etc.

(b) polysyllab1c verbs, 1.e. verb wtdch cons1st


per8O1

s:ingular preant~ e.g.

ClaS8
!~~_~:.~

Verb:

and Cla88

Iertect1ve

Greek verbs ha'Ve two

1 incoap1ete

or

more than two syl1able8 in the t1r8t

/ar-od.-zo/ ' begjn' ~ etc.

verb8 and their subdivis10ns

11

be discussed

later un1ts.

8m Pertect1ve stems.
impertect1'Ve and perf'ect1vo.

8es:

Verb forms conta1ning


verb

8te

1JIIper!ect1ve

st111 cont1nuing

indicate

a part1cular

act10n (or state)

n ! t1Je (past~

the

present or

tuture).
Verb torms containing 8 pertect1ve
tJe

1nd1cate that

act1an

(01'

state) denoted by

verb "88 or W'ill be cap1eted at a part1cular oe ot t1JDe ( or future).


The

tel

1Jpertect1ve 8te

18

tJe te !

the verb in the present tense, 1.e. the part

verb in the present tense "hich precedes

ending, e.g.

Pre8ent tense

~r!!~:!!!_~!!

-&

-&-

8'1-

~x

&

fx-

&-

x~

arx!so

x~-

8r.Z-

etc.
The perf'ect1ve te 1 the 8te ! tbe 1Jp1 tuture or ! the verb (" Un1t 6.1).
~!:!_~:.~ Vrb:

Pre8ent tense ot Cla88 wrb.

'. 'c & 4'tx:i

~z

'ta&t.

't6v a;

Mf) f't ('tU;

orM, ke -eyala 6_t1a. 1 ha8 n1ce (nd.) large roo.

9810 na t8ay.

pc5s pinete to(n} gste sas1

Hcn

[cup ot] tea.

do you drink your cottee1

dP08 xe pso:! vUt1ro? Do )'OU happen to have bread

and butter.,

From these examp1es "e

that the verb ot the Greek verba1 sentence a111a18 1ndicate8

by 1 ending vhether the 8ubject 01' actor 18 '' (88 in

(as in
~.

f't

/mte/

')'OU

/ar.zi/ '1 Btarts').

-&

/8810/ ' "ant'),

"ant') or 'he , , 1' (88 in .

1 the aboe

'you'

/i/ '1 ha8' or

verbs belong to the Clas8 .

other verbal endings ! the present tense (ClaS8 ) are:

)6

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URIT

G REEK BASIC COURSE

'you'

(,) a or8 familiar fonn for

/-1s/

(2) the 'we' end1ng - /-re/

()

the 'they' ed1ng -" /-un / ~!: -"

The

conplete

present tenS8 forms

/-une/

these verbs are, then:

~!~!~'

"

(1)

(he, she, 1t)

&

/e~lo/ C"

/pfno/

.; /~x1./ &

/e~lis/ C" .;

/p1.n1s/

/~l1/ ".

/pfni/

/~xo/

&.

/~x1/

Plural

------'

(ve)

/~xre/

&

/Mlr/ C"

/pre/

(you)

'\"

/~xete/

&'\"

/Mlete/ "'\"

/pfnete/

(they)

/~xun(e)/&"

/e~lun(e)/ " /p1.nun(e)/

Plural

~!~
'

ipxtCw

/arXzo/

iCC

/arnzUJJl!l/

ipxtCE.I;

/arXz1s/

iPXCCE'\"E

/arnzete/

AxtcE.

/arx1.z1/

ipxtCoV,,(E)

/arx1.zun(e)/

aod the personal

ni18:

Plural

~!~
-

/-0/

/-U8/

-.;

/-181

-'\"

/-ete/

-.

/-11

-ov,,()

/-un(e)/

The 'tresent tense descr1bes a act10n (or state) vh1ch e1ther 1s go1ng on at
III08nt ! speech (1'm do1 80-a0d-80') ortalces place hab1tual~ ('1 do SO-ani-80).
v

The verb8
'

dr1nk' anci

'1'

dr1nk1ng',

S1nce the verbs


alvays based on the

!2~!_!!:.~ Verb

//, ipxtCw

'

/arx1.so/, etc. -:, therefore, mean both:

beg1n' and

beg1nn1ng', etc.

the present tense descr1be

1ncomplete act10n or state they are

1~!:!!~~!!! Bn.

/1.rr/ ' be' present tense.

". .

1 r. :ine

".

pl1 :ine

'\"6

'1'

L;

The complete present tense forms

/')1.0.

1'

o'clock.

leofor:io'l

Where

the bus'l

th1s verb are:

37

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

~!~~2l~!_

Plural
-------

/;e/

'

//

-&

/fne/

This verb does not belong to any

/fu.ste/

//

2! /fste/

/fne/

the verb classes and may be said to be 'irregular'.

Ur~mmatical Dri1l~

G.D.4.2-6
e [~yo

leofor10.

e ~KO ~na

~xis

~o

stis

btra

stis

apto

afts ~x! ~na kseno~oxio.

aftl fevyi stis

aptin aefna.

emds

~xume

em1s

[~vume

stis okt6 apti<m) brezvfa.

esls

~xete ~nde estiatria.

es1s

r~te

stiz

aftl

~x ksenoox1a.

aft~s [~une

es!

leofor!a.

trIa

f~vyis

apti(m)

es!

estiatria.

e ! kaf'~.

es! p!nis tsAy me


afts !! sk~to

o~ka

apti(n)

em1s

1ne sti(m) brezvfa.


1uste

sti(n) da.rerna.
ksenooXo.

es!s p!nete

kaf~

xorfs zAxa.ri.

esls 1ste sto

aft1 pInur.e

kaf~

me -yila.

aftes 1ne sto estiat6rio.

sta9ms ~x! estiatria.

kal6

kinimat&rrafos arx1zi stis

aft

pryevma.

tsAv!ne xorfs

lemi.

i J:'Atra 1116
a1na

i tav~rnes o~ !ne makriA a.

aft estiatri &~ ~x!

es1s

friyan~~s

k!nun

kafenlo

kulUrya.

ftin.

yAla !r.e pol!

aft

ksenooox!o

~x! c~ka

Oomitia.

!ne xorfs zaxari.

i zaxari !ne pol! akriv1.

estiat6~io.

stis 610 apto

lm(e) e06.

afts

yAla.

estiatria ~xun

dav~rna.

es1 !s(e) e6.

lem6i.

em1s p1D11D3 ner6.

ta

estiatr10.

6rax~s.

pol!

!ne

r.akrj4

aptin ae!na.

ra.

proksen!o !n(e)

kond4.

~xete ~na c~o 6omltio.

leofor1a

!c

kalA.

t.otaks!6i ya ti(m) b4tra !r.(e)

kal.

ta isit!ria ya

or~o.

leofor!o 1n(e) ftin!.

38

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G REEK BASIC COURSE

..

Subst1tution-Correlaticn Dr111s
Change the forrn
1

(or nouns)
aft!

!~

the underlined verb as necessary

agree w1th the pronouns

parentheses.
~xo ~

8t1(m) b4tra.

kafenfo.
,

(ey6, a!t's, 8s18, esf, a!t6, emIs)

(esI, aft6s, emIs,

e.! !se sto ka!enJo.

~!~!! ~() ,ga!I?

(ey6, a!tr, em!s, aft6s, aftIs)

(a!tf, ey6, emIs, aftls, esIs)

c! ~xo ~ka raxm!s.

E!!:!~ y4la.

(esI,

8,

aft68,

a!t~s, .m,

art6)

enda !~!~i!) 6.

!~~

( ksenoono,

ey6 kyes!a, 1 prnvfa,

(,

kyo staem6s, esis)

E!n2

kaenoono

(ey6, afti,

tiY71

aft6s, a!tls, emIa, es!)

ka!'.

"tra

es!s, a!t6)

iyi 8U8 / 818 c5c81/ 8tis /

to leotorio?

68 akriA, !n(e) i

esf, aft6)

ya t1(m) bitra.

(emIs, aft!,

t. r.

aftf)

8ti8 pIoa/ 8t18 a4Ska.

!ne poU ..Jcr18/ !ne &4Ska

aptin aelna?

X1qttra

ukr18

apt1n ae!na/ &en Ine poli ukr18 apt1n


_!a, u(e) e kon..

il1at.a, ie 8
r80 ,ke

poll

/ :,

Ine poli ..-y8lo/

ilUt.a,

Ine

po]j

reo, pol ~1o.


t. 1 i

ix11c8810&0Xa/ ix1

p8tra,

ix1
t xun

18

pryew8

t.a estiatOria?

na

p8ra poli

xun

kaf'e

t8y

tawrne8/ 81 rat_u/

p~ k.

nw r1.

me y.],a ke s8xari, to/ Uun

le/ lcu1rya

pU wtiro

ke ~ , {

ke ane18a/ &4Sn 8xun,pol

kalo kafe, a18 xu pira !! kalQ

Nliata hun/
al xun

ta

61

&&0

xun

estiatria/ n4S

ta

t8q.

kateda

8xun kate

kat.,

18

ine p&nda kri08.


39

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

ps

to(m) b:lno sketo/ rs zixari/ pol

p!nete tonpfe sas?

zaxari ke yila/ Cln blno kafe, pino tsBy.

exun

ta

kafena

8xun kulurya, a1& exun

nalista, 8JCU/ Cl

kulU1"ya7

fr1~S Vt1ro,ke S1'llleua/

CI&n

exun

ta katen!a kulry8, 814 8xun ta estiat6r18.


pSO linun

8xi 1

ka!'es

ke

kinun pnde CIraxmes/.ept raxaes/ eka

ta kulUrya7

t.ra Juda kal

_l1sta,

tav8rna?

ex1

nda

ka.;

al

!ne

e..u !,

pol

akr1v!/

6,

pu ine kond4 sto

ey810 k8enoox:lo.
t

exi

dra

fevyet

fevyo st1.s ept8! st18 enea/ st1.(n) Ua.

ya ti(m) btra?

i patra kiniatyrafo?

6x:i.,

ex1/ a11.

xi, ala ine pol

1krB ke akr1~B.

t{

dr (a) arxizi

arxlz1 ~D1a 81:.1s

k1niat"(T'atos?

!n(e) akr1v6s?

enea/ st1z

81:.1s

cSeka/ s1:.18

8ndeka.

Ul1st.a, :lne

pol akr1ws/ xi, C

akr1VS,

a14

ine poll

kal8/

:lne

!ne p4ra

po1l akr1w. k8 p8ra poll or8OS.


Jr8n1 *de CIraxais/ okt r88/ l:a

pso kn1 na is1tr1o?

r88/

ilcD81 CIraxaes/ t.rUda CIru8s.

40

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G REEK BASIC COURSE

tlHlT S

nou

pul6

nouoaVE

pul4ne

tbey sell

no nouoaVE ./.c; c-

c:;
-f

orc.&~

or6v

C1'rc.fi

p'd pu1Ane 1s1tlr1a

sell

Where do they sell t1ckets

parakalM

p1ease?

vl~po

to

staG4rx1s

(the) stat10n-IIBster

to(n) staGmirxi

(the) stat1on-uter

(&8 d1rect obj~ct)


BotneorE

or6v

C1'rc.fi;

vl~pete to(n) staGqrxi?

Do you see the stat1on-..ster


(over there]!

ivvo

en06

to

ivvoeiorE

eno!te

6 U4.o;

1"'111os

( ) eq:1oyee

vho.

1 p6rta

(the) door

."
"BvoetorE

W6porc

or6v

W&...o, no<

c .. !.&o<1'f6

cm orlv

pd

.an

ou eM
1

h1.

the

front

ep10yee

(vho

1)

door?

b6rta?

!XEt lc\ ." fv-

c, ( nouoaVE
orf).c.

141110,

!ne brosta apt1(m)

w6porc:

6-.C1'rC,

enofte

or6

ek!

there

1 G1rIba/G1r!s

(the) t1cket v1ndcw, v1cket

m411sta. ek! In(e) 1

Yes.

There '5 a t1cket

Glr!6a pu pul4ne ta

oer ther~

isitir1a.

tickets.

1ow

where they sell

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

-,

rtcs,

&faL ()

-i,

first

i Msi(s)

(the) seat, c1ass,


pos1ticn

&f

pr6tis

6 &&

& ~ &

&.

10 ~na

(the) willdow

isit!r10 pr6t1s

~BEOB,

the first c1ass

to par!eirc

f ELaLT~PLO
&f,

ases

kondi sto

want a first c1ass ticket


next to the wir.dcw.

f\ar40iro.

-,

c1stix6s
-

unfortunate1y
-

610s, -i,

a11

61es

1.

&f.

i eisis

(the) seats

.'

i amaksost1xfa /

(the) tra1r.

Tpfvo

to trlno

' L-

saft!(n) tin amakso-

in this trairl

stlxIa

Lf, -, -

pyazninos, -i,

.f

p~B

6 w.6 t

to

~ &.

1.

vagoH

st1s,

61es 1

(the) sleeping car

& '

t1s

&aoo. .

saft!(n) t1r. amakso-

..

st1xIa, !ne

& a6 6

rts e~secs

!. &.

a1!

6 .

~ka sis

aft

to

taken, occupied

Unfortvnate1y a11 the f1rst


c1a5s seats
are

taen.

th1s tra1n

Eut there are

p,~z~B.

<Ithis tra1r. has I

tr~no, ~xi

sleeping- car sEats ln th.1s

vagon1S.

tra1r..

Do you want

[]7

Be1ete . ,
&cX.

eavm4s1a

excel1ent

prct1r6

tc prefe-r

1 e140a

'&

&

st1n

e14a

Greece

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

UNIT S

K-&~. ( )

i kaeistlrisi(s)

(the) de1ay

mnya pu

since

Q.! o~. ~6

rtim

eavrnasia.

', . ~ ~

vagonlf, mnya pu

" f ~ -&

t~na

..

~xun panda kaGist~risi.

stir: e1ioa,

Exce11ent.

prefer the

sleepi r,g car, since the


tra1ns

Greece are alvays

1ate ('a1vays have delay').

~6 '

fXE~E '

~xete f\cvo

you're

'

riy~no

ka61:

y~yo

yrfyora

qu1ckly. promptly, tut

wEXE~E ',

O!kyo

~xete fJ;yo

(the) r1ght, 1av

~ '

tr~na ~ ri~nun

6 ~yo.

kaecnu yrJyora.

t'i~ht

go
at a11

You're rieht, tralD8


here don1t fO fast at a11.

~6~

t6te

then

.6

l16

vell

.'

l1r1rfa

(the) 1nformat1on

t '

lir1rfs

(the) p1ecEs

T6~ .6. x'~ .

<n ;~~rtE,

yl-ell then. good bye and

x.~ . ~'

kefxar1st6 ya t1s

thanks for the

' ' ~6 .~.o.

p1irofaries ke to

and the

inf~rmation(s)

cket.

1s1 t:ir1 .
~6 6

sto ka1e

[000 bye (siid only tc a


person vho takes leave)

:~6 6 ' 6 ~'..

sto ka16.

k ka1c

:;000 bye.

a njce trip:

taksiCj.

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

Re sr'onse Drill

----~----------'

p~

pul4ne lslt!ria?

stl(n) Gr!a kond! stl(m) ~6rta, pu


!nte)

ti isitjrio

~ll

aftbs

eplv4tis?

J~ll ~na

sto
~I~) dles i ~BlB saft!tn) tin

lslt!rl0 pr6tls

',
Oka

Nl1sta, t!xi

atts epiitls?

:1.:1

konda

yr:f,ora ta trt!na stln

p4nda

6x1~ ~ p:1y!nun

jne

pyaz~r.es.

st!sls vagonl!.

vaf.on1!,

el!a
!n:ln

~BEOB,

arir.

kond4 _to

vagonl! aft! 1 amaksost:1x!a?


protiM41

8ta9m4rxls.

o18tlx6s, dles :1 ~Bl t:1s ~ses

amaksostix!a pyaznAr.es?
~x1

ta

t~na

ka~lstirls1.

kae61u

yr!ora.

e1Joa?
arlend
. lc

lkosi~na

tet.)' 08

. ~o

ikos:1bio

tent)' to

". ~c:

lk081trfa

tventy three

. ~ac

:1kos:1t4!sera

tent.y ur

'. y~

lkoslpfnde

tent.)' 1e

'. .

1kosi'ks1

tent.y 81

. tn~~/EtoaI. t~~

lkos1ept4/1k081ett4

tent.y _'V.

. 6x~/o. 6x~

lkoslokt6/1k081oxt6

t.vent)' e:1gbt

EtoaI. lvvfc

lkoslen!a

tent.y

~.~y~C

trlMda

t.hirt.y

~.~y~C Ec

tr1anda~na

th1rt)'

C~y~C

sarinda

tort)'

sarandana

tort.y

t1ft)'

C~y~C

~~c

..

n1ne

an

fl

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G REEK BASIC COURSE

urr

Narrat1ve
~_~~~ y~ ~6

10 2_~~!~!

A~o Q.1_1~~n~l.
~/~c.
o&~ 21 vc~

p1yAn1 sto

'peop1e, vor1d'

ka!en!o.
aft1 !_!~H! pu1ADe 1s1t~r1a.

'ep1o,yees'

1es 1 ~18 ~~ !ne pyaznfnes.

'1ts" 'h1s'

'HC.

A~6 ~e~!!~!! ~o i. aftlls !:2~!~! to 1eotor:fo.

'

~6 ~_c!~~e~, t VC ~

'porter'

arts 2_!!!2!~!:2! !ne !

"o~ .6.

u-r~ ~_~~f!2! t VC ~

ka1a.

aft! !_!!!!~!! !ne poU

ycf.

~!_c!~~~~~~~ t VC ~

!_!2~!!!! !ne kond4 st1 (a)

---------~/~o.

~~I!!e y~cf ~ /~C.

:!~~ t VC ~ C (c

'1111&18'

b6rt.a.
~!! staQ~s, 1 Ana

A~6 ~4'r Ix~

'su1tcase'

eyal1.

~ ,,6'.
Jto& '6 Ix~ Ivc -

prefers'

'each. ever.r'

kafen!o.
atts 2_!E!!~~!! ~ '1

'passenger'

1s1t!r10.
s!era t'yo

--- -

1& t1 (_) Wtra.

'toda.;y'

!)11!!!!:! !n(e) ota.

'da7'

~!~ ~ y~cf / o&vc;

~~! ty1s 7a t1n _'"

'he'

~~~~' -4. -6

&~!. -'. -6

'vho.

C c ~ '-r ~o&6 Ivc ~


y~ / /~C.

'

6 VC ~ w ~ o&up C6c
ncfo~ - ~/~C ov~cf

6~ vc~ 6 ~&x.

one'

se nda 6ra. t.v;y1 apto(n) stao)~ 'na ttno.


ke p1~ st1 () b'tra.

610 kZ...

!ne

brost. 1 1r!a pu 1 1p1.l1l1 uljne t.a

w-ru- 1s1t!r1a, kondi st1(m) b6rt.a pu !ne

o&~ -r 'r &

ovw ~6 cfo&o ~~c..

staomtrx1s.
pr6t1s

p1&ZlInes.

ol o&~ ~o vc~ ~c

. 6 6 o~~~ ~6
~6~~

al4

~.

p1y~nj 01

Cxo&o6o ~ ~ C C ~

61es 1

.1

t1s

kond! sto par431ro !ne

sto

staOIII

1p4rxi ep!s1s

k~na

1eotor:fo. pu 1 ~1 tu ~ !ne P1&ZAnes,

c~6 ~6 !x~ ~c o&~


Ko~ ~6 ~ ~c

b1st1Xs

~BO

~6 ~o&6 icfx~ K~ vc

~o cC~ oc,

h1ch

~xi

p4nda

k6zmos prot1m41 to
yr!yora,

tr!n

1t1 aft

kae1st~ris1.

pu

leotorl0

kond4 sto leotor1o

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

! L

&,& L tL ,
L' tL &L

L' tL CL.

v1~pete ~nan a90fr

tis

~1 aposkev~s.

tu, kfstera

r1~n1

. p~!

ID(8)

Ana

art.b

apto(n)

sta9n?

da

se

~07

p~!

!n(e)

61e8 i

sta9mArxis7

kondA

6ra.

brost! sti(n)

61

par!eiro

protimAi

~x1 aft

staen7

~ saft

pyaa_nes.

1eoforlo

6xi, i

sattb

~1

1e!r0 ~

!ne

pye.

10s kZmos7

1eo!orlo

v14pete kond4

protim4i

trino, pu piyt!n1

kaBis~risi?

U1sta, ~x!

p4nda

1eo!orl07

v1Apete t!nan

~0!6ro.

k!n1 k!Be epivitis sto kafenlo pu


sto(n)

isitfr1a.

t!na leo!orfo.

~x1 arts ax!rs

pu

1 e~s1s tis rtis ~08 kondl sto parleiro

an!neS

1r:la,

k6zmos.

ip4rx1 sto(n)

tr~no.

lne kondA sti(m) b6rta, ekl pu !n(e) 610S

pyazn!nes7

410

tu sto

gaf~

taks:lo1.

10 kZmos

~!

to(n)

piyAn1 sti(m) b!tra.

100 kZmos7

sti

1~ra 01 or~a ky10S kZmos

i 1pili1i pulAne

sto kafenlo pu lne

sto(n) staem6, kaee epivAtis

slmera i

te !~y1

me tis va1itses ke

to(n)

gat~

"fT!yora.

ka1st!r1si.

'xi vaHtses ke 4les

pol{

!.

tu.

stan

pi~n1

k!ni lstera?

or~a ir~ra

slmera?

. p~ 10 kSmos

sti(n)

tu sto

!.

l1sta, 1:l or~a in!ra

pi~n1

slmera7

slmera.

taksfoi.

16

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Grammatical Notes
!C!~_5.:1...

Phono10gy:

Vowel assind1at10n and


akr14

The V'owe1

apoM.

10ss.

Far f'rom here.


tront

the door.

trost4 apti (m) b6rta.

k0nd4 sto par4eiro.

Near ('to') the v1ndow'

sart

In that bus.

n11A10

v1tb the .... V'owel

Vwe1

1eotorio.
vords ending

d1scussed

a V'ove1 and

tollwed

by a vord

beg1nn1rg

Note 1.5.

The abve ex.amples 111ustrate the assim1lat10n ! V'owels 1 the prepos1t1ons /S8/
lat~ 1~ ' and /ap6/ 'trom~ oE~ than' betore vwe1s vh1ch are the Be~ (/apo/+le?J6/_

/apo6/ and /se/+/att6/./sattI) and 10ss ! V'owe1s 1 prepos1tons betore consonants (/se/

/tol-/stO/ and /ap6/+/t1r!'/apt1r!).


Ass1ndlat10n ! /s/ betore vo1ced consonants.

Note 5.1.1

. 6

10 k6zmos

everybody

CM't

stiz ~

at ten 0'c1ock

i prezvia

the Enba8sy

The 80und // 1 abve ex.amp1es 1s represented Greek spelling by 18tt8r

The cob1nat10n !

/s/.

crrtt;
Iote

5.2.

v1th a V'01ced consonant 18

/ZJt.

V'oiced consonant.

Thus

/st1! ~ but CM'tt; 6C",/ B :! oktI.

oun

Cases

Cons1der the tollow1ng Engl18h sentences:


The

dog.

!!!

dog b1t tbe

The dog b1t

b1t

b1t

dcg.
~!~.

Not1ce that the pronoun has one shape (~!) when 1t's the subject ! a sentence~ and
a d1rterent shape (~~) vhen 1t's the object ! a sentence;
only one

shape~

matter vhat the1r tunct1on.

Greek the

oun

are called 'cas8S':

but nouns (~~ !!~)

as vell a8 the pronouns change the1r shapes.

the subject-shape

The difterent shapes

or pronoun is ca11ed the 'nondnat1ve case' ~

and the object-shape 1s ca11ed the 'accusative case'.

(There used

be a 'case'-system

English a thousand years ago, but it's practically

47

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G REEK BASIC COURSE

nninat1ve

The

singular 1. al50

'name !orm',

1s c1ted, as in a dictionar-.f or when talk:i.ng about


The accusative (objective) case 1s the
a verb (as

on

/apt1(m) brt.a/,

C1't6

1.

or pronoun 1s the object

/vlepete to(n) st.airx:i?/, a

/puln ta 1sitir1a/, etc.


-

1s, the one used when the noun

used when a

f- -6 --&

- Lcr.-f)

or ! a prepos1t1on as '/ 6-

-&

/kondA to paraG1ro/, et.c.).

The gen1 1ve (possess1 ) case 1s generally equ1 valent to Engl1sh possess1 !orms
l1ke

~r.!~!

~~!:!_~~~

or

~~,~,

or to phrases 1nvolv1ng

'!': ~!_~~~_~!~.

Noun: Art1cles: Accusative.

- -6 C1't-&&;

vlepote to(n) stamrx1?

])

you

the stat1on-

master?
! . -&
a - cr.-f)..
-&.

C1't6

-&.

d ! () i

ira pu

pul8ne ~ 1s1tir1a.
~lo . 1 k0nd8
to pal'le1ro.

.- . -
.

There 1 a ('the ) Windw

e!xarist

18 t1s

where they sell the tickets.

want a seat next to the


w1ndw.

Thanks !or 1n!ormation (s ).

pUrotor!es.

The above example. illustrate det1n1te and 1nde!1n1te art1clp.s uaed


case.

' coMpl~

set

the accusat1ve

those !orms is:

48

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

Indefinite article
------------------

m.
~Cl;

Noa.

I!nas

Cl

Acc.

f.

d.

I!na(n) CI()

or

rrJ4

.&

I!na

Cl

.&( )r1 1(n)

ma(n)

Cl

Defin1te artic1e

----------------

5g.

t.

Acc.

'f6v

detiaite

'f~v

to(o)

'f6

ti(n)

'f6

'f0~';

8hould be noted that betore consonaats

artic:les may

hae

~J:81 ~~ 11') . Ep188s

. . .,

t.

a.

'f&

ta

tus

'ftc;

tis

'f&

ta

detinite and indetinite . .cline and

a1teraate tOI'Jll8

ton, tin

the accusati ve singular

. ., to,

(1D

t1.

!!!!!?!!!

apti (a) b6rta

2!:

tr08l

te

door

apti b6rta
1! !aan staWxi.2!:

ato
Betore

art.1cl8

are

voels

'f6v

the det1rIite and

/ton/,

lCl

11n the vorld t

2!:

6
rde1ai. uculiD8

/4naa/ and 'f~v

mS 4/.

on

B.h lCl 46.

vll!po

CJ/ /.&Cl

st10

The 811 1ndetiaite art1cle

stat1oa-aster.

! A84rx.

y]Jpo
stoa

... a

tea1n1ae

1r! respect1~, ..

11)41110

eB10yee

!aaa axot6ro.

eUa

article and the d8t1a1te

... a stat10n-. .ter.

110 Greece I

/da/2"!

.& /rri' uaua11.y has oaly oae tOnD;

8 c ...

8.10 d. el!si.

,n c & .1! nda 411 prezv:!a.


but / .1 dan

a seat.

another

nbaY.

presdal '887 be al80 heard.

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

Note 5.4 Phonology: Stress

-----

Greek nouns can be stressed either the Iast syIIabIe (e.g. Ifititisl 'student').
the second syIIabIe from the end (e.g. Inaftis/'saiIor'). or the third syIIabIe fro~ the
end (e.g. laneropos/'man').
I~~~~~

'nouns;

those stressed

and those stressed


~o_~ .?.:.~.

Notms stressed the Iast syI1abIe wiII be referred to as

'~~~~~~'

the second syIIabIe froro the end

the third syI1able froro the end

~~E~~~~~~'

ncuns,

nouns.

Declension

30;

vl~pete ~nan axof6r01

'L 6

eno!te

. '~

6;

b6rta?

3. 6

9~10

3.

YLa

ipali10 pu

Do you see a porter1


You mean the empIoyee in front

brosti apti(m)

m:fa lBl kondi sto

'd

efxarist6 ya tis pliro-

like a seat nar the

wind~.

paraOiro.
-

the door?

'Thanks for the infcrmation(s).

for!es.

6 6 .

uim vagonl.

i ipnili pu pulane ta

The empIoyees who sell tickets.

L~L.

prefer the slfe;Jing car.

isitria.

'The above sentences 11lustrate accusative singular forns ( 306


aXof6ro/.

and pIural forns

/ton ipalilo/,

( ) 3tOL/da

I~M

eesil

Itis pIiroforiesl

Lf)L

Ita

lsitria/.

Greek nouns are tradltiona.lly grouped

three decIensions:

~!!:~_~~~!~!!!!!~!! lnclud.es mascullne oxytone or paroxytone nouns ending

e.g. L~

l1l '8tudent'

Iasl 'seargent';

Ier10/'area',

IkarfJ.1 'heart',

Inft1s/'sailor' and

femin1ne oxytone or parcxytone nouns ending

Ikira/'lad', 3&

-----------------

10 aoelf6s1 'brother', 6

10 SI 'man, 6

li o66sl 'street'.

1-181

l-a81

1-11 E.g.

Ik6rl1 'daughter' and a11 nouns - I-a/, e.g.

nEPLOX~

aL

IUfJ.lasa/ 'sea'.

5econd DecIenslon: mascuIine and ferninine nouns ending 1


6

I-os/. e.g.

/0 nosok~o:csl 'medic'. ~3pno


11 pfJ.rosl 'Paros'.

"-

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UJm' S

G REEK BASIC COURSE

/i 6i!kSs/ 'out1et' and a11 neuter nouns ending in - /-0/, e.g. -r6 x~y6 8vy6/

'egg', -r6 'i:

-r'cx-rt-r

1!/ 'sh1p',

/t,o

/tattoknito/

'ear'.

~!~_~~!~~~!~~ compr1ses (mascu1ine, re~n1ne and nuter) that have var10us

er.diIIfS.

Th1s c1ass

nouns ....111 be discussed in 1ater un1ts.

F1rst
ueclenaioa
Second
--

--08

Declens10n

Third

(1ater)

Dec1ens10n

Note 5.6. Noun: PlUral forms.

---------

/-es/ 1 the noa1native plural, e.l.


cu-r

'1ad1es',

/nAftes/ 'saHors',
6

'

/lox!.es/ 'sergeant8'

uC

/k1rfes/

/k6res/ 'daughters'.
-. /1/, e.g.

fo

/.ta/ 'stat10ns',

/nosok6J1/ 'ed1c.'-V.cm.

.Iop1/'e',

60

// 'streets' ,

.t60.

and neuter noun. of thi8 declen.10n end 1 -

/a"..,4/

CCI

'eggs',

Koc

/61Ikso1/ 'outle~.'

/ -, e ..
/pl1.a/ 'sh1ps,

CV<fOKt

/ aftokfn1 ta/

'cars 1
~!::~~_2:Z

Noun:

AccU.8t1e

case.

to1lcN8a

*l Katharevusa th1s endinr 1 -.

/e/.

Some masculine nouns usua11y denotinr sch01ar1v

ccat10n have mainta1ned this plura1 ending, e.g.

&

11

. .-r-rcxt

. cx&-rcx C

kae1yiW/ 'professors'

/1 rit1~~/ 'students 1
/1 mae1t~/ 'puplls', etc.

51
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G REEK BASIC COURSE

j.asc;lir

~!~!!!
.

~!~!!

aelf6s

.6

kiniat6yra!os t

6( )

.6

ton
(v)

aJelf6

01.

aelf!

. 6yao .

k1nimat6yraf1

v '

tus

ao_elNs

tus

k1n1matoyr4!u~

ta

tr~n&.

to(n)g1n1r.atyra!o .; . '!: v

Fem1n1ne

-------(same as mascu11ne)

Neuter

~:.

Plural

~!E~!!!

to

tr4no

to

kser,oboX

ta

ksenoboXIi

to

trlno

TcX

ta

tntna

ta

kseno<:oxfa

to

ksenoOoXo

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G REEK BASIC COURSE

It should be noted that 3eccr.d Deoler.s:ion


(no~~s

stressed

syllable from the

erd r

have their stress

L~6

Sir.

?l.

~G L~&v

! S

in declensions is d:iscusscd

Adject1ve:
Note

).1

ElvaL

and femin:ine

r.rcrcrcxvtcne nours

shifte~

to the second

the aoousative rlural, e.g.

k1nimat6-,rafos

detail

1 ~ote 7.2.

ccusat1ve

was stated that Greek adjectives agree with nouns wh:ich they mod1fy

(e.g.

r)

t!om.

'l'he sh1ft
~~~!-~~~

the th1rd syllable from the

":asouljre

IkaH ireral and with those which they refer to (e.g. &.o~

11 ip41lli

Jl!

!ne kaB/) 1 gender, nb and oa5E.

The commonest type ! adject1ve 1s the wh1ch has the ending - /-osl for the
-

nascu11ne,

1-11 for the fenin1ne and

or the wh1ch ends 1


Ika16s/, ~

Ika.H/,

I-os/,

6 Ika161

I-a/,

for the neuter (with ccnsonant stems),

- - (w1th vowel stems), e.g.

or ~o lor~os/,

lora/,

~o

lr/.

'rhe m&scu11ne arn neuter torms


declens10n
The
-

nascul1ne
[~

1-11 or

nouns

fors

! adject1vs !

th1s type are decllned 11ke secor.d

-osl and secol".d declens10r. neuter nouns 1

the same case endings as f1rst declens10n felllfn1ne nouns

1-01.
1

loofl/.
~!~~;!~~

Mc6; cG~;

;'.

~6

cc6 cv~

cco

ka168 n'tt1s

to(n) ga16 n4ft1

Plural
.

~ovI;

c~;

ccv ci~

kal!

n4rtes

tus

kalds n4ftes

2!~~~!~!:

cc

'.co.

cc

cc' C (c
, ,
cc

~C

ti (n)

kal!

ke

or~a

tav~rna

ga-l

ke o%'1!a

tav~rna

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G REEK BASIC COURSE

Plural

Nom.

.-

ka!s

ke

Acc.

tis

kall!s

ke ordes

or~es tav~rnes
tav~rnes

~!!?~~!~!:
Nom.

.6

akriv~

ksenoooxIo

Acc.

.6

to

akriv

ksenoooxIo

Plural
Nom.

&

.&

ta

akriv!

ksenoooXa

Acc.

&

.&

ta

akriv!

ksenoooxIa

~2~~_2:2

Class 11 verbs.

me sinxorte

Excuse me.

parakal6

Please (' beg [you]')

oi oi <1.~.;

! pul!ne isit:tria7

\'here do they sell tickets'l

6 &

enolte ipililo. pu

noG

. & d:n' / 6;

:lne brostA apti( m) b6rta'l

6 .&. 6 .

afts

i ..

sas efxarist6

These are the examples

protimAi to tr~no.

. 'Y'ou mean the employee who's in


front ! the door7
He prefers the train.
thank you.

the Class 11 verbs.

These verbs will be discussed

detail

later units.

At this point

student

should 1cnw only that these verbs (1.e. the first person singular) end 1 a stressed
/-6/ and that their third person s1ngular and second person plural are as

~:!~ __ 2!~~~_~!~:

~!:!!_E!~!!._;?!!?S!.

~_E!~!!~2!!.

s1nxor6

'

excuse'

s1nxon

s1nxorlie

paraka16

'

beg'

parakal

parakal!te/parakal'te

efxarist6

'to thank'

efxaristf

efxaristfte/efxar1st4te

protim6

'to prefer'

protim4i

prot1m4te

pul6

'

pu141

pu14te

eno6

'to mean'

enoi

enofte

seU'

follws:

".

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rr

GREEK BASIC COURSE

Grammatical Drills

G.D.S.S-7
er1v4is ine6.

ep1vAtes ine06.

sta3n4rx1s

staeArxes n06.

1nec6.,

l~po ~141.

ra .

rta !

1m!ra

l~~o

tus sta)marxes.
staBn6.

i rtes !n r.ik~s.
aCt~s i

oeksi4.

ln(e)

t~s eiv4es.

1 amak&ostixje& fne sto(n)

i amaksost1x!a 1nek!.

vllpo

o~.

p1iroCorfe&4

~ kal~s.

aftls i tavlrnes, ln(e) akr1ns.

aCtl 1 tavlrna,

01!

p1ydnume stl( )

dav~rna.

i i~res ln(e) orees.

ka1!.

aft!

stis prezvfE&.

amak&ostiXe&,r.vyun

lpur.e

tin

amaksost.iXa.

010

vllpume

18

b6rta.

afts ~li kal pl1rofoie

'lllpume

6ra.

piylnun st1s

kmo8

1nek!.

&ta&

ta~rnes.

1 staem! !ne mikr!.

!ne ka16&.
!

att! 1

lpA1i10s

k1n1mat6yrato& arxJz1 &t1z

&ek&ii.

11111

51n

~o.

a,tr1

sto(n) &taem6.

!ne kond4 &ti(m) b6rta.

i staGnd

.,1lIo to(n)

g6zno._

vllpume tus staeNds.

to(n)

vllpume

aCt&

&taen6.

I!XUI!II!

1p411l0.

aft!

!ne &to( ) ginj 1I'.at.6)'rafo.

vl~pume

ton ax90r6ro.

aft

ksenoOoxl0

aft

leofor!o

'

BIl

makri!.

:ney4li

510 1raH1us.
! m

py~llll!

! l! ka.

ka11.

i k1n1mat~)Ta!1 arx!zun &t1s okt6.

a30Cr08

v1~pume

ae 010 6res.

tus axBof6rus.

&tus k1n1:natO)T4tus.

ta ksenc1ioxJa !n(e) akr1v'.

aftl .

leoforla

ka1A.

5'5

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

proksen!o

aft

! oeksi~.

to estiatorio !n(e) akriv6.

~ft

piy~nu~e
vl~puMe

.. bomAtJa

aft~

makrJa.

pi~nun

sta

! mey~la.

~xun ..

pi~nuMe

e~lun

sto ftin6 kafenlo.

tr~na.

leoforia.

vl~~j ..

prokseno.

~xwe meytlo estiatrio.

isit1ria.

..

or~a Oo~tia.

~nas

epiv4tis, ineo6.

vl~po ~nan epiv~ti.

~nas

ipililos, lne sti(m) b6rta.

~XUMe ~na(n)

~nas

axeof6ros, lne sto(n) staem6.

piy~ni

:d..

e~lune

mla prezvta, lne pol! makri4.


pol

mla pliroforla.

[~

poli akrivo.

pi~nume B~M

estiat6rio,

~na

ksenoooxfo, !ne kondi sto(n) staOm6.

~na

leofor!o,

p~

~xun

lxun

stin ae!na.

ta~rna.

se mia fticl

mikrt.

~na

ga16 ip!lilo.

ston axeof6ro.

piy~nume

tav4rna, lne Mey41i.

nda p6rta, lne

ftin~.

~xume .. me~la ksen!a.

ksenoooxfo.

sto leoforio.
to

ta estiatoria

aft~

kafenlo ine ftin6.

vl~pume [

.. proksenla

se mJa

i~ra.

meyAlo estiat6rio.

~na nikrc!
~na kalc!

ksen(){;oxio.

leoforio.

Substitution Drills

-------------------

Substitute the words listed


!

the

fllwing

the right

each s:n!;ence for the underlined word

sentences using the aprroprJate definite article.

~_!;!!~~! Jneld.

prezvia, oom4tio, staem6s, kafenio, par4airo.

kc!zmos

41,

ineo6.

~~_~!~~~~~2
.

tne katefelan brost4. Estiat6rio,

tr~no,

p6rta, epi-r.ftis, kinimat6yrafos

G.D.3.'

Substitute the nouns listed


!

leofor!o, tavlrna.

the ri[ht

the following sentences and chanr,e the

each sentence for t he underlined word

endis!s !

the adjectives as necessary

agree with

the nouns.

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G REEK BASIC COURSE

ne

1__nliroforla_
..

kalf.

~_!~!~~~~! !n(e) or~os.

kseno6oXo,

l~ra
-------

ksenoooXo,

kal.

fne

~_!!!!!~!

1 prezvfa,

m1kr6s.

!_I?~~~! fne _"'11.

!f~!_!_~!!~!:!!!, In(e) akri-n.

tr~no,

!!~~!_~_!!!!~!! !n(e) or~os.

O.D

staem6s, i tavirna,

katenfo,

l~ra,

aXof6ros.

estiat6rl0,

tav~rna,

staem6s, 1

staem6s,

l~ra.

6omftl0.

leoforfo, i tavlrna.

estlat6rio,

klnlmat6yrafos.

klnl~t6yratos, 0m4t10.

ka!enIo,

estiat6rl0,

S.1

Substltute the plural fonns

the nouns l1sted

the rlght

the appropriate deflnlte artlcles for the underllned words


~_!!~!~~!!

fne katefefan brost4.

the

st.a86s, ksenooxfo,tavt!rna.

!_~!!~!!!!

afrs,

eksi.

each aentence wlth

follving

sentences.

prezvfa, 1pll11os, ka!enfo.

!_!E!!!~! 1nekf.

fne

ll!oloro.

prezvIa,

IV 0.D.5.8
Do the same substitutlon and change the torms

or

adjectives to agree wlth the nouna

:. t~ted.

L~~!!

!ne m1krls.

prokseno,

!_!!!!!!

!ne orles.

staa6s,

tav~rna, klninat6yrafos.

leo!orfo, Oom4tl0.

~_!!!H!:!! !n(e) akr1v'.


!_!~!!! !ne

~o,

prezv'a,

ka1f.

p6rta,

L!~!~ !ne m1 .

pl,.nete p4nda sto(n)

~o,

pl~M

sta6A6s.

leoto, mft10.

glnilll8tyra!2

eIlete

!ne akrlv4 ta lsitlrla sto(n) glnll118t6yrafo'l


p6te

estlat6rio.

pot!rl kr:fo ner6'l

~x1 100

estlat6rio ya

p'd pl~nun aft! ta tr.!na'l

sto(n) glnimat6yra!o'l

pd pul!ne . 1s1t!ria ya to(n) g1nimat6rafo'l

t! p:fnete yapr&;eVJlla, kafA ts4y'l

p~

6,

piy~nete

k4ae

~ra

Ine ka16

tc

pfnete

pl~nete
! ~B!
p~

gaf~,

sto

kafenf~

protlmAte sto

pul!ne

ts4i sas'l

ya to(n)

gaf~

sas?

isitlria ya to

tr~no?

p6s pi)'t1nun'l

makrl! !n(e) 1 aB!na aptl(m) b4tra'l

In(e) 1 p4tra?

p~ !

tr~no'l

ryeYBa'l

sto

estatri'l

es'.iatri?

ksenooox!o sas'l

6 py~! afts a80frs

me tis valftses sas'l

57
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GREEK BASIC COURSE

RIVIEW

------

(tm1ts

1 -

s)

Il!:!!!_~~~~_~~~

!!~2!~~~!~

!!~!~!:!~
Lettl'8

-------

Sounds

/a/

!~!!:!:!!!

~!!!!!

/'JA/

'...11'

/8/

/eartV

/8/

/k4/

'and'

/1/

/&!

'ch1ld '

/1/

/1rlni/

'peace'

/1/

/ikr'rdA/

'I~'

/1/

/k6r1/

'daughter'

/1/

/{pnO/

'sleep'

/1/

/UpO/

'8leeple88,

/168/

'son'

.,

/1/
/1/

"

/proiI

'norn1ng'

, , ,

// arter C08.

8Dd

/b.r&/

'beart '

bol'8

'Ywe1a.

/~

'vork'

/W68/

'vh0 1

'let 's dr1nk

./&

/toly8J

'nelrt.'

-&

/al.eya/

'truth'

/re/

'he drank

/6rra/

' h1

/6pro/

't1cb (n)

!S

/6pr1/

'thoee'

/ner6/

'atr'

or

stressed

SClllet1e

al80

betore unstressed

' 'hol1day'

P11S-/

/0/

/0/

/a~pV

'Il~I

/u/

/uranIa/

'Bq'

58

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

Rev1ev , - 5

!!"!!f&!~
LetteZ'8

------

~~

Q!!!~

"

--

(betON

I.,O,u/

conaant8 )

axI

!E!!!!~~S!

!!!!!~

r1

'l'81'

/krel.t1I

'bed'

y~",:

I-r:.ta/

'cat'

y6n

y/pa/

'C1pNtte

butt.'

...

yououvt.

ymln1/

'1'

"(~o

' ImCIII'

yuaCMa
!

I'T1n&b./
/'I4rf:AI

'ald'

/w81Ia

'd.1tt'

!yxuc

Iaq1za!

'8DCbor'

/i.l,./

'anpl'

rx/

!.

~M

'opent.1c'

6/

&bo/

'

;~

./

'Ut.'

&

A&~c

.e.r.;

/kI

/Dl.,

'A.th818

' ....

6.

/k.tr-I

'Nd'

",6 K(iPLO

~ (betore 1,./)

--v----

--

(-)

+"

/ !!:

-n

/bI

-n-

/bI

'tb8

(ace. )

.i".

/lW1/

,~

l.

I.1,.

'tber'

",!c

I81tAra/

'tber'

c,./

'ptsMtet,

JInCc

/bira/

'beer'

nf.

~1/

or

'Y1e7&Z'd'

I..Wl1/

11.,...

tei"oI

rc/

rJ.no/ or

'VCIII8D '

a6

r&6a

'teIle

!.a

IeniaI

'ean1ng'

'

59

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

~!!~~!:~~
~2~~

~H'!!.'!

Cl!.'!!!

!!.'!!!!!:!1~!2!!

~B!!!~

/d/

/du1&p./

'ardrobe'

/nd/

/I.rdru/

'an

/ks/

!kseroa/

'stranger'

(-)

/r;/ 2!:

gzero/

--

/'/

--

(-)

/b/

/patIJru/

'tather'

/papas/

'priest'

betro/ 2!:

'Feter' (acc. J

Itobtro/

/r/

--

/8/

/rUtu/

'tailor'

6..

/ap6riP81~/

'reject.ior'

..f

./s1r'/

--

/./ (betore vo1ced CO!l8.) 6

h1Jn'

/rb/

' knw

rgzro/

/ngz/

2!:

'ro'

/&la-

'a8a'

/k6uoa/

'yorld'

/na 1;

'111 order

see

tJer '

/8/

.6

lter6/

',..ather'

//

/tJ..ioa/

'hneat'

/at1Jd/

'Att1Ja'

/ at.1 dnfJ'S&l 2!:

'1 ~M

--

(-)+

/d/ ~

/st1ndr'fJZa/

/nd/

(-)

/ts/

Its1""ro/

/dz/ 2!:

/sti dzep1!

/dZ/

//

(arter

' c1;arette '

2r

'111 the pocket.'

/st111dzep1/

/ndz/

-nIt'

vo1celess cons.)

/dziezikas/

'c1cada '

/att6s/

''

betore
/ert1/

'bappy'

60

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G REEK BASIC COURSE

~!!!!f!:!~

2!!!~

~~

Let.tel'8

-------

ll (atte1'

betore

ywe18

~!~!:!f!:!~

!!s!!!!!

laYY6/

'-'

(~-r

lrit.oal

'..11_ '

01' 1ced COII8.)

IrUoal

'tr1eDd'

6\10

I~I

')'8&1'1

.\l

lzi.ahal

'1Jrt8I"

Ir-I

x~

/r-I

'8aul'

/bs/fl!

-r6\1

(-\1)+

bs4tt1/

1tb8 1181"

(acc. )

1. .1

/bsett1/

6,

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G REEK

BASC

COURSE

Review Drills
Fi11 in each blank with the proper form
ou,

use the appropriate form

the word given

the right.

it is a

the artic1e (wbere necessary).

~2~!

- ---------- ine katefeian brosta.

eXUJ1le

i patra

prezvia

staem6s

stin e103oa.

proksenio

makria apoOO.

eka

x:i1ymetro

afto to ksenoooxio exi triandaoio

oomat.io
. ,
lJIIera

simera ~ ine orea ---------.

ena

ee1une
a!t

ka16

estiat6rio

ex

to treno

1eoforio fevyi

xu

ka1es
6

ra

---------

ka103

stin e180a.

1eo!orio

oen ine kalos simera.


emis pinume ton gafe

ka.fes

xris

atts

exo

okt

stis

kulUri

_________e

orax!

arxizi

k1n1Jat"(!'atos

___________

- ---------
sti(lII) b8tra, ine

apoO

i ipalil1 pu18ne
afts :

ee1ete

x:i

ipililos

8lrx.

iPlili.

tu xi

prta

ka1a

vUt.iro

!riyanys

manel'oa

lne po1:l krio.

atto
8tO stamQ

lne

vlepete
aftos

isitirio

sto ksenoOono tu oeka

to omatio

taksioi

lne

i e180a

IIIeyU.O.

ner6

tu.

aposken

staemarxis

axeo!oros exi ept8

artQ to 1eoforio

Mka

valtsa

epivatis

----------

62

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Rev1ev , - 5

GREEK BASIC COURSE

a!t8 _ _

!ne pol!

meyi.la.

att! protisAi

paraBiro

treno

p1yn st1(m) btra nattHn)

amaksost1na

&n xete

- ------ ine

pol!

makru

apo.

exete &io
8att.

to

kalS
e&t1atrio

to 1s1t.ir1o

&8

pol

to kr88! :lne

!ne

AIV&

tavernes 1neJd.

ttins

att! 1 prezvla !ne pol!


ac!lue &!
att.&

OOit1a.

vlipi to

________ 1

krO&

leotorio.

S1

:ne

pya-'nes.

_________ 11p8llu !ne

llto~) &n.

oa

--Verb

&1nxor

pol!.

888

_&

&8

ef'xar1&t6

&iqo.
1..1111.

8&1&

atte8

&n

.r. 88

y8la.

t
88i&

. .

t!

----- t
stiz

k1n1matyratos

180trla ~

t.a

&bera

ed&

ta

l'ts

"'la,ke kuldrya.

88

8S:1&

i
ta

---------t!

&.

arx!zo

;ya t1n ae!na.

te'9'yO

rna.

vl&po
prot.in

parakal

iplili

trena st1n eu&a

eno6

1sitiria.

pu

pol! yri"(Wa.

piyeno
6)

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G REEK BASIC COURSE

( ;

t! kanete2

!"

are you?

kr10S

(the) gentleman

k:r1e

sirJ (voc.)

L.

si ynmi kirie.

acuse me, sir.

Lvv.

1ca18 xr1stuyena.

l';erry Chris tr.as

s1ynmi

(the) pardon, apology

Lv, -, -

ett1x1zmeDOs,-i,-o

hapPy

LvL, -, -

kenr~'os, -a,-o

new

xrnos

(the) year

L LL
.

e1"t1x1znenos kenkyos

Happy New Year.

'

xrcnos.

na sas

1 abert/aelf

may 1ntrcduce you./I 'd


like you to IIIeet
(the) si8ter

66

aerts/aelts

('the) brother

DIU


6 .

na

&.

mu, ke ton

aerr

mu.

epi trpB

\.

na atto-

meet

s1ster

and brother.

allo
Al.lw

me

1ntroduce

yse]J'.

sisti.

1
( .

k1ra

ara

xero

(the) lady

poll,

k1ra

L
.

Lv(
, L(

i t1Jn:!

very glad to meet you,

(the) honor, pr1ce

meyal1mu1 timi.

1m

madam.

mu.

I'd l1ke you

ep1 tr&pste mu

( ,

s1st!so t1n

aerr

~L
L

s1sts

oesp1IUs

xar1ka ara poli,

The honor 1s m1ne.


(the) young lady
Very rlad to have Dlet you,

64

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G REEK BASIC COURSE

eSin

(my) }/I.1ssJ

efxaristis nu.

-,

It's been ay pleasure.


del1ghted

katayoyteVlllenOS,
-i,

.a

i "I1'10r1Ja.

uv ~

(the) aequa1ntance

katayoyt.eMnos apt1n

1'11

ncrimia .

. ,.

6 MU. ~.

o~ . .

mu.

yL

..

~. 6 .

lv .. .& '.

del1ghted to have

your aeqa1ntance.

3,

~36 .i Iv.

6 36 . . .

3ut o~ V4o . ...

. 3 . .
& . ,

Eva

..

. .6, . o~ 6.
..,

1 .. l. lCC, oOlft ~.

lxouv

U 6uo ' yc.

. oo~.1I,

Uv. ..

~ . o~ .
o~ .

'

o~o M:t 46 ~

~. , ~.

6 . ' ~

. ~.

4 ~vc v.

-. o~ ., .., ~

i.

6 .

.' .

.. ~. 6 ~. ~ oOlf"' .
..

-. . o~ 36.

36 .

34 .'

xat 6 .

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

Un1t 6

p1n6

be hungry

bor6

be able

na i40

..

t:in6.

pd

br

na i40?

1'11

eat

hungry.

Where can

eat?

",

1 kuzfna

(the) cu1s1ne, k1tchen

p4e

let's go

-"" "" ~x. 6


i :.

",.

tav~rna ~xi

aft! i

kal1 kuz!na.

p4J()

This tavern has a very good


cu1s1ne.

Let' s go there.

e1d.

",,6

",,6

06

ed

rxpa6v,

",,6

06 xa.

gars6n

eoo

g&rs6n.

(the) va1ter
(the) enl1
para-

Wa1ter!

pleasel

kal.

k84!ro

knw

~'t'./

6t1/p6s

f"skos, irfsk;ya,

fresh

a.

't'6

frfsko

't'6 """
6't'.o,

't'6

(conj.)

-,

psu1

(the) fish

kot6pulo

( ) ch1cken

n6st111108, -1,

kreas

tasty, pretty
(the)

neat

bords

ve can

& .

na

that

0""1.

~xo"

dr1nk

k8~ro 1 e6 ~xun i~ska knw that they have iresh i1sh,

66

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

~, ~6u

pS~~fa,

6 f.

ke

~ ~o;

ka1a kot6pu1a,

01 nstim

borWre

a1A t!

kreas.

na

good

chickn(s)

mat

here.

and

vry

tasty

But what sha11

('can') we drink?

pyUm?

~6 {C

to

i b!ra

(the) beer

i retsfna

a kind

~~ ' 6

I10

a Greek a1coh01ic

stin e1Aoa 610s

kmos

~ {C, l

pjni

~o

borUme na pydme bira,

" ~.

a1a em1s

resinated wine

drinks 'uzo' in Greece,

~ve~ybody

but we can drink beer or


'rtsina'

rtsfna.

.c~

na

that

pite

that you say

l3v~6c;, -~,

-6

ttIat is to say

eanik6s,

~6 o~6

tc pot6

~6 l3v~6 ~ouc; o~6

to

~ 3~ ~ ~~

-,

~ouc; o~6;

eJnik

to

~ZO

tus

~i1aoj 9~1ete
ti

-6

say

nationa1
(the) beverare, dr1nk

k6

~6 { l~ ~6 l3v~6

p!te.

jne to

tus pot6?

the1r nationa1 dr1nk


othr

words ycu're trying to

sav that 'U1.0' is their


nationa1 drink?

~6 ~

to arMki

(the) 1amb

~6 t/~6

to fa!/fayit6

(the) food

~ ~/y~

ta favVfayi

1.

~ l~ ~6 ~
~6 3~6 ~ouc;

cpcxt;

bevenge

ke mjpos !ne to anW:k1,


to eanik6 tus fa1?

And isn't the

1~mb

national food?

t/f~

~os/vIvea

crtain~y, !

~6 u~

to suv1'ki

(th)

~ u~

ta

1.

musak~s

(thE) lT!usaka

6)'1oS

as

suv1~kya

their

course

shishkebab

67

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

/...

ke ta lir<1.

v~vlos,

ep:isis

, a

suvlakya,

ke ta lira.

as well as
etc.

epJsis ta
musakas,

course, as well as shjshkebab,

musaka, etc.

oldm8zo

to taste

-&

ea

'U

amso&

, -, -

perffjmos, -i,

8/8

i 6reksi(s)

6 -&

00ld1ue

try,

'u

t.ute

right avq
-

famous
(the) appeti te

tte 501dJ&&UID _&06

v;ell then we '11 taste tbe1r

ta per!fima fayit!

tood r1ght

S.

tus.

meal (Igood appetlte')l


6 , .

to(n)

kal! 6reksi.
loyaryazm6s
10ya~razm6

q.

uoua

!Dj07';Y0U1'

(the) check, bill


para-

Check, please.

ka.

'.

a)l!~sos.

lti ght away!

Useful words
6

to py4to

(the) plate

max~ri

(the ) knife

to kutali

(the) spoon

6 .

to

pirU

(the) fork

ala.ti

(the) salt

pi~ri

(the) pepper

i petsta

(the) napk1n

(the)

6 6

to payot6

(the) ice

i p.4sta

(the) pastry

ci

payos

(the) ice

to krasf

(the) wine

ylik6

Bv&

creu

68

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G REEK BASIC COURSE

L;6

i brjz61a

(the) steak

~~

i naMtes

(the ) pot.atoes

ta 1axanik!

(the) veretab1es

i sdpa

(the) soup

i saMta

(the) salad

~6 u~tv~

to an.o1dn1 to

(the) car

VLd

aOUna

~:!~~!!_~!:!!!
'

fx1 att! i

a~1ete

tav~rna?

att! i t. avfrna

na pAte ek1?

!1

kal! kuzJna.

vevdos.

! l~te garsn?

~xun tr'ska psirya,

fxun satt1 ti(n) davlrna?

kaU kot6pula, ke

1! nstim k~as.

bon1me na

pyUne'l

bo~

na pydme dzo,

kmos

m!pos
ke

uzo !ne

eenik6 tus

ksirete,

. e6?

enik

:lne

tus ta:l?

p!ni 610s

stin e145a, bfra, ! rets!na.

fne.
arn4ki.l ta suv14kva, ta

pB4r:a,

musak4s,

ke . 1ip4.
G~lete

na

.okisete

art.A ta rayit4'l

Narratie

6 ~6 .l.

E1VaL

6, -~,

6. !!~~ arn4ki

-6

~~ .~ U6pxouv ~~~~~
".

!ne n6stimo.

roasted,

aked

psit6s, -1, 6
stin

_!

ipuxun

E~M

ksenoc)ox!a.

~u ~!!!.

6fn ixo kae61u lertA.

money

~e!~!~ .

e~~e! na fao a~scs.

IT.ust, have to
.vou can drink

~!~~ ~ ~ ~
Lu ~ uL.

Mo~

!2

L~

~~~~ pime sti

daverna,

when

50kimasume ta suvl!kya.

bor1 te

na W te

it (as an obj.)

69

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G REEK BASIC COURSE

o,n/o

whatever

~~_~~!~

that you

6 .

to treno.

ITI

~~_~a~ ;

~elete

na fate

musak~7

6 ~x ~2~~~E~~.

afts

exi oeka

~ol~ria.

to

6 ocX.o
6 6 !x~.!: -

that vou eat

-------

dcl1ar

bol~rio

aftQ to i'ai ~& 010

ccsts

oolaria.

f ~xo ,' ~f. ., 6,


6, 6, , , . ...

~xo 6 .
.

. 6 6 f ~x. .

t 6 ~.K6 6 6 . '~

.6. .

~ .

6.
~ .

~x. ~ ..

6 . 6

OK.u ~ . 6.

~ ~ " .

!xun

tav!rnes

ixun 6ti

stln e146a?

!lete.

friska ps4rya, arnaki

briz61es, kot6pula,
.

laxan1k4, ke
~xun ~ZO aft~s

m41ista,

ta~rnes?

~xun

Bda.

6,

sa14ta, friska

111'4.

pol:f kalQ

~zo,

ke pol:f kal!

rets!na.
~

py6s

akrlv6 krasl i
k.s

p~ bor~te

6xi, lne pol:f

rets~na7

protim41 tl(n)

art!

rets!na~

pu ~

soles tis

na pylte uzo?

[1.

iX\ln po14 leftd.

tav~rnes,

ke

estlat6ria st1n

elAca.
t:! preri na k4nete otan jste stin

pr~ri

aina?

na pAte na fate sti(n) davirna.

konda sti(m)
?6s lne

fa1

ek~7

pol:f

ru

~ne

breva.

ke nOstimo.

70

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

p6so 4xi

! . 41te
.

~na 1.

musakAs ekl?

na

kAnete Jt.1no\sete

ta

ea

e~lete

na p1y.nete ekf, 611

1 ra.

ke ft,in4 fay1t4 ke krasyA sa.rtl

t1(n}

daIrna?

Grammat1ca1 Notes
Hote 6.1 Verb: ruture

Class

verbs.

~&u -r~

. k1sume

fCly-r~ -rou~.

&-r y~

ta

perf1ma

We'l1 taste the1r

fay1t' tua.

nfJyatve-re

aouB

food.

ea e.1ete na

p1~nete

c1' cxU-rv / -rv, !

sa.rt:r t1( ) dawrna,

/ .

611

you

111

be v1sh1ng

go

1e.

tavern al1 the

1 ra.

The aboYe sentences 111ustrate the use

the future tense.

L1ke a11 Greek tenses

(v1th except10n ! t,he present teM vh1ch 1s alvays 1mperfect1e) the future can be
e1tber

1pertect1ve

The

1perfect1ve tuture 111

tbe pertectlve u

or pertect1ve.

'S1Ile

be referred

th1s t:ourse a8 'Future Cont1nuoU8'

an1

Future .

Note 6.1.1 Future Cont,1nuoua


~----

f-r y~ nfJyc:tve-re

. ! / l:Jc:.

4!lte

na

p1~nete

ek!, you'll be

11 1 ra.

al1

v18b1n

go there

t1ne.

Th1s tense 1pl1es a ccmt1nuous act10n 1 the future ('1'11 be d01ng 8o-and-80) and
1s a cb1nat1on ! tbe vord

/ea/ ( 0&' /-/ before /a-/) v1th the verb fors 1 the

pre88Dt tense, 8.g.

8ct

t Kc: & c:.

. !no

~ra.

kras!

1'11 be dr1nk1ng v1ne every


day.

84

cr~ & .

smal1 nwnber

e.g. ~ ~x

sas v1.po

~ ~ra.

1'11 be see1ng you every day.

verbs vh1ch do not have a perfective stem, have on1y one future tense,

/ea ~xo/, .

!~~!_~:.!.:.~ S1I1e

/ea e/.

Future

~ .6 -r~
-r~ -ru.

ea

C>okirnAsue
fayitl

ta

perfjma

.....e '11 taste the1r famous foOO.

tus.

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This tense refers a sing1e action in the future (11'11 do so-and-so l ~~ '11m going

do so-and-so'), and is formed in the same way as the future continuous, but the verb form

following the word -& la/, is based the perfective stem.


lea ookiasol the perfective stem is
the perfective stem i8
Forms such as

d:px

OK.a-

160kires-l, in

d:

&6

l. arxfsol

larx1.s-l, etc.
160kim4so1 or

OK.a

thense1ves but only in combination with


lif', ad o~

Thus in &6 OK.a

16tan/ 'when',

These forms wi11 be referred

larxsol are used by

-& la/, lna/ (Note 6.3), liv

IUJ/ or

leirl

/pr1:nj lbefore l etc. ( later un1ts).


in this Course as

~~!~~~~!~_~~!~_!~~~I.

Personal endings of the Simple Future of this Verb cla8s are

same as those of the

rresent tense with only a slight difference in the spel11ng.


Present Tense
OK.a

OK.a

ki n4z

&6

OK.a.

kin4is

&6 ~a

OK.a.

ookin4zi

&6

OK.a

.a'U

kiwe

-&&

.a''U CIoki_sune

OK.a~

ookimazete

~ OK.aO'~ ea CIokin4sete

.a'Uv()

()ok1Mzun{e)

-&&

Note 6.2 Class

Verbs:

. ClokiMso
. Clok1n4sis

Clokin4s1

.a''Uv

ea ook1_sun{e)

Perfective Stem Forms.

The perfective stem i8 formed from the iv.perfective stelll with varioU8 degrees

pJ"8dictability.
The most predictable verbs
in
'

/.

this class are those the

With a very tew exceptions the

i:pertect1ve

stem

wh1ch ends

of i:pertective lll is changed

/s/ in the pertective, e.g.


Pertect1ve Stelll
--------------OK.a

()oki~z-

OK.a

ooki_s-

arnz-

d:pxta-

arXs-

Other predictable perfective stems w111 be discussed in later units.


~~~~_~:.~ Class Verbs: Per80na1 endins of verbs wi th stems in

Persona1 endings of verbs wi th the stes which end in -- /

--

a/,

a/, -0-

/ 0/, --

el.

-- o/~!: -- l

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

are

follows:
P1ura1

~!!!i~~

E8ple:

1-01

-l

-'tE

-.

1-11

-{)

~!!I!!!!!:

!!!!!:~

tr60

~&

~W

tr6

~Wt

tr6te

~..

tr61

~W()

tr&e)

Verb8: Irreplar Perf8ctlve Ste.

11ted nuber Cla.


b1ch

1--1
I-tel
l-n(e)1

~&

!!!!_!~!! Claa.

Y8rb8

ban 80 tar

'08.

verb. have 'irreplar' perfectl'"

occrred 1

tb18 cour..

The 'SNplar'

a:

I!!!!:!!~H!!_~~-!

._.

!!~!!!!!!_~!!!

,,-

~-

tro-

1'0

'_t'
'8Q'

le-

,,-

t'YVf)

'lea".'

,(,-

tny-

I-

"v

pSno

'drlnk'

"tv-

"1.-

7-

'10'

""-

plyen-

"'-

pa-

'808'

vlep-

6-

tr60

AW

""Y8v

ti

>.h

..

,,1Jpo

'o11o1n a! cop1ete

present tense and pertectl"

fo....

t_-

. abYe 'SrreULar'

erb8 tl'8n8criptln:

-------

Perlect Ste.

Pre88n\

Fo

----------------!!!e!!!:

~~!!

tr60

trne

f40

tr6.

tr6te

r4s

r4te

tr61

t.r6r.( ~)

41

r4n(e)

1'0

1'.

pde

1'.

l~te

pfs

te

1'1

l'n(e)

pdn(e)

13

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

Present

?erfect Stem Form


Plural

~!~~~~!

Plural

[~yo

[~yune

[:lume

f~vyis

f~vyete

f1yis

fi'.vete

fE!vyi

f~v'J.n(e )

f:lyun(e)

p!no

pSnume

pyUe

?!n1s

p!nete

py:{s

py:{te

pfnun(e)

:{

py..m(e)

p~o

40

piyE!nume

~!: ple

40

p1y~1

ni~nete

~!: p4te

p4s

pite

r 1 Yni

;->i~nun(e) ~!

1"41

p4n(e)

pin(e)

vl~po

vl~pWIIB

06

\1re

vl~p1s

vl~p~te

v1

vHpun(e)

d()

Note 6.5 Notat1on.


Beginning wit.h ni 7 thet1oo basic forms (1.e. first person s1ngll1ar {or ! the
present tense and that ! the perfect1ve stem [or) ! al1 Class crbs occur1ng for
first t1me

the F'3s1c Jialogues or

the Narrat1ves

111

be giveo 10 the build-ups as

fo11ows:
:: (:)

arx!zo (arx!so)

to begin

()

piyno (40)

vl!!po

()

(06)

go

etc.
(The basic forms

Class 11 and Class

Note 6.6. Verbs: Subjunct1ve

the Class

3~ ~

verbs

1o111

be d1scussed

later un1ts).

verbs.

ia eelete na p!te...

other 1oords you are try1ng

to say
;

.C

l1 br

na

[lo1

all ! bore

~\'here

can

eat1

na py1me? and what can 1 dr1nk1

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The verb forms

/na pfte/ ~

/na. f40/,

/ra

pydme/ are subjunct1ve.


Subjunct1ve 1s most used refer t1me after that ! the preced1ng verb ( ~

/e~lete na. / 'you want [w] say [future w1th respect the vant1ng~

vh1ch 1s present]').
doubttul, etc.,

Subjunct1ve 1s used when the act10n is des1red, poss1ble, mandatory,

part1~ularly

after verbs such as 'vant', 'l1ke l

'8U8t', 'shou1d" 'poss1ble" '1mposs1b1e', etc.


trequently equ1va1ent
'

etc.

trans1at10n

'tell' and words l1ke 'can l

Used after another verb th1s

an Eng11sh verb phrase w1th

But the subjunct1ve has

''

a8 'he vants

end1ne which 1nd1cates the actor.


il1

subjunct1 ve clause, therefore,

[
'

18 80st

11ke

The l1tera1
'

be more accurately:

eat , 'that

dr1nk', ' you _ay', ' taste', etc.

The 8UDjunct1ve 10 Greek 18 fored exact1y l1ke tuture (Note 6.1.1) but

p1'8ced1ng the verb IOl 18

can,

cour8e, be e1ther

/ra/

' /n-/ before

'81p1e'

/a-/).

verb 1 tte 8ubjunct1ve

or'cont1nuoU8'.

Tbe cont1nu0U8 8ubjunct1e 1s /ra/ p1us pre_ent tense, .. &


or~v C

/8'10 na tr~ 611 1 tJra/ ' want a11 the 1e' ,

and t.he 81pl 8ubjunct1ve 18 6. /na/ p1us perfect1e ste.. t01"lll; .. & ci

/"10 aa t40/ ' eat.'.


Not.e 6.7 Verb: Ipersonal Verb .

-----

----

Oorcv EtcnE ~

.. A~

/1/'1' necesllary', '', 'should', 'oght'.

tJtan 18 8t.1n ,

. iorE cpiorE

at

se

orCltfpvcx.

The verb torIII .

person s1~u1ar only.


Other

na pite na

d.

1 At.hens 8

('goand') eat. 1 a tavem'.

tay,frna.

/pr~1/ 111 1ersonal' 111nce 1t can be ued 1 t.he

The verb that. tollws .

1Mersona1 erbs

When you

w111 be d1scussed

~2~_!:~: Cla8S Ve1"b


6c..o : (

/pr4.p1 / 18 alwayw 1n t.he ubjunct1ve.

later

unit.

/bor6/ ' be able'.


ktJzmos bor! ra p1y'n1

& .

The th1rd person s1ngular form !

ekf,

k4e.

People can go there eery day.

_ra.
/bor6/ 1s

can, 1s able', 11ke /enor/ /efxa:,istr/ etc.

/borr/ ' (she,1t.)

(see 5.9).

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Impersona1 use ! the vcrb form

Note 6.'3.'

'

/borf/ 'it's possi~1e', perhaps',

can, may, might'.

The third person singu1ar form

the verb

/bor6/ can be used impersonally,

e.g.
: ~.

bori na

40

stin a9tna.

Perhaps 1'11 go to Athens.

: ~.

bor! na

40

arniki.

1t's possib1e that 1'11 eat


1amb.

~~~~_~:2 Noun: The use ! the word


: -

kmos

/k6zltOs/ 'peop1e', 'wor1d'.


bori na

piy!n1

Peop1e can go

1t should be noted that the 'ford


the verb it

gverns 1 !!~!~!:.

The express10ns
!~~_~:~2

/k6zmos/ a1vays used co11ect1ve1yj

Expressions

1.

/10 k6zltOs/

means 'everybody'.

T1me

p6te

uO Tav -&

!~yi

tr!n?

to

wben does the train 1eave?

tan Jste stin ae1na,

When you are Athens, you

1.

prl!pi na p4te na f4te

nust ( go

d. tav~rna.

tavern.

/p6te/ 'vhen' is used in questions as

and') eat a

.. 1.

/p6te arxJz1 kinimat~afos?1 'wben does the mvi start?' and 1nd1rect questions:
1.
. .

uO Tav
uO Tav

g!r

arxl2ii

k1nimatyrafos.

don' t Mw vhen the 1


st.art..

/6tan/ is used to indicate a concurrent tie 'vhen', as

-& ~x

-&a

'.

~~~~_~:!.1. Adjective

1efti, .

st1n eUoa.
, ,

E~ 1.
~x .. a .

The adjective

tan . !

to Greece.
/poHs, -1, -1/ 'numerous', 'rnany','a 10t'.

!ne 18 to(n) g6zo, pu ~


~x1 p01l

\oIben 1('11) ltOY 1'11 go

1eft!.

1t's !or the peop1e vho don't


have a 10t ! oney.

/poHs/ 'numerous', 'many', 'a 10t' the !ol1owing

forms:

76

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ut.I1'1' 6

GREEK BASIC COURSE

11.

polfs

o~

Plural
a.

n.

l!s

EX!~!!!!

k6zllOs

o~ x6a.o

pol

l:z

6ra

a 10t,

o~

krasf

a 10t,

! 1..

t crrC&o t

pol sta8d

88n,1

st.at,1ona

..

poll. presvf8s

181\1

bu8B

6 ~ooxz

poU

88n,1

hote1s

prfp1 na

no

kar.

Jrje

8S! pl,'p1 na p!n18 yUa

ksenooda

"(6 "'1

"ra.

cae !I'.

na

t'vyete p&nda _

8d "'1

ed8

. "'1 na plnete
ats 1'11

poli

nrd.

na plnun(8) kaf'

8"(6 prfp1 na

.! s "'1

k4e 111'..

)' ner.

- "'1

na

18 kat~.

l. 1

na

t.e

t8i1.

na py11ne

kat~.

aft!

es!

na pyf tsi1.

81111s

na

att! prfp1 na rIvyun(e)

8s1 prfp1 na pyfs ..1'6.


aft,s prp1

P'nda _ t,o t"'no.

pl,'p1 na

atts "'1

plUl8kaf' k4e!ra.

t'Y7!s

r.vy1 P'nda _
r.V'yU88 pinda _

alt6s pl,'p1 na p!D1 t,d1 W8 _ra.

na

1;1_

na rfvyo P'nda _ t,o t,...no.

"'1 na

e81

people

"'1

p&na

trfno.

t,o t,...no.
t,o

rno.

_ to t,NRO.

na tlyo .80S.
1

. .80

na tiy1

~.o

na

aft8 "'1

..

eIs r1

na !ye .80S.

es!s

na tlyete . s o

aft!

ri

na f!yun{e)

~BOB.

77

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G REEK BASIC COURSE

piy~no

Ba

sti(m) brezvia

piy~nis

es! ea

sto proksen!o

py~!

aftds ea

K~ ~ra.

Ga

P~O

simera stin aqfna.

k~Ge ~ra.

es! ea

P~5

s!mera sti(m) b4tra.

estiatri ke

sto

~m!s

ea

piy~nume

sto kafenio

~:!s

ea

piy~nete

sto proksen!o

pi~nun(e)

aft:! ea

mera.

afts

ke ~ra.

p~]

s!mera sto prosken!o.

em:is ea pime s:!mera stin aIJtna.

ke ~ra.

sto proksen:!o

Ba

~s!s

ke ~ra.

ea p4te s!mera sto

prosk~n!o.

aft:! Ga p!n(e) s!mera sto(n) staem6.

Substitution-Corre1ation Dri11s
Change the form

the right

the under1ined verb (or verbs)

agree with the pronouns 1isted

each sentence:

p~p!

na

E!~~ kaf~ ~ra.

, ems, aft~s.

p~pI

na

ey6, es!s, aft!

Q~ka.

yA1a stiz

aft~s pr~pi na ~~~!~~~~ fai.

s!mera ea
p~pI

Ga

!~~

na

!!~

~10

ey6, es!s, aft6s.

eka.

stis

ey6, esfs,

ton aoerf6 sas.

~~!! na sas

!!!e!

61 tin ra.

aft~s,

aft!

s!mera.

o~ ~~~ na ~~~~

aft~s.

emis, aft6s, aft!

o~ ~~!!~ na ~~ stin aeina?

Ga sas

, aft.

aft6s,

ya tin aetna.

na

esi, aft6s, em:is.

dav~rna.

sti(n)

(1.).

ps4zwJa k4ee ~ra.

em!s, ey6.
aft~s.

aft6s,
(1.),

em!s, art6s.

, aft~s, 8,

o~ ~~~~ na !!~ p4nda efxarist.

E!~~

ey6, es1s, aft6s.

yala ke ~ra.

(1.).

aft6s,

aft~s,

aft6s, em!s.

8, B~.

m.

!?~~~ na ~ krul.

aft6s;

~10

aft6s, em:is, aft! (pl.)

na sas stis okt~.

~!!~ na

sas E~ br na

al"t6s, em!s,

S,S

esfs,

aft~s

~~ s1mera.

Substitute the words


change the aspect

the right

each sentence for the under1ined words and

the verb according1y.


s!mera.

78

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UNIT 6

G REEK BASIC COURSE

pr~pi na sas vl~ruroe ~!!_~!~_~~!.

stis okt6.

pr4!pl na txete !~~~ leftA.

sIrnera.

attis prepl na plnun(e) kat~ ~!!_~!~_~r!.

stls okt6.

atts

slmera.

pr4!pl na ooklmizl

~ at.

eds pr4!pl na lmast(e) eM, ~!!_~!!!_~!:~.

stls okt6.

na rt1vyo ya taks!al ~~!_~!:~~

sfmera.

pn)pl na

}e ~ !

p4a.

sfrnera.

na [.e !~!!_~~~!.

611

p~pl

k4t3e

na r!yo '1& taks!1 !!~2-

Ara.

att~s 1 na : a6err6 tu !!~!:!.

611

1 ra.

pn1pl na pyite to(n) gar" sas !!!!_~~~~~

611

1 ra.

p~pl na bok1bwe

p4nia.

ta yl1ki

!!~~.

p~pl na !s{e) ~ !!~!:!.

ki&e _ra.

Ats . 4\ a6ert~ tu ~!t _~r:.a~

st1s okt6.

9a tro ~2!_!!!!!:! p_4rya.

stlz

_d_ . t!xwe ~~.

poU lett4.

lka.

_I_ra.

_ ardsun na trne ~!!_!!!:!_!H!_~!~.:

_Imera, st1s epU.

_Iera

ea

4\11_

kj,)e

"'ra.

na

vs

att6(n)

to

1p41llo,

---------

_ ea p!n... kal"

~~_~~~.:

_t1z

_1'8.
------.

!_() ~ k&e

.1 {.

slmera.
arus . tine !H!_~~ ryeV8.
dB .

kiee "'ra.

sas .. ~!!_~~~.

k4ee

!ra.

_1'8.

'x1s letu !!~~!.

ki~e

_ eard81 na 1 !~!!_~~!~

k4e !ra ~ka.

. e4!lls na 518 lp11ilo !~!~_~!27

kige

fra.

'!! . pyme kar~ !!~!:~.

k4ee

!ra.

dB .

k4ge

!ra.

1mast(e)

e6

s1mera.

79

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tr ea k4nete slmera?

pi~netek!ee ~ra

piy~nete tav~rnes7

e~lete

~xun

tf fayi t!

tav~rnes

e061

ne

p6s lne ta krasy!


trte

ne

p4nda sa14ta

t! ylik4
6

sart~s

na

pu tr6te?

enik

t!

tav~rnes?

ek11

tr~na

stin

e14a1

!n(e) akriv! ta isitlria ya ti brati

to fal sas ?

9~B!

sto treno1
~x!

tus

pi~nete

p6s lne ta

trte?

Ine to

~~lete

tav~rnes

tis

na p4te stin aefna1

p6s ln(e) i p4tra?

t! pot41
lne akriv4 ta potl, stis

sti(m) b!tra?

i p4tra kal!

ksenooxfa1

t 1

kim4sete aft

to pot61

borlte na

plte t!

ra

Jne1

Usef'ul vords

---------

'ro

man

f'1t1ts

student

sa1lor

lox:aa

sergeant

IOsokos

aed1c

vordJ reason, lIOt1ve

1 k6ri

daugbter

natt1s

3&

1o&s

li

to a"t'V'

egg

/ &.

to ploo kar'V'i

ealaaa

8treet.

gira

anchor

80

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ut1

G REEK BASIC COURSE

Y!!!~_7

~!!!~-~!~!~~~

::

, &;

yiMka

(the) vif'e, VCI8I&

kal:i~ra, ~B !Be?

v:L ~ :

p6s !n(e) : y1n~ka

:;

su?

od orn1rag,

ki cy6 / ke 1

U_,
/

k~

OL

. '

cy6 I18s/ke 1 a.o

our

both

! U8

1;!

i dUra

{ the) .cther

t,1s y1~kas

II!U

.I,1118

'4

t:is

~o,

4ro8tos, -1,

600

-,

y1~kaz JI11.I

kt 6 _s ! ma_te ka1i.

~ : '( yVL

ytnlka8

EtVO:L ~'f.

.:6

.dtlra
iiiu,

the V1f.

ay v1tc

s1dc, 111
:. ~ both t:i ne , but rrr vJt.'.
noM .

t1s

s1clr.

!n(e) aro.t1..

yatrl5e

.C6

yatr6s

vLC ()

o:rzo (odso)

: karyi

( the ). heart

6Gvcx, -, -

abrnatos, -1,

.6, -,

18 your w1fe7

both ('a11 the two')

KL '

how are youi

YLaOfp6c;

atrs

uv:,

abinat1,

cLVXL

ber

t:ls nom!z1 pos

:L cLVXL u

KL'auOf6

U.

~p:lk{nbtn08. -1, -

vLCL,

(tb8) doctr

karbya tis tne


kaft

1!

in(e)

doc:t.OI'

t-h1nk

.eak, _l1a

dangerous
Her doc:tor th1nks

her heart

1s very wcak, and that's

dangerous.

e1
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GREEK BASIC CQURSE

.\l.

epikinoino.

xron6n

.;

xr6nos

p6so(n)

(the) year
!

n ?

rio. -a.

, -, -

yer6s. -1 -6

vfa. .

sarAnda pnde

\l.

yert

f. 6 -

:-!1

xronm,ke

y1Mka.

healthy
She's qu1te you. she 1s ~
years 01 and she's 1n good health
('very healthy an).

nosokodo

na

1()

blte sto

nosokon1o.

!.

ycung

tne milon a, tne

to

old 1s she?
rather. qu1te

6 !

Hw

years

(the) hospi tal


Tou oughtto take ('go') her

the hosp1tal.

\l

1 p611s

(the) city

'

t1s p61ecs

\I~\I, .

nosokorou

~ist1x6s, 1 yatrl

\l 6

nosokomdu t1s pole6s

, f . xa.

a. In fne kaH.

the hosp1tal

c1 ty

Unfortunately. the doctors 1r:


our c~ty hosp1tal aren't good.

1 Gesalon1k1

(the) Thesalon1k1

t1s esalon1k1s

! (the) The8salon1k1

-&6, -,

kaear6s. -1, 6

clean, pure

-6

' t . -

&14 1 yatrt t18 6esa10-

ntk1s tne kaH,

are

ke ta nosokoda

hosp1tals are extrenely

-&.

kaear4.

~l.

.a

m4l1sta

But the doctors 1r. Thessalonil1


ery , the

as a matter ! fact. indeed.


certa1nly

fnos, 1 f1li

(the) friend

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G REEK BASIC COURSE

U v , ~, y~6
ou.
6u.

'~6.

6 fv
& ~~ ~

1 &

inas

m41ista atr8

fact one

! ~~M

fne f110z MU. too(e)

('one doctor') 18 a fr1end

l~ne

m1 ne 1118

papab6pulo.

na

t1(m) b4tc saft.:.!ne


pra 1! kalS.

6.

a matter

nae

1s (. th.y

call h1m') Papaboulos. ou


should take her to h1l1.

He'.

'V8I'J good.
u

s1111f6

agre.

ct

toether

~oo;, -, -

l~oo,

pl.

cS:py&

aryi

late

f x~a

1 ntxta

(t,he) gt

6 tf.

ct

''cn l~oo,
'a6~6

cS:py&

& /
f)

y(;X~4.

to , .1Jta6 ..a:1

..., ldaaete

tb1 D8

1 (11) bb( ) eatta.


ryi 1

kDr 1\ [8bd) qree S.tI J08J


e re;y

to tab

.r

to

td

lat.e(r) ton1ght,.

nJxta.

~!!!!!!.~!

'f6

ci

\-0

'f6

f ~O a'awc

ta

.U

xlr1

~6 .

bocI7
t.u 8_toe

bocI7

18IId, ar

'f6

6&1

'f6

xct6Ao,

he8d

~6 ~CMIO

prepo

~aee

6 A~,

_t1

buan

pu'U

11

.,.

'" JoL(;'n)

1 dt.1

~6 6

t.o

8~

80Ith

~6 ~

artf

ear

~6 6

b6(n)d1

t.ooth

~6

lra

sldn, leather

~6 &~u/&'fu

~4kt110/~4xt110

t1rger

& 6

ta

~&

ta fra

nc88

maly4

toe

ha1r
evebros

8)

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

'

1 ~x!
1

mit~ra 1 y1n~kas

nomdzi

p6so(n)

atrs

odz1,

t1s1

ln(e), 1

!1

fn(e)

sas1

mitra

t1s1

100

py6s
p6s
ea

ta nosokomia tis

()

esaln1kis

t1(n) m1 tT

sas

pnd. xronn, ke

yer1.

l"

pcl! kaear!.

kal1.

fJloz mu,

ton(e}
1 yin~kas

100 saranda

fne

f110s sas1

() 1~ne1

plte

epikfnoi~o.

6xi, oist1x6s, ~ lne kal1.

pole6s sas1

p6s fn(e) i yatrl tis eesalon!kis1


p6s

pos aft6 fne

4l0n na,

1ne ka11 i yatrl,tu nosokom!u

apt1n garoy4 t1s.

l~ne

()

yatr6s.

papao6pulo.

m{lista, fmaste 4timj na ti(m) b4m(e) ekl,

ary4

nosokol!l!o'Z

nlxta.

Narrat1ve
6 Lt

ELvaL ~~o.

"~!~~ ~6

:~_E~~! tn(e) 4

-chl1d

thU8, 80

ttyi

leoforto

sfera.

!ather

'Q_~~!~e~~ ELvaL ~
4rostos.

C1~.

nurse

~~_~~~~~~~ ~ ~
orta.

o~ ~~~!~~~.

nowhere, anywhere

A~ n_~~Q!Q1D ~ 6

area,

L .

reg1~n,

secticn

fne pol! meyil1.

!~~_~f~~~~ ~ C1~ '

:~_~~~

ptme st1c eli~a.

nX

year

6 LC 6 o~ o~ EtvaL !~o '~ L ~o~.

plnEL

~6 , ~C1~~ ~ 6L L C10L.

'xo~

lvav

YLa~p6, ~6

ELvaL

x~o~ 6. '~C1L C1~ K~ ~6

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

~ ' 6 3 6 '3.

vL

3 ~ . E~ ~xo
6 ~ . 3 lL ~ vL.

vL ~ ' ~ ~o 6.

--

pd

ln(e)

ro8O&!

na

1!

1p4rx1 kanlna
.

to

pe en~s

prc!p1 r.a

no&okordo

st1(lI)

bl1

fllu
sto

MU.

nosokomo.

61, ~n 1p4rJ ka~na.

888'1

811&ta, 'xune ~na,

yatrds, 8t1<II) b611 8&&7

aU ~ Jne kau

ka1~.

4 a pA1,to b'osto ! St18 okt

~ 8 1 1 aI

S.. cenr7a ta Oeola8da t18 aeinuf

xu .ft!

_118ta.

. nosokod.

talds yatl'l18 ke

st1n

I.

patlras tu.

Jne .....,.., ke

pol Il8.

"xun.

o.8Olr6e 8 7

pd Jne

~HA)

t! 9a 'xete

Sne 88 -' pol kall per10xl 18 p~leos.

aft! ta no&okoda1
U'6m

8tHII) b611 sast

tu

xrnu .

IXW118 atHm) btI11

c!na 88YUo

noolto:dO. 1'& l an'pua.

. -_.7.'.
- - The

Not.e
~

ue

0tm1 t19'8

Cae

6a o~ ~;

1 1tAra t1a ;1n1kaz

MU.

p680(n) U'onln !re'l .

1V v1fe's IIOther
How old 1s she (bf how lIIU1'

year'8).
E~ .

IrA! sarlnda pSnde~. 5he '& Corty t1ve years old.

~o v

1 yatr! tu nosokor.1lu

thfO doctors

t he hosp1 tal

~o

1 yatri t1s eesalcnlk1s

the doctOTS

Thessalon1k1

The

Aboe

examples 111u&trate the use

genitive Case.

Note 5.2 the genit1ve case was described as 'POSsssive' case, i.e. one that

85

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G REEK BASIC COURSE

generally correspcnds to 'of'

the apcstrophe-plus-s suffix in English.

addition the genitive case may be used in Greek with certain prepositicns (see later

units) as well as in certain expressicns indicating quantity (age, price, measure, etc.)as
shwn

by the second and third

eXaMles

above.

Other examples:
6 &L

to

EtVaL L&.
EtVaL

tu 1pal!lu

The employee's

!n(e) arister4.

.t10

tav!rnas

!ne

is

the left.

i kuzJna aft!s tis

The food

this tavern is

excellent.

kaH.
!na taks
!~_!:!:!

okt6

i'rn.

eight day trip

Genitive Case - Articles.

The d.efin1te article in the gen1t1ve case 1s:


.

11.

51ng.

tu

1.

ton

tis

tu
ton

ton

and the 1ndefinite article:


.-

. .
6

6a

en6a

..

Follow1ng 18

Chart

d.efjnite and indefiD1t8 article

declensi08l

~!!~!~-~!~!!

.
~.

G.

tu
.

to(n)

~.

!~

--

!:

~6

to

-r

-rGiv

&

ta

tis

tu

tcn

to

&

to

tU8

t1i

t.a

ti (r.)

86

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G REEK

BASC

COURSE

Indef1n1te Art1cle

-----------------f.

~.:

/.

"

41'1&8

rda/rrY,

fna

/.

ell6.

rda./rr/'45

()

t(v)/.

u
v

'na(n}

rda/-'"

'na

!:
.

G.

~_1~!!!

Tbe

Gen1t1e

Ien1t1e

C... - Nun8
eding. DOUD8

case

are a s tollov8:

F1r8t Declension

'~
~.

~:~!:

--- -

Mc.

Ox;ytone8

paroqt.oe8 1

Felll.

Oxytoaea

-fs

-!

"18

':1

:.s

-ln

-f.

-&1

':.j

:18

-6n

-611

-,

parox"vt.one8

.:a

proparoxyt.one8

':a

oxytone.

..

"-asl":"I-:'18

-m

Second Declension
-------------------

....c.+ telll.o~one.

-6

-6

parosyt.cnes "
prop&rox;ytones

::cut.

':cr:
j:J

:-08

ox;ytone8

-6

p&rox;ytone8

11

':0

~o

-1

_O~

Note 7.2.

------

ou:

F1rst and Second Declen810ns:

Follw1ng

Charts

F1rst and Second Declens10n nouns:

87

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cwrr
--.------.

:I6 DECLES

~!!!

a5culine

u
u

!.

1s

:'

!.

:. a

.
.

1 -1

t1s -1a

~!:2~~!!! ~~
: 1

- ,

&

:'18

-u

:. 1(0)

-<

::t
.....
.....
~

<,,:,

~~!,12

:. 1

-...,--85

t.u ....yU

:-a(n)

to -!

:. 1

:.

_ J

:'-as/-!'is

:. a (n)

-'8

:. 88

:. 88

1.....

- 48

:'-e8

ta -

-6n

-6n

-&

ton -eSn

-6n

-&1

I~-r..

--60

t.n! -y6n

Acc.

tus -eIJ

:. 8S

:'88

t-i8 -4s

-u

- 88

- 8

:'-e8

ta -J'

1()"':)

PltIr

---------------------------------------------------------~-----

~~I?!~~:

fititis

'student'

18 loxlae

i;.iior is;rgeant'
i

!_!r!~!
'Irea'

1 61

..

,()

_---.-------.-------.~-

ia&ugtter'

!_~!~~
'heart'

1 k1r1.

l&dj-

..

2!~~!

to -i

.:..

:. &(r.)

<)

CQ

~~2~~~

:. 1 (n)

to(r.) -1(n)

<)

tu -i

Acc.

1!~~~~ 1!Ml~~ 2!~

.
-15

!!!~!:!r_!~!

------- .. -----

Ye1ie oan

---------------

~~

.....

---~-.-.--------

NoU118

&

:.,.

---~--._.------~~-- ----------------------

!_~I!&!r!_

'anchor'

~2_~~!
'chI1d'

kanv1

iihljjT---

i_Mlt~!

'5ea'

.:

Neuter oxytOfle and pr~OI'II!I noane 1n /-1/ beeQ 1cluded 1D the 1 Decleaa10n Chart due to s1ilarLt.7 their
in!lect1n

pattern.

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t-<'

..
J)

;:

u
u

J)

<
I:Q
::t:

..
..

. .-..----._-.--.....- --------~~---------'

-----------.----------------------------~----------.--.-~~-------------~-------~-.-.-

IJ
~E!!!I

2.!~!!~!

~.!!~~ 2_!!!!~l'2!

'brotber'

'edlc'

,~I'I'

!_2!

!.~~

1 &14ksoo

, '

'P.n'

'outlet'

-----------

~ .. !;Y~

'eg'

S2_PlU
'shlp'

!:2_!O~~e!~9
'au1iClllob11e

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G REEK 8ASIC COURSE

From the charts above, the


!

stress

[0110~

ru1es can be observed with

re~ard

the

shift1n

Greek nouns.

,) The stress

Greek nouns may sh1ft only from '1eft'

'r1ght'. 1.e. from an

ear11er sy11ab1e a 1ater : from antepenu1t (th1rd sy11ab1e from the enc) ta penult (second
syllab1e 1'rc end) or the last syllab1e, and tro the penult to the last syllab1e.

The

on oqtone ncnms 1s, therefore, constant.

Str888

2) The parcxytone and proparoxytc.ne nouns ! the ~!!:!:_e!~!!.~!~!! inc1ud1ng paroxytcne


!!!~:!:! nouns 1 /:'1/, sh1ft the1r stress the 1ast sy1lab1e 1 the gen1t1ve p1ural.

add1t1on Neuter nouns 1 /:1/ sh11't the1r stress to the last sy11ab1e 1 the gen1t1ve
singu1ar. (e.g. kar4v1 ~ karavyd).
The stress proparoxytone nouns 01' the ~~~~_Qe~!!~!~!! sh1fts the

penultimate (second trom the end) syllab1e 1 tbe gen1 1e s1ngular and p1ura1, and 1 the
accusat1ve p1ural (nascul1ne and fein1ne on1y), e.g. k!r1os - t-u k1rfu - g1rfon tus k1rius; a!tokfn1to - tu attok1n1tu - a!tok1n{tonJbu~: . attokfn1ta.
~!_Z:.!:.!.. Houn:

1rregular Dec1ens1on:

/0 rr6nos/ 'year' and 6

/01lyos/ 'vord', 'apeech', 'reason'.


6

vords

'1

/0

s1ngular l1ke Second Dec1_ns1on 188cul1ne nouna.

the p1ural,

(and. l1m1ted nwber other nouns) have Ol8:

6 .

/1

/0

xrfJnos/ and

0De

hever,

the..

vord8

6.

'regular':

- 6 .

1671/ and one '1rregular':

1lyo/ are 1nt1ected 1 the

/1 xrdn1/,

- 6.

/ta rr6nya/,

/ta 1tya!.
1 should be noted that the p1ural Ol

're&80ne' whlle the (

- 6.

/u

6 .

/1 1cSy1/

1(ya/ lIIana 'vord8' only.

~!~.

_~h

tu

6()

to(n)

-6

!~:!_Z:~.

eana '8p8_CbeS' or

6.

on

xr6os

xr6nu
rr6(n)

rr~

or

--

xr6non or
.

- 6 tus rr6nus ~!:

6.

6.

ta xr6nya
on

xron6n

ta

xr(,'Iy&

Adject1ves:

F1rst and Second Dec1ens1ons.


1
-,

stated

1 ).1

the

mo

/-os, -1, -o/(l1k K6,-~,-6

frequently used adject1ves


!kas,-,-/) or 1

e1ther

-, -11, -

-,

/-os, -a,

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G REEK BASIC COURSE

-o/(like
All

, ,

adject1ves end.1ng

DMne

.,

lo~o, o~a, o~o/).

1-11

1 -

or -

-aI are dec11ned l1ke F1rst

Declens10n rem:in1ne nouns.


All aacul1ne adjectivcs end.1ng 1

I-osl

are decl1nd l1ke Second. DecleD810n

I88cul1ne nouna.
All neuter adject1ves end1ng 1 -

1-0/ are c1ec11ned l1ke Second Declension

neuter nouns.
I:.x.ales:

Pl.

Sg.
.

G.

G.

oe

ke

lral6

tu

1ra111

'S'6v

1816

'S'6
to

to

Iral

vcro'S'()'S'6
to

n&rt1

'S'ov
tu

tu

.w.6
la1

kal1!
6

ka3.6

~
{

Cl..U

'

pey\i

or8ea ke 1ra1"

oree

ka1

11Mb-

yc~

tus

lc8en&cdo

vCu

Jaeood

Iaenoxo

'S'&

Urte8

&

ta

c:..&

lra1i e7'

u'S'v 'S'v nc~.

ga nattr

ka1w.

1ra1U 7iMk

vu'S'

'S'06 o~

pe

Ite

'S'v

ton

c:.

ka16

'S'

t1s

'S'6
'S'ou

ton or8cn lc8 Iral 1inea5n

yWka

li

'S'v c

~(y)y

itt1

'S'

yc

kaHs;v1n8ra

v~'S'

to
.

6()

y~

y1rIera

vcro'S'

'S'OU

ton

re

'S'~V ()

Un

lc8 Jra]j

'S'

t1
.

vu'S'

ntrte8

ton pl8n pe&,.Jn

'S'&

&

c..&

ta lra1i e7'

'S"

&

1ia

1raU

'S'v

toD

16 laeDnd-

'S'&

ta

lraU

tEvo6 o X Et c

vt

JcHoa

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

shou1d be noted that the stress

the adjectives

a1ways persistent

ad

does

shift as does with some types ! nouns (see Note 7.2 above).
The on1y exception
speaker) may or may

this ru1e are proparoxytone adjectives which (derending

shift their stress

/ton mo yinek6n/ or

'! the pretty women~

the

the genitive p1ura1, e.g.

6 /t n6st1mon y1nek6n/

Both pronunciations are acceptable 1 'Kathomi1~n1'.

!i~~~_'Z~!t. Adjective: 6

/aft6s/

6 6

v1~pete

/610s/.
afto(n)

()

Do you

that gent1eman?

girio.
' & '6 6

61es 1

~ saft

All

1eofor!0, !ne

seats

th1s bus

are taken.

pyaz~nts.

The adjective
1 modifjes.

/aftS/ 'this' !:!_!~!!~~~ by the art.ic1e p1us the noun


6

Contrast

6 6

!kwn&

ka1

ksenoooxic/ or

/to ka1 ksenoaoxfo/.

Most adjectives, l1ke 6

/ka16s/ occur between the art1c1e and the noun (as

Engl1sh).
/610s/ 'a11, every' 1 &1so generally !~!!~~~ by the art1c1e and the noun,

.
~~~!_!:~. Adject.1e:

adject1ve

10 kZ80S 1.

, ,
1

1nflected

/polB, -,

Everybody 18 here.

-1.1

fows:

2!~

_!:.

-~:

polfs

11

11.

-~!:.

/ I1
6

pol!(n)

()
l()

pold / I1

polds

_!:

&

P01~8

14

pc16n

.\

&

l.

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G REEK BASlC COURSE

!~~~_Z:~. The word

1ndeed',

'1

)".

/4lisa! \l8ed 1 the sense ! 'as a _tter fact "

part1cular'.

' 1tcn .'f6 .


..

nas

m4lista
fl

fne

yatrs

As a

attEr

tact

0118

doctors 1s a fr1end

IIIU.

Th1s exale shows 1d1oatlc use the

/4l1sta/

1.

las a _tter

tact'.
Other

exple8:

'f 'f 'f;


6 'ft.

r,

ta~rnes

61es 1

.'f, ~''f .. , 'f1,

retsfna,

~ ~'f.

apart~s, 11

d.

th1s town

ha\""e 'rets1na l ; one [ thell]

es ~u

af\!s t1s

the taverns

11

_l1sta

6tl krasf

w1ne that you [1181'] vant.

part1cular has [any klnd

'W1ete.
; 6; !6 .
;,

t,.cn,~'f;

. o~ ~.

~l8 1 nosoktmes

fne ka1ds, nda


apatt~s. :!

A11st,a

the nurses here are lood,

[but]

p4ra

t,hsJI

partlcular 1s e.xce1lent.

kalI.

po]J

l.~~-!.:.! The U8e erb

l1

e66

/):q'bl ' 10'

&8

equ1alent Engl1sh ' take

(B~one Boe.N)'.

.. 4 n I'fCC1'f6

t.
i

lIIU8t taJce her \0

D08ok08fo.

:ou

'ffiv ni're a' W'f6v

.at

ter

to

h1J

Whea tbe "rb . /~/'IP' 18 wed vith a d1reot object, 1ts rean1ng
corre8p0nd8 to the Engl1sh ':.rana1t1Vf!.

verb

'

take

(soeone Bone'fhe)'.

Other eUlllplea
itE'fE 4

xtvYJ'fO

aac;

'f'C1~'fO

6 ~C1.6;

4!lete

na sas 488

att.okln1

()

, 3 a'f .

n',

!10

you vant

by car.

take you

statl0n'l

staem6'l

na

ek:!.

ne pdt(e)

Yes J I'd 11ke you

take

ne

there.

93

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

~~~~_I.:~:. The use ! the word


, ,

/puOeM-/'nowherc , an.., place' and

&

/kan~nas, kan:fa, kan~na!'nobody', 'on'

'an,ybody', 'any one'.


&.

p1~nume

&

. La.

puaeM-.

~e

1puxun pueen4 ek:i

are

golng anywhere.

There 1sn't any F.xpens1ve


hosp1 t.al over therc 'nwhere

akriv4 nosokomia.

there expens1ve hosp1tals do

ne~at1ve

verb

the statements as

/puoeni/ 1 always used w1th a

&

should be not.ed that the word

exist').

the examples above.

the 1nterrogat1ve senter.ces, however, the verb may be either affirmative

neeat:1ve clepend1ng

the meaning,

..

& ;

3:1

p4te pueeni s~:ra'l

Are you go1ng

~.

place

today'l
& & ;

ea pilte pueen4,

Aren't

sfmera

The vord
kan~M/ behaes 1

yu

go1ng any place

today'l

/kan4nas, kamfa (kaY4,

.,

the sae way, . g.

. l:.

eO.

!ne ka.nnas

There 1.8 one here.

but:
. l:

!ne kwna8

. t;

fne

k&nnas

any

here

I8n't anyboQy here1

~~~~!~!!_Q~!!!!
~!!_~!H!.
ume

ks~ri

to kar4vi tu M-ft1.

aOerfa tu loxta.

kserume aelf~ tu f1t1t:f.

ksrune

ks~ri

prctim41 t1(n) 0481 tu loxia.

t1n

y1nka

~~ azI

tu staem4rxi.

me t1s

yin!kes

ton nat't6n.

ks~ri 1() mit.la [~.

to(n) yBr t-u lox!a.

p1yenun sta
vl~pun

t~na

tis yinikes

lox:i6n.

lox16n.

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UNI:T 7

GREEK BASIC COURSE

1~po aert

kslro tus n4ftes aftu tu karavyd.


v1~pun

:tne

aertlls

tus

y4la

po1l1

tu

\1.

k~r1

_1.

sta

e4n.m taftok1n1ta att.on

-------

ks~run

karav16n.

ts4y t1s k1r!as.

l~p1 .

attls t1s

oU.

~x!

tus aoert;)s
ta

oitia

par4e1ra tu

ta 1s1tlr1a

a()erf6n sas.

p1y~nun

lpal:1lon.

proti~Jn afts

sta

brezv16n.

st1s kuzlnes

po1l

tu 1pal!lu.

ksenoox1a

61. ta

r1~nun

pi~nun

.ftok!n1to tu yatrl1.

ksero tus 1pal11us

Q~a1s on

kSrw .et

prot1mA1

!ne

la1 88t1atonon.

t1s

ks~r1 es

tu peoY\1.

t1s yinikas sas.

davern6n.

y1nek6n DB8.

a!tl1 tu

ksen!u.

omatu.

leofor!on.

estiatria .

t1.

~.1B aftokin~on.

Outl1ne:
Subject

(dject1n .Noun)---3)~ Object

-----att6s ln(e)

(Adject1ve+Noun)

Ddela

kal6s kfr1o..

att6

In(e) kau-;,o. 8taeS. (Ja8ro)

attl

In(e) 1

att

Ine

or~a

tt3n

tavirr..

vl~po () ga1(n)

(vll!po).

attl 1n(e) 1

(Ixu)

1118

att.

e8t1at6r10. (ell1)

g!r10.

o~. y1n!ka. (kHrm)

dkr peJ!.

In(e)

1118

(Ixi)

katl.. (C>ok1IIIta1)

att6s In(e)

n6o. 8tae4rxjs.{ksfro)

aft! In(e) 1 4rost1

atL6s In(e)

att

Ine

(vl~pun)

att

Ine

en1k 6. ()

Ocalrun)

attl !n(e.) 1
aft6s In(e)

4rostos ep1v4t1 (vl~pun) .


~. 80k_.

kal6s 1p411los.

ln(e)

attl In(e) 1 perlt1m1 retsina. (prot1m6)

aft4 Ine

At

aft~s

_.

In(e)
In(e)

akr1Y

oreos

pot6.

(p!nun)

k1n1mat6yratos.(vl~pun)

d~A.

(vl'pun)

mey410 leotorro. {prot184n)

1mo

. t~8ka

yatr6s. (kslro)

ps4rya. (tr6ne)

!n(e) 1 meyiles amaksost1x!e (rlvyun me)

aft! ln(e) i perit1m1 &nsropl. (kserume)

9S

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G REEK BASIC COURSE

the nouns in parentheses as 'possessors' (genitive case)

,) lIse

the following

sentences.
:1odel:
aft !

to kald peur.

aft !

to

afts

ka

peo! tu naft1.
( a~erf6st

tav~rna.

afti ln(e) i ftini

kals p~lloB.

in(e)

aft! !n(e) 1 orta ylnika.

jne

kr!o

staem6s, i k1rIa,.

yatr6s,

staem6s)

kIr1os,

[loa

aft

rAftis,

ksenocoXo)

i prezvfa.

(1 p61is.

neyAl.o kar~v1.

ine to

afts

naftis)

~os k1n1mat6~rafos.

ln(e)

aft

of!los sas)

nosokomo)

stae~rxls,

aoerr6s sas,

sas)

kIrios,

1 k1ria,

yi~ka

sas,

1p411l0s)
att

2) Put

perSfimo

[.

(1
1

above sentences

tavSrna,

plo)

estlat6r10,

plural.

odl:

-----

a1't

fne

kal pe:l. (

artA lne ta

ka1l pey4

p6aon

xronn

~B3?

p6son

xronn

fn(e) 1

&XEte

re?

p6son

xrnn

me i

natt6n.

~xun

yi~ka

jne ta

po-l

1y:ta tu pat8ra

sas?

i mit/ra sas?

888

pole6z mas, jne

aftl . nosokoma"

na klnete, : fste 4rostos?

prepi na k4nete,

nosokomon

t.an

yin!ka &8

lne 4rost1?

ke t1s

ine eplk!nolno na

pos 1 yatrj

pol~B

arstus.

sas1

nit8ra& sa8~
oQz

ta nosOkomia t1s pole6z maa

jne ft1n4,

l1 :ln(e) pat~ras ke
ps

n4!t1s)

tis

borite na

MU

~xete anat karyi?

ta

~11

tu

smats?

kalf~

96

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

Unit

JUI&a t (&&)
'.6,
"'t

Ull'f 8

a9o (_)

-1), -6

-,

el1n1k6s,

.Mt

1,

-6

Greek

ta el1n11c4

te

' &av E.Mt.

to _tq

(adj~)

Greek

11m studylng Greek.

"'t.

1 t4ks1s

(the) c1as8, order

"'

k4pote

80_le

-n "'t. '"' "'

Jmas~e

sti(n) dAks1 mas

o."'"'C xt MtO"'E ..

plnde f'1 1 U , ke
k4pote,

we

have
class

fks1.

8tuder.ts

( 1

ollr class

t1 studEnts') and

our

W8

0881e.

81.

..cnx6,

-1), -6

&1plo.at1k6s,

-,

"c

c DfO

1 1p1re.Ja pl1ro-

n V4o.

t~seris

10ma

Jne

t1kJ

141111, kyo

c .

~naa

apt1n

KI.cS

..

1piesJa

Four are Foreign 5erv1e.


OrC1eers and

18 rrOll

U.5.!.!.

plirofori6n.

uo."'"'I

f\J1tv,

Iksipnos, -1,

-, -

./.

(..)

simfititfs

milao/mi16

ac

(the) fellow student


-

(111181)

i "(16sa

"'"'
,

U.S.I.A.

tor16n

"'. c. .

~ ''''l)

d1p1oat1c

(te) HYice

1p1e_.

-6

..

~nas

eksipnos,

speak

( peaJa)

(the) language, tongue

simfitit!z mu !ne

1!

1nte111gent

mil~i

One fellow student

mine 1s

intellignet, he speaks

97

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

eksi yloses.

si languages.

-&

-&

i kaBiyftria

( the) professor, high schoo1


teacher
(the) teacher (female)

'

(the) Greek (male)

'lSvoa

-&

'-

cm ''tTv

'

tHinas

i el1nba

(the) Greek (female)

t(o) 6noma

(the) name

kaBiyitfz

ine

0Ur teacher 15 a Greek froa

n aptin .

Athens.

L 6-

tcnom4 ti1, ine

?ap&dopoulos.

papaMpulos.

'-&.

kaeiyitis

()

-,

oiitoros, -i,

to read

1 fr1

6'tL

oyav4zo (oyav4S0)

'tL)

(a)

His name is

( the) sentence

1 prtasis (pl. prot18) (b) 88DtenC8J J*'OPCIIit1CD


epana1amvILno (epana-

to repeat

livo)
't6 &

't&L

L't 't

a&.

arts

mas

He reads us various aentences

oi4fores prot4sis,
keds

and we repeat tbea.

tis epana-

lav4nwe

rot40/rot6

to ask

/'t"a

rot4i

he asks

t'tL/'t"L

i er6tisis/i er6tisi

(the) quest.ion

pl.

-&, -&a/

a-&&, -&a

' L 't ,
' -&

kaeenas, ea/

talk

each

on,

every

e1', kaeena
i yn6mi

(the) opinion

fstera mas rot4i ertsis, Then he a sks (us) questions,ve ta1k

rni18me, k;yo

nas

181

and every

g1 &

( t ay t) hi8

98

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

~ ~ou.

t1 61 tu.

opin1on.

~6 .ci .

yilia

(the) 1nter1ss10n, break

&., -, -

etx4ristos, -1, -

pleasant

'" cn;~/'.;/c:N;~~(1.

i sizftis1/i s1zft1-

discussion,

conersat1on

E~6 6.ci. tvou ~6

A,c6 c, ; . 'Ixou 4. c:Nt~~a..

sto

y!i_

p!nU8

el1n1kb kar, as kex-e


etdr1st1 s1z!t181.

Dur1ng the break ...

dr1k

our

Greek cottee and ba"


a pleasant di8CU8S1on.
(tbe)e"n1ng; 1r tbe e1n,
at

'f6 cmt'fI.

to

'f6 't....

1.

.1_

( tbe)

hOU88, boe

(tJe)

1888_

..ef_ta

pl.

spft.1

'f& ~c

' O~.c

'fCl.vtc

1 tenfa

( ~M) l1J, 1 cture

' w ..~

1 _yn1 toton1kf

(te) tape

(the)

tenfa

'fCl.v'C

'1'6 66. cmS cm''f. ;


, & &u

91

'f6

&~4

Yr'1, 8~O spft1 ...,


",1

.na

le ~o

;. ~ o~ .: 'fW

_81. . . ., _

y~o. ~...

vofd1a tQn _yntto-

~1

we ba" to
hoe

at

learr

our

le8Scn A~

1 1 tb t.Ie 181

t.ape8.

ton1kbn ten1bn.
66cnoAo, -, -

f8kos,

-1, -

' 6u.&

1~

() orc, job

c:N6

s1nxr6nos

at the

d1ttlcul~,

hard

Bae 1e,

81ultaneoU8ly

Ec. 66' 6ouAeIr&, &u&


c:N6 c' 6 &.~.

!ne fskll ul4, &14


1

etx.trist1.

ke

It's a d1ft1cult job but at


the

sae 1e

pleasant

a very

99

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

'

py6s

ma~n1

p6s1

f1t1t~,isaste

e11n1ki1

!n(e) 61i 1

ey6

st1(n)

d~ksi

~B~no

e1inika.

st1n d&kai mas, imaste pnd f'1t1te.

sas?

fit1t~,o1p1omatik! ip~li11?

~nas

6xi,

apaftus in(e) apt1n ip1resia

p11rofor16n.
ti ine enas s1mfititis sas1

~o s1~it1tiz

p6ses

ni ! ~ksi 1ses.

1scs

apo pd in(e)

m1141

ka11tis

p6s ton

1~ne1

tf k!n1

kaiyitis

tf k4nun i

afts1

sas1

ine i1inas, aptin


ton

sas sti(n) d8ksi?

papao6pulo.

kaiitfs1

mas rotAi erotfsis.


i1&i.

!11.-?

ke 181 tin "(tIi tu.

pinume ton

e1inik kaf~

ef~rlsti

t!

pr~pi

prot~sis.

prot~sis.

epana1amv4nun tis

tf an k4Be fitit:ls1
tf k4nete sto

ana.

mas oiav4zi oi4fores

fitit~1

tf rot4i istera

l~ne

1 ~ks1pnos.

mu, !ne

p~p!

na k4nete to vr40i sto spiti sas1

na

viia

p6s in(e) atti 1 ou1yi?

sizitisi.

m4ume

ton

k~xume

mas,

to

mai4

manitfnikn

ine ofsko11, a14

s1nxrn8

mas,

ti{ n)

ten16n.

ke

efxAr1st1.
Narrative
UQ!~ 6 ~

!:!!!

fiyo

JII

to

t~no,

before, ago

p~p! a ~xo ~M

~~~o.

isitirio.

' ' 1. X~e!!.:.

i 1!a in(e) ~~a ~~!:!:.

'!!_2X2~~ i~ ~ :K~~. 1 sxoH afti ine alr1vi.


6 :

!~_~!!!2~e1~!2 'E~

to

uoUo

~_~~~!!~ eksoter1k6n

country
schoo1
ler

8choo1

Departent !

St.ate/M! n1s~ry
!

6 io:O

to

ipuryo

(the)

Fore1r,n Affairs
Jin1stry

too

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

afts Z~_~E~~!~!

yatr6s.
()

'~~~!~

Su40

k;i3e

&~& .

nx: ra,

that

~~~!!~~~

a3 u.

~& (~&)

~~2 ~

study

pol:

-, -

eklnos,

3 ~!g!eg~~ ~6

3&

fne

akri4.

, -, ~o

Xra

ek1ni i

(spuo4so)

3,

~tafr4zo

o~

-& ~ ~.

(metafr!so)

p;ime

aefna,

~~~ 1

translate

only

p!me ke sti(m)

b!tra.
A~6 ~6 ~x

art~

!!eg1~!g.
~6

A~ x~ &

ksenoox10, ~x

pol' '!:!~:!.

pr4yma

att.:t

!!~!!!~.

\ b1 n

, !1 ~nan

meyilo E~!!~!!~.

o~H6

politiz6s

~' ~

stis

u'f6 !~~!! M~ / --

to

(Ko~)

&C~ &~

1t!ra

6 ~ ~ 2~! '
~ ~.
-&

a\ tour

ptnda

o'clocC

tu.

akuo (ak6ao)

bear,

l1aten

esIs &yavAzete pfnda me

!!e2~X~
0

t~seris

aft& !!~

~O\J.

c1n l1sa\1oa

prosoxi.
i

prosox.

kri

t1s

tis

attent.1on
1 0141

()ul~s

------ s61ea

ti8.

voiGcS

help, a&sist

~KO 3 ~ . '

'~ ~ &30
~

'~6

~ ~K ~o ~K ~ oU-

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

~ .

~ .

~ 'L

o~ 6 , ~xo V
6 ~ .

~o 6 ~

~o 6 6 .

W 6 , '

6 & ~o 6 ~ .
' &

~&

'

!naropi

e~lun

slmera na p4ne stin

prdp1 na ktnun, prln p4ne stin

e!a?

x~r(a)

1~tikl

aftI?

prepi na

Meun

ir-41ili.

elinik4.

st1n 1omatik axoll tu ipurJiu eksoterlk6n,

pu arx!zun maelmata elinik6n?

st1n yuisinkton.
~x1

i e11nikl t4ksis

pol~B fitit~s1

6xi, i e11n1kl t4ks1s,

p4r.da

~na

vjkr6

ariem t1titdn.
p6aes dres t1n
8ti(n)

dk!

i~ra Su4un

ritit~

spu,Mzun ~k81 res t1r. 1dra.

tU81

tf ktnun ekn

kae1yitls tus
tis

ad1

epanalam4nun.

rota1 erotIs1s.

prot4s1s kekln1

fstera artds tus

~x

s1z1t181 ke k4pote

metafr4zun to ma9iIIIIk tus.


ma~nun

m6no ti(n) yldsa saftl ti sxoll?

6xi.

rnaO~nun

ton
tf k4nun 1

r1t1~

lstera apo ti(n) d4ksi?

epls1s ke

14

pr4ymata 18

bolitizIII tise14as.

pi~nun

kyakUne me prcsox! tis

maynitoronik~s

tenles.
tus

14!

art6, ya na m4eun t1n y16sa?

m'lista, tus

14!

p4ra poll.

,02

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UNIT 8

GREEK BASIC COURSE

Gramatica

Not

Noter.

e.1. Pronoun: Possessive Pronouns

~ ~L ~ nfv~E

stin d4ksi

p~OO 1t!.

L~~t.

! s1fitit 111 .

YL~p6c; ~ vtCL

'

The

'!

me'.

coIlete

ber') as equ1valent

one

yatr6s tis nondzi ...

The above sentences illustrate the use

the

oyr

class.

~ vL~~

('of us',

\':e have five students

lmaste

! l\ llw

students ..

her doctor thinks

genitiv

case

perscnal pronouns

English possess1ve pronouna

('or', '~',

'her').

these forms is:

tI\Y ('! e')

\)

ycur

h1s

tis

her ('of her')

1ts

('! 1 )

r.&S

or

('of \;.s')

sas

yur

tus

tt..1r

~o\)

~o

'fO\)c;

(a.)

('

('of

(, ! ycu")

him')

')

('

thell')

These pronons ar~ ~!!!~~!!!~ and follow the noun they mod1fy, e.g. ~6 ncnt \)
pebf ru!'rry
pronon

may

!ollo

111 peb:l/ ~

but

e1ther the adject1~e ' the noun, e.g.

~6 6 L t

Wben the
autcat1cally

However, 1f 1a od1f1ed by another adject:lve the POS888a1"

chlld'.

od1f1ed

Aa

/to kal6

/to ka16 pe3:1 JJ/ 'rry good chlld~

by the possess1ve adject1ve 1s proparoxyt.1)ne, the stress 18

ah1rted the syllable, e.g. !~o

/0 anerop6z IfIl1S/

&~6

!~~_~:!.

~6 6 Lt

'or

/0

ineropoa/ 'the

man',

man

Pronoun: Personal pronouna used as d1rect and 1nd1rect Objecta.


~ng11sh

a verb (e.g. he

personal pronouns can be used either aa direct

Pronouns used

- direct obj.; he said


d1rect object

~~_~

'

ind1rect objects

- 1nd1rect obj.)

a verb are:

me

me

af

se

~6()

hiM

103

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

()

tin

her

it

mas

sas

you (1.)

tus

them(m.)

tis

(r.)

(n. )

D1rect object pronouns a1ways come before the verb. except

some 1mperat1ve (command)

constructions (see 1ater un1ts).


1::

6 6.

l~ne paa6U.

They ca11 h1m Papadopou10s.

~fL L6.

se 8411

The

L L.

tus rotAi erotfs1s.

The 1nd1rect object pronouns are the


d1fferentiated

!~_~!~!~

yatr6s.

as

doctor wants you.

He asks them questions.


possess1ve pronouns but are

by an accent mark.

I1

me

su

you

'toiJ

to h1II

t1s

her

'toiJ

tu

1t

l:8

us

YOl1

't

tus

them (m..f n.)

(.)

But, un11ke the possess1ve pronouns. the 1nd1rect object pronouns a1ways precede
the verb.
1:

L LLL.

mu pul4i 1s1tJria.

She sel1s tickets

LL / :.

miUi

He talks to 1011 a11 the

Qa tu m1.lAo

'toiJ

L 6:

LJo!.cX.

611 tin &ra.

el1n1kA.

pUda

me.
t1e.

I'l1 speak 1f1th h1m alvvs


:in Greek.

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

When tvo pronouns are used a5 direct and indirect object

mlIT

a verb, the 1nd1rect

precedes the direct, e.g.

8& 6 f'x.

ea to s:Unera.

6 & .&' 6 .

ea sas ta yaw8U111 to '&1. \Ole '11 read the to you ton1ght.

add1 10

can be u.ed

the prcnomina1 forrns descri bed

d1rect or 1Dd1rect Object

1'11 11 it to you tod.q.

abve, Mr

are 10nger forms vhich

the verb.

The long pronomina1 forms are:

Tbe

eIIna

B~M

you

~!: yau

att6n

h1III or to h1III

()

her 2!:

aft6

or

.i

u.

~!: U8

&

you

aftl1s

the.

(n.)

aftls

croTci

aft'

1og prono1nal 10'8 118

be used e1ther for

her

(f. }

me

(n.)

you

or to theIII

,
,

bas1,

e.g.
x&~ . !.

ka91yitls

1~p1

It's _

e.na.

It's you (d1r.Obj.)

or after prepos1t1ons,

afts lIa1

mi1A1

..

he

He '. talk1ng .!!!.. (ind1r.(\b.~.) .

..:

' .ci !.

byavaso

!.

f1yo m(e) aftus.

& . '!

..

the teacher .e.8.

'l1 _.

6 .&. .

(d1rect Object)

n(}

esas.

8.10 na ,

5(e)

es~na

e1iniki.

1'11 read together with you.


1111

1~

dcn't

with them.

~n

to read Greek

you.

10S

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G REEK BASIC COURSE

~!?~~_~:.~

, -, -

Pronoun: Demonstrative pronouns:


ek! r:os-i -

l'L , -, -

, ,
l t ,

laft6s-f-61 and

laft6s, aft!, aft61 'this', 'that' and l'L,

l'L

lekfnos. ektr.i, ek!nol 'that', are used both ,) independently,

as 'demonstrative pronouns'. and 2) modifying a noun. as adjectives.


,

-,

laft6s, -1.,

'that' depending on the context,

-61

may correspond 1n mean1ng Engl1sh 'this' or

e.g.

X~o .

afts 'neropos,lne

kalSs.

f f .

aft pu l~te,

-6

lart6s, -1.,

'lbat you say 1s

ka.

lne

good.

order avo1d any JIIb1gu1ty the adverb


, -,

Th1s man 1s good.

le'66/ 'here' can be added

pec1f1cal1y 'th1s' and

-61

lek1.1

doctor.

'there'

Mean spec1f1cally 'that" e.g.


afts

l'L . ..

: atrs.

e'66

artA ek1. .

,o'U.

Th1s one

Those are l\ chlldren.

pey4 1.

, -, -

laft6s, -1.,

-61

wh1ch usually eans either 'th1s' or '' 1

respect d1stance, becoes def1n1tely 'th1s' when paired w1th


IfJk:MJB ,-1, -01,

l!, -,

e.g.

. . ,

! . .

afts k:r1os 16,


ek:nos

klr10s ineki.

Th1s
and

gentlean

18 here
1s there.

lKEt

.' t. 6

kek:n1 alne me

prOSOXi.

, , !

English 'that'.

word

l!

and they ('those') l1sten to JW

leknos, ekin1, ekinol correspcnds 1 ean1ng

spec1fy clearly

leki/ 'there'.

Thus

attent1vely.

' oer

l! !

there'

1 ray

be coni:l1ned w1th the

lek:ns ekfl eAB 'that OV8r

there', e.g.
' ! ..
.&.

ek:fn08 ek!

r~141

e11nikA.

That

over there speaks

Greek.

106

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UNIT 8

GREEK BASIC COURSE

nay

shclJld be

also noted both

e1 ther precede or fol1ow the noun they modify,

6 ~y~po vL -

leknosl

. g.

afts !nrs,lne

6.

la!t6s1 and

Th1s

an

1s good.

ka16s.
~

or

l~po 6 -

4n9rpos aft6s, Jne

6.

ka16s.

Note 8.).1 Alt.ernate


---------

forlllS !

6,

-,

-6

laft6s, -, -61 and

, -, -

lekfnos, -1, -.
lart6s, a!tf, aft61 ha8 alternate forlll8 1 11e

6, , 6

s1ngular and plural, while , -, - lekfnos, -1, - alternat.e O18 1


!1e

s1ngu].ar on1y.
Q!~:.~!~

aft6s

art!

\)

att6

aftl1

ekfn1

ekfno

/
/

\)

tLV\)

ekfnu

atWa

aftA

ek!nus

ek1ns

aft11s

ekfnon

/~y

art6n a!ton6n

ek!nu ek1nu

ekfn1s

!~~:.~!.

att6n arton6n

aftun11

att6n a!ton6n

att:ls aft1ns
\)

ekfnos

\)

art\1 aftund

'6

Q!!!:.~!.

ekfnon

LV\)

ek:lnes

.-

ek1nd

Lv

ek:lnon

ek!na

Exaplea:

6 ntL \) (\))

spJti

aft~ (~!:aftunu)

\) ~pno -

tu aner6pu, ln(e)

6.

akriv6.

6 ()

6.

peoi aft!s (gt:aftinis)


tis

yin~kas,

This man's house 1s


expens1ve.

This woman's child is small.

Ine mikr6.

107

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

Note 6.~
--------

~~estion

6, -,

words

.6, -,

Ip6sos, -1, - 'how much, how III&ny' and

Ip.v6s, -4, -61 'whlch','which ~ne','who'.

-6

6 ;

6 k4nun

How much do they

.6 . 6 K~o;

py6s in(e) afts

~~o

cst

is that gentleman?

kiris

The questlon word


The.ue

sentence.

p6so1

1680., 6.1,

Ip6so1 'hw much' 18 used acI.verb1ally the aboe

word i. used

1 rM !

6, 6,

an adject1ye

100 IIIOC11ty a no w1th "h1cb 1t agrees (11ke any other adjectlve) 1

gender, number and case.


Exales:

6 . ;

p6S0S kR08 1ne?

How

6 & ..& -

p6su kIU ta 4

The 1:hlldren ! ho l.7 persons

.& ~ ~;

f.vyun ya.tln ae:lna'l

&

6 ;

k4n1

are leaving for Athens'l

ks4!rete

people are

any

tNno"

you know

ho

many

day

wiU 1 t take( for ]the traln


(1;0 arrle]7

6 .no ;

p6aus

6 .6. . . ~6

6"

''.;

pe6yj

w 1'

kHrete7

"ord

.6,-,-6 /py6a-l.~/

f"ho t ,

111 d8clined

f!!!t.
-~

.6

py6a

o.i

pyd

48

01'

0118',

tollosz

G.

knf?

bouse7

'b1ch', '''h1ch

11.

people do 7011

any ch11dren 11111 be 1

! .. sto

ptt1J

The que.tlon

..

anirc?pus

.6
6
.\
'

pyand

pyan!s

.6

.&()

py6n

p:fi(n)

_!:

_!:.

.!!:

--

'

-.

,,'

p,.t.

4.

py6n

'

.
pYMD

pyand
.6

.<

-~:.

py6n

.
OJ'

pyan6n
.
PY~8

py6n

01'

pyan6n
.

t1Y!

,08

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G REEK BASIC COURSE

Exalllples:
L L ~6 ;

pyand ine

L L ~6 ~6 n(~L;

pyan6n in(e)

kafemo1

Whose

~~ose (1.)

1s this1

caf~

house 1s th1s1

sp:iti1
Lf ~;

p~s

3&

L u(u

'.hm (! .1.)

ks4ret.e1

prd8 kir!us 1

~;

do you lmow'Z

'.'hich gent1een

are you 101118

to see1
L ~;
~!:!_~:.~

T6v

Wha (.1.) do

pylis kserete 7

The use

verb

n6nu.

name',

/l~o/ in the sense ! '

ton( e) l~ne papaMpulo>

18

,"ou knOlfI

' call (by n&I8)'.

n. . 1s Papadopoul08

(they

c_ll h1_ Papadopoulos).


The )rd per80n plural ! the "rb

COrre8poOO

<..,

mean1ng to the Engl1sh 'one 's

/l~o/ 'to say' 18 cc:nonly used 1 Greek to

nae

i8 80-aOO-80 (l1terally: 'they call h1J1

her, etc.) 80-and-SO').

~her exaple8:

-.

.. 1fne mko.

6 nLC ou 6 '

to pe6!

111

to

l\ nae'B

1!

'\

N1cho1aa.

ch11d's

n&IE

18 Alexander.

al'k8andro.

~!!!'!!~!~!!_~!!!
~!!_~!!

O.D. 8.1
to sp!t1 111 16.
to 1.eotorfo

to

8U !t!yl s!nera.

pot.

_8

en~k

!n(e) 1 rets!na.

sas

1 ~818 tu ~ fne ka1f.

1 Uly' t1a ne kaH.

ta

k.in.imatoyrafa

&e.at16 tu 41 p~I' parI~~ra.

yj~ke8

fne to arn6k1.

tU8 fne n'ea.

nosokoda

tus

fne kae61u ka1I.

tua fne

I118'108.

G.D. 8.1-2
r}M e !r.e

dz6n.

emis mas

nodzun ~ksipnu8.

es~na

8e lt!r.e n!ko.

esas 5as 411 to pe 5as.

aftn

ton rotane erotSsis.

aftus tus

l~ne

aft!s

v!un

afti(n) t1n

!ne

marSa.

t15

dz6n ke nfko.
kaae

~ra.

109

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

me

dz6n.

l~ne

ks~run

kala.

v!un

1 !lun
p~!

mu mil4i
su

k!ee

ya

ora.

einik.

l~o kal1~ra.

tu epanalamv!n1

u.

tis

me y'la.

tu

1.

aV~1 n49IN.
nil4i

elin1k4.

mas

l!ne

maria ke mko.

mas pul4i to est1at6r1c.

sas

p~1

to ts4y sas.

sas

1~1

tus

v!1 k~ee ~ra.

tus

nil

tis rot41 erotisis.

tus

yav!un

. pul~i

tus

~line

~.

6Aka

e~na,mu nilH

es~na.su

pr~ymata.

pol'

pey

ta

to

tus.

n491ma.

elin1ki.

e11rUk&.

pul4ne 1s1tir1a.

en4s,

epanalamv4nun protas1s.

884s, s..

nfko.

2.:E.:!:~_
arts ~

1ta16s.

artun~ Bp~1

ek!nos,ekf !ne n4ft1s.


!n(e) akr1v6.

aftin:1s 1

I1t!ra ~n(e)

aftund to

110 ~

aftn

ton

l~

att!n

gzlro.

aft l~po

aftnn

aftu8 tua

8 ~M
l~

e~r.ua

ekf tua

ek~nes

ekf,

ek~na ~ne

!ne
kond.4

nfko ke

t1s kHrun 1

makri".

~n(e) 14111.
1kr.

t.a 4 ek!non ~M ~ks1pna.

k4ee "ra.

taftok~n1to

8kfnis,

tattok!n1to ek1m1, !ne

nlko.

atton6n

aft4 ta

ftin6.

to sp!t1 !ne

a&erfs

4rost1.

l ~ks1pn1.

attl !ne

ekir.~

t.a

l~ne

dz6n ke nlko.

dis ksArun 1ta1J.

p~

tus.

r1kr6.

1pury!o.

al~ksandro.

~~z '.&.

v!un k4e ~ra.

110

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

68

aft~s?

!n(e)

p6sos

kmos

ln(e) afti2

p680n gafI!

fr.(e) aft~?

p6s1 z4xarl e'lete1

ryanl1 !n(e)
pyad8 In

af1 to

1oaf1ookfn1to1

p6s1 klrll

p1ywtnun sartf 1 8xcU2

ae

e.1ola~la

py6n

razf

ixun

pAte .81oln

fne s100

es1ola1o~rlo2

y1n}kes

alM

p680n inekn . pey4 p4ne s10ln aIlnat


p68US fi 101 . 'xete?

ro1ofaete erot!sis?

pys 81111to11n

p6son naf10n 1 y1n'ke8 pine 810ln ae!na?

fn(e) aft.! ta leoforfai

1~8

i~lete'l

p6sa kS8nOOoda 1118 810ln

pAne 8100 1puryJo'l

r-4t Oyi

ya6

pyC

p6a88

p4ne 8to e81ola1obr10?

p~B

aplti 8a82

680 4la 431181

eplt1?

pyand fn(e) aft. enooxo

f'yi

lne

p6eea

~as1

y1n!kes

Vl'pete1

p6sa 4 m10et

~1oBI~
aIM?

Correlatlon 5ab8tl1out1on Drl11

.-----------------------------

G.D.8.a
. .

tbe

pTpeT ou 88

lndleated by 1000 Encl18b

143ne nlko. (b1111, ycu).

1Apn

paren10hesesa

101. 1'1 kal1_ra. (100 b1I11, 100 1obe_

8&8 8411 1 klrr (ber, b1_, 8, tbelll(a.

..

1e

{.),

to

us, 100 JOU (pl.

k4ee . (blII, ber, th8111 (f.

mas pul41 'na 1811ofrl0. (100

1on rot41 ero1o~81a. (her, 100811 (n..

100 her, to 10helll


1oU8 IIIi1ine ta

1018 puUne 'na aftokfnlto. (tl-.8m (n.), lt)


101n 143ne arIA. (you, JOU (pl.

(pl.), to bll11,

(11.

pyi.

(100

,",

100 _,

us,

to hll11)

... n08lzun 'k81pnua. (" (1.) 1Il (11.

en!na

.. l'ne dz6n. (hll1, you)

10us 1 k4e _ra. (us, )"Ou (1.

es48,

4311 artS

8U pullne 1811ofrla. (her, h1111, 10helll (f.

kirlos. (us, 10helll (m.),

(f.},(n.), you (s1ng.

mu d141 ellnik. (100 us, 100 hlm, her,

es~na 5 ks~ryn

100 thelll (11.)

ka14. (me, you (pl.), hll11,

her, 10hem (m.

su epana1am4ni m4ei ma. (to hi , 100 me,

aftn

U5)

ro1oane erotIsls. (them(f.), her,

you (sg.

,,,
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GREEK BASIC COURSE

o~ka oraxns.

afta ta pulane
aftn
t,

tcn

vl~pune k~ee ~ra.

em!s mas nom!zun

(it).

(you (pl.),

them (m.)

(you (pl.), her,

l~ne

aftus tus

them (f.))

~ksipnus.

dz6n ke ntko (you (pl.), 118)

Transform Model Drill

---------------------

jne nikos.

me ltJne nfko.
tonoml IIIU

tonoml

tonom4 tu

y6lj"os.

ooml

mas

tonoml

t1s jne marIa.

tonoa

tus

marIa ke y6ryos.

p6s1 apt1n

re

p6ses

tonoml

tus

mar!a k(e)

tonom4 tus

re

nfkos ke

61plomat1k! 1pa11ii1

11.. l1rfr1n7

y1eeB

gstJrete to

68 a~nete

to

_1 :rA sas7

6'!".

(neuter)

y6ryos

.metarrlsete

O!sko1es e11n1ktJs

&1m4

fl".e

tnllll.

t1s sJtoHs

tenes7

spu2l4"ete

el1n1k47

sas7

p6s tone*1'ne ton kae111t! ...7


!sk11

u1y

sas,sto 1puryio

eksoter1k6n7

.114te7

tf kinun 1 t1t1t4,sto ay411ma7

l~1.

aIn1te k40e _r., t1s mayn1 toton1k's

kae1yitts sas stir. d4ks11

atte,tan 4

al~ksandros.

protU1s7

rot4te k4pote erotjs1s ton kaBiyitf sas7

t! 141

sas fn(e)

bor!te na

tf k4nete st1n d4ks1 s&87


tf k4n1

y4nis (neuter)

tonoml

ton_

nfkos ke y6ryos.

p6s1 t1t1t4 fne st1n dAks1 sas7


p6s1 apattds

tonomA tu

su fne marIa.

nomdzete pos ta e11n1ki


odz

pos 1

a{skcl1

sa7

1. jn(o) o~. :-7

nomfzete pos 1 'lines jn(e) ori1 k. pos


1 el1rd6es

*/tt5ne/ 18 somet1Jnes 11800 for

~xun

oNa ke mey41a .utya7

eupholl1 :inStead ! /ton/.


112

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

1111! 9

~~~_

~!~_~!!C!~t;
~o

ario

torrow

-6

to pro!

(the) morning

yyv ("

parangelno (parangI-

to order

10)

~6 O'UO"ouo.

to kustWn1

A~.o -6 &
'U-U..

(the) suit

aW10 to proI, 9a
paran;ilo kust&i.

going to order a suit

tc8orrow IIOrnin.

ertixs

tortunat.ely

-6 --

to kat.astima

(the) store,

- -O"~-

t.a katastmat:.a

pl.

-6 {,

to

- vfcfaoa

a ir"zata

E''Ux V&. -&

zna

ho

(the) cloth, material. tab.c

pl.

Ax:a, 1prx1

Fortu.nately, there 105 a .toN

" o~ &. u

ka t.1Ja, pu181

vhich 8e118 very good

xc& v&a-

pol

DIaterial (8)"

,, ..

1 pi1dla

(the) arietl

- vfaa&o\l

ton ifa_ton

. x~ & . .. Va&-.

.,

-,

kU:1 b wda

eyt:u.

p:SJdl!a 1f'araltn.

6, -~,

-6

cf- .,
,

kala itazmata.

mater1al ()

and 1t ba8 a
ary !

ma11nos, -1, -

oollen

anvakers, -, -

cot.ton

no

nylon

ifazmat3 malina,
kera,

no

vanva

ke t:.a

lare

tabr1cs.

Woolen material(s), cotton,


,

etc.

113

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

()
' -& '

aorazo (aoraso)

to buy

i elines ee1W1

The Greeks don 't like to

naOraz1Jn etiJna

buy read:r-made suits.

, -

kustUr.mya.

,.

-& (-&)

sinieizo (sinieiso)

to be

(the) tailor

-&

rattis/o raptis

siniGizun na piyenun

6 .

sto(n) ratti.
perno

ta l1Ietra

,, (,-

xrisil1lOi

They usua11y go to the

to take
(the) maa3urements

(xrisi-

t.o use

mopiiso)

,)

,,6/-

i eitiiti ta/-t.1e

(the) skil1

i foresya

(the) suit

teli08,-a,~

perlect

,,

-&&

to

tai10r.

(pcro)

()

accustoned

-,

rattis Sa sas pari

-& ,,

ta metra, ke Ga

,,6

xrisimopiisi

1!

epiti~10titc

tu, ya

, ,.

na S3S

The tai10r will take your


l1Ieasurements, and wi11 use

tin

a11 h1B ski11 to make your


! t

pertect.

k8ni ti(n)

toresy& sas, teUa.


',,

-,

~YOB,

-,

aspros, -1,

-&'

apto

tayo

(the) same
(the) dozen

to pukamiso

6 ,
'6

i dUna

-a,

katastima

eaoraso

~ ,.

dnzlna aspra puk8misa.

ke I1Ila

white
(the) sh1rt
1'11 a1so buy a dozen white
shirts trom the

sar.e

store.

,,4

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G REEK BASIC COURSE

, -, -

metaksts,

i yravata

-!. -

made

si1Jc

(the) tie

.to xrna,~~.ta xr6mata

' lu

(the) co10r

saIt to kat.istima, exun

They al50 have vcry good sl1k

ke pol. ka1es metakso-

ties a11 co10rs, this

tes yravat.es, s1a ta

store.

' -

xrnata.

&/

an/ean

(()

meno

(, -, -

merik,

to xr:ma pl. ta xrJa

(the) money

i 1U.tsa

8Ocka,

to
K~'~ ~ ( K~(

qan

(m:no )

..a

-es,

any,

pap.tsi

mu

rema1n, to stay, to dveU


BQII

stock:l.ng

(the) shoe

mnun ke

x~ ~'yop

erik8 xrmata,

( o~.

ea-yOraso

llte8

ke pap.ts1a.

And

have any mone,. 1eft

( 'Bne money vi11 rena1n )


111

buy

[8one]

soclcs

aad

sboes.

ar1n!

~"'

perdnda

ena

tirtyone

~"'

pen!nda

fitty

~"'

eks:nda

sixty

o~"'

evor.!nda

seventy

666"'

'.ind.a

eighty

"'

nn:ta

Dinety

"'

ekat

on hmdred

! ea k! arts, avrio to r:

pu

.
pai na parangili

to klIstni7

tlo

parang!1i ena kustUmi

sena kat.istima. pu pu1al 01! ka1a

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

ifaznata.

exi

18

ifazmata

aft

to katastima7

exi rn.ia

mails ta,

mey11 pild.lla ifazmaton.

1fazata alina, vamvakera, nailon,

ke ta
Gelun i elines nayorazun etima kustnya1

pU sinie:tzun na piyenun ya ta
t! kani

kustrnya

6xi.

tus1

lipa.

Gelun.

siniG:tzun na piyenun sto (n) r'fti.

raftis,sto katastima tu7

raftis

pernl ta metra, kc

xris1Jopii

611 tin epitiCIiotit8 tu, na kani ti


foresy8 , telia.
t! ep:tsis Gayorasi ItB kirios apto

Gayorasi ke m!a duz:tna 'spra pukAmisa.

kat8stima?

t! ilo xun saft to katistina1

saf't

to katastima xun ke pol kales

metaksotes yravates, Ba ta xrmata.


t! Ga cani afts ' tu rn.inun merika

Ga-yorasi ~ltses, ke papUtsia.

xria1

Narrati'98
A~6 ~~!X~~! !~~!~

artS ~~ mey810 !~!~~~~

!!e2~ '~ ~ .

saf't! t1 yinika.

()

(kso)

~ ~x

1nterest

to

ov

s:lmera 1 taverna xi polus

!!~~~:!~.
~

pe14tis

C\lS toer,

pa tron,

client.
~~e!~~~ 3~;

t! ~!!~ 1

exactJy

A~6 ~ ~~ge!~!~!.

art pu lete 1!!!~!!~f.

&'

ayorazo puk8misa me

to BxCIo

~6

~~!g

!~~!!.

~X!~!~
~ ~

pleases

design, plan

nikos lei p8ma tin

!!!~~.
i

alleya

truth

, 16

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G REEK BASIC COURSE

aftS

'tou.

Mni

ta

x:riJat8

tu.
(Oso)

()
't

mas ini

panda

to

give

poles

simu1es.

~~~~~!~.

i simu1!

adice

'~_!K~1~

ekloy

choice

afts ! pol! ri~~~.

taste

't't

'tou 'tou 't 't 't


au'tOt ~o
't 't. fxouv , , 'ta't
~.

't't, 't 'tu

U't.

't 't~U 't't't, &~o y~o

! 'tO 't

'tou

't /'t 't 't

't KO'tO 't ~t't.


'U't 't 't't 't
'tX

't~

'tOU

'tOU
YLa'tpot

't 't

't 't CX-- .

, t, ~ ~ ~o 'tO
!~o,

't

'tou

~'tL 't KL'~'taL ! a

~ 7IV'ta YO'tO.

ps to

lene to

pU ine to

katastia

sas?

tu tllu sas7

to

lene

nko.

!ne kond4 sti(n)

breza,

stin aeina.

protiJmin to kat8stima att7

aft! pu eelun naoraZIln Wlia kustUmnya.

Xn

eld ka18 Uaznata7

exun poll

kali,

malina, vamvakera,

metaksot8 ke n&1lon

ifazuta.

t! aneroros in(e) raftis?

()

enas aneropos, me meali eitiitita.

t! olxni stus pelates tu?

6ixni saftus mey810

kani raftis _ kal3 kJstmnya

malista, kani ta kust~va tus akrvs

eniafern.

ta eelun.

stus pelates tu?

117

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

:.

"

pane sto ka tas tima

..

li i Qiplomatiki ipalili,tu ipuryiu eksote-

aft?

rikn, ke tis ipiresias lirofrin.

pol yatri ke iplili tu proksen!u.

ali pin(e) eki?

ya l piyenun eki'l

piyenun k, iti tU8 efxaristi i pikilia


to Bxeo

anrS !n(e) mkos'l

ton ifa_ton tu.

ine naB ol! eksipnos ke efxaristos


anrS.

t ni
pa

stua peates tu?

!ne ta pra"(lll8ta pu

tus ini ti<n) sinwl tu, ya ayorazun.

aorazun?

!ne ol kal8 kexun pol! yUsto.

Grammat1cal Notes
~~_2:.!.. Noun: Third declension neuter ou
&. ~&~a,

-- /-a/.

iprxi na kat8st:iJa, pu

. & &-

pu1ai roll kal8

~.

1fazmata.

..

&~

There i8 a store wh1ch sells


very good materia1.

pik1.l:ia ifa_ton

variety

! naterials

~& x~

s (e) 618 ta xrata.

in a11 oo1ors .. ,

.'& ~&

ky8n a mu m:lnun,ke

and 1f

.& x~

In Note 5.4

with various endings.

have

ar:

money 1eft

merika xrmata

was stated that thc third dec1ension inc1udes a largc number


The above examples i11ustrate

nanly neuter nouns in --

All neuter ou

~-~.
5g.
.
xrCa
to

class

nouns

third dec1ension nouns,

/ -ma/.

/-ma/

are dec1ined follows:

Pl.
xrcSmat;a
ta

~~_Il
5g.

Pl.

to

tt;:ba

ta

katut4Jata

G.

tu

xratos

ton

xrnat<n

tu

katast:Jatos

ton

k.atut1Jiton

to

xr8

ta

xromata

to

lcati8~

ta

kataat4Jata

--------

Note 9.1.1

Noun:

~6

Third dec1ension neuter nouna

~6 &

/to y8.1a/ 'milk' and

/ to kreas/ 'meat '

'lbese. nouns are dec1ined like neuter nouns in -- / ~/.

118

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

-~~:.
to yala

tu yalaktos

1..

to yala

G.

~.

kreas

ta yalata
(ton

to kreas

ta

~lata

ta

kr8ata

ton kreaton

a18ton)

tu kreatos

ta kreata

Grammatlcal Drills

att

to

aspro

:lne

Hza

kal.

at.

akrlV.

fn(e)

1p4rx: pol xr!a 18.

to

kat8stba a!'t

ft to niG1ma

:lne

!!

s1mera.

puU1sa

to

xra

1 prot8s18

att

tu

(e)

_e!atoa.

e:Us

8xue

8na ka16

a.

xr:mata, & n

aspro.

i-ne kales.

ta

ine !skla.
11018.

pa artn to katast1J8ton,

ka!!.

kaG1Y1tis

artn on _Wto,

ine

pol

eksipnos.

to xra atn ton lra"ton, fn(e)

.u.

8elun to aapro sa.

attl 1 yat.ri exun po18

maeiata,

akr1"a.

1 "ltses atn ton xroaton, () al:riv'

proti. art to xra.


Cts

Hza, ()

af-t.8 ta

a!'tu tu xratoa, ne kaU.

attu tu lrazma tos,

fne kalA.

':.a eyla !a, eksa.

eiskol0.

1 1p811l1 attu tu katast!matos, n kal.

ta

xrataI

ta aspra

tin.

:lne

ta

"pro.

xwe _a katast!Jata.

a!'t8s 1 toresy bun 11018 xrma.

xriJa.

t.s

t8sUna.

1 fi tite epnalanr8nun to _81aa.

1t.zata lD

GeU

art to za

exl

1101-' .

11018 xr"'B.

Correla t.1on Substitutlon Drlll


-----------------------------Put the vords 1n parentheses
iPlllos arto

(to

Mia)

art! 1 fi ti maGenlJn

pol

1 pik1lia (to :irazma)

aftn

to

the appropriate case (slngular or plural, as necessary).

Ga p8rl avr10

kal8 (to

aIJima)

(to katastima)

poa

(to

xr:Jna).

tus.

pol

meyali.

119

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

(to ifazma) aftn ton aspron (xrma),ine poli akriva.

(to xr6ma

aftn

ton akriVn (ifazma) poli orea.

Subst1tute the words in parentheses for the underlined word or words


and change the aspect

the sentence,

the verbs accordingly.

enns aoraZUle 1!'azmata ~~_~!~_~~~:. (stis eksi)


aftes ea epanalavun to rae1ma, ~~~I!_~f~. (kaee

(avrio)

mera)

ea parangilume ta pukamisa mas sto(n)

yan1,

r~i ... "yavazo It to maeima ~~~_~~~~.


~st1s ok't)

avr10.

(pnda)

esis sinieizete na trte e!~~: ~~~~_~~~.

es:!s prepi na meete to maeima I!~!_~~~~. (611

(st1s

ok't)

tin dra)
aft~3 ~~ spudaz1 ~~~ elin1ka. (avrio)
/,is ~okimsune

ta krasya

!!!!'2.

stis okt6.

(kaee mera)

f8me musaka

10.

(kaee mera)

tus 18

ItB prep1 na p1yen1 st1n e1aoa, ~~:!_~~~~.

(avr10

s:lmera to n:lko.

pU piyenete

mera)

katast!nata

sti(m)

OO1

!n(e)

k?

xni

r&rt1s

(avr10)

ka1s'1

r8ft1s enb1aferon stus

pel.ites

kBnete sena kat8stima?

tu?

prot1m8te naorazete ~tima kustUmnya,

:lne i yravates ke ta pukwsa akriva sto


kat8stima pu

pite p8nda ston ratt1?

sas?

aft8 ta katastimata?

ine akr1va ta pra'Y1ll8ta

(avrio)

pite saftd to katastima ca mera'l

kBnete! avr10 to pro:l '1

! xun

(ai

kala kustUm,a ~.

pr)

dra tr ~ E~:1

(avrio to pro:l)

iparxun ka18

sas efxar1st:lsun. (avr1o)

r&rt1s p&rni ta metra 2!!_~1-!!_2!:!.(avr10)

aftes M.nun ~~ XT:ma .a vs<m:!a.

ItB ili:.s aOr&z1

(avr1o)

~:lte

esi men1s ~~~ st1n 1~. (sen& xr6no)


aft:! xriRimop1un E!~ 611 1 ep1t1~1otit8

p:lnete kafe ~!!_~!.~_~~:. (avrio to pr).

lstis eks1 avr1o)

pte1

na p1yenete sto(n) rafti?


1parxun ka1a 1!'azmata, ke ala pra"11ll8ta
sta

katas~ata 1

po1e6s sas?

120

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G REEK

BASC

COURSE

1111'1' ,0

10

.6

ker6s

(the) tie, veather

.6

60 ger

hot long, ('how IIII1ch ti.')

t-r

nfnat.e

J'/l

l6ao .6 t-r a-r~v

6 ger dnate stin

aeina?

ow

_tayed, re_iD8d

long d1d ;you 8ta;y in

Athens1

!.

Inina

peripu

approJd. .tel;y, about

&

i e0n4a

(the) week

". 660 &;


.

I!Idna ek, 610 vo_e8, perfpu.

6.;

1 akr6po118

-r

{at.e

t-r -r~v

no .;

. (e )p:fya

(!)

(.)"'no

-r6

the )

t,o eek8

( ) Acropol1.a

Did 70U ..e

Acropoli82

x94s

(!)

, &

( _ta;yed

approx1utely.

:fate tin akr6poli 2

&;

stayed, re-.1ned,

~t

btijya

ct li~.

"

vent

n, Xl!s to prof,ep:fya

eki [, az! ne

Yes, went up there ('t.&'3~:l!r')


-"i th others 188terdq DIOrn1ng.

41us.
()

r:fsko (r6)

to !ind

vr:fka / evr!ka

v,

~fkolos,

easy

-,

'fkola

-i,

fO'Jnd

easily

121

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

o()1ys

B~K~ 6;

( the) guide, dri ver

vrikate 8rkola,inan

yu

Did

tind. a guide

easi~

tound

ek81y

to expla1n

~y

eks!yi.se

he

~o.

~o.

x.~K~o.K~

i arxi tekton1k

(the) arcbitecture

naa

(the) taple

, ~K (

lepto8r1a

(the) deta11

lept.oMr1es

vnk8ae

nan, pu aas

exp1a1ned

in detall

tour on bo expla1ned

~y ~o.

eksfyise leptQ8r1es, to

/ x.~K~o.K~ ~

t1n arxitekton1Jd ton

U8

in detall the arch1 t8o-

ture ! the tepl8.

naon.
.

1t pleasea

oe8e

1t pleaseci

&

sa8 are"

1t pleased you

.6~o

perietero

oat (adv.)

.6 6 & .

su are8e

peri8tero?

6~o;

d6, -~,

68 n.8

-6

al6,

Wh1ch

taple

d1d

yu

be8t. ('pleued yu the 11081'.)1


-

-!,

81Jpl

&au., -, -

8a_8108, -a, -

adertul,

&

parennas

(the) Parthencn

6 &. 3,

.( (.(/

.)

aplcSs ke eaws108
pareennas

xri81J8vo

The

81Jpl ar

beautitul

beaut1tul

Parthenon.

(xris1-

to serve, to be

use

PSO)

~/~~()
't, -, -

like the

/er

arxeos, -a,

~x

ancient
(the) art

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G REEK BASIC COURSE

LL

pu xris:1Jnevi ra

sO(n) glO, pso

~~ a

te1ia

shw')

the wor1d hov perfect the


anc1ent Greek art vas.

1 arxea

kata1aveno Ocata-

~C (K~
&)

to

wderstand

14vo)

~L, -,

-6

. -.~x
~6~ K~

shovs ('serves to

10

eliniki texn1.

~x.

Kat

i tan

CI!xni

~6 6 ~La

1IfI

ke

~Lug

raoymat1ks, -, -

o-kal1tex1s

(the) art.i8t

mo tte

t.t 1

kat8lava,

And only then d1d understand

8rXei eUnea,

~a y~Ko ~x-

!ean pra~tik:

ka1it:xnes.

tbat

nc1ent

GreeJ

rea1 artists.

'

p6eon

ger

itan

aft drios

pe

p!ye st1n

ui

ae pyUs Pb(e) eld pno?

eOla

itan

akrpol1i

enan

tu eks!71M

st1n aeinal

k, evoies per!pu.

piye xees to proi.


p!ye eld , _si .. 'lua.

1,1

MUsta,

artS 1?

pol ~kola

vrike

tu ek8iyi8e t1n

en.n.

arx1tektoiJd ton

arx80n

nan.
l'; naB tu

irese

per1tero?

pareennas

veWoa.

18 lO?

t1

k{e) apl6a, ke 8a_s108.

ixni pareennas1

1.

p6so

kat8lave

attS

Idr1os,

tan tn

tl1a,

ltan i arxea eliniki texni.

katalave pos 1 arxei elines, :ttan


pramat1k

barthen6na?

ka11texnes.

Narrative
!!~e~q.!: a ~ .

~~!!, pa stin el.8CIa.

'~!:~f~~~-

f:t1os sas in(e) ~!:~~:!.

last year

~5'
L6, -

Amer1can

,23

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

6 ~XEL !-fi~~s;.

xrnos

exi

O3eka mines.

nBB

month

eel0 na pao ~~.

6 L

everywhere

!pye rets:ina

mno

~~~

tlJe,

ElvaL

~E!:!!.!:!!.

oCC8a1on

kond8 stin eesaloniki. :tne


:8 ~!e!!.

tL

to

' ~~~~!~.

10

ru:1n

a-yorazete pola !!!!!~.

Lt

tov1vlo

book

iCSeran!kserane

they knev

&&

!Gelan/Gelae

tbey vanted

& Q~~g!~g LL& &

ta !~~! pey, eelun


pol8 pra'YII\ta.

&.
L, -,

-6

&. 'QY~
.

slJer1ns, -, -

contemporary, present

aft! i ip81111!'l~ pol

kala.

()

()

~x. ~~. art! 1 y1neka


to llve

ex1

pol !~!.

': 2YX~g'Q1l~~ -

lUe

em!s !~!~ ato .kaf'enio

tu n!ku.

: .
&

s1xn8zo

to v1s1 t of'ten,
to f'requeat

& ;~~;

ElvaL

.&.
",

ta ~~ katast!mata, n
oeksya.

-,

Q!_!~~!:g~!:!S;i
LL

& 6 ~!y!eQ
.

K~o .&

la1ka,

-:!. ,

popular

aresun 1 ~!~~~!!!!7

1 oBB~BB
mno kond8

sto kndro t1s

fun,

amuaeent

center

pleos.

to kndro o1askeo'seos

nightclub

1Zl

Hosted for free on livelingua.com

10

GREEK BASIC COURSE

afts

A~6 L

:me enas

Mealo

las.

A~f L ' L !~!lQ

people, crowd ,

aft:t i Plis maresi ~~~~_[X2!!J

so(much)

, & :. pU lo a mo elci.

v<t6 & L<t<t ~L arts fititis ~~~!~ na


& cv<t <tfv C.a att:l. /Hskoli ylosa.
o~ (<t)

to be ~!!! (to d.o

kondevo(kndepso)

sanething)
wby, becaUS8

r.!:!!!! t<t KC <t ~~! pmete ka!e,6li tin ra1

ntpvaL ~C Lxc6 <t cxc <tOV C &C.


: <t xc! c cv<tOU.

II<tC ot li 6L.

<t

~f ,

'~c ~<tcv ~ &" c 't 6L

xt 'to & xco co L .


xcc tLC,

&c,

"La

! oc cv<tcX ~

& c-ro ~c 4 npYX<tc YL 'cv<tcX '<tcX oC Ltc

,Ccn xc '&c & L npyx<tc , 't'v ,


xc <tfv ,
cv<tot,

'&C

&,

<t xc! <tt c , <t Xc <t xc! ~6

& 6.
~c,

r,'cv<t6 c , .

~ xcc,

~ l't,c<t6p,c xc a<tcX ccX K~C ,c.

. ' !&c npcXyx<tc yL 'cV<tV.

'x&c CI. c

C6 ~, c ~c c6 L .
Mv<tEcxv t. cXv<tc ~

enas amerikans me ti y1neka tu.

p!yan .Jd.,1

perisi.

pso () ger 81na

pyes

plis

tis

KL'cv<t6 <tv & <t6ao

'.

p!yan s't1n e18~a7

<t

pnde

eJd'l

e18~as

m1nes per!pu.

pIa pandu.

plyan7

st1n

:,

sti Oesalon!ki,

sti(m) b8tra ke poles ales Plis.

pU piyan

tan

:ttan stin aeina7

pi"(811 stin

akrpoli,

ke stus il",s arxeus

naUs.
pses

tores

pla

p!an ek:

eld7

merikes forcs.

,25

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G REEK BASIC COURSE

tus aresan ta arxea afta erfpia?

tf ikseran ya tin arxea e1aoa1

lkseran po1a praMata ya arxea e1aoa.

a]'O

pu

ikseran,

ap

afta ta pra"jttl8ta?

011.

tus aresan para

po1a viv1ia pu

avasan.

lee1an na maeun merika prayroata ya tus

tl 310 lee1an na maeun episis1

simcrinus elines,ke ti simerinl

ieelan na kserun ps zUn aft! i anerOPi,

t! akri lee1an na kserun ya tus

ps

simerinus elines?

ti
11 :lan ya

eaa.

na ta 1Ca) aftB7

v1epun ti zot ke tl kanun simera ya


Xra t~s,ke

pa el pu

ton a10

sj.xnazun

tavernes, sta

l(i)

kafena,

iaske8ses,ke ta

kzm.

i e1ines. stis

sta laika kendra

1ipa.

pos ine enas 1as me karJy, enas 1a65

ke tl: emaean yaftus?

pu Icseri na z:t.

tus arese aftO?

ne, tus arese


minun ya

tBo

panda

poli pu

kndepsar.

na

5tin eUa.

Grammatica1 Notes
Verb: Past tense

Note

10.1

KaC

~~ K~

:1.

the

'

1.

~!.
be

erb

'be'.

ke t.te kata1ava,

And only then did

understand

pos i arxei elines,

that the ancient Greeks

itan pra-ymatiki

re.11 artists.

wer

kalitexnes.
terse

past

the verb '00 18 as tollows:

_21:
1.

V}()

mun(a)

2.

O(C)

isun{a)

).

~()

tan(e)

vas

you vere

(. )

hc,she,it vas

1.
1

Jaste

or

:ltastan

2.

/.f1

:saste

or

lsastan or 1888

).

San

~!:

:!tan

vere

you

werp.

they wcre

16

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10

GREEK BASIC COURSE

Mote

Verb: Cla88 1 Verb: Past

10.2

a 1 akrpolil

E~ ~~ x6o~;
'

lxEt

personal endings.

)!ya

~o.

D1d

eJd pno, I118!

YOU

Acropolis7

up there vith the others.

alus.
naM

~E& a~.

po18 pra'Vlll8ta.

They leamed

any

th1ngs.

The present tell8e perscnal endings o~ the Class verb8 (used w1th present, ~uture
and subjunct1'V') e d18cul!IRd 1n 4.5.

personal end1ngs
'1he

o~

capl8te

the

set

Baae

o~

The above exnplea 111ust.rate the p8st 8

verb class.

these end1ngs 1s:

21

!.

-a

2.

-es

-~

-ate

3.

-e

-()

-an(e)

!2~_!~~~

Class 1 Verbs: Simple Past.


p)so(n) ger minate st1n

6 .6 (~ ~~

ae:na7

&;

long d1d you 8tay in

thell8 7

1118 ek!, &: eva.aes.

1 8tayed tlere ~O WO veek8.

'&a npayx'fa.

8aM :8 ~.

n. leamed 18 Mng.

W&v

ieelan na Iarun...

They vanted to knf

~H 4 npyx'fa '

ilaeran :8 pra~ta

They kner _ th1r.ge tl'Oll

~E.

txEt

_ tvl!a pu -

'fa .( ..

bo0k8 they read.

vasan.
The Greek S1Jple c:orr8sponds in meaning to the Siple Past in Engl1sh (11 d1d 80axi-ao ).

The SiJple Pa8t o~ C1a.. verb8 18 ~orred by (,) add1ng past tense p8r8onal
endinga to ~!!~!!!_~~ o~ the verb and (2) M~1E the stres8 to the th1rd ayllable
r

the end.
'n1u8, tor

stem

exapl,

(-

the verb

/arxis-/.

/arozo/ 11 begin l has the perfect1ve

'n1e S1mple Past ! this verb 1s, therefore:


Pl.

,.

l.

~rxisa

arnsame

127

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2.

arx.ises

arxise

lXPXLcrav

arxsate

11

arxisan

arxsane

As can be seen fram this example, the stress 1n the plural forms
one syllable later than the stress in the s1ngular fOrmB.
the plural endings

-,

-,

-l

When the th1rd person plural

The reason for this 1s

is used (as 1n

/8rrisan/ above)

in the s1ngular fOrmB.

All 'regular' po],ysyllabic verbs

the verb comes

/-ame/, /-ate/ and /-ane/ ccntain t"o syl1a.bles.

/-an/

the stress falls on the same syl1able

or

this c1a.ss have the1r stress stdfted in Simple

Past according to the above pattern.


'n1

d1as)'llabic Class

'augent'

verbs have a stressed

Bte !

prefixed to the

the

verb.

/8-/

'tI..B augent 1s usually the wl /-/ ("1th a 1.iJni ted mmber ! verbs l, as

/8810/ 'to V'ant',


The
a

augnent

(e.g. mae8no-maeo-naea) or somet1mes


/ela/ frn the verb

-&

I1ksera/ ro the verb

1s prefixed to

11

'regu1ar'

dissyllabic

syl1ab1e past tense en<ti.ng 1s added to the verb stem.

syl1a.bles (e.g. p1ura1 end1ng


augent :

or

rrI!I1' be

/kI.rw/

-,

-,

verb !

/kaero/, etc.)
this class

/lc8no/lo)

ekana

2.

8kanes

).

k.ae

that

tvo

and / -ane/) the

'

'to do
d1d'

etc.

(~ )

(e)k4name

(~)

(e)lnate

'kaDn

the verb

the siX other '1rregu1ar'

/prno/ (

()
erbs

/ph:o/) 'to

l1sted

talc8

/pemo (p&ro)/

Note

6.2

1s

but:

k:6an

V'hen

prefixed to the verb.

(/

'1be S1JDple Past

],

\\'here the end1ng consists

/ -arte/, / -ate/

-&

88

vell

a8

follovs:

'

1.

(~)

(e)ra

(~)

(e)pframe

2.

(~)

(e)pres

(~)

(e)pirate

3.

( ~)

(e)pire

()

(e )pfran(e)

126

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10

G REEK BASIC COURSE

( } /tro/ ( /1'&0/)

~.

'to eat'

efara

(}

()laae

efayes

()

(e)fayate

( ) / ( /pcS/)

'to

i1

etayan or

1'ayane

pae

q'

1.

2.

1.1tcx

Ipate

3.

!pe

()

Ipan(e)

,tuyltrr.,o/(!J //)

"

'to lene'

1.

"

'f1ya

(}

(.) yae

2.

c5fiyes

(}

(e) f8te

3.

efiye

i1

'f1yan

tIyane

or

/pUo/(. /pr6/) 'to dr1nk'


1.

{p,ya

i1.

pya

2.

~.

Ip,yeS

:!pyate

3.

.(}

()

t v

/- C!~ /

( /r.o/ 'to

go

1.

( }

( )p!oya

(}f)

()p!ya.

2.

( )

( )pyes

(l}nf)yaort

(e)p!yat8

()

(e)p!ye

()u-\()

(e)p!yan(e)

/v/ (;lO/)
1.

'to /

'

'ame

'

i6ate

()

!'an()

'e verb

/vr!sko/ 'to find' belongs to a n1xed erb claSS: vhile 1t

r~rfecti steIn orr i8 constructed like any other 'irregular' Class verb ( ,

/vr/, /vrs/,

/vri/ etc.) its S1Jnple Past i6

fored by add1ng the past suff1x

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--

/-1k-/ to the perfective stem /vr-/.

, , ,
/, vrikes. vrike.

, , (2~ , {)v/evrkan,vran!)

vrikame, vrikate, vrkane/ 1s a typical Simple Past form ! Class

verbs which w1ll be d1scussed

later Uni .

The iJnpersonal verb L


'1

The resulting form:

/prepi/ (Note 6.1) has the Past [on\

leprepe/

was necessary', 'had to'.

~~~_!:.!!' Verb: 'lbe use ! the verb

/areso/'to please' as equivalent to the

Eng1ish verb 'to like something or somebody'.


L6 6 L

6;

~B nas

sas arese

wbich temple d1d you like the

er18tero?

'lbe verb

best ('pleased you most')7

/areso/ 'to please' 1 coonly used in Greek as equivalent to the

El1gl1sh verb 'to like'. Thus:

'L

nu ares1

or

narB1

'

'L

su ares1

or

sares1

'you (fam.) like'

L,

(i

mas ares1

'we

l1ke'

sas ares1

'you

l1ke'

tus ares1

''they like'

'rhe
8U,

pno

'liking'

L,

tu ares1, tis tu

e1ther in the geni ti

etc./ above) or in t.he accusat1ve preceeded


'rhua t.he atglish sentence 'th1s

b,y

gentlean

'he, she, 1 likes'

, ,

t.he prepos1t1on

li.kes th1s

XVptov L 6

ov,

like' ('1t pleases me')

teple e

/u, tu,

/s(e)/ 'to'.
auch'

attu tu 1dnu tu ares1 po]j

be e1ther:

artS nae.

or

6.

6 6 L '6 6 XUp LO. atts area1 pol! saft (n) ton g:lrio.

and 1n

plural: 'Tbis gentleman l1kes these temples very much':

xvp tov Xptaovv t


\/.

Xptaovv '6 6

XUPLO.

attu tu Idriu tu aresun pol aft! 1 nai.


~

arti i nai aresun pol saft(n) to(n)


g:irio.

'rhe S:1Jple Past ! this verb 18 , , , , ,


/8resa, areses, arese/ etc.

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G REEK BASIC COURSE

~~~_!2:.~ Verb: The the verb

'to be near

to"

V't" (V't"f)

the veree

.'t"'t"~ ov't"EUEI. & &-&

,
, 'to

be about

t1t1U& kondv1

cx,j't"~v ","~ { .

/kondevo

(kondepso)/

to'.

na

The

a1 atti t1 <Hsko11

18 about to I118ster

this d1ff1cult language.

188.

Other ex8p1e&:
K6~: "& :i~6 ~6

kndepsa

nay0r880 att

aBo8t bought

car.

taft.odn1to.

:i~OK~O.

Ko~{ & .:& :

kond8vo na 18 10
art.

~6 ''6 ..

to -n:Ylio.

kndepaa

K6~ & . ~6

'

(aU) th1. book.

na w. 610

1Jlos

to kr..I.

c.

Ko~. & .~

1e.

He '11 aoon be ab1e to apeak

el1nik4.

v~{ & ~6 : .

f1n1.h8d ('dr8k')

aU th18

kondm na III1ls1

.&.

about to [anp1ete] read1ng

Greek.

konde'VO na [~ to

'a

about to eat

87 _81.

IIU.

'1be abo". exap1 how the 'Yerb

U88d
'

tense

eans ' A1Joa

d1d

o~{ (ov-rf)
.o..J!d-8'.

/Jmdo (kond8peo)/

U.ed 1n tbe Present. tenae 1 t

l888

about. to do ao-end-eo.
Note that the.,.b

/kordo/ 1. ud w1th

v-r{

& /na/ p1ua SubjUDCt1'Y8.

J!~~!~~H!
~!!_~!!
1

111

n:k08

_& xee.

eelane

Iwe 610 to

kr..1.

na

prye'Vln8.

e!5

xees lcae61u tus

afts

& ldm8sate

aerfus

618 ta pot8.

nikos p!ye 18 ul' stin 1talia.

a"(Orasame pol8 pra-ymata.

5e 88& xri.lmepse attOl

p8nde xrn)ra.

1 Jdr11 t1y prin res.


atta

,.trcS

aft8& &e ,a-a8an ta v1vlia 88&.

1can& pe aul
irx:aan ulyi pr:tn

Bta >

tu.

mazi

lcal1 t~xnis 61a ta xria


.

aers nu

k1 ykB tu _nan ena xr

ro stin eaa.

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p!yate
5

saft to

kendro oiaskeMseos1

t! !pes peOi mu1


oe

vrikame kanena isit!rio ya ton

l'

eoosan lef"t8

ar&se

tBo

poll i

ldrle~

tl

na p!te?

pu isuna 1

giniJat"(raf.

af"ti

katalava

&

kanenan.

el8.oa~ pu

t! ef"ayes niko7

Qelame na

kondepsame na flyume ya t1(m) b8tra.

!nume k:.

Correlation-Substlt\Ition Drill

Use the vords in patentheses and change the umerl1ned verb according1y:
aerf"s mu oe na

()

pai st1<m) brezm.

rdkos ~ ano ret8lna.

(xes)

!!!!~ ulyi st1a okt6.

(Xes)

!~~ ya t1n

(Xes)

aebt

(prin

na

e! . p8me stln akrpoll~ na ie ton paren6na.

(prin

da evoraa)

yavazote

poIa vivl!a7

()

af"ts

ayorazun pol8

lne

t!

stin taksl sas?

arts prnl

pra-ynata apaft to

6la ta vivl!a

to

(XSes)

katist1Jaa.

()

splti tu.

!. ewnia)

af"t! i atik! ip811li~ . ~~ saf"t6 to kseno&oXo.

(pr!n

~n !!:!!~ eat1atrio na

()

f"_8.

6 ~~!~ xdata & kannan.

(xea)

(Xes)

ar8si

kerS?

af"t. ~~ to kafeno.

()

.us 1ine ti na ~!!..

(t)

af"ts
.

oen katalav8n1, tl: akr1ws

----------

!ne stis eksi sto(n)

(Xes)

1.

------

stam.

()

tro stia Oeka.

pU

eM prisi?

t! kinate 8d?

dna)

(XSes)

8 5

kendro o1askease08 S1.xnizat8 ~N!

ti(n) OO11?

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G REEK BASIC COURSE

pu ea m!nete tu xronIJ 7

(jyawzete elinika vi vliai

:lsaste Jcapote stin e186a7

yavasate

pyes a10s xores isas~e1*

nomizete

ya ton arx:eo e1iniko po1itizMo?

sas arese i e18a7

t{ noUz

18 tin arxea e1inild xnii

nizete

18 tus s:iJnerinu8 elines1

sas arese

per1ster

eki?

11ete

aresan, ta arxea er1r18 t1s?

sas aresi na oyaY8zete vivl1a1

*/angla/IEng]andI ,/yal!a/IFrance ,

na

Gelete na

po18 vivlia ya tin arx:ea e18ai

pte

stin el5a2

dnete

18

pima d?

/yernana/'Genna~I, /itala/'Ita1yl.

133

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G REEK BASIC COURSE


Reiew

Units

6-10

Review Drills
Fill in each b1ank with the proper form of the word given on the right.

it is a

noun, use the appropriate form of the article, where neces88ry.


Nouns

ta fay1ta aftis

ine

____________aftQn
stin ela5a

xrma

}n

!ne kal8

i e1B5a

exete

pbxta

poli

exun

pl1z 88

fitit

exi

:itera

yineka

reksis

ine ka1:l o

yatrs

kar5y4

ya ti(m) b8tra.

pr:(n

5!

"

pnde

nosokno

ine poli eksipni.

attis _
arxizun

u smera

t&ksis

stin

__ plirotoriono

simtititis

a5ertos tu patera mu milai pende

~en

vivlio exi

ena meyal0

maresun i poles

ariemo
_

--------- "

yatros sas

aft

aftos

to

atts

~ 5

ivl!o xi

r8ftis, exi

spiti
_

mae1r.a

meali

kaeiyitis exi

vra()i

pola

rtasis
ertisis

___________stin ela5a 011 pinun retsinao

ipiresia
bri

___________ mu ine poli kala peoyao

ar to

xrno

loyaryazms

ea parangilete esis

suvlili
yl1k6

enaiaterono

to 0

8xi

iPlili

atti i

! rekai,

ot

meyal1

mkos ea t!yi

ixate

tate

na

attu tu nosokomiu
i elines

kzms

ti(n) gar5ya.

orees

bli.

mu

xi

psari

retsna

po~

i 5ulya _

kuzina

oreo.

satt!(n) ti(n) daverna bor!te


k&pote ayOrazume

poli kales.

safti(n) ti(m)

--------- !ne

taverna

ine ftina.

aftos kseri
to

to ksenooxion

---------

nOstima.

epi tiitis

5ulya

134

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

to kendro

!n(e)
sas

aerfs

ex1

na

pol8

xi

!n(e) akr1w.

inan

d't to

tna

ta

tu

polu.

ta

ksenox!u

areai att!

aresun 1

xrma

!ne

pol

orees.

e.

pol8a

l1

t1n

pinume

eel\8le na

na

ker.

&t1(m) b&tra.

_
attu tu nau.

pol!

ra

;ya

kafe.

elinik

prepi na pit.e saft!(n)

ex1

cal.
kotpulo

mskete pMda

akrpol1 lprxun

111181

8itul

- - - -?

prep1 na m118te .e

ora

tlo8

1cata&tnatos,

kat.8la"';no _ _

t!yate

pol

(pl.) tu patera tua.

pme

alcrpol1,

-yraata

duzw

kras!

to

poll ttin8

ek81

811a

ti8.

8 !ne l&.

sta

exun

SB&

e:mera

atte

etro

_______aftu tu

Sn

t1& oree&

kalu.

_________ !ne

makr18

pukimiaa.

aral naJne

at1n

r8rt1&

e1cat

tu pl)'8nun

Sn

pertimi .

a'YOrune
aB4ta

torea~

e11.naa

kat8at1ma ine

1 1 tal!a !ne

t.u

tB'"

1 prezv!a !n(e)

at1n

kat8st1aa

!ne 1! akr1W&.

k8ero

kustUi

aft.ea

&

askass
~_.

ta .aUna

tus

k.

B4m.w 6 -10

poll

! yame

proeox

meyalo

poUt1z6a

sas.

as !

pote

ul

musaJs

saf'ti t1(n) daverna vlepete polus

ipuo

sas.

pelatls

135

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

aftis tis yinekas.

maresi

piynun pol

stin i ta1la

afto to

kali tex.s

1e1 pote

en

panda

!xan

efxaristes

simera ta psarya ine


aft

sitisis

freskos

to ka t4stima xi m:ia meyll plld.l!a

exete

1ta_ton.

pulc8misa.

ine

i fili

It1JDos

ixame

pr8pi

ra

anropi.

ton

spityn

k8erete

i elines ine

ine

neyr11a.

pu1Jdsu

ine

ps art

sas.

ine

pol

-------

metak80ts

ep1.1dnins

1aOs.

naB

t8xni af'tOn ton

Bxi

a1'tu

xrma

etxhistos

mazi mas.

pri-,.ata

118J'esi poU to

t.&l1oa

pol!

paraira af'tn

IIIIlinoa
VDvakers

to fai sas1

a!'t8 ta sx1a ine

aUya

ioame to(m} batera sas.

ry

ta

yUsto

plB

a..asi08

y1nekes.

n6st18)s

_ _

pot aftl ton :xor . akri.

eeni1aSa

aJpolis

en

oaus.

per1'boe

lri 88

aMnatoa

i italia

ine.

as arisi i

i Mitera S88 ine

aerf

art

ta

.1' ti t

a.t't

to

0&0.
y1neka.

mu ine

yer.

ipilili.

estiatria

!ne poU

a!'t:ts tis

t.kseos

iomat1Jca

ine pol!

leri xi

kaears

8ksipnos

ep1vltes.

l-yOB

Verb8
eniB

aftos

Mn

xes

xr1mata

saftn.

no

610 to kras:t.

1)6

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

e&:I&
ta

8a8

8n

88&

(88)

attu

kau.

Al.lc8adro

Urn..e

k10 rU.koa
aft

e.:l1I

prp1

.t1n

prep1 na

..: xee.

1taUa,

------ to

------ po18
(..)

(.) 1 a

---_.-

xrnu

pSs ()

..t. &40
t:!

ra

!
8

t:!

to

ina

xrno.

~vl!o.

n!k08

81

....

pra'YUta.

na pi;y8D81ie t.a

r8187

.:lerA7

pii na

8t1n

e18e.

------- tu8 811nes7


eUn1D.
t.o tno

na

pzo:b

to a:.& tu { fore&.

pd

tu

tro

stin aeinai

(.&)

.n.

st1(n) davema.

aft

18 piad.a.

to krasf?

na

arta

ya t1.n eliCIa.

prepi na k8nete?

.
-..------

ayor4zo

okt.

sti.

l8.

Xe&

an.:t

pd

st1n

xrno

8na

Cl1

to

()

arnzo

kenU1'yes foreIS;ru.

~AB"

(..8)

'1.

- - - - pr!n

_________ na

akUo

xei8?

CIul,yi llti.

ile

ey

. xrnya.

&tin e1ACla prin

peyB

ln1er 6 - 10

xees .t1(a) b8trat

() peristero
an.

enCI1ariron

881't.

to pra-yUJ

xr1.:1a4ho

1)7

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

Harrative
~!_~f1Q ~ .

1n a while,

Co, -,

l1ttle, fev

~_f!~Q] .
()

to arr:ive

~~/ ~~

P1raeus

oo~ ~ .

x~ ~ ~ ~ , ~ ,
~ o~~ ~ t~, .
L'U ~ ~~o ~ lL L, ~ t~.

' oo~ .

' ' ~ ~

'~K ~ ~
6 ~K6 ~o.

~ f ~

~6 6 t~ ~ ~L

EiL L

L.

'

-& ~ 6 uL "

'.

~o KL'tora~ ~ (L.
6 laor~aor6PLO

L6 ~-& 6 t

'~ ii" 6 ,

~, ...
.

x~,

Ma ' ~~ nLcXTO L L

6 t, ,

, ~L.
6 6

L,

cnxMora,

ii-&

~ ~KO L

KL'aVTOt

uL L 6 -&
cf~ npt.ly

ii-&EMV

~ ,

YLcX

',

EIvaL

EIvaL uL ~o 6.

L 6~ L~6 '
fL ' 6L.

~.

YLcX

L -&cxL

6 -&L 6 L ~ 6 ~~.

KL'

~6,

-&.

L6

~L 6 .

6L

-&L, 6L -&.

n~L

' ~

6L.

~ L ~, 138

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

Revie

, la~~a~6p~a, , ~ ~ .~..

6o~.

npwt

6 -

,0

l ~~ ~o .

x~~~o~ ~ ~ ~~ ~6 ~ ~ 6
cf

~o 6 ~~ 'Axo~ U.
.
,

A.~6 'A~6 ~~

~ 1 . ~~ ' ~ ~~ xx~o~o '.

'cfa ~ ea~ xxt -

6 cf~~ a6,o ~o cipfaE~ ~6 tfPE~ v ,.

139

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G REEK BASIC COURSE

Unit

11

()

to

~ -rl

(the) bank

~ ~~K -r

'nIe Nat10nal Bank

ork

used to

ork. as orking

Oreece

6 x6~ ov -r ~~
& -r

years ago

Bank

unt11
6

t -rC

-.

Nat10nal

uaed to start

. (the) .rternoon

-r6

6K-rw

6.

used to start (IIG") ork at 'clock 1

lIIOm1ng [and vork] unt11

to 1

the

aEternoou.

!-r
.

at

Greece.

W~ -r o~ '-rC

to
-

to cbange, C8_h, 8XChange

& !-r

& '

sere

fore1gn, fore1gn8l'

& ()

WEnPEnE

orked

l1x~

-r6

-r6

had. to ere ('It a D8C8_sary t.hat

-r -r

serV8 ,) a lot

Eore1gners

ho anted

to exchange the1r money.

-r.

~6-r,

-,

lIIOst (adj.)

~6To~ '-r
-r

-r

Host

! theD

had their lIIOney'

dollars.

-r o~.

to be vorth. to be
deserve
oeon, anyone

~o , - , -

value. to

140

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G BASIC COURSE

Eva

~~

11

dollar 18 worth

drachmas and vi th th18

'~ ~ ~

{much] money one can do many th1ngs ln

~y~

Greece.

-,

'.

-6

obvious

, -,

European (per80n8)

~6, -,

-6

6 Eno

<

~ x~.

It 1.8 obvious that the

European 8 eU

the Amer1cans kncw that Greeee 18 an


1nexpens1'V9

count..

~xo

to come

tPXOV~CL

they

( the) thousand

M~ LL

by tbe thousands

CC11118

And for that [rea8on] th8y

coe by

tbe

thou_and8.

vhen they

cOIIe

~ 6o1.~

(the) beau~

~6

(the) cUmate

Ixclt1.6~

(the) ant1qu1 ~, ancient onume'

L~f (lL~f)

to return

MoL
L'v & xt ~ 6L
'", 6 '",

Mt

~ dPXCL6

~ ~, ~ou Luv

And. vhen they


cl:1Jate
cor.e

COM

and 1ts

and

888 1.

IIIOUIII8nts,

back here again

beauty,

the7

ant

1.

to

8oret1ae.

L.

~ ui.& &yc
o~ vLCv.

1ndeed
'rh18

ork

very

1Dtreat1Dg

{Ib8d

a lot interest'} imeed.

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G R

S :

c R S

()

-/-,

to offer, to 8uggest
-

better

L-&

( the) salary

()

to

But

-&. L6 L~, L6L '


~ ~ &,f,

fv ~

L'v .

WaS

offered ( they offeroo me')

better

poeition with more sa1ary. (Recause) you


they dldn't pay me
(and)

80

weU 1n that

knw

1eft.

101

102

110

LL

200

LL

300

6L

400

vL

500

600

!6.

700

LL

900

tL

1000

Responae DriU

-~ 6 6 6

:> f. \) 6

La.

~VL T~a

~ ~L 't~v 50LJ ;

..

'

1 6 ;

.6

6..

'

~ ' .

142

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G REEK BASIC COURSE

( ~6o~ o~

1mIT "

( ;

6 d(~ o~~o;

T~ .

( t~
( ~ ;

~ .

';

Exo~ ( o~

, ~xoT~ x~~.
.

( ~o ~~

~ 6 o~;

o~ o~

(, & VO.

( ~ ~y 6 ~ &-

6 (

~~ ~6To ~.

Narrative

6 ~ ~x. dnq.
6

.ei

a1rplane

~~ .

( (()

to

kn,

to

ee

( ~ ' fe
.

.~ (.~)

' (. ~'.
6 (

1s1and

E~ iU9kx6 4 6
'.

~x6, -~,

-6

natura1.

i ;
()

to

br~

6 6 6 .
(6)

to C8sh

check

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G REEK BASIC COURSE

' LL

for example

xXpLV L .

6 L6 .

L 6
'

~Xe:~

kilocram

etKOOL L.

pack (of cigarettes)

~L L ' 6 6.

'L

LL , , , YLX
x~, 6 6 , L L

~o L .

' L L L .

'L

L ,L
YL~ ' ,

LO (L 30 xt '~ L

. L t t XXPLV

L 6 ,

L ,

lva LL YLX 6 Lv

, L.

L6L L !; O~~
L .

oo~ VL.

Respons8

D'iU

-----------_.

VL

L,

~L

tfVOL

' 6

6.

~L

rLX ,

a ,

L6

L .
'

1 L,

~xo.

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"

GREEK BASIC COURSE

& o~ ~o ~

~C

v'

~ x~ ~o.
vd o~o ~

~.

. ~~ v ;

a~o x~

K~6 , nK~o ~~da


! .

6 M~6 OL ~6~o~
o~ /

~ ~ .

.;

dptaE~ ~ c;

.~, ~o~ . nc .

!~~_!.!.:!. C1u8 Verb8. Cont1nu0U8 (Imperf'ect.1w) Put.


- 6(,0 6... 60u ~

7UI qo _rked 1n t.be b8ak.

~Ccx.
''.; -" 6. .

The

1UII1

-Oat1rwous

correspnd.8

'1'b8

endinp to the

Put describe8 _ hab1tual or

rohly

Cont.inuu

wed

to

Pa8t

tJe

contiuous

the Cla8a

verb

18

.r01'Md.

by

.C

teM

peraonal

Paat, e.g.

~za.~_!!!t!
U8ed

ar.r1xLng paat

the verb, the strea. pattern 8d the _upnt (11 ~)

UoM ! te SiJpl

X.t

.tate or _ct.ion 1n the pa8t

Engl1.huaed to do so-nd-eo.

1Jperf'e<:t1e .tea

are tbe . . . . .

to atart D7 vork.

..i!!.8l!1!2~.22
. a

to begin

U8ed to dr1*

etc.

etc.

IpXIoCc
ipxtccc

()

ipxtcaoc

( )a-

&.;

or

.a

or

~xtcavc

,,

The Cont1nuoU8 18 _1va18 'regular'.


ae othere) baw ~

Some verbs (such l>

one _paat. t8nae tom, Vh1ch may

and . and

Me e1ther pertect1ve (S1mple Past)

or 1Jperfect1e (ContinuoU8 Past) lDean1ng.

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Note

11.2

--------Tbe

Sg.

Verb: Past tense


past tense

the verb

the verb "

you had

he (she J

18:
Pl.

had

~oCX

'

we had

' ';"

you had

( )

they had

'to come'.

'';" ~oT ';"

And for tha t reason they come by thousands

'.

to Greece.

The erb

~o .

Cl.ass

verbs

Me .

had

~~:!_~~=.~ Verb: 'lbe verb

';"

'to

'to come' 15 a '1rregu1ar' Class 1 vcrb.

11

be discuS3ed

:later un1ts.

this stage J hO'",ever J the student

shou1d already be able to use this verb in 1 ts three basic forms which are

fo110WS:

Present Tense
1.

2~

,.

~o. .

2.

~ .

~x'';" or -&

~';" .

o'I.

~-&

.';"

etc.

CO

~p

etc.

1 came

~-&

'.&';"

~-&

~.&()

Perfect!ve

Sten Fo

--------------------

1.

&

or

30 or

-&

2.

-&

cr

-&

&';"

&';"

3.

-&

or

&

30() q

'l'he Future and the Subjunctive forms

this vcrb are constructed by

prsent and the Perfect1ve stem irms with the partic1es


1

be

shou1d be noted

~- - respectively.

-& ~-&

the S1mp1e

';" ~-&

';" ~-&

30
conb1n1ng

the

and

and Perfective stems

50 that may hear

'he'll cone' paralle1

Other forms

..

this verb

ray

a150

' came' and

';"

';" -&.

this verb wi11 be discussed in 1ater units J togethcr with other Class

erbs.

146

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~~_~!~~

Adject1ves denoting nat1ona11t1es.

EvL 6 L L .'

L ~

It's obv1oU8 t.bat the &1ropeana

the Amer1cans lmov that Greece i8

L ~~ .

cous1"1

1nexpens1ve

~6o ~L ~~ ~ l

; hov perfect the ancient Grcek art

8.

.K~ ~x

L ' lcx

that. the anc1ent Qreeks

real art1_t8.

Cyo 1C4/..~.

Adjecti'V88 d8n0t1Dg nat1onaUti_ have tvo

.6 (')

or th1ngs, e.g. (,)

'an
Other

1ns

depending vbet.her they

aod1.fy

perSOM

a...'C6 -m36.

but (.)

J8r1ca lr'

'an A8er1can _tatian.'

exaple8:

1 y~~6

French doctor

"In6 (~

a Spanish sailor

6 X4.y~

8 Geran

Pao L'n)-nc;

\ .6 :WC1/

a French

~n.6

a Span1sh

va:6c;

profe_8Or

Russ1an student.
ho
t8pl.

~ y~K~ ~x

Qenn

~ c1'.K~ 6..

Rw_1an t

art

JdjectiW8 tbe f1r8\ C8teo1"1 {i... tho8e odif7 peI'8OD8) are 8l8o U88d,
1n

_l18h, ..

na.

Un

e.g.

1c..6(

-BUva:

&-

Russ11

With on.

tonu

8 .

except.1ona the adjectivea (or nouns) ot the tirst. categor,y have te1n1ne

in -.: e.g.
'

Greek

French

VOI'W\

,47

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

5panish woman

. (

German

Russian

~~~_~~~~:.l Houn: Hae !

languages.

' .3( l.

The languages
e.g.

study Greek.

various countries

the French language

y.x~K

"the

e1~K

the Rus81an 1anguage, etc.

Greek language

Oran

language,

are a180 1'8terred to as


-

~x

"areek

- y~x

French

- . ~x

Oan

- e1~X

Ruas1an... etc.

Note that these nouns a1'8 UBed in

~-e~!~_~~~!_!2!:"'_~.

~x ~ .

Cireek

x~x ~ ~Ko.

Spanisb 18 -87.

y~x ~ ( .

18 d1rr1cult.

French

18 a beaut1tul lagua.

- - ( ~ .

~:

~x x~ .

'Ea -6 - ~.

'Ea ~' ~( ~.

- - - ~ .

- ~ ~o x~ .

x~ .

'E~ ~(
.

- - x~ .

-( ~:-;

( - (

-( ~' - ~ - x~

x~ 't.

't.

148

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'

GREEK BASIC COURSE

nfPVCJL

"

~ 3 ~ .

' ~

. A~6

~ ~6 , ~ .

't 6 .

t C~ ~ L ' ~ C.
A~

vL& 3 ! ~ x~.

&PXLCav

"'. '/
.

6.

XL ~V

ItL .ed

!- ~6 a C1C.

~3 ~6

A~6 fPXE~I, ~. 3 ~ .
'EoEtt x6O'~

A~6 ~ ~-&

~.x;
l.

~EIoLEtt & O'~. ~. .

l 3 .

'Ec1Ett

x~ . ~'t( t ;

~&~ ;

At~o lp&o\lv ct .

A~ xo~.,A 3 .

& l 6.
'E<J(j 6~ ~3;

A~6 ~3 O~ / .
' ~a '~ ~ x~
6~ ~8~ ;

nfPVCJL.

A~o ~pkv l 6 .
Transtoation

Correlation DriU8
------..--.-----------------------U8e the

ord8 1 parenthea88 8IId

change the

' ~2Y~~2Y~ ~ ~.
A~6 !!!4~!!

'EaEtt

nL1t'I'

4EL'&1

pa8t.

( 6)
(\l.)

..

A~6 ~6 ~OK~o

\lderlined erb8 to cnt1nuow

yta ~~ .

( )
(3)

' 6L}LC 3 ~& cn~v "-

~ 412~~2~Y ~ ' ~6 ~6

(.)

( 6)

xa~/.

A~6 . ~ .

( 3 )

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G REEK BASIC COURSE

L !~~ K~ ~

(~ )

~!~2~~ '6 6 L.

( 6)

r
atu~~ 6 6 .

(~)

L ~f2~~~ o~ .

(~ )

ReSpnS8

Exercis8

o~
6 :
o~ :
E~ ~o o~ :

"

L ' o~o ~K
" :

~ -&~ f ~lX;
-& 6 6 ~-&6 :
6 r&:
~ lX~

xat

1S0

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12

G REEK BASIC COURSE

tmit

12

George

George ('VOC )

M~/Mo.& (a)

to look, 1;0

seel lookJ

., M~ . .

Georce,

vho I

t.he cioor.

(the)

ailr.an

6 &a.

(the) telegr_

ya.

(the )

,,", -, -

re~i8t.ered

', . "

.' ,

let. t.er

themai1Jr..an ~.r. Qeorge.

telegrar.

You

Me

and a registered let.t.er.

(. rLpyo.
.

. (~)

to wait

~T

wait!

6 6
. 6, . .

'ait

1nute, 1'11

coming right.

a87.

------------

here it 181

Aerica

to 8ign

()

15'1

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G REEK BASIC COURSE

~ ~6 ~6 ~

Here 18 your letter and the telegram.

'~ ~.

are from America.

They

Sign here,please.

~ ! .
~\)OW

to

ail

~\)o

,;

that you

() [ ~o]

to throv (tbrow it!]

~6 o\)~

(the) box

~6 ~\JL

(the) post ofn ce, _11

-r6

(the) stamp

-r6

Do

a favor.

~o ~6 ~6 ; P'~o

-r6

at ('of l

xou-rt

~o -r.

~E

Put i t
)

can

you

( ov i

11811

ail

this letter for

t') in the

the poet ofrice.

na11box

It has stamps.

-r6

!
~&

-r&

10ud1y,

8trng],y

(the) neV8
& r1te

-&

vfcx

~ ~&,o.

6 ;

Coe,

read them 10ud1y, George,

nen

ha

15 the

('your brother vri t.es you').

!: ()

to hope

lnLaxfn-roxL (&)

to

&

lnLaXEcpo&Tj

that he visi t .

-r6

( the) unner

ia

He says that he hopes to visit. us this


-r6 ~6 .

'[6

xopt~aL

X~o

sumer

snething

(the) girl

to be

arr1N

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G REEK BASIC COURSE

& n\l~~/~o&

x~~!o.

that he be arri

~ ~o

And soDleth1ng e18e.

Ko~~, ~ n~~.

He vanta to get urried.

('he vanta ua to find h1JD a g1rl so that


he :arr1es her')

, -, -

~6 Vt.:~

beeutitu,

band8cne

he doesn 't

npotM

(the) -dor1

Ncf l~ 6vo, ., *6 MC

*xt

,a

He "18 [he vanta her]

~6 o~&:~ ~ .

on.

to be good and

pretty and be doesn't eare about the ckNr,y.

~!!e!!_~

-ru6-.

~C r~"pyov:

lx~

~x6o ~ ~6 r~:

-r K.~ v-r
.

6 ~ ~:
~

r~pyot;

6 -r~v .K~.

cn6v

-rv6:

Ncf -rou

cf .,

-rou

-rgv~

: .
~ )(

-rTjt; .cf uv-r -r6 ..

r~:

cn6v

-r.
.

66

-rou

.~yo;

;. 4 -r(, !.a.- .-r6

-r6
.;

cll4 ...

~ .. 4

wu

c c

..6

t-r. .4 4 ClV-rpevrTj
..

npot...

--_._--

Ilu'rat.1w

; . (, 6,;

I~c;

. 6

-r6
.6;

_m.PA'.

a-r6 ~~~~e!~.

-r.M6

abroad

!!~e~~~! (, ~yOc.

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G REEK BASIC COURSE

()

to pass, spend (t1me)

Q~~~ C .

howewr

~x ~~!~ .

ne1ther; nor; even

~~~f~~~ .

unrt

~~~~!~~ na~o.

he s1ts

M2~!~ ~x, .

as

~~~~~~ .

to be sorr,y

!~Q!g.

noth:lng

una te, poor

as

, na, -

!~~~~~~~:

1nter:i.or

:~~~!~~ !
.

~!~~~f! ~
.

to send

()

~ ~ !~~!~I l

mnY

order

~ ~~~Q!~~~! .
().&

8ddre88, d1rect1on

~!~!~:.

pacJge

telegraph o!'f"1ce

NewYork

' f ~3 &
a 6.

! .

6 .

o~ '.
.

~ na~o

6 ~x ' ,

154

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G REEK BASIC COURSE

t.

'~6 ~~ L ~:' uL l ~o~ YL~

6 L ~ ta~EPLKOU'. HE~aL MLp6.. nEPV~EL

~~ ~ l '~6 N~o.

O~ l ~x6o

~( ~6 ~6o MLp6 C! '~6 ~

tnL~a~ 50 .

~6 , ~~ LV&uL ~o ~o,

I~ ~ ~ l

'rijc; IcL , lS~L

o~. o~ . ~X~CI /'t 'j

6, .

o~ 'r . '" elvcL UoL KO~~ '}.


Response Dr1ll

-----------~

LL ~ \lVC- ~oU

MIi.fe

rL~

rLa~' ClU-roc; ~ "AEpLX~:

C ~6 6 ~o

vcI

( ~~ lXE't.
Mlive. ~ ~ ~ lla:pw:

4.~Cl.

crr6

naa.fuo ro anL~LOU /

Ma LL ~6 'fCIu6.

~ pcmIEL 6L ~6 (~6 ~Cxv6 xt ycla.

'j " 6 ~ax6o:

) ;

'Aui. o~.A4

.4 i,
..\
'j ,c .v.r6 Ic,vc . ;

1'6

~O'

6 ya'AI wr-

'.

y&a o~ .~ c <r6ov .-

6 t.~CI" 50 o/.c.
f I,

d l~ / crr6 yac:

~ IC7'fELoc vc ,. &c; c~c. ", & . / oe,u

Ma! yp*jyoa 8 :.

MOy'ri

~.

r-t1cal lote8

-----------------

!!!:!-!.!~!. 10181 Vocat1 V8.

., x~~~o: nOL6c; elvaL c~

Oorp,

.88 V!1o. at the doorJ

M~:
HEx~ u~o,

Mr. George, you have a registered letter.

pLE rLGipyO
tSS

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G REEK BASIC COURSE

, ~ .

These

exaples

Maria, ceae qu1ckly.

il1ustrate the use

calling or addressing someone.

the vocative

As can be

8n

in Greek, vhich is used in

from the above

exaples,

nouns in the vocat1ve

case are used Vithout articles.


First declen$ion:
a) Masculine nouns in - bave the vocative like the accusative, e.g.
Vocati ~
It should be noteci,

hwever,

that

nouns in

Be

especiall7

soc:i-al or proressional position rom their vocative in -


~

b) MaacuUne

VO"-Atiw :

DOUW in

c) All

denoting a h1gher

(a8 1n katharevusa) ..

pror"aorl

bave the voeative alvays l1ke the aceusative,

Vocatiw;

Eeinin

ninat1w,

ho

and neuter nouns

..

ot the !1rst d8cleaaion ha,ve the vocative like the

8.1.

,w

, daughterJ

ad

ch1lciI

~~~!~!~!_
MeuliD8 nouns 1n -

S1rJ, no

(except proper nueB) bave the vocativ8 in - 8.g. <.

CaptainI

b) Mos prper nanes in- the '9'Ocat1ve l1ke the accusat1ve-, e.g. .
~_!.!!.!:.

GeorgeI

Verb: Clas8 Verbs: I:perat.ive.


l(

SeeJ

U.f 6.

W81 t a

irwteJ

'1he above ex.amples il1ustrate tbe use ! IJperative (Cc:and !orm).


The

IJperative

in Greek can be either 'perf'ective' or '1IIIperf'ective'.

IJperat.ive eans siJply

'do the action

'keep doing the action

and a pol1te or plural

0118

the verb'.

the verb' vhile th8


bas

vo !orns:

'iJper!ective'

!uiliar 8

Imperat.ive IDean8

(2nd pers. singU1ar)

(2nd person plural).

The 'perfective' Imperative vill be referred to


Imperative

b 'perf'ectie'

iJp1y

as 'Imperat1ve' and the

'iper!ective'

'cont1nuous' Imperative.

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,a

!!~~_~~:.~:.! Imperat1 (perf'ect1 )


he IJperat1ve

1s f'onned 1n Greek by adding the sutlix - (tam1liar f'onn)

or plural f'onn) to the perf'ect1ve

8te1 !

or

--

(polite

the verb.

F..xaplea :

.-

6cj cj-r
u--r-r

{--r

( .)

readJ

[.

s1gnJ

[ (ocj)

1:0 s1gn.]

8eel

(--

to

( u-r-r)

read.]

8.

SCe verb8 with 1rregular perf'ect1ve stem Iors ( Note 6.4) '1rreg.lar' Iaperat1ve8:

~~!:._~~~!:!!!

Pert.Ste

Verb

88,.

...

.-

. .-r /.-

t1Dd

-/-

drinlc

!!~:!_!.!:.!:.!.

Continuoua

-r /-r

"tj.)"tc

I8perat1w.

~ Cont1nuoua IJpe1"'" (tkeep do1ng 80-and-sol') 18 tored by 8dd1ng the sutt1x


Ion)

(tud.l1ar

--r

or

(pol1te or plural torm) to the 1Jnpertect1ve Btea

the erb.

~l.s

~"-

keep read1ngl

6 u-r

k8ep look1ngl

v--r

ete.

u---r

Verbs with vovel Btes (98 . 6.3) haw the t8lll1l.1ar IDperat1ve f'onn 1n -- and
tbe pol1te tOl1ll 1n

--

..

!.1!e!~~~!!!_~~!!!

Verb
-rp~

-rpw-

-r/--

aay

Note

'Ihe

* The

~~:._~~~!!!

on1,.

Cnt1nu0U8

Imperat1ve lonn

Sg.

&u/u/lfu

f'onn

7fTJyatvw

the verb

18

wed n

the verb

(cOn t1nuous) Imperat1 f'onn:

the telepbone only

f- 2t
-r*

1s:

equ:i valent to the

English 'helloJ'.

,S7
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!~~~-!~!~ Verb: Impersonal verb

..

'1'.0 care'.

6 .. . npotx.

The erb . . iB used

He doesn't care about 1'.he dowry.

i:npereonal1y,

1.e. in 1'.he )rd pcrson s1ngu]a r as follows:

Present

Pas1'.

------

..

11 don11'. care

.&.

you dm' 1'. care

~o. you didn 11'. care

.&:

.:

..

..

! c'i

...

c'i

vo.

.&:.

1.

etc.

..

..

~o.

..

d1dn 1'. care

etc.

Gra8lat.1cal Drilla

------------------

''sA , n. .ou.

K~ .. ~&,

Dou

" ...

1.,dt ou;

cn,

.;

-On .t, KUPtez ou.

no.6 1. 6

6 cz6~ 6

' ; cz, . .(.


. .-&',
6..,

t \

-:6

o&cz.

t &. cra.

rLiyo, "

Min.

. czxu6, ;

G.D.1
. 6 ~ ou .

lIfo& 6 & , .

u.. .

., . ou.

1Se

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12

GREEK BASIC COURSE

o~ ~.

~.

! .

!.

! ~, .

! .

~ , .

Mci 3.

~ .

! 6 .

~C 6 .

' , n.

~ .

" !~ ! .

3!

!i ! , !.

oC~ !

lxovv

! .c. 36 .a 6 6 .
! o~C~

av

~ .

oC~ 36 o~~.

SUbst1tution
Subet1tute the appropr1ate
phrasea 1n the

follov1Jg

Iperative 1'o1'lllB

'the wrb for the underlined /prlJp1/

sentencea.

E!~~!_y~_~~~!~6 .
e~~~~_~:~ef~~ oE~ ~.

~~~~_Y:~I~~~~!~ 6 6 nC~.
Ue~~~~_~_~e~ 6 6 oo~.
Ue~~~!_y~_~!~~ 6 6 3.

e~~~!_~4e!q~!~_~ . .
~e!~f!_~g_~~!!q~ . .

e~~~~__~~~~Q~!~ .
~e~~~~_~_!~Q_~_!.

.e!~~!_~_~~e!~~f!~ .
.!~~!_y~_~~~ ! .

~e~~~!_~_~~~!~Q .

1$9

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G REEK BASIC COURSE

E~!~~_~~_!~I~!~ .

E~!~~_~~_~~~!~ ~ In.
~E~!~%_~~_~~~~~I~ n~~.

~e~~~!-y~_~~& ~~ .

~e~~~~_~~_ef~~& ~ .
Respnse Eercise

-----------------

~ ~ ~;

~ j~;

rifE ..E -r ;

' ~xo ~ ~ v ;
E~ xo~ n. t;
no~cf ~ ~& ;

t ~ ~K ~ ~ ~i;
~ notx, \ ci ~ x~;
II6L ~ ~ i ~ n~~ ;
\ ~~;

-rou " . ni-rE ~;

. & ft~ a~ ~;

160

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UNI '3

(the) servant

L/at

(the) a1d

& a

EtvaL

Our

aid's

husband 18 a sallor.

.
6 vL
6aL,

-,

(the ) (ocean )liner


-

world (adj.)

~
uL
aL

aT6

(the) hope

vL' 6

He works an the (oeean) l1er 'Wor1d Hpe'.

'.
6,

-,

-6

, ~,

EtvaL

H15 life, so she tells us,

'98r7 bard.

.
/u

UpfnEL

(,)

to

ear:q

M~ (M~a)

to clean

6 MTaTci

(the) deck

He bas

6 crc.

ao

npfnEL

aJce

up

ery

ear:q and clean the

deck.

up

u MC

ake

afterwards, later,
(aoa)

beJord

to w1pe, ....ep, bru8h

(the) cab1n-

cn (aT6a)

6 L

(the) bed

ao ~

prepare (the bed),set (table)

Atterwards he

cn L.

to sweep the cab1n8

ard

..ke the beds.

,61

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(uaed af'ter

verb o~)

af'ter

~ ~)

1'.0 tinish

(the) capta1n

~~6

(the) otticer

~~ ~~ ~ o~& ~pt

(un1t0J:Wld)

Atter he tinishes this job he has to clean

~ ca~ ca

the

o~xo Ma ~~K.

otticers.

capta:n's

cab1n

aD

those

/ (1)

1'.0 tee1 pa1n,

Kopc:.o, -, -

tired

Ko~

1'.0 sleep

-&

tbat be 81eepa

.6 W oc~

io

tbe

hurt

At n~ht h1s body hurta hiI 80 {1IIUc:b], and

ca C 6 ., ou

he 18 80 tired that he can t

81~ep.

o~-&.
~o~M

Ji1losophica1r

that 18 ('these has')

fxE1.

.4 c~6 ~oo~.

.:

'

B.t

&; & Ix~ 'm vcuTI

he

philoophica~ saya 'bat

tbat'. the l1te

cno~ (u)

a aai1or l

to plan, 1'.0

tocUcI. Uo 6.c C~

He plans

can ve do,

1'.0 ork t.o J88I'8 tbe . . .

4caa..

oooW
- ooof

he viU

6 CX;

a _11 s1'.ore

&

nou &ci

OKoo~,

.8".

And vith the 1DOD81 tbat he

-&'C C.

buy 8

sa

V8

he wiU

store.

!!!!~_~H

E~ .

o~& ~ ~
~ ou;
162

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1)

G REEK BASIC COURSE

nOL6

.;

6 L

6L

L ;

L .

LC L

L6L L
of L.

TC

L L

&

. - 6 -r-r,

-rC -r
-r -rL.

L L
L

L -

& ;

'.,

L3 6 ;

L'

-rwv

LL.

L6n L

-r6

-r6v

-rou

. .

.. ~ . .

&, -r ..

-rOV

Mv-ra:
-roii

/.

6 MLp6 .

Xp6VLtX.

3;

C 3 ;

8' -r
3 .

Narratiw
~tl_~~~~~ 1~. L~ .

Greece

-r6 !~_~.!:i!4~.!: I~. .

port, harbor

6 -r 1L

6 ~_~p!.~.
d

..

cook

L6-r '-r -r

~xo -rL-r 3L,

-r6

-r6 !Qye!~!~~ ~xL

'(L -r.

-rL-rL6,

-,

tour18t (adj.)

-6

6 6 -r-r . '!!g~Q~~
,

16)

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

'<t:6

<ta: t :

<tpfa

YLci

ltalian
(.

<tv D<tp: ~!~~l~~~

t ~& v &.
cn::<t

Au<t& <ta

(<t::<t)

to stop

:&:<t: ~!~e~~y : .
L:~ (L:~f)

to last

Ain6 <t6 : L v L 1!~!~ X~~.


<t, -,

ruu

joy

6 vL

~vL

&

& & x\}pLO

-av<t6 elaL ~Av : Xto.

L&VL

a<t6

".

LCLci.

-rou

l:n<tci x:w<n'p<tc MC 6

6 l:<n'.cx<t6PLo <t 't & e1VXL &u&L.

"EXEL :

v L.t ~ 4 Lv ~.' '<tv ~

' <t

4.

6 .

-rou

~x. <t &..

L6<t.

t.~ o~.o : <tULcn.~ &.

~6 .

. xc v U

wU~.

etw.

6 ~.o,

<n'::-m. / ~::

1I4t

'I~o.

in't~et tn.~

1Cll ".

. 6

.~,

eIVXL

EtMOaL

~6

6 ':u<tv

vc

YLci

'. ~o 6 ~ .~ ': lAX~

U v 1Cll C. 1\ y~ .:.

1CIIt

:.

~!~!-~!!

& :\}.

cn6

VL ~o .:.;

IJW V . ,6 ~6 1.0;

ElvCXL &. M4t ~XEL noAv

ta~Lcx~6PLO <t

&.

"EXEL

' t :.

D6z M4~O"~ .;

a. ~6

6 .

O.KLta:

1CIIv L;

MaL~:,

:~

v :.

M4t

Lv.

Uv: ':~o'

VL ' ~ ':.
4 o~.o L6~L

L~L~

&f.

tL~;

164

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

. 6 6 . ~.

. '6 : ..

6 .: 6 . 6

'.

lote 13.1. Verb: Class 11 Verbs.

Notes

Present Tense.

. o~ .

He has to

6 6 . 6

o~, o~ : o.~.

'lhe above sentences

w.1n

stressed

1lluat-ate

c!'.aracter1stic

the

the use

erb8 !

and aother 1n

Accord1ng1y, the

Cla8S

JW 80

that he

can't sl.eep.
Class 11 verb8 1n present tense {see a1ao

th1s class

(Uke

verbs have two sets

~!!!i'

vake Up wry ear]y.

night his body hurts

1n the1r citation or (Uke

[01118, on 1n

' -&. C

.. .
Gramatical

'D1e

13

.6. . .

o~ ;

they

1 ther

erxi 1n

't,o be able') have t1Io a1ternate

/
!

.4).

personal end1ngs 1n the Present tenses

Plur.

1.

a.

-~

or

-~

-EtorE

3.

-:

-./-e

-(}

'Jhere are three

"OUp8

~~..l cap

of

or

or

-e

-e
-e(}

class ot 'gerbs:

verb8 vhich have

plural 8J'Id 1n the th1rd person plural.

altemate fo1'll8 1n the f1rst person s1ngular and

'D1e altemate

o:s

used 1nterchangeab]y by the

nat1... pe8n ! Oreek, e.g.


Verb , -

't,o 1888'

Plur.

-----

on

fonr..

1.

2.

3.

./

()

or

- cm

orn

or

or

(}

165

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~~~_!

comprises Class

verbs which are used in both alternate fonns 1nterchangeab1y

1n aU persons, e.g.
().) 'to speak'

.,- (or

Verb

~~.
-

Plur.
- fonr:

fonn

- or

tonn

,.

2!

().i

.ci

or

()~o

2.

.i

52:

(6).

.i'f

or

().'i:'f

3.

../.i 21:

().:

.i()

or

()./.()

~~~e_~ cpri

Verb

Class

verbs which have

alternate forms e.g.

lto be able'
Plur.

,.

2.

'i:

'i:'f

()

~~_!~~!_Class
he

qy

Future

eans

ecf

verbs: Future and Subjuncti'V8

Cc:81U1lOUS

C1t:inuous.

and the SUbj_ct1w Cont1nuous

tbiB class

! verbs

oned

and respectively, e.g.

8 .4 4+ ~.

1'11. be spealdng f!1Very day.

8 ci~ 'f c.

' U

8i i~ f 4+ fcx.

l' 11 be s88111g 10U

!0t8 '!-.!

are

'tiSM.

keep uldng 10\1 a1l t.be


eery

da7.

C1a8a wrb8. Iiotat.1en.

BegUm:Sng 1t1 1" ,4 verb. be1ODg5ng

to t.be Group , 11111 be

arkei (,) Sn tbe

buUd-upe,

wrb belmq to the Group a v1Ube arke4 (2) 8nd V8Z'b8 be1oDg1ng to th8 Oroap 3 WiU be
8U'kei (,). 8.1.

to

cx.cn

(a)

to thanlc

CW

(3)

to 11'98

"'

1'he Perfective st8

orns

ake up

(.)

..

will be given :1n parentheses as for the Class

()

()

'gerb8:

,66

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UNI

GREEK BASIC COURSE

Grarratical

13

Drills

o~~ f f ~~.

~~~ ~ ~6 ! '~6 ~6

oci;

~~, K!~ Do;

A~6 ~ 3 ~~ t~ .

O~ ~ ~6

'~6 a~~ 3 .

~o f f ~'~OK~6 ~o.

~~ ~~~ ~'~OK~;

! ,

A~ ~ ~ .

6 ~~ ~K! ! ~.

3 ~ ~.

\ ~ ~ 3~ .

OKoo~ K~! ~ ~ ;

~f '~~o\ ~~ .

A~6 f ~!

x!~ ~ ~o! ;

~o! ~.

o~~ K!~;

~~ f ~~ ~6~ K!~ ~o;

~ '~6 n ~ 6K~;

A~6 ~~~6 u! f f.
COrrelation-Transf'oat1on

--------------------------

Change the personal end1!'1gB ! underUned 1rerb6 to agree v1th the prcnOUS (or ouru)

11sted

1 parenthes~s.

~e~!!~~~ f f.

(~6)

~!~ ! '~ ~ ~.

()

~~~~~~ 3 f ~ ~.

(~f )

A~o ~~ey~~~ '~6 ~~ 3 f.

(<)

!~~~~!!~~ K!~;

(~6)

~~~~~~~~ ! .

()

6 ~~ ~!~e~~! ~.

(~ 3~ ~ )

A~6 ~!~~!~~! ~~OK~.

()

2i~2~~~~~ ~ x~~ .

(~o)

A~6 ~~~~y~! ~ f ~6 ~o.

(!)

~ ~~!!Y~!~

(<)

A~ ~!~~y~ ~

()

( ~e!!~MH ~6 6 ~

167

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G REEK BASIC COURSE

(:')

66 ~~I~~ -

('L)

rLaTt

~l~e~~ ;

('L)

~~Xge~~! G.

()

6 ~~~~4H G .

()

6 6 ~~~~e~!~! G

('L)

e~!~~~ .

(6)

v ~~~~~! 6

iJ. .

(<)

~~!_~!"..!
8c 6a ~ V~

tpxoVTaL ' ~;

iC ~ o~ ;

pa ~ 6 ! 6 6 ;

0'.

BoT)'a''fE f u S -

'1' & oii 6

6 ;

1Wc; ElvclL xa~ V ,-*>vo _t ;

.ftcrc.

tn)yctv"t'fE 'fCV ~W'f ,mEpEcXVE~o;

-Bxcc. ~

~~.f MOa wo~~c.Ata ~a~;

Df)"t'fE RO ~" ;

'r&V .""c '6 .. nO'fc.JoUiTE ot;

168

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G REEK BASIC COURSE

14

-------

tm.t ,4

pol1cun

-'l.lHa

(the)

(t.he) street

-'l.lHa, vL,na,

Aerica

Officer, where 18

street,

6 L;

(the) block, 8QUU' (Qeetr)')

-6 ''-

T811 blocl (tar) trc here.

Ha -- ' .
--

EtVaL

(the) barr8Ck

-i - --.

1t'5 r1Bht beyand the barracks.

~~e!~_~!~~:!!!1
old, aged, elder).;r

LLfv, -, -

EtVaL L LLv
\(Ha,

KL

Oh,

13 too far for an o1d

cn

l1ke _.

cbaufteur
~,,/~

danIt

(x~)(3)

to

'l.l-~

( the) ADbaasador

'' 'l.l-

the Abassador (katharnu8a


cm)

~ -,

'.( 'l.l.

- 'l.l''.

-'-(-6

tL

'l.l.

tbe _bassad.or. 1'11 giw you a

ot

it

('take you ith rr: car ).

-6 -

( the) sectiCll

~ (~)

(3)

oonaider,
(the) visa

Don' t worry, (Dy) ~, 'm the chaufteur

(()

to give a visa

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

x~~ .

~6

' d

Thank you very much.

~L6 L, ~6

Aaerican

~~o .

like to go

t.he

Consu1ate, to the Visa Section

('to the 8ection that thel give visas').

~6

(t:'1e) son

6~/6~

(the )jnvitation

" ~6 ~~ ~K~ ~

~cnELoE 6L . v

have a 8 jn Ameri.ca fho 8ent me an

1nvita't'.iClll

1;0

go and

ee hb.

~6 .
'f.

'f6

to t..'tjnk, to

,~o

n1nd

{the) consul

~ (~)

in

{the) otfice, de8k

"E~aL cn,,~o.

Me

(,1

cn6

~o ~o otlou,

~o

ask tor, look

lr

50, -1'11 go ('1 have 1n m1nd to got) and

"

~6 xt ~o ~~ "

t.he

some

Aerican Cos and

ge't'. ('ask')

jnfrratin.

-..

cxoc.

to

80

"X~a .. o,. -. -

wetul

(o~)

(1)

appear
he appear

to help

" l\141 , ,

CX" x~.o * v ii o~a.

have a fri81d over there vho

tura out

to be U8efUl and helptul to ;you.

"

to

xoc" a " ci" *.

ay

1sh

hope ('ish') eveth1ng goes f1ne [for

you].

~..!..~
.t

~~ KUpta ' ~6 ;

'f ~ 6 A~K.

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14

G REEK BASIC COURSE

~ , K~

~ 6;

' .

~ ~ ~ ~K~

~ 6 ;

. K~ .
6 '6 .

6~ 6
;

6 ~~6 , 6

~~ ';

~~~ ~K;

~6~ x~ L,
~ 6~ ~~

rL 6 L

~ 3 6 L

~o ;

6 ;

x~ , 6
x~o

o~ ~x~
.

Narrative
NKo~ 2_!f~f~!~I2~ o~

the last. reC81t.

~ .

:Q_~~2Y!2~ ~

wealth

~o !~~_f~~!e!~
~K&

opportW11ty

~ 2_!e~~2~

nanner

6 G

~~!Q!!~q!.
~

:impress1on

~o 6 ~ !E2~~~~.

frightru1. dreadful.
terr1ble, tremendous
171

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

K~~6o ~x~ ~o !~

~~2~ ~& ~~&.


a(H

1n!luence

6 ~~~!e~!~ x6~.
~~o, -, -

:1Jeasurable

''EXE'rE !..l.~aa!.~~_ ;
~6 ~a~~o

pasport

6 M~~ ~o\ r1.pyOU :~ aovcx


u !!;.~

'e!:2-.

w K~'~O/X~~o
- ~el~~!~! a~6 K~o

1t 18 lo<:ated,
s1tuated

.
Ccxo~

to be tound

6 ~E.~C~O NCt.p6 "&.~ &u

av-m

1IOU

<U . ,,"6 &

'" < 'A~K.

"-:

C"/ ~ , ~ ~t, "Ma~ ou

MoVro

K~, . ~6 ,,"6 ;ij K.~.. ~ou' Cvouv u tV'r<ma~

_k

Ixouv : ~o~ Ka~ a'CU~U.


", c~~ xWc.

"X'ra~

.ta

u Nouv &fouv & ~

'~Ma~ Ko~ ~

&fc . ~ " 81.0 o~

to ct'rP'l'rc ~c . V< \ ,,"6

.ca'r~.6 ,,".

~ 1IaC.
B'qC'rIH

O'W

N4t

'ffi'

'" t.t.c ' " ...

~6 & ~ou' .~ 'r6

T~Ko~o ,," 'AI\lCl' ~ 6 '~o K~~O ou c~ _,

A,,~ 'r6 "'rtp~o a~ , & x~'!x. a <~'rC"'r.~.


Kfv'rO ~ , tJ. ~6 ' ctvcn. xC ~6~

o~ ,," .

~f2I.!!!.!!:i..!!

& " ,,"6 'rU'rL

u & & ~

~K.

_~6.

K~ ~o &~ & t~u~


'U'r ,," ;

o\~o ~, _~

nou
~,

"Exouv

& , ,,"6 ;
K.~..

&o~ a~ ,,~ '"'r; M~~,

fxouv

~o ~ 'U'rV.

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

' ;

'

&

& ;

&
.

6 '&;

'
.

, ~x
.


~ .

Grammatical Notes
!~~_!.!!~!. Noun: Tb1rd Declene1on.

F8dn1ne nouna 1n:


1)

(Th1rd Declension ~

2)

~Tj'm

1n katharevusa)

t , - ('lhird Declension - t , -

in ka t.harYU8A)

(Third Decleos1on ~ in katharevwa)

~~!:!_!.!!:.!.:.!. Th1rd Declension Fllin1ne nouns in (unstreSSed)


t

Untortunate1y the doctors in ('of') our city

~~~~~ , .

bospital aren't good.

uYaoEpa ~~~~~~~~.=.

then askB

~ .

He sent me

& -

---------

I;SlW~

U8

quest1ons.

an invitation.
a

nuaber !

sentences

Nightclub.

!~_~!~!e2_~~~~~~~~~~~

reads

U8

the underlined nouns in the above sentences belong to vbat

traditional1y called

'Th1rd Declension'.

This particular group


in an unatressed

third Declension nouns consists

femin1ne nouns vhich end

17)

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G REEK BASIC COURSE

these no1.mS have an altermative 'dh:imotiki' fonn 1n

day usage, such as


.

sne

s1ngle fonn in

nouns

every

while the fonn

1& used 1n wr1tten katharevuaa only.

ems

80th

on

for exanple, have

and

have one set

plural endings, but two altemative singular 8ets.

E:ple&:

s~~.

Plur.

~.

-&

~.

G.

-&

-&

-&~

'

~.

should be noted tha10 the katharevusa

*
*

fenin1ne a.rt1cles 1n the

-ors !

and Acc.

plural are and cX respect.1vely. <aee 14 ter un.1. ts ).


The

cplete

11810 ot case emings

tb1s group

th1rd Declension

ll.

:'.

-.

:'/:'

-.

~~_!!!~!.:.!

-.

F81nin Houna 1n

1 t 18

tt

part

o~ 6 &.

In

- C, -& / - , -

61.0

proper

nae

and -&; respect1ve1y

on the ocean liner 'World Hope'.

Two ....eeks
U8

approxiJately.

used 1n its katbarewsa !onn because

IWorld. Hope'.

All ed.Din nouns in -

These

Ne vorks

first sentence the Greek vord for 'hope'


!

18:

Plur.

~~.

OUU

and -& have their katharevusa counterpart8 1n

(e.g. ;, ocX, EcX)

ons, hvever,

have been

caly

replaced by the

miern

Greek

-,

-&00

to... (.. , ocX).


'n -,- nouna are decl1ned like f1rst Declens10n feMinine nouns 1n -

1.8

(su.ch

) ....ith the sing1e exception that the ~!!!~!!!_!~~~ end1ng thS&8 nouns

wsVessed.:

---------

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G REEK BASIC COURSE

~~fi~

~!~

't"

't"

't"

't"(

G.
.

't" ~ n 't"cx 't" -&

14

'1be tailor "i11 take your IIIeasureents and

.. 't" n.'t".6't"'t" 't"ou

ill 11 his ski11 to make your su1t

. 't" . 't"..

perfect.

Feminine nouns in -'t" are declined like those 1n -(, - (Note 14.1.2), i.9.

!!~~

~~
.

. . 6 't" 't"a

n,'t",6't"'t"

G.

't"

.'t"

't"

n.'t".'t"'t"

't"~

n.'t" .6't"'t"

't"(

n.'t".6't"'t"

1.6 't" 't"a

The katharevusa counterparts ! tbese nouns end :in.t 't" , e.g. n.'t".6't"

(8ee later mits).


!~:!_!.!=! Masculine
-

Nouns in

deri 'id

!rc t-he

Thi.rd Declension katharewsa nouns 1n

-.

and

. 't", ., n,

O!!icer, "here 1s

6 ..

! nasculine

th1rd declens10u asculine nouns in - and -.


declernsion nouns in

vhich 18 never stressed

-.-------------

(e.g. (
(cop&re;

street, please2

It's right beyond tbe barTacks.

't" ~o .

'Jhese examples 111ust.rat.e tbe use

AJerica

nouns in

der1ved

!rc

the katharevusa

'Jhese nouns are dec11ned like the !irst

) except !or the I~:!!!_t:!!~~!_~~~ -

't" 't"cX! the policemen' to

'! the .sergents').

The nouns

and

are 't"

in

kathareVUBa.
'Jhe katharevusa !orms

these

ous

as well as those enumerated in Notes 14.1.1,2 and 3

vi11 be discussed t.ogether vith other Jrd. declension nouns in units dea1ing with katharevusa
gramat:i.cal !orns.

~~-.!.~~~ Nurerals: Declension !

't"

'three' and

I!our'.

175

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GREEK BASIC COURSE


' . L , L L aIoIo.
L '~OK~ .
L

TI1e above ex.amples sbow that the numerals

and

agree

1n gender

thy od1f'1'.

and 1n case wi th nOW1S

'1hese n\llllera1s are declined as fo110118:


.

(i.

~Io

G.

Ae

Anotber 'declinable'

, ,

nunera1

'one'

discussed 1n thit 7.1

!xamples:
\ 6 .

he

6 .6.

\ie

6 . . et,.
no

knor

he

vife

L .

1n.

th1rteen good doctors.

houae

'1'be 1uggage

.-

a friend

your tbree brothers.

ot tbose tour

touri8t8 18

here.

't xa&

co&cn..

We h8d t'0U!"teen hour de1a)".

E'toa. ~ a~ U(o cno6

1'teD~

three _a110rs go

the

bsrracla.

a~.

boe examp1es 8ho that no n1y the

'Ihe
8d

E'txoa.
1.1

other

'iour' but also the1r


'tventy' tbree'

nneralB Ercn 1

'Ihe

to

etc.

199

are

dec1ensin nuerals

!~_!.~ Nou;

F1r8t

CCIIIpO\1DCI8

agree 1n

fran

Dec1ension case

200

up

1 a&

1n -

exap1

(such f'or

'Oe-',

1.8. the;y baw

'three '
'orteen' ,

D01WI the odif1.

Uy 08 .

be discussed 1n 18ter un1 ts.

end1ngs in katharewsa.

In the footnote to Hote 5.7

nouns

8uch

gem.. and 1n case vitb

1necl1nab1e;

. \ \.

IBascul1ne

n. .ral.s

II1

the Abassacior's chau1'feur.

&tated that a small number

aa

.,

a&

tbe f'1rst dec1ension

etc.) are

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UNIT 14

GREEK BASIC COURSE

o!ten used 1n the:lr katharevusa

'1he

oonplete

.et

!on.

case endings

such nouns is as

!ollrs:

---

~~.

Plur.

-&

E:ample:

11.
J}.
.

Gr'llll8tlcal Dr1l1a
------------------

A~ vL & 6L.

A~ 6L vL o~ .
A~ ~L fv vL &.

CL

YL& .

'& L L.

A~ &faL L o~ ~~.
LfL

~ !

~~ &.

vL o~ ~o.

A~ 6L vL

fvL .

vL L'~6 o~ ~XOvV

~&.

A~6 ~

vL Ko~ ~6

&6.

A~ L L&vvC .
.

& nC~La ~ ~ 6 vL L.
6 &~L ~

f ~ ~ ~~

tVL ~& vL

&L.

6 t ~

vL 6.

&~L ~o ~o ~ vL

~v~~L &f vL

&.

~.

& L

'&

EtVaL KO~&.

LL v

vL

6.

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

x~ ~

&

~ .

' ~.

x~ ~.

x~o x~

3 -

3~.

6~.

~& .

.
6~ ~ .

o~ 3"C'o

~ ~ .

~ .

~ .

- t~.

3~ ~

"C' . x~~

' .

~x6~ v~ 1 .
~

'

lfanp.

6 ~

o~

~ .
~

.-

~
av"C'IIV

'

ux ~ . .

~ ~x&.

. . ..

~3 ~

\l1.a

cn\l\l

~ lX

~xo.

6"C'cS

'twv

. crra..

fx~ 6

"C'6

~x. 3..

6 6 ~ ~x~ o~.

n6c..

A~ xo~ ~x~ "C'~.

6 3 .

6 .

0 ~ "C'o "C'-

xf~.
~v&~ .

3 3 ~
.

"C'x ~ "C' 6.

6 ~ ~ ~

"C' 6 ~x.

~ 3.

6 ~x.

~ ~ ~x

178

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GREEK BAS1C COURSE

L .

~L LV.

L ~L .

14

L L L

L lL ~.

6 LL.

L L ~o.

tL ~

L .

L L

a L

L ' 6.

L Lwv

L .

L ~L L

~L LL.

Ma !L L 6.

SubslluUCIIl

Subst1lute

plural foras

the

h_

ords

in

parctheses

Drill

for t.he \81derl1ned vord

each sentence us1ng

necessary.

~~ef~ L .

(6L)

~a !!e~!Z~~!~s; L L.

( L)

~2~~~!!.

{L)

'6 6 L6 ~~ef~~.

(6L)

6 !x~ Iyyg!~~

(~L)

!~~!e~~j

( LL)

t~ ~~!e~~ .

(4 )

!~~!e~~ L .

(L)

()

~6 !L ~~~~~2~.

6 '!!~~ L 6.

( ')

~ 3 t ' ~~~!.

(L~L)

Subsllu

the nmerals 1n parentheses for tbe underl1ned anes using the1r

aropr1a

179

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G REEK BASIC COURSE

tcm8 to agree vith the no1Wl t.bey 1IOd1f'y.


~~Y!~ YLa~pOt L ~6 .

(2),)

6 nt~L ~ ~ ~Q2 L L 6 L6.

( 4)

~6 LL L !e!~ .

( 1)

!~! L 6 .

( 4)

~OK~ ~ ~ ~ L~~ f

EIvaL .

(33)

~~! LL.

( 4)

A~~ 6L ~XEL ~.

( 3)

6 ~ ~ !YY~ YLa~Wv EIvaL Ko~.

( 3)

~!Y!~ ~L ~ ~ Et~L 6 .

(.)

~Q2 ~~oC ~

( 3)

EtvaL o~ ~6 .

~XEL ~!Y!~ .

( ,)

EtvaL 6aK ~ L~;

ocj~,~ ci~ <r ,


NoC~

crr6 - ~ ~~ ;

LMa~6 fj

'A~~

tXEt.

uL

YLa~C;
NoC~ ~po x~

LL

tci

ciplaEL

~L

L ~u ;

txE~E;

~ dpXO~EK~OVLK~ ~ Cx YQ; ~~" 'EC YLCI~t;

-Ex~ , 6 . L~Lt o~ L6 L;
dptaL ~6 Cl~ ~ ;

Y~ crr~v o~ ~'~OK~6 ~ C~ ~6 ;

JIo~ v ou ~ ~;

84

.c~ v Etxa~E ocp;

dpfaEL o&~ ~o6 ~o;

~ C~~ ' ~~ C~;


8~ ~6 ~~ ;

,80

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

L (L)

to

dadd;y, paPA

(ox~)

to obl1ge

ton1ght

L, : ,

"OxL,

XL "6

6 .

belie'V,

don't bel1eve,father, you're going to make


us stay

aga1n tonlgbU

hne

1n accordance

t (~)

to go

outa1de

EIvaL L6

'S

th1nk

-& /

-& &.

, DOt

to ."".

&11, far

ce

f'rn 1

out

'l'he 1 ('accorcUng

all.

plaM ) 1 t s

t1Je

for us to go out.

~.

'" ~
'" lt/lt

(t..'1e) newspaper

LtC

to advert.1S8

(the) c01mn (nerspePer)

(Lt)

6 -&

~ ~ lt,
LtC

L -&.

(the) spectacle

Look up 1n the

amusenent co1wn !

the

DeWBpaper (I1ook tbe 00118\ !


nvspaper

1n

h1ch

the;y advert1se nr10us


spectac1es ' ) .

"E&VLJW

tC (: )

National [theatre]

plq,

perfon

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l., -, -

stingy, niser

, &.6

(the) actor

( )

to take, get, recei e

f!:

(the) place; toi1et

to take part, participate

, -, -

excellent

6 '&.6 6 .

Tbey're P\1tting on 'The M1ser' tbe Natial,

&. '

.. the actor (bo part1c1pate :1n 1t.)

6 . ..

are excellent..

TIItEI.

0.1.

(~){a)

to telephone

~6 -&fo

(the) theatre

(/)

1" '(IItE .

(,)

keep, reserV8

yocx. {"}

to

~y."

vhat

6 "

(the) telephme

8&

,,~O'

0"(6 -&fa'(O

.. 'U

can

bece

bappleci

the tbeatre to

l'88eMe 8

..

" i K'(~o" -&'..

'(6

bo,

"

'(;

t" (tEXdO')

(1)

to forp\

'f.x/.v (ep'f.at/.t)

to 8po1l., breaJt cIown, d88tr07


to f'u

&6/

yet,at.1ll

() (1)

B~ ~~
U' ca "

'(6 ~.t"

Oh,
6.

It's out

d6., -11, -
'(".6, -,

frgot

to

order and they haven't t1xed


on

-6

1Ou

in charge

telephre

)'8t.

(adj.)

'( .

(the) copany, a88oc1ation

l.

(the) pennission, leave, l1sence,


vacation
(the) vacation
(the) interrupticn

.
.
182

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d6~ ~ T~

ne nan

vho does th18 ldnd

eplyee

a~ ~x~ &~.

18

vhere e]se
'Jh81

her

elae can

go1

~cy

(the) t.ragedy

~o~/~~

(tbe) tourist
Not to preek] tragedy because 1t v111 be

l~ y~ ~~.

h11

! tor1sta.

~o, -, -

certa1n,

~~o~o;, -, -

8ucb, this k1nd

,.,

'cn

(tbe) beat

,.,

(the) 80ul

a~ ,~, ~~o~ '

(Itte

vacatin.

,.,

-Ox~ ~y, y~~ &

job

1n chargel) for ('of') the

Telephne Copan;y

T6~

'5

Yu '1'

f ' x~ .

ur

ot

be 8Ure tbat 1n such hot veather

(theat t ) there be JJoul there.

'~~!E!

Nwbers

----,00,

X,c

x'~;

aooo

~; ,,;

~aa,; ,,6;
~ ,,;

5000

,,;

,0000

,,; ,6, ~ ~

", ~ ,
lx~6

20000

,,

,00000

l~(i,

1000000

,a~(i,

Mll10

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~I!~~~-~!!
J.
L ;

Tt

UO TL

LL

L' tL.
L ;

Tt

'' L, -&

li .

EIvaL L

[.

Tt

YL

L
o~ Lt ~ L

-&.

na'- C1'f

'E&VLc6 -&bo;

n'o &oOLOt;

.VO.
Na,

~07tOLOt :

' L

npfnEL

~ ;
;

UnfPOXOL.

a -&fx

llpfnEL

.& & o~ 1j -&fL.

''OXL,

YLxTt

8&

no~ '"1L6 La 6 .&

".,

L~.

&c6:.

6~o

T6o-c lo ;

'ETxLptxc;

JInopouv

lYLvE

L6L

~XEL L.

lb -&L :
,

liv

x:t 6

& ,

YLX

LvL -& ElVXL


.

--

L'u;

OTL

L & L

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UNI'L 1S

G REEK BASlC COURSE

Narrat1ve

M'f~X~e!Q!QQ~~ v~.

1t pleased.

('useci to o . )

v ~~~~!Y!I ~v
lI~o

v, -, -

last, past

K~K6, -,

cla.81cal

-6

~6 &~~O atCouv ~va o~ 6 ~eYQo


~6

play, i1, rork

A~6 ~6 ~6 ~v x~

o~ M~50
~6 &&

depth

uOAo~ o&oo~o ~v ~6v e~~Q ~oo

role

To~ v '~ !~~Q o~ ~~Q ~6 ~6 ~oo

as

00.

as

~~~!~~~ ~ &v x~
o~ o~ o&y~
~~6, -,

-6

draatlc

A~ ~ a~~ Etva~ o~ !!~x~o


~x6, -,

&

-6

poar

r~ ~~~~ ~6 ~~ ~o !

~o~ ~oo
;~ (;)

to gether, cOllect, take 10

6 ~!2e!~H v~ ~6 o~
o&~o
~&v (~op&~)

A~6

to acldew, 8Ucceed

~~v v~ YY~~5 '~

~v ', ~~H~ v ~ v o&~o o&oo~6.


v~6, -,

knon

-6

d VWC1'f6

acqualotance
although, Vl1 thougb

lfv t

o&oo~o ~o 'E&V~KOU 8~o

V~~6v.

because

natcouv

6 ~v v

V~~6v v~, ~, 6 ~ ~y ~o .

Etva~ ~va ~6 o~ &.

o&oo~6 a;~ ~6v 6

185

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~ 6 ' .

T'So ~ ' Ma' p~.

~~ o~ ~~ a' ~6 ~~o.

'~ Ma'

a~ ~o~ ~

~ ~ ~6o . ~ . ~6o ~6
~~o.

.. '. ~ ~o.o' ~

~ ~.K - ~~ . ~x.

~~

~ ~~ . , Ma' x~, ~~ ~x.

"E~aL ~x.

~ ~ ~~ ~ 6.

~ a~. , ' ' ~o.6 ~ ~6


.

~!!~!_!?!!!!

.,

~oo.o . 6~o

~.6;

, ' ~.6;

' 6 ~( .

~o . ;

. ~.

. ~o.6 '. ~6

., ' 6

~L6;

6.

Ma c

~ ;

' ~ f).& vc a

P~.

' ~6~ ~ .

~6

3~o;
L6 l .

r.c~;

~'o~ ~ x.~o 6
~, 6 ~~o.

~CI .. . ~

~ ~ ~.

. ~a a~.K ~x.

-l30o.o;

. ~~ ~x &.

~M ~6~ v~;

~, .
.

. ~ a~.K

6 ..

, .6~. '

". . ~ . ;

166

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G REEK BASIC COURSE

,S

&oo~6, ~~ ' ~6 .
Granatical

Note ,5., Cla88 11 Verbs:

------- Mt

Notes

Per,fectie Be ,fon.

~ ~ &

and W1th tb ma1y tbat he saves ('"iU

&'& 4:.

save') be'll buy a 81118.U store'.

~ ~ .

Perfective 8te1n
--,

--,

1'11 phone [and ask

Cla88 11 verbs 18

--

or

--to

,foned

the Present

Verb

by add1ng
ste !

Present

~-

'1:.0 speak'

lto be able'
11:.0 laugh'
'to consider "orthy' ~-

'1be grea1:. major11:.y

the

on

to me.

e.g.

~-

~Ste

--

fonns W1 th the sutfix

Clas8 11 verbs vtu.ch have already occurred in th15

t.he

Per,fecti e St8n

the1r Perfective

--; only a ery .1Jited n_ber f verbs have the sutfix

F'oUOIfing 15 the Us1:.

erb,

~-

Class 11 verbs

to seDd

o,f the ,formative su.r,f:1xes

Steb

~-

the]

O\.l

(O\.l)

(3)

1:.0 "orry

&

(&)

(2)

to help

(~/~) (3)

1:.0 last

()

(3)

to

()

(3)

toexplain

l\J~

(l\J~)

(2)

to

\x~~

( \x~)

(2 )

1:.0 please

:~

(:~)

(, )

to ask for

(:~)

(3)

to

&

(&)

(3)

to oonaider

Kp~

( ~)

( 2)

1:.0 hold

(~)

(2)

to speak

( )

(3)

to be able

( )

( )

to ,forget

t\Jnvw

()

(, )

()

(2)

to save

Coures

lDeaD

Br

l1e

"ake up
(oney)

187

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f'1nal

/a/

(,)

to beg

()

(, )

pa88

(.)

(, )

be hUDgry

(f)

(, )

hurt

o~.

( o~.)

(, )

to preter

()

(, )

to

(~)

(, )

to 8ak

~~

(~cx~)

(, )

to stop

(v)

(a)

to excuse

(V)

(.)

to agree

~o

(~o)

(2)

to mall

(~)

(2)

to telephone

( )

(1 )

to deatroy

tOJ'118

! tbe

!~-!~!.1=.!..

( )

trn

Aa can be
prtective 8t8

and

have tbe

respect1\'8ly; 1.e. both verbe loae their

Clua Verbs: S1ple Fut1d'8 and SUbjunct1e.

rupect1ve17 vith the pertect1ve

\888

and

pre8ent a't8B.

'e SDple hture and tbe SUbjunct1w a

The

above 11at the verb8

peracal

Cl8

end1Ags

te OII

S1Jple

-.

orthograpb;

the

.ea

and

the verb.

l"uture and. Subjunct1\'8 are the

verb8 except; tor the

1Ibre intead -.

tormed by' ccmb1n1ng the vord8

erd1n.

are

the
-

Bocnd

and

Ba &8

and

tb1'd

those

the Pre8ent

per80D S1ngular.

Nspect.1e17.

Eple8:

.ea
.ea
!..o:!-l~!

'

.ea

ask

~ ~~

etc.

-& ~o()

Claaa Verbs: S1Jrrple Past.

6 !~~!~~~ ~

We tound a guide

.~K~o.K ~ .

arch1tecture

The underlineci verb 1n the above aentence 1llustrates the use

--------------------------------------------------* '1he
1 at pers.pl. end1ng - 1a somet:1JDes used 1n
lrathn11\Den1 1nBtead

ho

expla1ned to us the
temples.

the S1Jnple Past

-.

,88

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SC

GREEK

Glass verb

The S1mple Past

()
!

the Class

endings to the perfective

ste

COURSE

15

'to explain'.

verbs 15 fomed by aff1x1ng past

tense personal

and shifting the stress to the third syllable fran the end.

I f the nurJer ! syllables 15 less thall three a stressed au~ent ~-is pref1xed to t.he verb.
~plB:

Class

Verb:

Perf.stes:

,-

(2),

(3)

(1)

(3)

~!J!!~_~~

~~:
1.

()(

()6

()

1>.

()

()6

( )

3.

()

()6

( )

( ),

( )

( )

( )

( ) ,

()

( )

()

( )

()6

()

.
!2!:!-!.~:~

Claas 11 Verbs: Cont1nuous Past.

, 6 V.

1 t didn 't please (I1t 1fasn' t pleasing')

her
shws

'l'he above example

the use

uch.

the Cont1nuous Past

Class

verbs.

'1he Cont1Duous Past ! this Class ~ ~bs 15 t01!IIed by add1ng the sutf1x -{)-

tbe stem

tense.

the verb.

'lbe sutr1x

'l'he personal end1ngs are those whicb

-- 15

~~~~_~~~~~~

used tor the Past

al.,ays stressed.
Plur.

~~!.

2.

general~

to

() ,

() ,v

(),

(),v

(),

(),()

Continuous Past in

nov o~o6a

with the money

sav1ng

,89

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

'n1

by

example 111UBtrstes the UBe

neans !

--

the unstressed surr1x

another !onn

Cont1nuous Past vh1ch 1s constructed

and the Past tense personal endings. e.g.

S~.

Plur.

1.

()

() .

2.

()

().

).

( )

()()

'lhis !om of C<:.t1nuous Past 1.8 8OIII1n8 uaed 1n 11eu ! t.he !or 1n --

'Ibe wrb ( )

!onns its S1Jrle Past l1ke the verb tcnc. ()

~!J1I

Plur.

1.

())(L't:

() )(L't:

2.

()-yii

())(L't:

3.

()

( ) fj)(L't: ( )

Hote 15.5

---------

h1.rd

nons

Declens10n Neuter

-.

1n

& . .
~o

'Ibe tail.or pays spec1al attent10n ('8hows

grea t 1ntere8t. 1 ) to h18

'tou.

Neut.er 110uns m:11n 1D -

Plur.

6.

Ad.ject1'Ve8: SbU't
. t8a end1ng in a

custers.

(in kat.hnill8en1) are decUned as !oUows:

~I

~-!.~!!

-(see

st.ress on

.'t'CX

.6

.:

prparoxytone te1nj.ne

adject1ves v1th

vel.

Nd . lS. . ;

You

6 ~. u ~.

nay te

8ure that 1n 8uch hot veather

there vm' t

In the sentence above the feninine adjective


8711ab18 fraa t.he end. vhlle 1n the

ascul1ne on !

te

a soul there.

is stressed

on the second

the SBDle adject1ve the stress 18 on

the third 8711able !r t.he end: ..


The sh1.tt
prop&l'/CYtne

stress to t.he

adject.1ves vit.h

seccnd

syllable

~l Bens

frn

the end 1n

fen1nine

18 regular 1n katbarevusa.

fOl'llls

'n tE nay

t.he
or

nay

not

190

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

be shi.fted in kathonilueni~ e.g.


!!~~_!~~!

or

.;

or

..

Noun: 'Indec1inable' novns.

n1lllber ! nouns

1.e.

15

borroved rm foreign languages <most3.y fran French) are '1Jdecl1nable',

varied by inflectional

tendnations, thu::

~.

~o

~6()

~o

G.

Other :1ndecUnable

nouns

are:

~6 a

elevator

~6 ).,.

rad1atcr

~6 6

sport
etc.
Ga8at1cal Dril1s
------------------

{.

OL

).,).,).,. -& ~o

)., .

. ~t ..
-&

)., ~ 'a~ ~ ).,..

A~ -& .).,

t.&.

. &~ ~ ...
M)~6 -& ' ~6 &~o ~6 .

. H&TI~

~6 ~6 &.

~ -& ~;

.

vd

~ ~o~

~6 .

o~ .

~ -& o~.o

~6 &..

. '~6.

~~ ~ ~

. -& u~
.

~ .

-& ~ . ~

191

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G REEK BASIC COURSE

,,"
L

,,"C ~

,,"~~,,"

,,"

,," x~a,,".

~ ,," ~,,"~ ~.

au~ yuvaCM YL ',,"6 ,,"6 ,,"CL .

-& ,,"~ ~,,"~ ',,"6 XfPL, ""~ .


,,"6

!& &L L ,," .

-& ,,"~ ~6 ,,", ~,," ~

,," -.

~&a ,," o&~~ lUOL.

L ,,"c; ,,"

,," LC ,,"u ,,"6 <1..

nfPUCH tunvouo: ,," ~ 6~,,".


,,"6 ~u~ ,," ,," ~ ,,".
c.U~t 't' a L .
&

,,"6

u~

nO,,"LoUoav

,,"6

Wa .

ao ~L ,,".

i p~ouaav ,," ,," tL ~~~L.


c. ",,"6 Cu~ ~~ &
,,",," .. ',,"6.

ou ~o\IC l:: tou ,,"cua 't' &.


L6 .. "" lvoou~E ,,"6~ ',," no fc.

ou ~o\IC LC "':
au&.vo

~o

'auu L ~".

&6", ',,"6.

66 lu~ ,," &aU~~La ,,"~ L,,"~,,"L~~ au,,"ou ,,"ou ao.

6 au ~ ,,"~ ~6 &la,,"o,

,,"6 ,,"~ ~a L.

IJiv,,"a La L , ,,"~ U .
T~ Ka,,"O~ ,," ',,"6 xfpc.~
cf& ,," LL u ,,"6 .

" ,,"~ ,," ,," LC .


- , ,," &U.

192

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G REEK BASIC COURSE

'S

Transformat1on-8ubst1tution Drills

Change t.he verb fonns


or

subtitut1ng

them for the

frn

Cont. Past to S1mple Fut. using the words 1n parentheses

1Jderlined

words where necessary.

, ~e!~_~~!_~~~~~.

6 ~~~_~e~! .

(aUPLO)

6 6 6.

(aUPLO)

L Q~_!~~_~e L .

(6 )

'6

anCTL

(' )

vQ~~_!fi~_~~~~t~~

6 L tL L.

~~~_~~e!.

(aUPLO)

!t~~ 6 .

( 6 )

6 ~6o ' .

(aiJPLO)

I.!~e~qk ' 6 L&6 .

( )

UgL~

&

Subst1 \

~~E!~

change the verb

.
.

vorda 1n parentheses for the


o.ns

1nto

Contb1uus

6 )

(6 6 )

mderl1ned

wordB 1n the follov1ng sentenc88

past.
( )

~ 6 .

8 ~~!~~_!~~_XE~~~.

6 ~ Q]~~e! 6.

()

8 L ' ~E!~.

8 '6 n Q!!~_~Q2.

(,

~ !~_~~~~

()

Xp6VLa)

LK&)
K~ )

~ .

!~_~~~~

~&

()

~~e~~ 6 6 ;

()

~ !~_~~~~ .

( )

8 ~!~_~E .

& ~ L ~~_~B~:~.:.

()

EtL

193

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

Transforation

C1unP.

t.he underli!'led verbs into

Siple

Drill

Past:

~~~~2Q~~ .

!!!~Q'2~!~ ' n .

'~~X~E!~!~1 ~faTPo.

~!!~~!~ .

Mf ~~YX~E~1 ~ o~ ~.

!!2~~.!: M.~ .

!!2~~ ~Q'2~!~ C L

2!~Y2~!~ a:.

!YY2f~!~ ';

3 ~!~~!~~ o~ .

~E2!!~!~ !~~!2~Qf!f

(~ ~ ~~E~~~ .

Tpfvo.

~!!Y~!f o~ ;

~Y!l~Xf!!~ M.a:~u.

~2Ef1!~ v ~~;

~f~Ef1 .

~~!~YQ~~~ ~o ( .

M!~~!~ ~!4;

ov

~~!~Q'2~Y

E~~!~ f ~;

ii

X~M~!} .

ii ~~!! ~o.

!!J~!:f~~~Q'~

3 ~~~ x~.

Tov !~y~ ~!~f!.

ii !~~!Je~!~Q'!l .

~~XS~f!f .

~!~Y~ f.
~3

.
.

8 !~~~~!~Q'!l .

IIoa
"

cnIjv

rouaLYKTOV;

rt;

~ cn ~faTPo;

C ii i \ ;

6 o~ ~~o 3;

6 K~6o;

llOLO(

30o~o

ECZ

Tov

EVpwna~M.OV

M.~Oo

ii ;

~M. ;

~M.6 ii ~ ~ ;

~K ;

ii ~;
194

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

Fill

each blank vit-h the proper

noun, use the appropriate

fon !

or

t-he vord given

Rev1ev " - '5

t-he r1gbt.

11' 11'. 18 a

the article.

tJouns
6

'&

-.

6 3 ~ 6
6

' ~xo
8

'


. . L .

_________

X~

-.

'6

"

~ ~o .

195

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

A~

&

0'

~o L

ElVL

A~ L
~~6

~o

lxEL

npfnEL

~t

L6

o~o

~ pfEL

~.~o

.&L6

~ 'I~o

L6~L

! ~ x~~ ~o L

dL

tLf

&~ ntv ~ _~

EtVL

~o
<-

ant~L ElvcL o~

tL

'!t & L

16

~ ~ LL

dpfou

K~tPLO

a6 6

& ~ ~

Tou

~6o

aLvoUPYLo

EtL

~ ~ yao

ElVL

~XEL

~~o

6L

6L

~XEL

~XEL

~L

ao

V ~

~~

DL

&

~~yo

~L~

~x

~~

'~

y~

~L

~xo &

'lKELV

'

ya ~XEL L

~xoo

tnL~y~

~oo

L~L

~ tvL ~6 L 6 ~xoO,

~L

~yo

IX

lKEL

6 ~~o

uAv

XLp6

~Lf~

L6~~

L-&6

fv ~~

~o~

<1

'~6 ~y ~ L ~oo

196

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

'-& ~xo

Reviev

'tv L't 't 't

-& ~'t 'tv 'tv "

6 L ~'taV 't

't

LL

't6 , &

av't6v

'tLv

__________

'tpCa Xp6VLa
Mv'ta

'

V't 't .

EtVaL

~o.

~-&o

.__

liL

'tCnO'ta.

'V't

t'taLpCa
't6v

6.

V't 't ! LC'v


~a

L .

'

't
-&a

._

C't f a

't6

~vL

!'tL
!'tL

tL.

CL

V't6 -&fL

TH'tav

La

La'tL

EtVaL

V't

'tCL

v't 't -&a

uO o v't

tfPE'tE

't L n6L _

-&

't.

-&

'tL

v6'tLv Lv

't6v

1$

't

MnOLa

11 -

'tov, YL'av't6 't6

''t

!V'tL

Adje<:ties

------&

'tpCa

fa'tELo

__________

Av'toC EIvaL

't.

't

EIvaL

6 L

't.

AV't6 't6 Epyb EIvaL

vL .

&v-&pnoLo

'tL v't

v't

't
.

~XEL

~'tav ~ ~o

't

6.

't.

'tVL'tL6

x~o
't6
L6

197

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

_________ HaLp6

~6o.

LL

l.

tCL

'.

'~ ofO

txovv

Hat

LC.

EIvaL

L ~ & ~

~A

~ l v

~A HC

LK

~o

_________

naCtEL

v
v &

--------- ,

L.

EIvaL

LC

EIvaL

A~

, ~ 'L.

LL

/L

&~L.

LV

~~ 6 .

Verbs
'

x~ V.

'

v 6 .

3 'L.

L lt~
~

~ ~

6 6 CL
X~

'

'6

6 VL

v ~.

'

- -------- '~.

__-----__

L 3

nplnEL

'E~ 3

nplnEL

(PXOxL

v v ~o .

~o

x~

VL L

tL .

' .

'

6 CL.

~
v

50

L.

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Review 11 - 15

G REEK BASIC COURSE

~(

Ha

~6 ,

Ha-

6 (~ .

o~ ~

~ o~ ,

K~

x~

X~

Ko~

()

'

~K.

K~

~6

6 .

o~

-m

uOT~ ~

&

~.

()

CS .

HH~:

'6

()

HH~:

~o .

Jt


f~

~K

~c

HH~

~oo

~o~o

~.

Ha

!~o

X~

~K.

~.

' ,

o~

199

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

8fovv

&

a~&

!.

~a'

~o ~.

~~a 4 ~o~
To~

~&

Xaoa

~ ~

&~a

&~~

~o,

~ ~6 K~tPLO

'& 4

K~

xaC

a ~o~a.

a~o

M~6 4 ~

n&
.

~6 K~o ~ 6.

---------

o~ 6 "

cno~

, ~ H~&.

--------

Narrat1ve
Mat o~ ~

'E&~K &'a x6~a.

uj ~ o~ ~~

v '

o~ ~ ~

~& ~& ~o.

xai:p~ ~x '&e ~~x ~ 6 ~o~, j Maa


( vL4.

! & (

xat ~& &.

~~o~

~o~, ~, ~& x~~& ~o o&~x , ~, ~


'4 4v&pno~ xoo~o ax.
W . 1lo ~

fYLvE.

O~~ ~ 4L& 6 "" &.

~'M" ! uc".
a~-e.

~ov.

xat Jbx ~~

~ &, ~o~x

r~'u~ ~ ~v~i: H~

'Ai c, ou , 4i j Maa 4

~\CX ..xc; noxxo ~ 4 .&

v '

~ xa~

; ~o & v~(m., .x~ ~ : 4 &

\)nqx '~ ." ~

'

'

vcf

~o ~6 o&t~o.

lb, (, ~ 4:

'.w.c6 , : vxC xat ~6 4 ~6 ~x~o .

6c" ~6 .4.

x~6 4: MC ~o & (.

r6 &te~o 'c at ~c\C.


c a -8c.c.

vYa~Ex

; xyc:- odK.a, ~nLav rvc

fYLvE r ~ 4.

i& 4

~~C 6 / ." ~ ~a ~6 . a.
x.vc" a~.

MaCC

:~" dpxai:a .!.a, ~" ~a~, ~o( K.~o4o xat

a& K~ .a.

.a , .~a, ~ .. ~o .

. ~6 i: xaC ~. ~" .&.

a4 ~ Maa~~y ( .

4 ( vcf a. KO~& ~ a ( ~x a !&no


( &

xaC

" ,

~ M~.

V~ a

d . a ,~ ~ Maa & a ~o xaC vcf '


200

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Reiev 11 -

G REEK BASIC COURSE

~ ~K. Ma ~

15

~ ~~fv.

~6 , H~ ~o o~xo 6~ ~~

ln~a~pfouv ~ ~K, ~6~~ f ~ ~6


~ t ~ ~~ ~o ~

Nfa

6.

~ ~

Ma ~ ~6 ~~~6 ~ ~6
~.

~~6 notEvEto ~

"E~~ 6 notEvEto i!a~Ep 6 ~f

~o

~o

~o ~ .

'6~o '

~ ~o ~y ~6.
3~o ~~.

~ ~

~K

E~x

f~ d6~

tv ~ f ~6

~K

'r ~f V

~~t,

~~,

~ Ma ~~~ '~6 ~t

f ~o ~~~o ~o ~

~o

~6

6 ~o ~o ~ ! ~t f ~6 v ~o ~ ~o
"/

~K .cf nf ~6 df.

201

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

~!_!.!
~~~_~e

~ox~o, -, -

ro1Ung

~ x~/x

( tb8) aot.1on, C10n,owenI;

~ ~ox

(tbe) tratt1c

~c

ow

1v ~ ,

Alexnder, bo s

, Tc ~6 ;

(n.r)

tbe tratt1c

this

.om1ng.

~6 6

( the) presmt

6 6 6

at present, r1ght

prett718D!N1b ,qu1te,ta:1rr

*ci

toarda,

about, aga1Jlat,

accorc11ng

'f6

DOCI

auv~~

ci,

ow

to, dur1ng,

-u.

terr1.bl., a1aerable,

II6c; 6 ncx6 v: ~ - _1,

8 pret'ty god r1ght nw,

c1Ai *- ~6 <:n)t~ v~ v: ~

1 \181.1&111'

atul

bIlt t.ovarda

get8 atul.

Xcio~.

~x
~6, -,

(the) m18tortune. b8d 1uck

-6

halt (adj.)

M'~v

balt past e1s'V8D

-r

1'1rst, 1'1rst 01' a11,

prev1ous~

to begin 111 th
(the )un1vers1 ty
202'

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,6

GREEK BASIC COURSE

~6 o~)(:o
~)(,

6~

npfnEL

~ ~

(the) Scoo1 Techn010g,y


Wbat a

hae,

x'~ ~ ~~6 ~~o

the

~ ~6 f ~6 O~)(o.

HAv

fo

have to go to

s1nce (first)

Universityaromd 11:30,

Technolog,y

1f

&

~ &f~I. & -

f~ 6..

500001

noon.

vere

vould go

vere you ('1n your place 1 ) r'd va1k

('go by ') [tbere].

& &

I'd like to

~ (~) (a)

a1k,

to stroll,

to take a

~6, -,

and tben be

alk

(tbe) ra1n

-6

po8sib1e, straDa

M~o
8 '& ~, '

~ ~ vL v~o.

1mpossible(edv.)

'd l1ka wry

uch

to take a valk, bat.

this ra1n it 's Dp08sible.

besides,

(6)Cyo

a l1ttle

(6) Lb

at least

'f6 ~t'{ap'fO

( the) qurter

& '{6L~ ~
~f'fp~a !.
x~6 (6)

i tb

Be81de8 it

il1

t.ake _e

-n.v87

leut 4S

ainute8

to get there.
besides, 1n
Xcept,

additia

apart

tio,

rra

~6o, -, -

uoo, 80 an,y (8dj.)

(tbe) pedestrian

~6 6.

(tbe) sidevalk

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

~:\)6

(the) crosa

.:~:.
K~.6, -~,

(the) :intersection, cros_road

-6

central

(the) road., st.reet

.6~. l~6 6 ~~ :~OK~

. ~6o. nECot ~ C6.:


xat

~ .:~:\). ~ K~.

6.

Because :in addition to tb8 heav tratlic


(tlII8JV' caars ) there are too un, pedestrian.s

on

sidevalks and

tbe

dntm

inter8ections.

you (... ) have 1D JI1Dd,

70U p1aan1ag
T6~ .6 ~ ~a. ~;

Then \lbat are you. go1n ('p1anning') to do7

C.

8iP17

C!.

(Cv:!)

to poatpcne

clv~cM

,,6

poatpned

(the) _ppoint8

cz"o;:;

-AnW; C /~ v'C!

'U 81117

call and po8tpane rq appo1ntMnt8

c"o;:; .' ,,6 clncSoyeux.

&

(the) 1d8a

UlJllhere,

.4

(\be )coolne8

~.o

(the)

ra~ m, .6~. xat ~

it's

.A.~

and besides that

xa t l~6 a~o ."(


&&

..

al

81
Bcawe lerewI" you.

'1bat's a good ideal

,,6 clMYEux . 4~: o.~ ~~

1der....

0001 :In Athens :in the attem.oon

('will cae

bel1eve

out)

e '11

ha..., S<81

1n a hil.

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

,6

Usetul words

1nteJIt.1a

()

(1)

to ansver

oa (oa)

todec1de

oTf

Deer, eBr

~J.>!!.~_

c~ 6 t U~ ~ TOXCC vL 'A~~;

ElaL 6 fL;

tf

L txE~ on v

6Lv

cT6;
6 XVEL u~ 'cT6 6 f 6 :vLcn~;
~T x~ 6 6;

'" _ 6 ;

T HTV cT6 c _~ f;

~!)1!!!! .f6 ..i.


6 (6~) (2)

Hu Mfwo~o Q!!..t'l!!!!2~_~i!!!2~.
6 ~n6 Ei

Ycnep ~V!!e2!2~.
~ c

-6 " ~~:n~~.
VC~6

a,'

W~ V ~ 6 2!e!!~.

llpfnEL

cnc6

v 6 ~E2~~~

'tl_~~e!~~!~ ElVCL .

expens1veness, accuracy

~ f L ~~~f~!).
205

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G REEK BASIC COURSE

gasoline

'~ "," ?:r~~'!J_8 ~.


()

to take out

"," "," ~~eg "," .

beyond, over,

the

other side

~_!~_~~~~_~~~.

to

''"," :~<!~..!:~ .

rich

''

ake

ends meet,manage

. '...

!1:!!!2e2.!:

~oo

IIIrchant,

x~ ","6 ","6 ~~2~.!:~!fi.


.'","

~!!~ . ","6,

ship

~!!~ ..

ner

either or

!e!x~!~ "," .
","

(",")

to run

''"," .f"," :;~u:;~:;~.


","","","/","","

speed

","6 2]~!~~'!: ","",".


.

()

to mean

8& "," "," ~2!~~~~~~~~_!~~_!e2X~!~~.

t.rtic

~e~~!2Q~' ~ . ","
onao&

~~! !

","6

..

(o~)

.,

pol1ce

(3)

to

tr

()

to put, place, lay',

:!~~~ ~6 v","u .

perhaps,

rq

_pp~

be

l; ","6 !. !~_I:!!~.
Tt_2]~gl~

. "," ~ ",".

meaning,sinificance,
:iJportance

6 "," "," I:!~~~ ",".


6,

-,

self, alone, single,


the nly one

'"," "," ~~~I:!.


.

strength, power

W~ "," ~~!!e!2] .

206

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G REEK BASIC COURSE

()

to

(1)

16

exceed,

8urp&SS,

". ,," ,,"6 !!e22f:H:!!~ .


.6

destinat1n,predutinat1on

. ,," ~~!2~!~!!!!!~_~~!!!~x~!~',," ,,"


6 . ~,,"

,,",,".
,," ,,".,,".,,".6 ,,"

autcoblle

& ,," !~~_e!2~ ,," ,," .

1D'1tll

~,," ~~~f~ K~.

ome

, ,

one,

&ccident

.oe~,

any CIOe,

one, nobod;y

'Ihoever,

,," ~o ,," ~V!i1.v~li.'


v.&

~,

vh1chever

respns1b1l1ty

"H~ d a ,," !!!1~.

slOW'1y

vatL

va. (v)

1 bapp

bapp8Ded

6 ,,",,"~o MLp6 o~,," ,," ,," ~,,".o 6 ,,"

. ,,",,".

L
~ ,,"

nEPLaa6,,"Epa

LL& ,,"

d EtjoC

,,"

lva

NaV,,"LKOV

&.

aL

Lt ,," L,,"LV ~~~o,

,," ,,",,".

&LL6 ,,",,".

" "

o~ '

,," )(Xt ,,"~ ,,"6 iK-

L ,," , . ,," d , ,," & . L


~oo ~ L~~.

~ & ,,"V. . ,,"' C

,,"',,",,", ,," " ,," ,,"


x~,,",,".

Av,,"6

. ~ d~V

,,",,",,".

txovv

,," , ~

YLa,,"t

YLa,,"t

,," .

)(Xt oa~

. ,,"',,"

,,"6 d ,,"~ ~

. 6. ~ oou

Tcao

,," d ,,"

,," ,,",

c!o & ,,". ,," tL,


,," )(Xt

ttVOL,

,,"

aV,,"OKLvTj,,"OV.

M&,,"L.

,,",,"

a't"Tjv

nPOC1lt

~~ ,,", &. L d',,"


. &

,,"L,,"L~L&

,,",,"

,,"6 L6

,,".

K~ ~I, .

L'V,,"

,,"

,,",,",

,,"

,,",

,,"

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

' ~ ~ .

( ~

()~o MX~O ' (,


MXt

-&.

o~~ ~ ~ ~ ~~o 6 ~o 6 ~

Ev

'A~;

~OK~;

B~

~~M ~OK~


rLCI~t ." ' ' ~OK~

~ ~'~OK~

rLCI~';

~6K ~ ~ox

K~(\!." i~o( ~ "L ~o ~Lv~;


~Exo ~ ~~v~~~L ~x~ ~ '
NoC~

~~

&t

Mo~ ~6;

Hotes
_.- ----------

r-Ucal

~!.!:l..wr.

tOX'88C1

4 x~~

1C.L 'c~;

KOV-M

(.)

~6 n-Vo.

nLf\l~

1te

ab0'98

81tber :1n
MI\r

LCI
!L d.

exaple8 1llstrate

:1n

!1anla and )"OU2

v:1Ddo.

Certa~J

."

" "

vell

Hear tb.

V ~6,

/ <J'nJ

en

trc dj.ct.iea.

Wa1t a DI1nute, 1'11

cce

right avq.

tbe use

~ dverba

tormed

1'r'

adject1ves.

bes.

adwrb8

-.

adverbs end:ing :1n -a

1181'

a180

correspond1ng

orns

:1n

e.g.

LCI.

Sone adnrbc bave ~ or, e.g. :.


!~:!-!.!:! Adverbials

t:1Jne.

~ ~~o

late1y
all the

:iJe

208

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G REEK BASIC COURSE

16

last week
6 6
Nuns

this month

denot;1ng time are used 1n tbe accusatiw case to correspond 1n

ean1n!

Engl18b

ad_rb1al phrases 'last week', Inext month', lat n1ght l , etc.


Other

xanplB:

6 )Coxa.
lf 6

next year

cf

.6

~
~~-1.!~

Adject1es

n1ght

n1ght

and Ad.verbs: Coparat1e.

lf . '6. cf

Re81des 1t l s least ten b1ock8

."'ay.

v aKpW.

T~ .6 . ~.

M08t ot th_ are Eropeans.

Da&v .

'lhe Partbenon 18 tbe b1ge8t

6 .6 ~o 6

6 . ,.

He wants to dr1'V8 t'aat.er.

'1he above example8 1l1ust......t.e the

ve 1n Greek 18

coparB1

b ~

1n

ot

cparat1e

betore the

.6 ~yo

ta8ter
-, -/, -

adject!wl

or

-,

replaced by the J!!.

.,

e.l.
-

-,

-,

-,

.6 ,

tbe adject1e.

tom

to the ne11ter

.6,

-6

-,

adject1Y88 and ad'V8rb8.

-,

:,

soet:1JDe8

-,

.6, -~,

18

adjective or adverb, e.l.


b1gger

neuter

torms

tvo way&:

1.6 ~o

atr1x1ng the 8utt1x

the

!ored

1) by' putt1ng the .6

2) by'

1n

Acropol1s.

. ~ 6~a .6 ~o.

'1he

t!mpl

-,
-,

-
-

-~,

-6

-,

6, -~,

-6

6,

-,

6,

6 ,

-~,

6,

-6

-,

209

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

Sae

Greek

adject1ves !om tbe1r

118811

cparat.iw

1rregu1arJ3, e.g.

xC~po, -/-a, -

cf

~po, -/-,

x~6~o, -/-, -

'bad'

p~6~po, -/-, -

'old (8&)

o~~o, -, -

Io~po, -/-, -

"

fol" t.b8 IDglish 'than I , e.g.

A~6 o~~~~ l~ ~~o '.

A~6 ~6 aaa v ~ x~p6~o 6 ~ .


,6.J

------- S\IP8Z'lat.1w
1he Superlat.1"

Greek 18 tbe

caparat.1w

preceded b7

art.icle, e.g.

~6 ~ a~6~o .

~~ v~ ~ H~ .
~6 ~6 II~ ~ ~6 x~6~o a.

('l'he

kat.hanmn

-------

JIote ,6., Verba

superlat.i.,., t01'll8 are

1n later

un1t1).

Cd1~1onal

- \'ovc ~~ ~..

di8cusn

C10V

ici ya"

'1f M~.
fj.eM v t e~a

'

tak8

valk.

the only nB ho cold cio

cab1ned vit.h tbe Cant1nuow Pas1; 1s used ind1cate tbat. tbe actin the verb

:. cons1ered

aa potent.:lAl

" con1t1caal;

'U' senteDces v1U be

1scusse

Ex8aplez

f).&EM vcf ~ya~

~a

- a ~cf
~6

valk t.hezoe.

...

'

1ik. '9817 aucb

~ Qt 6o~ ici oou vcf ,. nos. are


,.~

Y'OU

i4

vcf
3cf

1n

1.e.

1Iber

etall

.-

K~.

a~

we

'ou1d' 01"

vou1d

1n later un1ts.

~6 .
~ya~

Fngl1sh

'.

.ou & cfa .

vould like very auch to go t.here.

vould like

It

vou1d please

Dloney

JRuch to

oul

very

b1D.

go to Greece.

much.

2,0

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

~~~_!.~!.~

Adject1ve: katharevusa neuter fonn 1n

. '"r :"

-ov
~

the regular ending

used 1n th1s

16

-"

It's :i1!Iposs1ble go there.


!

neuter adject1ves in katharevusa"

5ne

adjectives are

in spoken Greek.

. "" . a"r~V r."rV;


tv"r &

"Av

ucx i"r6,

6 .

u:

a"r6

."rt -yatv"r

"r6

u:

-yatv"r uv~&

:;

""r.v ";

:;

ll~-ya"rE O"rf ~ 6. '


.

"r.;

"r6

u:;

vd nEPM"rci"rE;

i"rtv"r

~XE"rE;

. 6 i"rtv"r;
.

vd

-yatv"r "r.

% . "r d"r

vd

t~"r "ru
t"r

"Av

nO"rf

"r'i"rtv"r6

nEpV"rE ",,"! i"rtv"r;

"" "" "r~ ru&."rV

i"r.v"r."r.6

xvouv ~ u.;

u"r;

"r ~ u i~6;

tt"r a"r~V
" ytVOV"ra. a"r~V

'.K~

Y(VOV"rI.
Kt

.6 4 i"r.v"r."r.

uu~"r,

"rt & "" Ein;

lloU v,"r . ~6 .tvuv d"r a"r~V r."rV ~a"r~v ~;


. . t"r. ( M~"r~V ! ~ u:K;

noU . .6 K.~ vtt ~ "r~ ;

dptaouv ~

.. ~ "" in' -"rtv"r;

.~ ~u ",,6 i"r~v"r."r. u""u~"r;

21'

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

tJa1t. 11

-----.

-m C (mt )

to 118 qu1et.,

# ~

(t.be) 1ns~

c1~ (c1~')

to let. alone,

1et.J

1_e aloe

1eae JII8

a10118J 8top 1t.,


(d.o that.)
(t.be) comenat.1ca, talk

aca '

# \)v'tX

l', ana .4 ~.~.

8er

' 'f~v \)

v'fCl '&06 'ft .

Mar1a, be quiet. tor a .eCClldI

CI'ff-

Let 8 hear

ha

tatber 18

DonIt talk'

8q1ng

to

.",

( .",)

.6'f ( .6cj)

tct , ~ .",
.c6.

v ~.. VC 'f6 v

) 'fOV 'ft ..

0.1. dgn 118

v4

i .

a&J'7I

iDterrupt. b1.

Ak

doe8 be vant to

ten

1.8

d1dD Xrtc1d to

b1a [exact.17]
.

bot, tIu

the pobtt. 1n

qv.e8t.1ca 1.8,

quet1ca

18

rnu.

; 6.'f. cf \; .~
1.4 'f6 'tIX t .

tb11k

\) (1'f~V rc c

be bas 1n

dJd

about 70V1' tr1p to

to talJc to you

Fl'nce.

. yoV(1'fO

! (!)

to approw

!Kp.vc

a~ed.

'tX.tC .

to use, to

'tX . ~MAX

11'

nab ,

to treat.

used

.12

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G REEK BASlC COURSE

& ( ()

to persuade, to conY1nce

'' o~o f ~6
xC 't.o&X

What it be doesnIt approV8 17

~f : .f

~x.

to p8rsuade

1188D8

to torture, to teaae

.tf .

a little

X~fo&.

( the) approval, CC8188nt

.f~a

1;

f a:'

.f. ~ x~f6

o~ (o~)
~6 fo& ~.

~o.

t.lW1k

tatber, be

but;yu knr

aly.

vant8 to tea8e

11tt.le betore be g188 bi8

(1)

to acqu1.re,

' n (. ~o 6 ~o
~6 f. :~6.

dn

&. 'o~

approaL

ewrth1n
tMnk he has b1s reaeca tor 401Dg

1t...... He

~6 fo& ~ . fo.

h1n.

: " (: ()

f ~6 . ~6

(and)

tr1ed everytb:1ng (rused all tbe

f ~6 .

.~,

17

408811 n U8

to take

evertb1ng tor grnted (rthat 1 et


ewrth1n ..~,).

6oa.

to

rece1~,

6x't .

be

8d1t1,

~. (~.~)

1;0

e&ea,to apprec1at8

(tbe) vortb, value, C08t

x't . , ~O '~fo df,

aooept,

8d1

accept8

He doen't app"Ow ('acC8ptI) at once

6.6~. o&f. cf f cf

vbatever ve aak (rtell ) h1a, because he

~o ~~ ~o;:; fo& f-

V8Dte

to

ab U8

apprec1ate tbe '981118

~o.

~x

(t.be) bapp1ness

: f C ~x ( ~6

nd

to t1nd j07 and happ1n888 :in

'9ertb:1n&.

fo& ~..

()

(3)

to

18UDderstand

813

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G REEK BASIC COU RSE

3.;

tvw

wh11e, vben, vhereas

6311.

(tbe) 1ntent1on, a1J, purpoee

tL ~ .6~

~6 u,

tvw

Indeed7 ADd e 1.suDderstand hh ID08t of

~6

~x. ~6o 63..

t1Jne, wh1le poor [father] re~ nean8

80 . ('1188 such a good. 1ntent1on').

~6 lI~oo

6, -~,

(the) 1nd1vid.al, peraon

-6

.6, -,

go1deD

-6

d-v'

(t)

w:6.

low

(t) \lDdetancl1ng

-!.

(the) f8lll1q

. lc cu. ~oo u
., 4') . l Wl

Be ' such a

w:61. .cf ~f f. ~ou.

ondertul per8CD.

He baa ('111 t' )

a golden heart. tull (extrce) low lDd


\lDderstndmg r hi I~.

Ueetl ard8

----.--

_ ~o ~c t!!I!!I!.
~6

. C1C1. t!2~~!!!fi;

!!!~!~!!& ~ ~!e!~l
( )

to8OlD

~6 ~o

neclcne H-~.

!!!fi~!. VQ!'!~_~!i_~!~fi~2~~3 i !!!!~~2~~.


c430 .

(3)

cpV (V)

lIhen the7
to s1t
to

ant

;you

dn

shut,

caU

1 o~ !~t!2 ~6 !~_~I~e!.
l, -, -

ugr

~6 6.

HEx~ 6 u~ ~~fi.

vo1ce

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G REEK BASIC COURSE

11

~2!~~~! & ~~ ~~~~!e~~ .


.cf ( .cf)

lcf

COU81n

cous1n (t.)

8cf ~ ocf ~~~!:!I!!'!

Ha

res_ble

C !!ly~~~~ ~6 ~2~~~!2~

~6 IflZ
Ha/a

--

~6 o~o

A\~6 !v&oc; !2~!'!! .


oa .

. cfc; ~~ ~

w'Uj

C 'fOU ~ \~~;

r.cf no.6 pi . cfc; 6K.~.


. o&~. o~

vcf

vcf

~ . a~ ~o;

r.a'fC . cf . '\'f ~ Ha~&

6 M~.

'f0'U

M'flC;

\'fa\'f6;

l&c; . a~cf ~ ~ .. ~o ~a ~o;


lrrat1w

AiI'f6 a. ~\~OK~O ~O ~2~ !!!2~eI2~.


,

d unoup'f6c;
T~ 1~!!2~2' ~!e2~~!!!.

Mr. Ms. (prDOUDced

/kl.rV:J.,

k:t.a/)

M1n1ster

IyxtW (d~1
o.cf

~ . ~ ~~r!~2!!~~~~~;
lZ6o.

AU'f6c; . ~~ ,'l.
A~6 o.~~ cf. ~~el~.
cx

00188, trouble,

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GREEK 8ASIC COURSE

T~ x~a ~~ ~ ~Y!2~.
~oo, -, -

1ntn8e,

1nt8D81"

3 d~o ~~~E~~~~~.
uagerat1ca

~ o~

": v~ Y~~!~E~~ Kfv~pa.


K~~6, -, -6/x~6,-,-6

:!~E!!! 6 i.
~~~

fv ~ ~~!~!!E!! ~o~a.
!~ (!v~f)

A'f ~ 6~ ~ d~ !~!~!~.
dt~03f~ot, -, -

~03f-rx

~6 II.r~

~ c~6

E~6 3~o ~~ !E~!!~~ 6ao.


:tK~6, -~,
!!~2~ .,\

E'f6

'f6

uw

-6

utt1cUat,

8neral

3fa'fE.

'f

'!__~ ~6 beCO'fE ~ 6 .

"\'f6 ~ a ~~ 'f6a ~~x!~.

~ "'ax
" 6

vcf

'fpC

pMC8, qa1etea8

oU

'fOU

x6~CI

a'f6

"E'f~ 3f~

I~ ~~

vcf

~~ a'f~V I'C.

vcf

aoMI7Tj

a'f6

: v~a'f~.

"6 1 o~4 6 ~o fv K~

'f.

No'~ ~~ fv c~ f ~~ v Ko~~

'fOV

~o~ a6o~

et3 at

a'f6

n ~o.

~o ,~ n~~o

C ~~

d 6 n~.

u'f6
vcf

8~
"'

~6 -rx~

vcf

~"a6 ~6 6

6 ~f~ M~ ~~ ~~

~~ i~a ~vcf Kfv~pa ~o.

8~

CI, a~ 1C~ f 63~, I~ a~6 tC~ a~

6K~-rx~

vcf

~ ao~a.

f 3~ ~o f~ ~

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

vL L6.

'Etap~~trL 6 ~6 !~oo

HaC '~ tL Ha36

v~Lv ,.

~tL vL ~ o~

~o~!o.

d,

t~~L

ed

~ ~ YHaTt~
~ d

,optt

Ha C ~

~o LL,

DapCaL HaC

~ o~

'~L K~6 HaL6 at;,

l o~o " ~6 a~ ~.

HaC

HaC ~ vLtL

L~ o~ ~ ~'dtLO~ta~

d L avaL6v ~ '~6

~ '~6 n ~.

'ttf

17

4 ~6 ~o ~ od ~6 ~Ha

~o KL'~~aL tvL

YL~ x6a

~.

~tL d 6 ~o "

~Lv;

r~tr~C ~~ d d ;
~6 ~6 ~CL a~ ~;

'EYKpCVEL
rLtr~C x~;

~ 6 ~o ~ ~o L'(~6 ~ L4L;

AtEL

dL ~;

~o

dmrv0r8

(~;

!/ HaL6 (~ ;
Iy~ ~6 ~o;

!.O!!-!~l Cl8

wrb Ipe.t.1....

P~ ~o ~ ~tL d R .
\18.

'1'h8

aboe .......

L1ke

Cl8 '98b8

1Jper1'ecU....

perfect1ve
are

-(

11l\l8trate8 tbe
tbe

wrb8

...

ot tbe

Cla88

to IpeUe I~:

'Nrb8.
perfeeuw aDd

'1be bperteeu ... r.perat1... 18 ba8ed Q the pr888Dt 8te the wrbJ

Iperat1... OD 1

8Dd

e.u8

IaperaU... o.rn

-a~

tbe

perreeu

Upertect1

8t.8.

and

'lhe

8CCd p8Z'8CD 81ngular

and

-~

and plural

for the perfect1...

the
ed1np

Iperat1... , .,.

at7

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

Verb:

Pre8ent St8:

.-

Pertect.

~~~~!!!

.-

St8

VerbI

Preet St8a

!U-

to

Sg.

Pl.

Sg.

&81'\'8'

u~
~
~

l"8rtect. Sta: ~-

, . HeD "CID

the abcmt ex.uple& the &t.reS8 18 on the penult:bate (next


fbn

_cept for tb8 81ngular


f1'a tbe

(th1rd

1perattw

1t 18

to

syl3Able)

the antepemlltJJnate

QC

th8 erb.

d1ffemce

Sae wrb.

Ierat1"" 1Ihere

the perfect1ve

1n

tbe WI'bt d.8 elu8..

1nterebceab~.

perfeot.1...

ot

ea1) 81Uable

ana1.1l'

18

Dlan:1ng beteen

V1tb

howewI", bn8

tb.e

erb

tbe lII&3or1ty

0D8

perfect1e

8Dd

botb

Dperat1ve or,

hertect1e

f08

vb1eb

1D87 be used

-.v

be e1 ther

' Dpertect1....

!!!!-1.! 18818

ID Rote

1".'

Decl1Jaab1e

C8rd1Nl 11118'818 ta 800 .

tbe dec1D81cI ;

hllodJ ~

1llu8trate tb8

8d .;

C81'dmal

8Dd t.hdr ccpoad8 . .

188I'W

trc. aoo up.

Buer1A

rca 1 to 199 (tze8Pt r c , pat ofC1aEPE " a the1r ccpound8) are 1Ddecl1Dable

.....:.-
'

EtWI. .&6.. ucf t

'Dere

l, .&6, cf t -

W'i:KEC; _t

are aI3. _ , ",1I88n 8DIS tJ

cb11dren there.

.&6. cf .,i.

no Xt,O , , t

- t . n . .i

Ve 888 10001181, 1000 VCI8D ad 1000

ch1ldren.

no 6(() .,f 4. '60 .t.f-

Ve ...

aooo __,

yvK; '60 ..f ..f.

ch1ldren.

. f an.r 6 ,

'1boae are the

6 . t 6

n1ll1on

8000 aen aDd

boU888

1IOIDIID

ot

and

aooo

1II1ll1c:

. .,

1ll.1a ch11dren.

n...

a1e

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GREEK BASIC CvURSE

'Jhese

exa.ples Bhor

that the Cardinal

Nuerals

200 througb 1999 agree vith the nouna

they moc:I.1f;y Uke regular adject1ves (plura1 1''onn).

Tbe plural .1n !

1000 ( . .cf )

('t6 't1.0, 'tcf 't . ) is


vith the noun

is !l~! d.n1n and 1l1ic or mill10as

&!!!l! neuter. '1he rest o:r the

neral g'88

1 od11'1es~ ..

!'t. . 6. vv't 't ..cf ~, Ha


..f.

Ha't. .. ~~ 't ..cf !. . 't


~

Ha't. . 6. ~~ 't ..f !.

. 'tpta ..cf.

~..!.W AlterDat1'98 pertect1w ste !or of tbe 'V8I"b &.


'~y i'I o&~o ~ ! vfo.

~~~~~

Wben they

Wa:t

is another perfect1ve stc !om ! the wrb

:1ntercb&geab],witb the!on

1'011 they V111 call :you.


&

b1 18 uaed

&.

o.cf . 't 'Edo ~ f'tE cx y.a'tt;


dpfaE. 't6 E~..(~ .) i'I

crrv. crrf)v 'Ed cx y.a'tt;

C't ~ u.'t'tf V. ll-&. x~6.;


,crr't cx-&'tf) i'I ;;

"Av !x~ .e4 Il v4 f vef vcf


CO .;

d. VUX'tEPLVf) ;~;

t;'t L foo .f fOIoO v4 v4 ; 'tf f);

8lPE'tE 4 lv. ~'dtLoo&~~ 't -&f)v;


ant'tL !XE'tE yIdyocfaE'tE ~y ~ ,~aE'tE a't~v f;

" nO'tf L't't~ vL't~L;

"Av L't vd 6 't YLcf 'tv ;

219

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

----

.11

,8

&U.

.,. after

-6

(1ohe) brotber-1D-la

.6, -~,

-6

_1otaotW

dv (dvcx)

&U. 6 clMyeuX,

_-, ar1t1ae

C6ufo

"

taorrr

(3)

-6 ,

Nc.M6

1;0

100

d.epart;,

.'98

h1s tr1eod the R_Y8l

brotber-1n-1a,

Attach& ad. ",,8U are g1D1 1;0 Delp: tb8

ufo; &Cvcxu .d u

da;y

U.

tbere (, 1;0 D81pl1')"

-. d.

aner

tcaorror.

Rave)'OI1.wr been

-~.&!

vcxCC (d)

to qaD

6 &

(tbe) WDder, 1r_c18.

beto

,.terd\

cad.ertI1 (uaecl _~)

Kt,

d. d! .

&!,

1''98 been tbere 8e'98ral t1ae8.

8_

d.~, fo . VC d.

_1oter ot t_c1o 1 ... about. to (I...q

Itvs. ..., d ! VC

80 tbere aa1n tbe ~ betore ,..8tena;r.

n t 6 .

lf,'8 -

tb8re

1fODderh1 p1ace, bat 70U C8R'f, \

b7 tra1n.

.d' (.)

to

.;.

D8'f8r lII:1d

.'..

Ct.

C6, dl .u .

Ifner

&d ~

1:d..

tb1nk

1;0')

'd

ve

teaae,

annr,

M'98D '\

r_tber

ottea4

_c1ded. ,..\ bu10 1

there

b.r bu8

! 6 .

280

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mIT

G REEK BASIC COURSE

18

.sx (f-&)

to surter, undergo, susta1D.

(the) car

-YOU th1nk

()

to spcd

. l.& ;

oi

. f f

.ed

What happened to ;your car ('1our car

underwent ' )2

' .f ;

Dan't tell YOU're

worry.i.ng (1th1n1dng l ) about the

vould spend

OD

ho

..

to be bored

6 4.

(the) t:i1'e

nx6,

01d (th1ngs ~)

'' . , :

. .

old pal.

do 70U th1nk

Who do 70U th1Dk

4 C 4 f.X

( ' . bored') dri~B and be81de. the

oi . . ncz4.

t1res

;rou

ga8ol1ne.

! c

-cf, -6

l8OD8

car are a l1ttle a1d.

-~or

~ .K~ 6 TC. 6

About

o~o nd-4

hor

or 1888

10ng doe. 1t tak8 to

b7 b.

approxbate11")7

1) c4/crd.

(tbe) .top

.4oC .

to need

'X.fTC .

18 nece888J7

to

ej07,

6 f.

there

bu8 ('bov \ bours <10.. the tr1p lut

.!

(d(j)

(the)

to prot1t

J8)Q

F1ve hours 1nc1udiDg the

stop.

Just enough

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

(1&8 nece88&ry t) tor U8 to enj01 the n811


d..

1DOOn.

-~d~~ (d~~)

to d1aappo1nt

;~6, -~,

ho, an

-6

(the) b181d1f;y

3 d 'd~~, 6

dal

tb:I.k

. ~ vx. no ~~o.o

(Idcnlt 1U th1nk1) thU 18 too lc:ae (Itoo

~6 .6 t '1hf ~~ ;

8t\Y [hOur8] ) 1n 8uch bo 8Dd b18llid.

ect

to diaappo1nt 7OU, bat.

eather

(18Uch bu1dif;y t)'r

C<t

aq, a,yb

fo~

b7 aU

;. .

to be/let

lI U30/"cn

1t

()

to turn around,

beh1nd,back

n~ 3CI 6fo~ Ve'll

1\1 "cn 3CI '" /

888.

uaD8~

1n aI\Y

C888

t.1recI

get t1red
r8tun,CC118

back

AJvhor velll 10 tbere 1n ~ c:ue,

ad. 1t ". e" t1red

_111 CCI88

back

CID

Fo!dq.

_!!''; .

60'1..,

. 6

.6

f . m

'1'be veather 1gh cbn&e. Vell th8l1, baw

f c!a d

ood t1

and donlt

toret

to

888

tbe

cn6 "'.
b ~_~LtI.!!~

,,~px

Mcnd.a,y

T~

Tuesdq

Vedne8dq

T~~

'DNredq

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

18


~6 ~-L

week

~6 d~

Saturday

VL

Sunday

md

~ ~o

llOLOt

3L

~6 d6v;

L ~o;

''L nfEL lf L no~f cn ;


tL

~o ~o ;

~ ~o ;
rLa~t,

lL

~o ~OK~o;

6~ L'L ~6 ~tL ~o f ~6 ;

Tt &f tfo ~6 ~ f ~6 '~ ~ Cf~ ;


d o~ ~o ;

tC~ &f ~ ~ ( ~ tL f;

(C~ aL6 &f L tL ~ ~ o~;


f fL f do vf tfo o~ ~o ;

NarraU".
A~6 d !er!~~T!! ndp .
fc L

hevorlc8

to vork

6 4 ~6 LL L !~

!1!!!~e!2

cc.erce, tr, .bw1l1..8

f (C L ~!!~e!!!!2 vf ~o~6 ~.
d~t~~,

-,

1nd18penaablA

~6 ~6 ~OK~o EtvaL Q~~~Q1!1~.


L6,

yd

-,

-6

eccnom1ca1,

ecac1c

! !!e2~~~e~ Kf~L;
f

(f)

to o!ter

6 ant~L ~L !f~_~~!~~1~.
!L/!

ease, relaxat1on,

cefrt

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G REEK BASIC COlIRSE

'~~~~~~~~ ~ ~ 6 K~.

A~6 ~_~~~~e~~~~~~ L~L ~

he decided

L~.

vice

'dL ~6o ~ ~_~~!~~!~2~~.

CQ1Sul

situation, conditiCB

A~o elvaL ~!~!~ !.


~o~

alwal's

~L ~ vL d~d ~2~~!.
L~6, -,

I~~_!el~~~!) od
lxo,

3<t
-,

-6

acces81ble,

d ~

1hi

reach

a.

next., CCII1ng

Elv L ~~2.!:!!~ vcf ~ ~.


L~~6,

-,

-6

Q'2 ~.L vcf f; ~!!~~~~!~!!.!: y.t Kt~ ~1..

EtvaL ~~ ~~o y~o ~~!e~ d'~ ~.


''

experi_C8, pract1C8

ft&eMv vcf ~ cf\io Y:~~1~!)!~~!.


dnoyo'TfEOO~ . (du-&)

to be d1aappo1nt.ed

o.t !; , lp-yette~ . ~ ' ..

"f~.cr { .
'1~o

vcf

vcf ~L ' ~ fa.

f~o~ ~OK~o.

rI. '~

~ 1v.

'L,t,

~ L 6

v. ooo.6~ dt ~x . dL ~
xcr",t&i ~Lf~.

'~.

dnefaLae 'Cyof v

4 .

4& LI .6

! 1. Voo . ~ ! d .~

~ '..

tH x~~aLf; ~o ~o~~o ~o EtvL { ''

~. ~o CK~ .-r.

rI. 'criI~6v

6 XPELtte~ L . L LVOGPYLI t~.x.

'( ocr ~o ~ ~ ~6 d6u

~c ~! 'Coo.
, &. d~

vcf

vcf

vcf

~6

ElvIL L~~ vcf f &~L , KL'

avo~.

L~{L . ~x CK~ '~.

y.f cf~ CXLVOUPYLO ~~OK6 ~o, YLI~t

f du-&.

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G REEK BASIC COURSE

'8

td~L

MtVEL YLd ~~ uLd ~o ndv~ ~~ '3


nptnEL vd ~ ~OK~o YL'aV~~V ~ uLd KdvELj
~OK~o

!XELj

EV. ~6 6 ~OK~o:
~OK~o dnEfOLaE
' 6

v 'dd:

nOL6v .e ~6 dpi;

EV. wrl1 K~cn. a~6 ~6 ~OK~o;


6L~ L d t~ ~ tfv ~ ~6 6;
rLQ~t

3d

~~ :

No~

lXEL d ~6 L~ ~6;
Gra8at1cal

!2!!_!!~ Verbs

Rote8

Cla88 1 8Dd Clu_ 11 Verb8: Present Pertect.

"L d. nO'ft O"t' ;

Have 70U

' ndE1. K~ .

ba". one _eY8r8l tDe8.

~oE IorL 6.

'Ie ba'V8D't de1ded 7et.

1'be_e are

exarp].ee

8V81'

be8D ('aoe ) 1D D81pb1.

Prea8D1o Perfect teD8e 1n Qreek.

'I'be Pre_8Dt Perfect( '1 have dane so-ad-eo') 18 expre__ ed 1n Greek, .. 1n rnU8h,
Pre_ent telD8e tJe verb

b7

'have oll.oee b;y tJe ".rb8l f01"ll vh1cb 18 rouh11'


'
equ1val8n1o to &sli_h ' Part1c1ple' f08 1n ~ (, giV8D, tbro), -10 (bo, C81I&ht,
8Dt) and -d

(l1b 3rd

~x

(sold, held, had).

peron

81.ngu1ar

tJe

'1'h1a verbal.fom 18 tJe pertect1". _t8 plU8

pertect1'9

_t_

-.

a11Dg

f01"ll).

Jnple8s

Verb

Pertect.1ve

Bten

Pre88Dt Perfect

~ .

-yr /

d-

! d.

( 1 )

~ u~.

"'t' (2)

.~~-

~ VL't'.

aas

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

Perfective St8

Verb

l"ol],jng

ccplet.e parad1p !

18 the

'!!~~

V'3rba

--------------

tb8 verb f

in Present. Per!ect.a

~xo" fX.

~. .

t .

!.

!xo"v

Verb

maber

Present. Perfect.

<tpxtO'Ei.

vith pret1xes

Oreek

'98rb

occur 1n cClDb1nat10n Vith pref1xea

h1cb

undergo certa1n

chne8 h the erb 18 118811 m the Pa8t. t.en8e (both Simple nd Qmt.muous).

a1'e rest.d8d

tbe8e '98rb8

to

pre.

8 th8 aJor1V

katbarew8a contsxts ~ they viU be d18cw8ed m deta11

1n lat.er un1ta.
'1!e

'98rb8 vith

prefixe

tbat have

a1reIcQo

occured 1n our UD1ta are:

------

Pa8t

~~
~le

ull.

_ppea

~~~

auvf

auv .

clMCO"tw

to dec1d8

IfO'*

d!'.t

Cvat!f

to~

IllC

ClII

to

apJIrC8

",.r

.c c6

to

1Dterru"

.KOcj

.'tC

VnoXpEVW

t.o obl1p

VX

l. C

to 1Dtere8t

Cla88 11
cb8np

\a8

erb. bfewI'.

tcr*

\'nEXplw\ICI
.

baw tbe pret1xe8 cbaned 1 the Sbple Pa8t. ~.

'De

th8 ~ Pa8t occur JD katharnuaa coot8Xt ~. 8.g.

---------

Put

te8e8

-. -

Cat.1n1lDU

lnOKorouc1%

to obt.a1n

tcrv'rOucr

-----------------------------------------------------------------

aa6

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G REEK BASIC COURSE

!!:!-!.!!~ Put '1'ene A1JPII1t

URrr '8

l-

AD urutre88ed paat teDae augent - Ctor the st.ressed aupaent ~- s" Note

,0.,) 3 be

prefU:ed 1;0 lIIf7 Cl8 or put t88 verbal tora begiDn1Dg v1th a CO""Clala1t, tbat 18 1;0

uq

t0J'8"

l .&, l\,

et.c. lU7

OCCNI'

puoaUel

1;0

i.&,

etc.
'1'r8n8f:owat1ca D1.ll
------------

a.e

tb8 uderl1Ded erb 1Dto tb PreHDt. Per!ect.

~ ~~~~!2! .;

~!2!!2!~!! YLd 6 tt. u.


A.~wv 6 6 I!~~!~ d.
6 n . t ; I!e!~! (;.
!!e2~!!~ ;

vd , d .

:!!!~!~ 6 .t ~ &. u;
6 ~!~!~~!! 6 ..
~~~~ &6u.

'!!!~!!! ~&6u 6 ou.


., ~~!~;

6 ~!!!2*! ; ;.
' ! \ !~!!!e!~! CI~d d ~.
I!!!~ 'CI~d (; .

6 !l!2'!~!2! 6.

~!!!!2!~ CI~6 (; ~;.


(;; !~!!~~~ &6u CI~o(; (;; &~u;.

Rt . ~ ~-e!~!ln~!!.
t2"t lxci:ve d .-ydc;

-------

~ &( 6 !~~~!!!~
" !!2!~H (;.
T~ ~I!!!2~2! ..

~!e~!29~ ~; ~.
~~~fi!! &6u.
~ !!~e2~!! tu .

T~ !~~!~~ 6 .

6 ~c . ~ ~!2!!~!!~
'g~~29!! 6 ~oxo \ Cu ;

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

~~ !~~~!~q~~ xa~o.
~ ~~~xe!~~ d ~o~ ~.
~y~~~!~ ~ ;
6 ~!~!!)~!!;~~~ o~ t,,~6 ~6
1,,~6

tp'YO.

30o~6 ~~~!~~ o~ ~.

/ ~ I~~~~~ a,,~6 ~6 v;

E~( !!)~!~~fi~~! o~.


A~~ ~I od ~o !!~!2!Y ~6 ! ~.
6 !r!~~~~ ! ~6 6 ~6 x~~o.
!!!~~~!! ~ 'a,,~ox~6
~!!I!!! ! ~;

~!~!~ ~o~.

t t\r -: ~ ~r;

~~y nox.ftc;
MoI~

Dov

vd

~ ~ ~ ~ ttf;

.y~ auv~ ~ aa~o-K~~a~;

d d"~ r,,~6 ~6 tal'fO-K~pIorxo;

tC~ ~ ~ o~! d ..mo

vd

~~~~ o~ ' /"

"/tt

"1" c, ax~~ d y~ ~6 ~ ~6 a~ox\l6


.tC~ V. t~~r ~ tupntxd r~ox'f v~ ~6 oxoo~X
c16 'f' &~XC~xd;
~ y~a~ o~~o ~' &~xa~M4 r,,~ox'f;

I ~ v~ ~ ~~~~ ~ 6 ~ ~ ~OXrr1; / fa;


CC~ ~'r,,~ox~6 v~ ~~~ ~ y~! ~o ~ tf~
~ 6 xdvE~ ~ vCCvr

crrf)v

Ma;

tC~ Uv d ~xo

&~xy~~ a,,~ox'f,

~d

vCCvr v~ ~6o x~I) ;

o~o v~ xaC~o~ ~~ ~~ , y~x !~;

aaa

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G REEK BASIC COURSE

18

~ dfL d ~x ~6 ant~L ~ dvfL ~ YLa~tj

MnL~ d ~

nOLd dL vL vLd 6 ;

No~ vLd ~o ~L d~ &;

~ dfL d y~ d vLj
!

dpfaovv

L6~ !L ~'d<!~ ~ VK;

dpfaovv a ~ ov~fpv ~fv ~ ~ Lj

~ dfL vLj

llOLd

vL ! dfLj

~Ex~ <! fvLj

rt nOL6v
~Ex~

Ld~,

!~tv

-ro <r~fp ~ ~ ~t ';


~ lt

No~ d <r LLd L d dvv

!v 6

<r~t f ~t ~o ~o~

vL~ dyd

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G REEK BASIC COURSE

& (&a)

K~.

Uov

~ao~; &-

Oood orn1ng Kostas. h baw )'OU beeo 'l

a.

III18sed

you.

n ()

to be ab8eot

&.
W.n.

&. K~~ .&

1fasn' t here {...... ab8ent).

~ ~.

M~&o~,

('bad gone to') Crete for 'S dq8.

-,

8u1table,

K~tr;w (K~tcM)

tou

&ca& a~6 ~6 a;

C.~ ~.

D1d

:rou llk.

tbe 18laD41 Do tb1ak 1t.'

8U1table place for 10U

."(. cmto CJOU;

8If

to b1d.ld

(tbe) nature

~6 o~6

( the) 8DUDta1n

n.&/n.. &~

(tbe) pla1n

(the) 8ea-ebore

~ K~&

Doroua~J

"Ex~ 3V~ ~,

su1table.

', nL& na(.

'IOVr

houH!

6a./,u

~4o.

t1t.

to bu1ld

&1".1. ~,o .' & K~~ ~6

&~~.

u ....117 1n

nature ,),

bel1eve 1t ' s JnOst (1qu1te 1 )

has natural beauty (Ivandertul

ounta1ns, plain8

8Dd shOr8S.

230

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

.~

you (tam.) had v1a1ted

6 %

(the) paat

.~ 6 6 6

19

Raw you ('had you r) ever viaited th1a 1ahnd

% ~

be!ore ('in the past') or th1a the

the first

t1Je?

'

X.G

(the) vinter

6 6.

(the) sh1p,

.f~

fv

prev10ua17,

' 6 . f 6 6.,

6 .~x

bad passed

T.i.a1ted

passed by there

I'w

O'V1'

ste8er

befo:e

in

1nter,

but

via1ted there before.

f.

4.

(the) 1nhab1tant

~o, -, -

proud

.6, -, -

bosp1table

to

the;r are bu8y

W xo~. 4. .
o~ . .6..

ge't. buay,

I'w heard that

to be ocoup1ed

inhab1tants are VfIr1

proud and hoap1table [people].

rJbat'a

the1r ain occu.pat1an ('v1th vhat are

.;

thq OCCQp1ed')1

6 .6

(the) V1llage

(the)

pl.

.t'Weran

23'

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G REEK BASIC COURSE

(the) taner

6
fv,

-, -

educated

~aa6o~ x~ "~ "


~ .

In the v1llages

6~

(the)

x"y~~

(the) eng1neer

au"f"/v"~

(the) vr1'ter

[such a8]
(88)

layers,

1n the

lnf.y'

doctors,

ng:1Deera

tCv"~

tbey are tuaous, ve1l

~ x~

(te)

~-n)

(the) old:'

( the) var
'1'hey

, y~ ~ "x~ .

8Dd

vr1tera.

to 118 t880U8, to be

toms

('educated 1)
people.

tC~

ay tCv"~ o~

rtVOVT"'

tanerII;

~K6o

o~ ".

Iv"

or

the people are

tbere are 81\ profes81caal

~K6o~, Y~"Tpot, X"Y~KO

r~

ti8henen

eitber

fv~ ~3no~.

lIIOst

Jcnon
knon

bravery, va1Dr, courage,

are ail, hovever, [particular:q] 11811

knwn

tor one th1ng - the1r

gal1atl7.

, "~

cn6v 6.

Uo6 ~" d &";

Tou

~6 6 ;

oU ~"";
~K xeto~" ! ;

!.no~ "~ ;
xoo"~;
o~ '" ~6 ~ao

ou"" 6 ~ ;

E"~ " a"~ K~KO;

2)2

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

'9

Narrat1e

Irakl1n

'&.

6 .&

(c1t1ea of

Reth1non

Crete)

& .&

6 &. 6 . o~ ~1!~!Y~.
..6, -,

-6

healthtu1

I~_!~~!2~ . o~ ~~!2e2~
6 ~o

8011, earth, grouncl

\),-, -

tert1le

~tl_~e~~Q2~~~ & . ~.

cap1tal c1t7

~~ . 2!~2Y2~!~ & . 6 .

econaQ'

.6 .& & ~~e~12~Y 6 6 ~~~!.


&

to

6 &.

ol1ve 011. 011

produc

& &. & !e2Q!~.


6 \

1'ruit

& f 06 ~e~!!~2Q 6 . 6.

.6

the CretaD

..&

6 6 . . ~!~!2e~!!~ n6 6 ~o.
..6, -,

Mfvouv

-6

d1tterent

& & ~Y~~!2.


6 &
6

h.cn6f;

~Y2!~! ~&

Fe_toe
&.

~o..

8pring

6 ~ !~_!!!y~~~e2 ~& .

M1noans

fH . 6 .6 & '&.

6 ~oo ~o.

autunn

\& . & .&.

". ..6

' & 6.

233

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

~ ~6 K~o ~6 P~o.
~

K~ ~ ~ ~~K

', ~6~~ ~ ~ o~.

K~~KO ~ o~ ~ ~ K~ ~o.

K~O~KO ~

~6 ~6

t~ , o~~ K~~~.

~K~o~K ~ ~ ~ ~o~~K 6 ~ ~~K~o~K ~ '6


.

6 ~ 6~ tt ~ ~ K~o ~

~o.

K~ ~o~, ~6o o~~ ~ ~oc

~ ~6 , ~ ~o ~ t(

~o~o ~6 6 ~ o~6 ~ .

K~~;
~6 K~ ~6 l6( ~;
~o ~;
Mo~ ~ & 6 ~

6 tC ~~ ~~ ~ ';

~oo ~;

noL6

4 ~ K~;

x~.~oK ~ ~;
MoI~ ~ 4 t

6 tnLxtn~OV~aL

~o~

~;

~6 ~6 ;

ft :

!.,ote '2t'. Verba Class

~ ~ Kp~

and

Verbs:

Km~

Pertect.

aB avq 1n (Ihad gone ) Crete or "


days.

tnLCKE&Tj ~6 ~6 ~6 ~6;Had ,"OU visited that island 1n the past?


The urxier1ined verbal
he

1ns

Past Pertective 18

or in -/

is

preceded

are 'Past Perfect1 w

oned

by'

like the Present Perfective except that the perfect1ve

the Past tense ! the verb

, e.g. ~.

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G REEK BASIC COURSE

19

The Past Perfectlve 18 used to descr1be an action wh1ch (,) occurred 1n the d1staDt
past (very orten w1 th Ibefore', 'ever befre', 'never before', '1n the past', etc.) or
(2) wh1ch 1Jpl1es the occurrence ne other subsequent act.ions.

~~_!2:.! Verb: Class 111 <M1.ed1e/Pass1ve) verbs.


.

He doesn't approve.

You (t_.) thi.nk.

'.

'1hey

The above examples 1llustrate the use

Class

s0"7.

are

aus.

Verbs.

The great major111Y

these

"Irbs have e1ther a ~!!!!!}~!!!S (1.e. repres8nt the subject the recelver the act.ic:n,
e.g. 'to be loved', ' be k111ed', 'to be wr1tten' etc.), or a ~'!~! (_~!!l_~~
(1.e. denote an act10n that 18 d1rected back
ble oneel!'

Sone !

etc.).

~o.

(e.g.

the verbs

Upcc1

the subject, e.g. 'to waah ODesel!', 'to

this Class, however, are s1JDp]y 1ntrans1t1ve verbs

~o.

, to coe',

'to work') or one1Je even trans1t1ve

OD8) that 18 to verbs tbat can have a d1rect object, e.g.

. .

'. 1II8r1")"1ng Mary.


All Class

!..O:!_!!:!~ Class

verbs end 1n

1n the t1rst

prsc:n

s1ngular Present (c1tat1on

subclaSSB !

d1tterst Ste Fo:at1'99

the Class

Verbs 1n

kathiluen1 accord.1ng

Sutt:1Jtea:

-0-

2} Verb8 1n - .. .

(-. 1n katharevusa)

-.-

-\- or

3} Verba :1n -\. or -.


Class 111 Verbs 1n tbe sutt:1Jt

to the

Sta 'orna1 Sutt:1Jt


-------------------

1) Verbs 1n -.

Verbsj

:).

111 Verbs - Ster Forat1w Sutf1xe8.

'1here are three


three

- .

18 add.ed

~:~

Class Verb
----------

are tonned like the

the

~!!!!

IDperf'ect1'Y

tormat1ve
---------

Sten

sutt:1Jt

(.&ctlve)
.-

'to read'

'towr1te' -

'to buy'

()

'to

'

s't8

vo1ce

--

the ajor1ty Class

the verb, e.g.

Class
verb
----------

(Pass1ve)

-0-

.--.

'to be read'

-0-

--.

'to be written'

-0-

--.

'to be bougbt'

f-

-0-

--.

'to be sa1d'

235

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

C1.a88

verb8 U8ual]y

!on

the1r Pu81ve Vo1ce (Cla88

Verb8 belc:ng1ng to ~

- , ,

'D1ose tbe ~~~!

'Do8 ~~2

-oi,

, ,/oi ,

verb8) u

caet.:1ea

o1lor'

- , l1ke

-&\) 1,; \) . ,
..)

~!
&

..

'to be loved'

V.(2)

.n,~ X.oi.

'to be tb8ked

-&

-&oi,

'to be

~_,..!

(1)

( 3)

Cla8s

'l'be preaent

Vc18 - Pre88lt

cas1dered

'

teaae.

ten peonal cgt1Dg8

Claa.

m nrb8 are u

oUB

~.
1.

-,

-O'cz .

.s.

-vorcz,

n.

~.

8.

a) 'I8rb:b

IpX-ocio

X-6:c

IX-CC1Ix,

lx-/lx-~.

(PX-CTCZ..

-.

- , ,
!.

~cm- .. f4I.

~m- .

a.

&yczn-,to:,

&yczn-Llaorc

&yczn-C'fTXI.

&cz-.iV'r./&-.v.

3) Verb m

-iX . / -ii . ad

-ii .

!.
1.

xo.-./xo.-oi.

-&-oi.

.- ..

-&-*

2.

.-cz.

-&-.

.- ..

-&-

,.

"oIo-a'rczI.

3-.. .

xo.- .. ./xo.oi ...

-&-oi .. ./- ...

* '1'he

kat.harewaa !or

-&-&

18

et:lJeB

used.

36

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G REEK BASIC COURSE

Verb 1n

( --

-.

on)
1.

5g.
&-.

Ito be

niBtaken'

---

-.

2.

(K~o.. -~)

---

&-.

3.

'9

-~'

-.

'lhe prep081t1on used ith tbe pBB1e fOl'II!S. correspd1ng :1n mean1ng to Pngl1sh 'byI.

18

or '.

~_!2:!:'} ~nt1nuus Future and SUbjunct1'.

'1be

~nt1nuOWl

Fut1J1"

Mean of' the part1cles


erb.

and Cont1nuOWl 5ubjunct1e ' the Class verbs are foned b,y
and

respect1ve]y put bef'ore the present tense 'ons ! the

e.g.

~x ~

we IU

be com:1.ng

eigbt

8V'1"1 eek.

t.
. !. K~ .
!~~_!!~~

w ce

ewry day.

C1a88 Verb8 - Perfect1 V8 BteD FODD.

'Jhe Pertect1ve St8a ora ' the Cla88 111 verb8 are orned by Meant of' the 8Uffix -~
( -- ) att1xed

to the pertect1w

8t8 of the verb and the foUo1ng persnal d1.Dg" e.l.

,.

~-

~-o

2.

~-

-&-

-fj

-()

~-

~-o()

,.

'1be

Oll81on '

!!~~_!!:~~!

the perfect1 e

8es !

al1 tbree cla88e8

wrbs 18

d18cwsed

:1n

C1a8S Verb - SDple Fu'l;ure and SUbjunct1w.

u&~.

hope be

co

be d1sappo1nted.

'lhe above sentence i11u8trates tbe use of Subjunct1ve

'lhe S1Jple Fu,l;ure and SUbjunct1ve are formed

! -&6 and pu'l; before tbe

perfect1ve st8a

ors

qy means

the C1as8

verbs.

the 'Yerb.

231

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G REEK BASIC COURSE

~~~-!.:.~:.!

Class

verb8.

---- -_ .....

_----

Notatlon.

Beginn1ng '11th Unit 20 the per!ectlve te fonns ! the Class verbs will be given

1n the build-Up8 1n parentheses.


Fol1v1ng

18 the l1st

Class

verbs which have a1ready occurred 1n Units 1 through 19:

Verb

Perf .Ste

!or

--------------

~xoa.

~-&

.x~oa.

.-&

~o.

~-&

&-&.

MC-&

-&

..

.-&

f:~.

&W

\'.

-&

-&

~x",o.

~x..-&

-&

-&

~d..

~-&

..

-&

;",.

"&

&'.

a-&

,.

-&

vooc .

Vo-&

cm~.

cm~vb

.M~o.

.lp'&

&.

-&

'.

.-&

238

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UNIT 19

G REEK BASIC COURSE

Translonl8tion Drill

--------------------

Change the tmderl1ned -verbs 1n the


change the direct object

oll1ng

sentences

the sentense 1nto the subject

trI

Actiw to Passive and

the new sentence.

~~~~~f~~! .
f

:re~!f~! 6 6 ..

~!~!f!!f2~~

-&faTpa.

'~~!!~2~~~ .
no6o ~~~E~~ 6 ..6 .

Vf. ~~~~ef~~~ 6 ~~.6 .


~~~~f~~ ~Ko

..

f ~~~~~ .

f ~~X~~~~

noTf.

f 2!~2~2~~!~ ~Ko .
6 '&.6 ~~fQ~~ 6 6 ~o.

~2~~~~~ . ..
f. ~~~!~~! 6 n. .
nf ~!E~~~! 6 . .

. ~ !~X~~E2~~~ .
~ !E~~_o 6 6 t.
f ~~2Xa~!~! 6 . .

.6 !!~!~X~\! '6 .
!eD~!~2~2!2Q~ 6 n. .

6 . 6 .6:
f . .
& .:

' ~x 6 :
.

noTf

f . . :

. .. . .:
. v f:

f. 6 . :

239

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

L vL vLLv6 6 L vLv ;
~ a tL 6 ;
fL ~ LV;
L fL ~vLfv 6 ~ 6 ;

WAv

nOLav

L;

L ';
W

otKOyfVELa

L6 ~ L6 ~ VL6 ~ vf;

EtVaL f ~x fvv v~nv

.;
L .

YLa

6 .L6

240

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GREEK

BASC

Unit

COURSE

2!D

't" 't"/'t"

't"6

(tbe) propert7. fua

'

(the) tie]d

., L, L6

Jabn. do you

L 6 6
.

80]d h1s property and tie]d

-&

-&
(

't"6

lcnw by !\ cbance

vho Oeorge

to1

't"ou;

't"6

20

(t.he)

't"6

't"

IE't"a.p(a

't"ou

't"OU

't"

It 1 _

V't".

a tru1t

CCIIIpJ\T,

he sold th. t8N to

[but]

dD t kr

(the) k1nd

'

( t 't" 't"

:18tab,

about t.be f1eld.

't"

't"(

not

i8tak8

ot 1Ibat

lDd

't"6

't";

!:.!:~~~!)5
't"

(the) apple

't" 't"&L

(the) orange

't"6

(t1'. ) pear

't"6

(the) t1g

't"6

(the) cherry

't" L

(the) peach

't"

(the) apricot

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G REEK BASIC COURSE

bad

an

orta

1'ru1t,

L, L, VK, L,

oranges, pears, f'iga,

Lv .

nd

cherriB,

(tte) stup1d1ty,

EtVCXL L TtTOLO
~E & .

'

a p1ty tbat be

apple.,
peacbes

apricota.

'"

8uch

eo

811J1'

tbiD

_uch _ taa.

_ 81113' th1Dg to do .('he

de

It

_ big

stupid1ty' ).

f).&

be got scared

at the

Lv6, -,

~n"6

tbat

next; door (dj.), adjacent

6 6K~

(the) fara

~ ~

(tbe) 8te, rook

6, -,

6 .l

-6

-6

c:Ir7

~6 <

(the) p1ece ood

t.&" (L&)

to cat.eh, grab, .eize

'" cnL&

(the) 111"8

& f).& ~6~

't6

'tou 6't ~'tav

&'t 't !L"

lcn

that, b1t he

ne1ghboDg 18D

gt

vb1ch

scared vb8R tbe


u

rocq

and tall

dr7 1fOOd caugbt 111"8.

,n&.

'" LL

(tte) 8cwe, jU8ut1cat1aa,

pretext

'" ~o
'''tL !,
LL.

au't6 vL

L &L

& ! 't ~ox.


L6
C

...

-6

But frQ 1Ibat 'w heard th1s 18 on1y an


excw.

George

the countr,y

oe ant

to 8tay

1D

arr ore.

ovn

side b,. s1de,

cloe,

beside

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G REEK BASIC COURSE

, & & & 'tt ,


a'tOU

&;:;

'tOU

'tOU

. an to ad bu1ld

a't~V 6 ,.

, 'tf.

au't6

T6'tE

0181

bow. D8t

l,y

(oo~)

&, , 't 6,

b18

to h1a brother'. :i tbe c1V.

'tf, -, -,

Tou

URIT 80

(,)

to

,'tt

Be l1k88 c1V

'6

1887.

!.

8d1t

.,

Be bu

becaua8 a UtU8

8d1tted

1t [h1 -e1.t] to

IUIIV' [people].

,-&6

probab:q

-&6

(the) tather-1n-la

"-&&

(tbe) 8Dther-4n-la

,-&6

,' -&

,' -&6

'tOU

ct.

,6 ,

tu

't6

't

't6

'tOU;

fpOU'tCI 't6 'tOU;

'' &
r,'tt

't6

",6

"oUa;

a;

l, &~, ",6;
;:; -&.

'.'

& 'tt n;

r,'t -&, & & & !;

8&

& 6o~

'tou

& ~ 6,;

& ',, 'ta,& , 1!~2!!!!.


u't,, -~,

-6

u'tf yuv !n~!~2~I~~ ,& 't~v 6,& 'tu.

!~_~~1!!2~ au'tou 'tou &pxatou ;:; ~'tav 't6.

Au't6 't6 u , &'t ~22!.!:1!!~~.

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

taste, flavor, prett1Des8

6 L f~~1e~!~~2~ ~o.
L-L6, -,

-6

exceUent

- L L ~2~~!~!~~.

6--/6-

quant1ty,

aount

! - -vL;
-6 - L

grap8

'-6 -6 !~!~!!~e~ ~ - CL.

eapc1a11y

:2_~!~e~~!~ - - -LL L .

durat10n

!~!~_!~~_~1~E~~!~ - -LL & &

dur1ng

'L.

!1_~Qe!~~ & -

~.

o-~

bol1dq

-6 L 6 !~1~.
-6 &

V !Qe:~~2~~ -

XPLa'tOVYEvva.

l- (-)

to celebrat8

K~~ L 2!2_!e~~!~!.
-6 -cm .

:Q_!!!!2~ EtVaL L-6 - n6 .

YLaYL&

-&

UDcle

&

parent

OOL ElvaL ~~!e~~!Q.


-,

-,

tv ~!XE! - -.

urrled
uutil. uP to

- ~L
L6/L6
L /L

n1ece

- ty6VLa

grandch1l.dreD

grandsn

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20

G REEK BASIC COUkSE

OY~

granddaughter

o~,
~K.

O~OK ~ K~~, ~o x,o~

~ o~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ o~ ~o.

~ , ~'x, ~ UK ~
u

~ ~K.

Eva ! o~c o6~~ ~ ~.

~ .

'~ ~ ~ ~ ~

~ ~ ~O .
~, ~ o~ ~o '.
~ ' ~

~.

~6, ~

~Yx ~o, ~ ~, ~ ~
~ ~ ~~ ~ ~l

~ ~ ~ 3 ~ '~ ~, o~o

,3 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~o ~~ ~.

, ~,

~ o~ 3 ~o, ~ ~~ &, ~

3Ero

~~ 3, ~o t ~ ~ ~

1 ~ o~ ~;
'o~ ~ O~OK ~ K~;

! o~~

~ ;
o.'~ ~ ~;
t~ ~ ~ ~;
' ~ ~ ~ ~ o~y;
& ~;

~ ~ ;

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

Granat1cal Notes

!~~_~~~!

Verb: Foration ! Perf'.'!ctive Stea.

!~!:!_~~~!:.~. Cl.ass Verb8.


In Note 6.2 1 was stated that 1II08t pred1ctable Class 1 verbs (8S far as the
tonatlon !

the1r Pertectie Bte 18 concerned) are those whose imperfect.ie te ends 1n

Here are
clase

ee

other categor1es oJ: lDore or less'pred1ctable'

perfective

(01' ,"",1

--, --, --, --

consonant clust.ers) to

md

--

dunge

Pert.St8
-----

'to cut'

ci

'to

o~

'to spead'

'to d.1818s'

6:

yc.

'to

Ipertect.i" Bte8

CD80aDt

66:-

r1'

ab8ion'

end1ng:1n

(01' cCD8CllWlt cluster

--,

--,

-)

to

--,--

and

8C

1n

'to teacb'

.ci

dt

'to

op8a'

'to

atcb'

'to

_b'

'to p3q'

8C1118

st._

enHn

retaiD the -

1n v-

are leas prediet.ableJ

6:-

'to send.'

'to bring'

'lhe

the -

to

and Bc others 1088 1 ccplet.e~, e.g.

'to los8'

--------.

cbange tbe1r t1nal

BClll tbe chap

ci

Note aO.1.2

-c-

8.1.

"icn

1Jprfecti'V8

f:1nal consonant

..

Verb

3)

of th1s

verba

,) IJpert8ct1ve st.ans 1n

a)

Btes

C1.a8S Verb8

[cration !

'lhese ten8 are:

the Perfective stems 1n Class

--, -6:- 01'

'V":Tbs d1SCU8Sed 1n ,5.,.

--.

246

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

20

!~~_~:.!:.~_Class Verbs.
JOlliDg

frnat10n

are the D10st pred1ctab1e 1'OOt oonsonant changea vh1ch 1a k8 place :1n the

tbe perfect1ve

BtenB !

this ClaS8

verbs before the sutfix -fJ-/-'t- (Rote

19.,3)

~~~:

Verb

Perf .Stc

l'cm

----------

--

LL

'to be read'

LfJ/L't

--

--

(CL

''to be pla:yed'

LxfJi;;

--

-'1'-

'to be h1dden'

-&

-u-/Y /

-'1'-

'to be .pent'

ofJ

't(L

'to be 1eft'

't-&

--

change. to

-'1'-

--

--

--

L-. L

'to be taught'

LfJ

--

--

(L

'to be Opened t

LfJ

(L

''to be shown'

LxfJi;;

sero

--

2.

~_!!!_!!!~_~!!!!'!_!~_~!!_!!_!~~.

'Ihe - - the perfect1w (Active) Stes:1n - - aDd


sutf1x

18 reta1ned 111 the

-.1}- but

Btens

111

--,

- - 1 108t before the

e.g.

~!.!!~~!!_~~
(~)

aL.L

(~/-~)

uL 'to

(~)

LL

!2!:!_!~~

fJ

Verbs ClaS8

't6'tE

6't ~L

'Ihe
--

~;'1p1

Past

and the Past

Verb

't6

L6

Sjple

the

tense

forg1ven'

fJ/&

lau~ed

fJ/'t

at t

Past.

'tou

He got scuP.d 1fhen the ne1ghbor1ng farm


caU(;ll t f't..re

Cla~s Ver
persoral

be

'to be

'Pw'tLcX.

fJ

'to be 10ved'

18 fomed by' affixing the unstre8sed stiffu

end1n88 to the

Pt'rfe'ti\'C Be t:oras !

the

V'3~'[,

e.g.

~.
'tfJ

'tfJ

't fJ
'tfJ

'tfJ()

241

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

~~~_!~~~!! Verb: Cla.88

Verbs - Cont1nuoU8 Past.

"". "" "" (""

'Jbe orange8

""

'Jbe

Verb8 111

Crete

been alway.

aous.

Cc:t1nu0U8

~21!!!.!:,

1. -6"()

Paat personal

-2Y1!g!

eld1ngs

Class

al'Id -~1!g!/2Yi!g.:;

verba are aa

Verbs 1n - .!:~1!C!!:

-6/-6""/-6& -."()

-.",,~/-.

2. -6"()

-6/-6-r/~&

-.()

-.""/-.""

3. -6""()

!.""() /!.""

-.""/)

-.""()

'lbese endings are att1xed to the

Dpertect1w .'t8

the verb.

Oorre1at1..5ubst1tut1oD

~-----------------------

Dr1U
-----

Use the word8 1n

paathes88

and change the tense

the underl1ned verbs accord1ng1y.

(. ~eX2~!g.: "" . ."" ( . ("")

!eyg~!fi!~ "" t. "" !ey~~~!g.!: .' 6 " (( ""( 6.).

!21!!~!!! & ~~.:~!; (&)


"". & !~e~~~~!2YY, (3 )
~~!2~!g! "" "" ",,6 &v.(-r)

!O-!~!D~! 6~ !Qy~!!. (.)


~o 6 ~y~~~~y!g!

. ( 6.)

~~~~! ~~ !~~e!~~! '",,6. ("")


"" & ~~!.!:1!~Y~ "" ""'""(",,. (.)
vO~ & f""d~ .'"" & ~2! ~o . ! .~

. ~ l~ "" X.~o.(.)

!!2Q21~~y ",,6.

(cf

.6)

~!~~g~1!~~~!!g.!: t. .. (.)

~!~~!~~Y . . (.)
~6 ~6 . ~~~.!:!l~~!g.!: a. (""OV 6)
.6 !~~e~~~ ~ 1 ;' 6.

("")

ry~l~!~!~ "" ; (.)


6 6 .( ye~!!~~~ ( ~~2e~~~~ f..

(""OV 6)

248

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20

GREEK BASIC COURSE

" . &, !!c;!~!E!:Q!!J~!!~ . ( )

rt ~2~!!!~!!!~ . ()
Q1~2~2!!!!J~!:5 KaM(youmade out.well),

, . ( ).

! !!c;!!X!!J~~ XW. ( )
& !l!H!!~~!!! (you beba"ld)

. ()

~~!!~X!~!!~ f '~
!~~e~!!c;!! & .

()
( )

!~!~~~~ ' . ()

~Ex O ;

;
t ;
~ ;
6 ;

.;
'' , "

& ;

& ;
' ;
;
' & &;

' ( "
;
& ;

" {,;
{,;

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GREEK BASIC COVRSE

REVIEW

----------

l"1U 1n each b:JlaDk v1th


DOUD. WM tb

appropr1ate

proper

or tbe

g1ven

the

r:~.

It

18 a

tbe art1cle.

ROIID8
6 .

'

'vC-<1

~30oo avoou

_________

v-~

~-o

~ - - 6.

K~ ,v -(

oov.

-v6

6 - - ,Cv

. -~ -.

' . 'K-~

'6

-6 ..

Avo6 .\ ''-'v-t-

'

, ~ ~- no- -6

vaVOLx

...

Wou6 ~ l) ~

--6

f nt~eua - ~ .- -6

,6.

<1

tC ~ aV-6 '4-.6

6 av~ot

<1.

, g.

v-u

~~

-.

- ---------

~ v-6

- ~- 6 ~ ~ovva - '_ 6 v

<1-

________ e

( )

~ :
.

...

. liPEaE ~ ' 6

fKava

v'.

~So

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G REEK

a'rfJv ,

Rev1ew 16 - 20

-&

'

_________

COURSE

BSIC

'

-&

-&

' -&.

' ' !

~x

' o'~o.
-&


-&

'

' ~ ~

!,

6 !

. !

'-& &-&

~\)x

6-&

tXEL

& .

_ &

&

' -&.

~ -&

.
-&

-&

'

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

fv f~ ~ ~ o~,

~~

ntpaofva

o~"

To-K~xo

"

~ ~~

t~

~ ~
~T ~~ ~T

T~

"

~ t~ L ~"

V~ ~ OT~

"

o~ ~~

' ~~ ~x ~

o~6

~ ~ ~ o~, t 6

"

fv tfOVv 6 ~ '

'

y~~ f

NAv

~T

6~

K~ x~ ~ ~o~ ."

~x6

x~6

~6 ~K ~~"

~~ ~ ~

'~6 ~ K~~o ~ no

&.

o~o

~o

no6"

f ~
.

"

'"

, ~ ~

."

&~6o

~ ~o"
~

lo~~

~T o~ ~ ."

txovv
_________ ,

K~

' . T~ ~T ~ ~ 'x~o"

o~y ~

__________

"

~6

~t/-u

"

tC1~ ~ ~

TH~ ~6o Vao ~ ~ 6

C1~fv ~"

'f)cn)

A~o!

~~

x~

,
,(

,
"

OTo~

x~

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Rev1ew ,6 -

GREEK BASIC COURSE

20

.
'~ . .

30

'".

..

6 ~~o

~ .

.6. 6 l

'6

6.

' .. . ...
'

&3

'

~3o

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6 6 .

~oo

U.

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3 .

3 .

6 .

. 6 &3 '

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.

. .~.

. 36

.
6

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3.

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. . 6..

. .

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

'' .& t _

A~6 ~6 '

L .

..

_________

L . .&.

-&

~x~;

'~6 ~6 ~. ~

.& ~ ..

w.

~ ~. ~ . ..

-&

' ~ O~

.&

A~o

~6

.6

.6

~o.

O~. ~ ~& .~ .

~6o

~ .

6. . ' '~ ~ 6. ~~

'

U. ~ . f

.6

" K~ .& 't' ..

r,

6 .

.6

6-&.
' .

~,

! . ~

. ~

&

( ( L ~

.'

.&.

-& L

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G REEK BASIC

K~ (
L 6

&

~ 6.

L (L &

(L.

6
L.

LL L

'

(.

LL6

" L L

6 Lt ELvaL
6 6 (

LLL

vL6

L .

6 6 L

L L

& L 'i:L.

( L

L6.

20

---------.

__________

16 -

LL

n(L

~ L

Review

URSE

YLci

'.

L6
6

Verb8

- ~

L 6 6.

n(L .

L,

LL
6 &

&
6

(L .

(L

&

YLQ

~ n(L.

_.

&

6 .

L.

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GREEK 8ASIC COURSE

&

p~.

~o~ .

~.

~& 6 ~ .

"& 6-& ~'

~ ~

"E~ o~

~Ko.

~o

'-& oo~

&

" .

oo~

yvpCCw

()

'

y~ ~

o~

n.

-&

ooo~

" ~

~,~ .

f . ..
~

~ ;

(6) .

OOK~.

&

xp~oy;

&& & 6

6,

&

.,

~ o~& .

\ &
r,

~y.

Oo~ . ~

~C~

6 .

100

o~.

tC~

&C

6 6 -&.

~x

.~6

._

OK~o.

t 6 .

.K~.

.,

o~

.e

K~

~ -&.

to make a

&

Spech

256

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Reviev ,6 - 20

GREEK BASIC COURSE

Harrat1ve

Bto,

fort.ress

, -, -

bo,

, -, -

-,

h1story

vhoewr, vh1cbever

s1gn1f1cant, 1Jnportant

()

to ga1n, eam,

hungeo

th:1.rst

( ()

to del1ver, to

aston1.sbent,

0011181, p1llar

1n,

prof1t

sun'Dder

. . . .8I1t

1eac1.er,

begi.nn1ng,or1g1n, pr1nc1p1e

818.,.

ccmander

enev

1ead

bul1et

()

to Idll

3 (3)

to r8l1nd

generositq

al

&&

06

1821,

06 V

l 06.

6
3, .
3 .

' ~ 6

' ~ 3

~ '06 .
.
~

~oo

'

'

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

~ ~ '.

l , . .

'.

'

6 K~~ 6 .
': To~,oI. 6 6.

'

!. y~ , .
~ . ~x~o. .

n . .

L~ ~ ~. .'o~~
3~ ~ 6 ~ .
o~ ~o t ~oI. ' ~ x~o

6 ! i6.

: " 6:

.6: 6 . 6 .6: 6 ~ o~o


'.

':: ! ~o 6.

. ' 6nL.

l.:

~ :

6 . 6 6 : ~ ,

. o~ C .6n, ' ,_
o~,-x.6vL . 6: , .

~ W oV~.

6 K:z':K~ 6 : -6 . .Ai:;~

C2000 M..6:~ .. , f.o 6 " ~ .6 !)\_

'. ($ & (). .U~ !


T~ ~ ~ V 6 . ~~

i~o

YLA atatPE,

lTL ! L v& ~o~ 6

6 ~6 LL6
\

~ .:

Lv.

2.Se

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UNIT 2'

G REEK BASIC COURSE

tbit 21

(the) barber shop

()

to have a ha1rcut

(1. )

(the) pr1est

, ,

beli'e,

George, ve'd bett.er t1Dd a

~oo &

barbershop and.go get a ha1rcut.

look ('are ) l1ke pr1esta.

t 6 &

We both

.
()

, -,

M~ .

(1)

tolaugh

-6

natural

'

8ince,

alnost,

6 , '

tor, because,

long ..

about

Don't laugh. It'. 8urpr1s1ng, 81nce e'"

t 6 ' 6

been 1n tb18 1sland

tor

alllost

a IIOnth.

i&

(the) ne1ghborhood

(the) tactory

~,

Wbat vou1d

,"OU 88

6 ,

the barbeJ'

6 ;

on

&,

sugrested V go

to

1n this ne1ghborbooci, the

next to the tactory1


(the) worker

1t

&

'lhe on1y th.1.ng 18 "e'l1 have to va1t

because there are always

SOMe

Uttle,

vorkers tbere.

(the) advantage

(the) d.isadvantage
259

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

L oK~-

But there are

SO

advantages too.

't.

(the) barber

bes1deS, 1n

6 (6)

to cut

; ()

to sbave

L 't 6

fo

't&

'tf,v

to

'1he barber 18 pretty good and be81des vh11e

: o~ \) 6L

he 8& cutt1ng your ha1r and shaY1ng

.,

~& C~,

regard1ng, concem1ng, about

electi0D8

L't~6,

't6

poUt1cal

party. fact10n

'tf,v

~,

-f" -6

'Ko~

'twv

add1t1c

't&

au'twv

you 'U be able to hear tbe

o~ 't

op1n1aru

tboe8 ord1nar1 people about tbe eleCt10D8

~&o ~'t~

ad variow

pol1tical part188.

6'tC.

7tpOc (o"c)

(,)

t prok.

t 'to~~~ ~'t~

.oU

6~c .

't6
Ev

~co

't&

to cbal18up, r0U88

:1D 8f3 C88e. ~

You're row1ng V cur10aiV (v1th 70r ord8).

'to~c~I "'t~

Az;yq. . "

.. & mf,'t ' cU6

got to

to that b81'ber

bop

b.r aU . . . .

6 \i.

()

to be careful. to vatch out,


to pa; attentlon

capleteq

c~f, -f, -

1nd1.f'f'erent

~ (~)

to

escape. to &Up
(the) ord

~ ~

260

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21

GREEK BASIC COURSE

6 L &~,

Be

L L,

caref'ul, hwever, not to get exc1teci


(.t,o be :1nd1f.ferent') because 1.f you let
someth1ng sUp (. e vord sUp out ! you').

(the) meber

! L L 6

".

or

Parl1aJent

they nsy !1nd out (Iunderstand ) tbat you lre

the brother

eber

ot Parl1cent.

6Lv L 6 ;
rL 6L~ L ~ !!;

!YLVE
nOL6

"6;

L "! 6L

''Av L~ !!, nOL6 ~, L, 6


6 L;

llOLa

~ ;

fxaVE rL, 6L ~xo " L;

~ L i;

6 L
" 6 LL ~2~~~e!2.
6 .L

beauv

! ?L n_g!e~~e~~g 3.

ln

b1gh soclev

L 6 ~~!~~ ~2~~~~!2!~!~~.

"~~~~~~~

t1Dor, _torq

"LC

aprtent

elevator

YLa

bow

6 6 tL " L'fL

()

L !~_~!g~!e!Q~g
,

to enter
.

apartment

- -

modem

261

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G REEK BASIC COURSE

Q!_~!!2~Q~~ ~o ~ L ~
.

'&

haU, salon, parlor

ato&ouaa ~o
--In~n~~t~!I.,
,

~o

L ~L

vaiting

tL, -,

furn1shed

- !~_~~!~~ ~o . .
-6 ~.o

a piece

fudture

-H~ 'a ~ ~2~~!e~~~ ~

~e!~!:~
-&6

V o~6 ~ ~ & .

~~~~~~!!~!.
~L, -,

-6

collrtabe

A~ !~_!E~~~~~~!~ . ~ ~~ ~E!2~!~~.

't'6

~K.

't'6

LL

8III&ll table

~!_!2IX2! 't' ~o 't' .


't't

11&11

!~_~2~E~!~~

't' .

't'o.

pboto,

't'6 !~_X!!~!~ . L

p1ctre

co1!ture

!!j~-~~~~.

't'6

od.,

ta_h1CD

nav't'a ~2~Q!~~!~ ~!~~!~.

oua't'aKL

I8OU8tache

- L/ L

beard

't'6 -6 6. . ~~1~~!~.
,

- -L/(-

.)

poU:te

~ ~o Q~!~~!!~~~
L't'L,

-,

-6

talkatlve
262

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UNIT

G REEK BASIC COURSE

21

theme, sUbject, matter,


question

athlet1cs, sport
o~ ~ ~2~~~~~~2i~
Ko~~K, -,

80cial

T~_Y~Y2~~~ ~ o.~ o~ .

e8nt,

tact

. . . ~~ ~!~QQ~~!~~~
&.~

a13osphere

. & 't ~ . Ko.~o . George,


. . . ..

. &.

" .

. .

E~ . . . ~ ~o~ o'O~K

x~C.~ . ~ . '..

M~ . p~

. ~ . Ko.~o ~ ~~ ~ . .

at-

& . ~ ~ . x~ .
~.

&6 . ~ '~K .

.K~ . ~ . .
o~K.

~K ~ 1p~

'OxO~ 'r . ~W

&~ .

., . , ~ ~K

o~ o.K~ ~.

~rge

. &~'~K K~'. . &. . .

M~~ ~

. &., o~n:, &n6, ~ ~o Ko~~K ., .

'.~

. . ! & . . x~. .~ . !b~.

.6 Ko~o . ~rge7

E~~ o.~o;
~ ".;
E~ &6 . ~K K.~ . .;

o~6 &K~ . oK'O~K ~~;


!;

aL&Ouaa

: .;

. . . . . . ~;

26J.

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

'\" '\" '\";

Oeorge

~ o~ '\"

'\"ou

~;

&'\" '\"~ & & '\" L;


Qruat10al

!2!:!_!!:.!.

Hotes

Houn: b1rd Declensin Neuter Nouns 1n

-.

We never

~ '\" ( .

'nosB are the best ld.D1a.

exanplB

'l11ese
'Ihe

shw the use

ccp18te declena1n

o~

tbose p].aces.

8&11

the 3rd declens10n neuter nouns 1n

parad1.1,11

t.h1.s

fam1~ !

nouns 18:

!!.

~.

'\"6

'\"ou

'\"

'\"6

!2!:!_!!:.! Houna ne

U8B

-.

TC \'\" '\"6 '\"6 /;

What 1dJ1d. ! fru1t d1d th18 ar have%

'\" '\" '\".

had 11

'Ibe ord

obj.et

of fru1t8.

SON

18 otten used 1%1 gen1t1 case even h 1 18 the subject or the

tbe 981'b. e.g.

'\" '\";

JdJId of th1ng8 are tbese%

TC '\" '\";

k1nd

' '\"

have a ! of th1Dp.

o~ th1D

othr construct1ons 8uch 8 ~x '\"


ued.

do you se.%

thoub 1888

frequentJ3r

are al80 po881ble.

!!!!.!!.%1

Verb: Cla88

Verb8 -

JJperat1ve.

'D 'ta1l1ar' Iperat1ve (1.e. 2Dd pers.S1%1g.) eu:Ung ! this Clas8 ! verb8 18

8Dd that ! the

.poute.

be aW.ar tr

:lausuaIllv based

pas8i'V8 perfect1'V8
Class

IJperat1ve (1 2d pers.P1ur.) 18
OD

the act1ve perfect1w

-'\".

Bte

and the poUte

ore

the

BteI.

verb

lI1dch do

have an act1ve

nmterpart

fom the1r famiUar

Iperat1'V8

the bas18 ! t.h8 root consonant cbanges discussed :1n 20.1.3

264

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

...

ErJUmlea:
;;;;;,

Act.:f.ve

Perf.Ste Pass1ve Perf.Stem Fa1l1ar


---------------- ----------------- --------

Verb

---

Polite

~_A",,..,,.,_

&&-

~a_ao

Kx-&x~"

.&-

.&

tL

.&-

L~"C

-&-

!&

.".cx-.,-u...

:.
th1s c1ass haw 1rregu1ar

Sae erb8

~xol.

18

l,

xci~E

18

Note 21.11

------

2!:

Ad.jecUw:

Iperat1'V8

the

erb

'!be 'pollte I Dperati'V the wrb

cme

e.g. the

Iperat1ves

a&.

18

&TjO"'t

and the 'Iaillar'

&'t'C1.

'l'be US8

.,

-,

-6

'oneIa 01ID'.

. \ 't't \ l. '(. ant't'..Ie vant to go and build h1s wn hoU8e~


'D

pronOUD

adject1'V8 ., -,- 'cnB 1 alvays UBed together v1th the possess1ve

.,

C1otJetc.

and agrees v1th the noun 1t modit1es or the noun 1t re!ers to.

In the 1atter case 1 t corresponds in

neaning

to the &1g1ish possess1'V8

proun 'in ,

'youra ,

h1B , ete:.
~!!:

'~_~:~'i_~\! 6

!( m

brother.

6 l. ~:~'i.~~':.

Re 18

'1!._~:~'2._~~,: .

Your

. ~!:.~1_~~,:.

Sbe

18 yours.

6 . '(. ..

H1s

OIID

AV't'6

\:. . .

m.

on

daughter.

ch1ld.

lt 18 h1s.

~~_~!:.~C:~~'i .

Or on

. ~!:,~C:~J:~'i..

1b8y

~~_~I:.~~~_~~'!. .

Yur ovn daugtters.

V't' :. ~~~~'i_~~'i..

'lhey are 70U1'8.

..___I:.~~_:.c:~ . ..

'1he1r

. _:.~__:'~V_'i..

brothers.

are

oun.

om

ch11.dren.

'lhey are the1rs.

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G REEK BASIC COURSE

Reeponse E1erc1ae

-----------------

&& 6 6 ~ ;
6~ ~& a~& ;

~ 6 v ;
8v' 6 ;

E~

~K6 ;

E~ ~~6;
~& o~ & &~ & ~&;

O~ ~ 6 ~ K~6 ;
~

~ ~vxva

avT6

0'.6

o~o;

K~ ~ ~;

o~ 6 fv;

o~ ~ TOV ~~o;
~ ~napxovv ~& ~oK

~fv o~~K;
~~ ~6o ~K ~ ~ t~;

o~& ~ 6 ~o6 aVTOV ~O 6;

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G REEK BASIC COURSE

Un1t

82

&'4. (.a&)
&, ~ .&c-. ~6o.

8&

to be 1n a buJ"I'7
6

ou rq

Dcm 't be 1n a 1nr17, Lak1.

U~t~.

22

nn oel"

(&)

b1' a

CU" ( . . . . . C8I' Ul

to anUc1pa_,to

et

& & ~6 "-EoPEto,

y.~

&a ~6 &.

34

I'U

11188 tbe pla8.

(tbe) bId Hta

~ ~. 6K.~. &~.
'u~6v ~6 6..

~&

d1dn It

knor

tbat

yu

1n aucb bad veather.

6.&~, -~, -

vere

01ng

\here

to traV81

are you

o1n82

1nternat1coal
(the) exh1b1t1oa,8ho,state81t,
report, copoa1t1oD
( tbe) a1.rport

&a.

~6 6.

~ .&'&.

tJ,

haw to catcb tbe bus, because otberv18e

6.

",

1n

toC8td

cut ;you').

8 (.

. ~ K~ & . ~6

the

Intenat10nal

Fa1r 1n

bessalon1k1.

have to be at tbe a1rport b.r eight.

6..

",

(tbe) epocb,

. . ~& & . &~

888.011, t1Je,

era

Do you think the p1aD.. are alvay8 crovded

267

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

~ ~ ~ ;

this

1J ! year~

lK,
lt

-c,

lt

(the) caU8e, reasn, mot1ve

!rn

!or that reason, because

()

to doubt

(the) bad veather

a~a ~ l&.

Mybe,

beC8U8e ! the

~a ~6 'a~

~ aaa.

veather.

rLa~C a

~6 ~aCL ~ ~pLO;

doubt

8Xh1b1t1cn.

tbi8 ewn1ng v1th th1a bad

Wb7 don't you

70U1' tr1p

unt.1l worToil

Ko~~

DQlUJense

to th1n1c too

~L (&)

a~6 (, , ~o

I8cb,

to pq

too

IIIch ter1

;aelt,

your8elf, h:1mself, etc.

~6 :~a

(the) queet1OD, po:lJlt, 188U8

(the) t1ancM

Ko~.

8 &~

f~.L ~6 a~6 .

Don't be 8~ ('don't aq 118_ l ). 1011

'

~6 :~ o~

kno dn ' C81'8 ~ucb tou ;y'_elf.

But the tact 18 that rq t1ano4e 18 11n

KL

~ ~6 6L.

tor

lnC
lnt

tbe a1rport..

OD,
~o

~ ~o, O~L :.

upn,

at 188t,

&~ (Ka&~)

()

dur1ng, by, under, tor

A1\V rate

to delay, deter

aJV' rate, do vhatever you vant (ltMnkl).

& Ka&~ !

lt

~a ~'oo .

don't vant to keep (Idelayl) you 80 that

you 111 miss the plane becaU8e

, -, -

exact

6, -, -

1JPB1

me

268

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UNIT

GREEK BASIC COURSE

, .

Have a nice trip.

Run

,(

on t1Jne. because

~ .

yoar tiancee 18.

50

lao

on tbe
patJ,ent

&~ LL

1n 8DY c...

f ')

to

'

nLaorEUw OTL ElvaL

Don '

nL.

talJ

8.,. tbat.

POV.

~& & .

how 1mpatient

owr 8ga1D

Ob th. contraJ'7 bel1e...


In a;y cue. FOdb18

.he '. 'nI'7 pat.1ct.

' &~ LL. & (

that 1011 'n be

cntral'1

vL6, -~, -

22

w. 'U talk 1t

oer apjn vbD 0188

back.

,( ;
:

" 6 L 6:
L 6 &;

~ & ;
6 ~ L ~K 6 ,

YL6

';

( ~ 6:

& & 6 ;

6 ~;
& ' ';

N8n'at1"

& :!~_:!P.~i! ElvaL KXLVOUPYLa.


8treetcar

" & L !!e~~!~!!.


&L,

-,

lJ'

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G REEK BASIC COURSE

6 ~~e~ L.

"H~o ~!!e1Y~~ x~.

(they) ensted

L, -, -

yellow, pale

3 ~!~~~y~!~y .
~3L (~33/~~)

~~ ~_~~~~!f~~~~'

to feel
luxury

L ~y ~1_~~e!~~~~.
~

sard1ne

" '6 3 ~~e~.


l.1ne, tall

~~~!~~~'
~L' (~L~)

to

part1cle used to express


certainty

6 vL !e~~~~~ ' .
6, -~,

-6

near, to approach

cce

the part

the speaker.
mad, 1n8ane, crQ1'

CL !~~~~~~~~.
6 L6 LO

ep1sode, 1nc1dent,

600 Lp o~-&o~

i!4Ig~~ & 6 .

~K/~Ko

occurrmce

1n va1n
(bu8) conductor

aya'L& L ~L ~.
~L,

-,

6 6

trolley bu8

YLa & ~~~~~~~!~.


aL

!!~e~ &

(KoK~)

~~

to be flattered
.

~ L6 ~~~~ .
~~~!~g !

YLa

v1ah

vere able

carriage, cart

6 CL .

L (L~) (2)

to start, to set out

EtvaL L 6 ~x~~ ~v&pnoL.


~xo,

-,

cah,

qu1et

6 6 ~L L ~~~~~e~.
3

vannth

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22

GREEK BASIC COURSE

~ ~ .

, 3
~ 'cx\j.

~ , &

6, c c c.

'

, , ,

,. xU.

' -;'J (CX

xcx3 3.

~ (

& .

" , 3

' .
& ~ 6

.
.

ot

', a( 6

~ 6 ~o &
Ma& 6 ,

! '! 6 o.~

, 6 & & '.

& 6 ;

;
6 ;
! ~ 6 ;

K~ !~o ;
K~o ;
6 &;
an ;
Gruatical Hotes

...--------------

1!2..'t!_!!:.!. Adjectives: Adject1ves

1n

-.

'. '981")' pol1te

::71

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

EtaaL L ~ .

Run 90 you '11 be (ex.act)on 1Je.

~ L~~L (.

Internat10nal Fa1r 1n 'lhe9saloniki.

h abo.. exanpl8 1nustrate the us ! adjectives 1n


adject1es

-, -, - ()l'd declens10n

1n katharevusa).

Saae ad.ject1ves 1n - sucb tor exapl &


1n - L6
'111

.. L6, LKTj (Clt

plural 81d1ngs

tor the neuter,

these adject1ves are

'polite' bave an alternate on

LXLa), 6. ( See a180 . 3.')

-ELtor

the Dl8aculJne

Pl.

L~

~~6

L&

~~o!

L~

~~L

L~\'

t&fL

~6

;&

L-&

'1he lcatbarews&

decleru10n

ot these adject1V88

111

be d1scussed 1n 1ater

unit.

Class verb8: Proh1b1t1ve IJperat1ve.

() ~x ~6o .

Dan run 80 t&stJ

K~() ~o ~(o~.

Don '

11 wn. anytb1.n1

'D8 prcb1b1t1v8 1Jnperat1ve 18 tcmDed b1 sane the ~( )

.... Preact

..

5.

!2..~_!!~!-Verb:

t8ll1n1ne and

put betore tb8 2Dd per-

(Ipertect1ve Aspect) or ad pere.Pert.5t8 lora (Pertect1ve A8pect).

_.). Verb: 'D erb ci

_.. ---

T6~E av~ci ~& K~tPLQ.

'Jbe perf8Ct1ve at.a orr ! th18 verb 1 ~


8..

A~~ci ~ci K~tPLQ

&ci

&Dd the CDt.1nuous Past 18

~x.

& xLp6.

o~ ~~o~o vo

~.

V~ ~~ ~ ~ K~!PLQ.

&ci

vci

'~~.

~_!!* 'D8 US8 ot the word ~.


'1he wo

plua

'1118 vorb tol1ow1ng L

18 used to expr8SS w1sh!'ul thinJdng.


may be

1 ther

1n the

Cont1nuOU

Past or 1n tho

Subjunct1vo.
L 6
~ '

nlpuaL

~6 (L.

w1sh

had been able to come

1 th yu

to

Greece last summer.

272

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. ~ ~ & !

1ah

~o 6 ~6 tL.

1 could go 111th

to

G'eeo

next.

8UIIIIerJ

- ~& ~~ ~

wE 6~ ~& !6
r~a~t 6

WpxotJv

.&

~ ~ ~.6~~ :

wExouv

~&

~.M &K~o

No~ ~~ ~ox K~ i . ~ ~~ ~ox


x~ ~ ! En'K ~uo;
~ ~ ~ ~.~~.

&o~o ~

&&~ ~~ ~~~~ o~O

NoE~ ~~ ~ !L & ~L~ &:


6 txE~E ~~6~ &o~o ~
lJ6a oto:
wHa~E o~I L&v &.:

~y~ ~~ L& NIxtaL ~

wAv

o~ & ~ ~E I~:

Ifo~ & ~

M61roLO

EUX~PL~O v6 '~ ~ C1:

2.,3

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't"6

't"6

't"..

(the) bakery . (. )

't"6

'L

(tbe) butcher ho (.)

't"6

'L

(the): !ru1t-vegetable store (. )

't"6

.'L

(the) grocery (.)

't"6

'L

(the) tWmnac,y

tfPE't"E nou
'L,

.'L

't"6

't"6

't".'L,

'L,

't"6

Do

know by

aJJ

chance, where a rbread

vemor r a rmeat vendor l

't"6

'L;

rgreen-grocerIs

shop , a rprovi.s1on store and a pharmac,y

't"6

(tbe) btcher shop

't"6

(tb8) f'X'u1t-nptab18 8tcn

or6

nX.KO

(tbe) g'OO8Z'7

8or or
.,

't"6

(tJ1e) baJce, own

u,

or6

't"6

You

lD8n

the bakery, the butcher 8hop, the tru1t

ud vegetable store and the groC81'7f

.;

(the) _arket

't"6

(tbe) t1sh urket

't"6

3u'L

(the) t1sh market (.)

. a't"6 xfv't"O "," , 't"


< ..

f't" 'L

3uo'L

TheyIre 1n the oenter

the market near

tbe t1sh market or n8h

dor 8 'lOU

aq.

't"

(the) town. aquare

(the) Twn Hall

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G REEK BASIC C,-, URSE

UNIT 83

(the)

6 K~o ~ T~ ,

']he

K~ 'T~ ,

pbarac,y

the

Twn

1s

pier
the square, r1gbt. b8h1nd

Hall, near the

p1er.

T~ .

()
O~KT6/O~XT6, -~,

to

-6

open

x~T6, -~, -

cloaed

V ~ O~XT & y~;

How long

ar&

these stores

opent

y~

general:q

()

to close

TT~ 6 , ,

y~ .

genera1J,y they

oT6o~
6, -~,

acam.

depends on the store,


11

But

clo8e 1ate.

(th&) resort, pa

-6

y1:g

~ Ko~~K~ ~

1 us knof

x~

(adj.)

that the soc1al 111& 1n t.b1.8

r&eort beg1ns 1ate

n1ght.

~.

(the)

, ~ ~~o~

\lel1 then,

, y~ a

ork

ha t:1De

vake up in

order

do the people bere

to go to

orlc2

()T6~o, -, -

native, 1Dcal.

~~~o, -, -

accwted,

K~

l1lce you

118\1&1, U8ed to

27"5

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~6LOL K~ , '~6

~o LL.

'1he local people pretty ear11', but tbey

L VL~LOL.

donIt

n1nd;

tbey 1 re used to

L6~OL L L

major1ty

KL'~o , .

they get Up very

1.

But the

people here are etrangers and

late, l1ke you

, -, -

~L; ~6 ~;

cur1OU8, pecul1ar,

18 that 807 How d.o you

~~no ~.

8trange

JD8n

knv

etrDg8

that! What a

you are.

L ~~ K~o L , L, L, L
&.;
~ ~ ~~
~ ~~
~6 ~ .& ~& .&

~ ~ ~6
~ . ~ o..~ ~ ~ ~ o~o;

~ n&. 6 ~6 npt, .& & & ~ .& ~o


- '~ ~ ~6

&~no;

rLa~t ~6 V~6;

---Harra't1w

6 !~Xg!~

~6 ~~o.

~'i:/~

acc1dental1y

f ~~~! ~o 6 ~& ~ ~6~.


~a. (~-&)

!~_!2~!2 ~~

to

rem.eber,

to recaU

1aD1acape

6 t ~~ ~~!~~e~q! L.
~Lo, -, -

Vr1' grer1

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urr 2)

GREEK BASIC COURSE

' ~

Hy!e!!.

6 /

6 ~~~!2~ .
6, -, -

steep

. . ~!!y!~e!l!!!

ver: beaut1!ul (poet.)

rQe~ '6 .. ~ & .

uoUDd

. ~~ef~!!!2'

va1k, St'oU

6 6 .6 . ..
6 ./

plane-tree

!e!!r2~~2~~!!y ..
()

(1)

to

_~!~~e!! . .

s1ng

gu1tar

~y~!e2'
6 .

~Q_~!e!!~ ~ 6.

a1r, v1rd

36 6

_811,

_~~e~~~ &' ..
6 .

per1'ue,

scent
ci18h ade

ot

fragr8DC8,
1ntest1ne

vouDd an a 8p1t

HH~ ~!!y!!!I!~eQ~y ..
()

to br1ng

bck

. ~e!!r~!!~!!!!'
.6/-

real1v

. . 6 ~y!!~yfi~!~ .
.

recoUectl

. ~~~~ ~~e!l!!!~
~ ,

~ ~ 2_~~~

1
a

81JJ>11'
beau~

Ood

~~!~ 6 .6 .6 1
. (.)

tc grant

()

to l ive agam

v ~ 5 '

~.

. .

6 6 . .
277

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GREEK BASIC COURSE


( .

, '

~ ~ .

' ~ , , .

, ~,

'6

"

p~o,

A~o

:"

7C:~J

'

-"

c:r. , :-,

~ '
~ .
l ,

6
~o

'

~!_~-

.L

~ 6 ;
To~ & 6 ;

6 ~ 6 ;
~ ~ ;
U 6;
~ K~o 36 ;
L6v 6 , lv ;
! !L;

~ , ' L ;
r-t.1cal. Hotea

-----------------

~~~

Verba Past Part1c1ple.

& ~

Tbe va1 ting room 18

beau~

fum18hed..

~.!:~~!!?!'~~!I.
L ~~e~~~~~~~

In the townB there are

lII1V educated

people.

~v-&L.

0!78

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~ !

We d1dn 't knOlf that your 1'rleM

23

a.rr1ed.

!!!!~!E~~~~2~
'1he underl1ned vords 1n the
'1he Past Partlclples in
l1ke other adjectl 1n
8 a

sentences are

aboe

Part1c1ples.

bave gender

(o.()S , -

.()) and are

:1nf'lected

o.()S.

general rule tbe Greek past partlc1ple 18 ba8ed

n.

the Class

Verbs

(Puslw)

perfective stem of the verb and. 18 fomed ~ the addition ! the .uCf1x _, -,
-.

'1he last cn.scnan (or cnb1natlon ! to COMOMt) ! the st.. 18 elther dropped

or replaced accord1ng to the

follving

1) -& / -- or --&-/ -u--

aDi

ere usual1y dropped (Vith exception ! te8 1n -E'lJ-&-/-

--&-/-- t.he

Verb

'to marryI

'to be vr1tten

'to be spent '

rules:

'

--

ofthe

to

be

doubled), e.g.

~!:.~

~2~_~c1P!!

-&-

'arr1ed

-&-

'r1tten

/-

'

-&-

'pent

surf1- 18

disissed'-&-

2) --&-/-- are replaced ~

'

'di818sed'

--

'to be opened'

&-

'opened'

to

-&-

ugt

&,

'to be changed

-&-

'changed I

'to be 8ent. avay -&-

'sent.

-&-

'read.

d:yopaa&-

d:

'bought

'laughed at'

~)-~-&-/-C1'f-

be

tauht'

are replaced b7

'

'to be

'

to

nay

--

be bought I

'

to

be laughed
at'
4) --&- 18 dropped, e.g.

-&-

'to be loved'

-&-

r.

'loved'

'to be forgiven

-&-

'forgiven

'to be vashed'

-&-

'vashed'

'

'

279

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!!:.~~

Verb
cit; .

to

:.

'to be

~!!_!~~

be

Verb: Class

\) .
&~.

lSn

Verbs:

!!!~.!~~~!~~

-&-

-&-

'sent

It sees to me tbat be liws in h1s


~r1e8.

'1h8 Pertectie St8 10m ! the verb


is

'

Per1ctie teDa.

Irregular

etc.

:.

'to see is , ,

'irregular' beC8use does not have the suf't1x -&- (or - -) lIhich

1.8 characteristic ! perfective stIDS ! th1s class erbB.


tbe Cont1nuua Pa_t . 6 ( )

1he S1JIIple Past

and

are regular1y tored (or tbe Pert. St8 !orn and.

tbe Preseat reepectiw1y)


.tq otbr verb8 ccjugateel 11ke

~!~:1

are:

:.

()

'to

be glad'

6:.

()

to

be

ro:.

(.)

to

be drown8d.

V. .bt V8I'b8

'

lJIixed Ccrjup1J..on.

S088 Cla88 Y81'b8 l1b


on

t : .

tb81r Pertect1... Ste8

ons

to t1Dd ' 8d

l1ke the Clu8

'to

verbe descr1bed

go

.bove~

out l and other


e.g.

~-~~
mc

1be ~b
t.o

s1t ~ Ito

: .

re:1e l1J

lto

b8cae l beba.... like a

Clus 11

ClaS8

wrb ad t. wrb &-&:.

~b:

~y

-&

&-&

8 ~ 6 . . ..& '
'~;

2'80

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G REEK BASIC COURSE

23

~ ~ K~~~ ~ ' ~

~ ~ ~, t ~~ ~K;
~ ~ ! ~ ~ ~

~~~~ ~

tpyaata

tpyaata

~ K~ & ~;

~ ~ t ;

O~& ~ ~ ~~o~& ~ ~ ;
~ ~vL ~;
~ & ~& ~o-K~K;
~ && o~;

~ ~ &&;
~ ~L;

~~ & ~ ~ ~L~~ ~

~'&t ~

~~K &~;

8&

~& ~ ~ ;

~ ~ ~ o~;

~ ~o ~ t;

~ ~ ~ ~;
~~ ,

~o vt

MoPEt~E

~ ~K ~ ~ ~

~ ;

~& ~ &6 o~~~

~ ~ ;

2.0,

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Un1t a4
Bu1c

D1a1op

Hel10J (on pbone), oCI8 1n (at

6
K~~o~~~6, -,

kDock), torard
real estate (j.)

-6v

K.~

Mr. 80-end-so

(O~K~)

to reDt

'6, ~~L~6 ~OU


K.~;

He1.1D1

~~ VL ~

lci

Real e8tate Of'tlce


1:1ke to reat 8D

ot Mr. 8o-and-eo1

apartaent.

~L.

-~ VO~K

(the) 8ect1cn) cii8Vlct

VOK ~6 ~~ 6

rr

Do you bave

~~L &;

partlcular 8ect1cn 1n

(I:1n what 8ecticn d.o 70U

ho1f 81V'

J'QCII8

"w 1t I )

a 8ect1on ot Ath8D8

~ K~oM

(tbe) bedroa

~66"

(the) 11\'iDg roca

(the) ci1n1ng 1'Oa


Ilci pre!er

~6aa ~ K~oM,

bedroClJl8,

c6, ~; ouctva

roc,

oloaaki,

and. we neeci t.bree

a large 11'Ving

ki tcben

8Dd

do you need1

~6

ci ~u ~6 L

1d

roc,

a ma1d 18

a din1ng

roc.

~L .

look (Reneral appearance) ,

~ SI

oons1derat1on

under (.).

'SLV

ur1er C81deratcn,

1n

282

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GREEK BASIC COVRSE

, -,

24

e1pJ1th

(the) tloor, atory(ot a bu11d1ng)

&L,

' ' ~ ,

-,

a't6v

aV81lable, tree, V8CUt


1 knw one (, ba'V8

'tt, 6

't6

under COIlslderatlo')

OD the e1ghth floor an apartaent boua8,

6 &.

't6

0D8

but 1t'a

vacant

t.he present t1ae.

(the) ba t.hroca

't6

(the) garden

't't

(the ) terrace

nt'tL ' ~'t

But there 1a a house vltb everyth1ng you

&'t ! 't,

vant

't't.

md

be81dea [1 ba.] vo bathroas,

gard.eo an

't6

(the) church
(the) helght (lience)

&

't6

a terrace.

(t.he) nev
(tbe) ba1ce;r

't

(t.he) porch

tovards (.)

't !, '~
~ &

'tou

It's

6 't

ear tbe

clwrah t.he h1l1, ad tbe

vi8II toarda the ... [both] !rom tbe

6 't~v 't 6 't~v

ba1CC1Dies and tbe porch 1a beaut1ful.

& &.

'tt ()

't6

to cost
(the) reo

(~)
.

6 'tt

't6v

to exceed,

Very vell.

~6 'tt

4.000.-

('

8urp888

Hov uch does 1 cost a 1IIODt.h:

don't vant to pay more than l drachas.


the rent to exceed

d.rachaa' ).

28)

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

&.

(the) heat1ng

~6 K~.6

(the) electr1c1ty

.~ . ~6

beCAUS8

~~ &., ~ K~.6 K.~..

you pay 80 mucb (nY), 1dth the

Mat~,

electr1dty, ew.

~x (-ro)

to

.OK~~~

(the) proprj tor, ownelr

()

to call back

"' t~.6

(the) (telephone) exten_1CXl

. ~ ~~ ~~ ~.~,

It

80 happ8

that r1gbt nov

& ~~ ~ .OK~~~

bu1; ' go1Dg

& . t~ ~. ~6

call you back.

"' . 045-136,t~.

number

a8

bappen

to call the

dcn ' knov 1t,

mer

Did you say

and

yr

telepbone

o4S-136, extene10n 2031

203;
t6:~

_ure:q, tor certa1n

"' U.o

(the) ontract

OK~o~

(the) ret.a1ner

()

to pay :1n adwnce tor,


to pq a d.epo1t CD

~ "'~ tt'-ro- ~ ~

go1Dg to caU 7011 th18

n6yU K~'5 ~,lx&

cert.a1D

"' ~ U.o "'

over,

o"'o~ . ~6 -

88

8Dd 11' 110

aft8r'Cl,

tor

u1 7., CC88

the contrac1o 8Dd pq a d8p081t

a reta1ner.

"'.

', "' .
~& "' .;
. ~ ~& ~ ..

6 ~. ~& ~x;

A~ . ~~ ., ~ .~;
284

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21

G REEK BASIC COURSE

~~o~o ~~
~o~'~o ~&~o

~~ ~6 ~ ~~;
~ ~ ~~
~~ & ~o '~ K~ ~ ~;
6~~ ~ ;

OK~O ~ ~ ~ ;
K.~ & K~~ ~ ~ ~~;

& ~K ~ ~ ~o & ~ ~ ~~;

~ OK~o;
Narrat1".

------

' \ ~ !~:!~~!!~~~~~~~
~o ~ ~o.

Koo~ (Koo~)

(3)

~ ~~g1~~ ~o\ ~~

to sat18fy'
~ .

DC88s1v,

need

&u6~ o~ ~ !2_~~~2!.
Mo~ ~ ~'~OK~o, ~~~V~J~
OK~o.

~H& ~o !!E~!!~~E~

~&o.

()

to pay 1n advance

~OK~~ ~o\ ~ ~ ~E~~!~~~~!~~'


:!~g~QY~ ~ ~ & ~,
&~

1nadvance

&

~ &~o.

'Q_!~e~e~~ ~~ o~ ~ 6~ ~ o~O~Kc.

1n proport1on to
dOODlll,

jan1tor

~ ~g~Qe!!~e ~ ~~.
Ko~

rad1ator

8 &~ ~6 ~o ~o\ ~6 ~~~Q~~~


~&

Ko~K,

-,

regular, ord1Dary

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6 -& L ~~:E~~~~'

vasteful, extravagant.

~o, -, -

prodigal

" ,9o~ ~~_~~~~!!!fq~:~ ~ ' ~


.
() (1)

to sv1Jn, to bathe

6 ~o ~fe~:~QX:E~'

da:y and n1ght

!!~!!1f~ ~6 ~ ~o.
L

duck

'~ 8 ~!!}eQ.
~6 6

bab;y

A~ L '~ (~ !!~~~!f~1~.
~6 1t~L

vash1ng

ach1.M

"L 2!_~~21~~1 ~;; ~;; ~Lt L


L.

~L

lodger... tenant

EtvaL L ~o ( !e1q:E!~~2!.
Ln6 -

Chrut1an

~ ~!e~~~~:E~1 ~6 -& ~.
LaL (-&)

to ahare

~o ~ ~~22~.
~6 ~oo

expens8
extr.~g8Dce

L ~_~~:E~~.

vaste(of' -onBT etc.)

3 !~_e~!!e! EtvaL -&vL.

pelthouae

EtvaL ~Q_2~Q:Efe2 C1(~L L.


~o, -/-, -

S800nd

A~ ~_~~~~ EivaL 6~o.

sta1rway, sta1rs, 1adder

~:E!~!~~~ ~L( '~ ~


VVOLKta.
~(L

(X~La-&w)

8 ~ ~6 L~L6 .

to be bu1lt
L

~~~Q~~~~~
(

diff'1cult:r
2

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

6 K~~o~~~K6 ~o ~o

O~K~ ~a~.

K.Maupfa

24

~ ~o , &f~

.uf ~ ~&o

& ! & ~6o Koo~ ~o ~ ~o.

~ ~ ~

~ &fuv ~ ~o ~ ~o ~ ~. O~ ~ ~
~a~ uo ! ~ yo~ ~ ~ ~ ~o ~o! ~
,

~ ~ K~~ ~ ~a~~,

OK~o.

o~,

Ko~ ~ npfnt~ ~ ! ~6~

oK~ OK~o~,

! ~6 ~ ~

~OK~~.

f ~ ~~~ o~ ~ ~~ OK~o ~6 OK~O

!~ K~6, & ~o ~ ~o K~ ~~.


~'~6 ~6 o~~o o~,

~6~~ ~ fv~ ! oK~O~K fv !~

~6 OK~O npfnE~ ~,

~ y~, ~ ~6

~&6 ~o &, a~o ~,

~6 ~f,

~6 K~~,

K.~..

~ y~ ~6 oy~6 ~o Ko~ ~ nfv~E f


y~po ~6 Ko~,

~ ~6 ~ ~ao ! ~o f

~ -~ ~ ~ f ~6 6,

~ 6 ! ~ & f ~6 ~~o.

~ ~ ~

K~' ~ oo~ &o~

o~o~ npfnE~ ! X~~~o o~p&~ ~ ~o ~ ~


~o

K~ ~~6 ~6 &f.

~6o~ ~ ~o

K.Maupfa

o~~o ~ ~~!

&fa.

M~KO o~ o~o 6 ~o ~ ~o l ~6~~ fv ~o fv


f ~ ~6~~ oo~~ ~6 vf

E~ ~ ~6

K.Mupfa ~o ~ ~o ~6 ~~~o ~6 K~~& ~6 f


oK~O~K ~ & &fv ~6 &f~
.

&fv oo~ ~o ~6 K~~o~~~ ~o ~o

K.Maupfa;

~o ~&o !~ ~6;
po&~ ;
K~ K~ ~ o~ ~o;

281

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v 6 LL;
6 tOtKLa L L;
6 ;

LL vL .;

" vLC 6 tOtKLO L 6 6 ;

Tt

L 6 L6 xapL;

rLaTt

tL 6;

L L ;
t , L;

Tt

nPOTLou L~~6L .;

rLaTt

nPOTLou 6;

LL~ ~ ~;
~L ;

~~~_~:1 Verb: Pret'1x

'aga1n .

' ~o .

~.

We 111 talJc

W3 ~

the

L.

L.

cae

bac:Jc.

to take her back to

hope J God vil1 grant DI8 to 11e aga1n


oenta.

those beauti!1I1

11luatrated b1' the above exap1 the verba vith the pre1"b: -

.an1ng to &1gl18h Ido so-and-eo aga1n , 11;0 re-do

'nd.s pref'1x 18
verba, e.g.
~

vanted

over aga1n vhen

ADer1ca.

about to go there aga:1n.

extree1y

'to t1nd aga1n',

'1;0 coe

'to g1ve back'


'to rebui1.d'

back aga1n',

11;0

re-take'

ued.

tL

'to recur l

'1;0

to

rearry

't rewr1te'

read aga1n'

'to rev1ve l

'to 1eam afresh',

vi th a great n\llllber

lto go ou aga:1n',

lto cla1J back l

in

soneth1ng.

producti ve :1n Greek, and can be


lto aga1n 1

CO8

'to speak again',


L

'to catch

aga1n', etc. etc.


8

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G REEK BASIC COURSE

24

Verbs '1:>egiDning wi th a 'VOWel usually have this voel ass1Jn1lated ! th the /a-/ ! tbe
-

pret1x

e.g.

&

'to love'

'to love aga1n

'to

'to repurcbase'

&

'to

Opn'

'to reopen'

~o

'to

cae'

'to return '

etc.

Hote 24.2 Verb: Present Active Part.iciple


Mo~ ~ ~ ~o~o,

You can driw th18 car ('take it')

o~ o~o.
Th1a example il1uBtrates the use
by add1ng the su1'tix -o~

stem

pay1.ng

ot

a down-payaent.

Present Active Participle, vhich 1&

(Class Verbs) and -v~c:

one

(C1aas 11 Verbs) to the Present

the verb.

7be Present Act1ve Part1ciple mean8 on doing ao-and-eo' and 1& :1Ddecl1nable.

correspond1ng katbarevuaa
F.xanples:

:n,

o~,

vhich iB decl.1nable,

('1'be

be d18CUS8~ 1n later unit8).

~o~, .~, ~

etc.

. . ~ ~
M~ ~. ~ ..

'' ~ ~., . ~6 ~ ;
~. fXE. ~ ~. ~ ~ ..

~ x~~ ~ ~ ~.;
~ ~ ~ ~ o~o . ~ ~. ~ . ~6 ., ;
~ ~ . ~o,O
~ . ~., . ;
'' ~ o~o,, ~x. & ~ o~o,;

'x~ & '1' ,, ~ ~ ;


tu ~. f~ ~ ' ~ ~' ;
'x~ ;

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

U ~6 ~;

' ;

~~ ~~ ~o ~6 ~~ ! ~;
" ~ ~~ . :> ~ ~, ~

~~ ~ ~~~ ! ~;
~ ~ ~~ ~~ ~o~ ~o~o~ ~6 ~~
3, ~'~ ~ ~;

8 ~ x~ o~ ~o 6 6 ~ ~

~ oo~ ~ l6 ~o 6;

~, . ~, ( oo~ ~~
~~ ' ~ ~

o~6 ~ 6 ,

6 ~, ~ ...

~90

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

Part

nOL6v

L6

as

~.

Cae

on 1n please.

doctor do

j"OU

Take

8 8.

Wh1ch

have an appo1ntment 1 tht

a patient
~6o

(the) doctor (general pract1 tiaaer)

(the) surgeon

6 ~6o, ~

W1th tbe genera1 practitioner, but IId

alo

L lJ 6 npw'Cxt

l1ke to know when (Iwhlch houra ) the

L.

surgeon recelws [pat1ents] 1n the o1'1ng.

~Q2'Q~Q~Q!,;
.6 L

Dr.(IMr') Papadopoulos th.atter

!.

2.p.JI1.
()

to subm1t, to prU8Dt, sugpat

~ . L

~;

Hwever IId

questions now.

'~;

, -,

l1ke to 88k (Isubm1t I )

70U

What 1 your rw1 Where

do you work?

-6

rural, agr1cultural

~/LL

(the) 1naurance, aecur1 ty

6 :

(the) c8sh1er Is off1ce

(the) health

L Lv.

8Q118

(}oty

nae

18] Prak81tel1s Triandafilu.

work

'

at the Agricultural Bank and bave health

L 6 t

1nsurance wi th the bank.

.
2.'<}1

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

.fv, -, -

1n8ured

6 '

(tbe) 8stab1i8bent,1nat1tut1on

6 Uu ..

Hat10nal SOC1al Inauranc8

~ (...)

(.I..)

f & .fv 6 Uu .-

You are not 1nsured 1f1tb the Nat10nal

. "A~;

., -,

Soc1al ~OO7

public
,

~o, ~&T ...

W 18 tar publ1c

S8rvant,

vorkers,

etc.

n
------

Part.

6 .,

" &..

.f. (&)

to be bon1

(the) Je&r (.)

& & 6

. .

All r1&ht.

~;

16 t &;

NoW' can ta_ dow1 tbe hiat.0J7

your 1l1ness.

old are

OU7

born :1n

C1P'U8

Wber8 vere

ou

bornf

"f '/ . 45

and _

4S

)"8ar8

old.

&

to BUtfer, to be 111

6., -, -

chron1c

~ &f./6 (.)/

(the) 11lnoes, s1ckness

6 &.;

Do

OU

have

ary chrn1c

(.)

di8oas8s7

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

as

6 ~~ 8~/6 o~
86

~Ox~.

6 ~~ .

~Ex ~&

nol

Thank Ood,

'.

in retv good health.

.
6

here and there, trc:a

~ -& ~n&

artbr1ti8

()

(,)

t1Je

to tJM

to get 01der

6 ~ O~~ -6 ~x

'1he

on~

th1ng 18 that f'rn t1e to t1e

sutter trca arthr1t1c pa1ns.

~o~ 6 6 -&~~~.

, ~.

kDw,

1fe're

1D

oldJ

(exac~)

are yuu

lb nor7

you

~2q2~~~,
r. &-& ~;

Wb8re

do you have pa1nt

~ ;

(the) pa1n

~6 ~ox~

(tbe) atacb

(the) headache

~&

(the) 1feakne88, 1Dii8po81t1oo

A~ ~ ~~ 6 ~6

'l'h18 very

om

ox~, ~

8tcaCb,

~&.

1feakneS8.

have

8C

a headache and a k1nd

betore (.)

6 6

a JDOntb a80 (.)

~' (~)

toexaine

(S1e

P8stz

pa1n 1n rq
! gmeral

~)

~6
, 6 6

\the) ulcer
~6 -

torgot to tell you that

had a med1cal

29.3

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

ex.arinat1on

month ago and. vas to1d had ulcers.


vh1ch
but, w, then

, -, -

('they examined. me') abroad a

(the) appeDtic1t1s

( (~)

to be operated

(the) cOMp11cat1on

(,

Now, 1n addit10n to a11 th1s

haveJ

&

append1c1tis vhich thq to1d me

6 &6

be operated. on

because ot.henD.se 1t ma;y cause


('which

&hould

mut be

a& for the rest,

operated')

copl1cat1ons.
other1se

Otherv1Be rq health 18 excellent.

(the) doctor's off1ce

(&)

to und.reS8 , oMselt

Yes,

&.

Cn

understand...

1nto the doctor's

office and take ofl your clothes.

(&)

to get

ch1ef, bossJ superior

(the) head nurse

(the) pre&sure

(the) n1crobiologist

(the) analys1s

6 & & ~& - 8 as

re~

you're ready the head nurse

111

come and take your [bloocL] preSBure and

6 -

anaes.

nicrobiolog1st

Vi11

ca

for various

?94

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G REEK BASIC COURSE

Part

~~/~~

late17, recent!7

~6 a

(the) b100d

~& {

(the) ur1ne

K&~ ~~ &L a~o

Have yoo bad

of

25

your blood

and

ur1ne analy8ed

recent:q!

K~.oy

X-rq

(the)

~6 L&

(the) card1ogr_

~OXL ~ ~~.

L ~6,
~Lt

8&

~~,

& &

recent!7.

an X-ray

l1ke 1t po8s1ble to

'd

lfI1

lng

lug

and a card.1ogr...

L&.

(, f

prev10us

Mo~ & &~ n.

&

! ~6 ( L&

You can

the

X-rq~ but

"e have your

pre.LoU8 cardiogram.

&

(the) col1eague

L6

(the) card101og1st

(the) eftort

f tL ~6

1 ' 8

&6 L6 .

orth h1le

Our col1eague Dr.Pon1r1d1s the card1olog1st

6L ~6 f~L f ~x

ha8

~ .

anyth1ng rrongJ.

tL ~6 &

& ~o.

jwt

8ent

to

and 1'00 don't bave

It'_ not worth vhUe

talc1ng another one.

295

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GREEK BASIC COlTRSE

()

to Cough
-, -

has a cold

on bo

t ~ . ~
;

But YOU 're cough1ng a lot. PerbapJ 1011

hve

a cold7

no'

(the) 1ntluenza

, -, -

IU.gh (.)

~~

(the) feV81"

! &, ~&K~.

o~~ ~~.

juat a Uttle b1t.


had fiu

rorgot to tel1 you

and a h:1gh fever tbough.

(the) a8p1r1n

~ &

(the) 1II8d1c1ne, drug

(the) neck,. tbroat

Ko&o~ (Ko~)

to get t1red

~K, -, -

tiDy, ver,

~K ~ ~

But

& ~& ~ ~6 ~ ~

for

~.

& o&o~ ~

took s8V81"al
v

sall

asp1r1nJ

and . . . 88d.ic1ne

tbroat and feel better nOlf, but

get t.1red

VfI'

eaei11'.

~K6.

(~)

to 118

dorn

~ ~

1n the

eant1Je

~ ~6~o

(the) thennomet.er

T~~ ~ ~ t~

Then Ue dow for a vh1le and Open your I1IOUth,

that, 1n the

meant.:me, the mr lD8,1 take

~ ~ , ~ ~~

80

~ ~ ~~6~o.

your teperature ('put the thermet.er).

()

to go up, to

(the) teperature

~oK

~oK

r1S8

Your temperature 18 a 11ttle IU.gh, but

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

.&;..

tIIIT a5

doesnlt _tter.

.&&~o, -, -

& .&

YOU

. & .&~o.

M~

11;1.

4&, & . &.


.6 .

~ .

becau.e

Don t

.~6 &

NOIf

X~

~.K.

teel

you re 1n gqod

leav1Dg.

you 1n a

:Lnu.

aod

8bape

you are a I1tUe 1Dd18poMd.

1107.

lre 1n

he

bape.

doctor v1ll

GoodV.

and

..-m.
hope you 111

aga1n.

Or_t1ca1. Hotes

-----------------

~~_!~~!. H1aerala 0rd1nal Hueral8.

.~~.o ~ &.

vant a tir8t clu. t1cket.

' '. ~6 ...

knv ot OD th. e1ghth tloo:r.

h.

ord:1nal maerals are

~o

,.t

~o

8d

~~o

)rd

~~~o

4th

~o

5th

K~o

6th

7th

8th

lv~

9th

Ka~o

10th

Ka~o/~Ka~o

11th

a~o

12th

Ka~o ~~o

13th

Ko~6

20th

Ko~6 ~o

21

297

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GREEK BASIC ~OURSE

-r

2211d

30th

40th

Soth

60th

70th

80th

90th

100th

121st

..6

aooth

..6

)OOth

..6

1000th

. ..6

aoooth

...6
. ..6

10000th

...6

100000th

.6

Ord.1nal

n\n8ral

1000000th

are deOl1ned 1n all tbree gender8 l1ke 8djectlvea 1n -

-,

-.

~~~-~~
~!..C!!
.-u.Ko6o

obstetrlc1an-necologist

&

o)itta1Jlog1rt.

.6

otolar1ngolog18t

ped1atr1c18

det18t

})81'ch1atr1rt.

6 ..

Matennt 1

6 u.Lv

Mental Inatitut1on:

. ..

Neurolog1c1.

Cl1nic

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G REEK BASIC COURSE

25

Patlent8

-------

&

neurot.:1c

cjoa&

peychopatb

D1sea_e_

------

aeles

..

ch1cken

't":'t",

hepat.:1t1a

uyo

hea:rt att8ck

cancer

U_etul words

----------

l:,

(surg1cal) operat1on

di.fterence

't"a

&,

shell1'1sh

't"a

v,

usaels

't"a

't",

rster&

d1rV

otten

't"v

betreen

&v, (&&)

to be cured

va, (&)

to be treated (Pat1ent )

(o'G)

to

V't"

(vcj)

to cowr

&1'0111

~~!..!~!!!
, ;

"Haaa't"av nO't"f

v ~'t";

t't";
't" u 't"v ,'t"v;
"'t"

nO't"f

" ,

rf

't"t

l:,,&;
'

't";

,6 : 't";

't"E

't"t

~ ,;

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

& ~x;
&& ;
L 6 6;

~ & & ~o 6 6;

& & & L;


& ~ &, & , .6

6 ;

CC ~ ';
~ 6 &6 6 ;
& & & t 6;

& & 6 & & oK~;

6 ;
& && ;
& & & ;
~o &L;

t &;
& && ~ '&;
& & & &&
6 (, , ...) 6 & ;

300

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Review

G REEK BASIC COURSE

21 - 2$

REVIEW
Ih1ts

21-25

Rev1w

F1ll 1n each bla.nk w1tb the proper !orm


p~ v~ f
o~

Drills
!

the vcrd given

the r1ght.

no~f ~ ~o.

~ ~ 3.

Moa

'v~6 oU~E

~ ' ~

ocx

.
~ o~ 3

.
o~ ~o ~ ~6o .

3 ~ tL ~o

__ ~

o~.

~ 3 ~K

.
To~

o~

p~

~.

~a

ii

o~

~6

~ 3

o~.

~o

&

o~

~o.

.
v~o~o ~~ ~ ~o

__________

~6o v~ ~ a~~ ~
o~o

'

p~

~.
o~

~o~ ~~, ~ ~o!

o~

~o

v~

&

~6 .

6 ~~ ~o ~

'3

Av~ ~ ;

3~

~o.

ocx

~ ~o.

A~ o~o 8.

~ ;

}1

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

.
' .6 : ., . . .

.6

! ~.

.6

" ~. .6 ! n . . :
, .

. . . '. .

--------

K&~ ! ... .

(.

.6. . ., . . .6 , ..

0.1.

.6

.6

. . . K.'f.a. 6 '

.6 L.

6 . (. .~

.
!X~o..

.'6

&

.6

.-

..

.6

~ .6 o~ .
V. .6

Av.6 .6

..

. ~6o .

ci.
.

. . . . -

~o.

.".
f

(.6)

. & . ( .

.~ . .

'.6

.6

6.000

~xo

.-

' .

.(./.t.

6 .

~o

.1..

.(

...
.

&

1965.

& L ~ ~

..
~o.,

~x. .(..

. 6 ...

.(.

302

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Reiew 21 - 25

GREEK BASIC COURSE

'

l%

6.

' ,

6 -

.
K~ ~

'

- .

6: .

.
'

6 ~

~o

~~WO

' ~.

Narrative
~ .
~.

~* , ! ~xo
.

'

, .

( ~

, ,

8 6.

~o6 , ,

, ... 8 .
~.
~,

( ~xo ,

...

( '

~ ~WO

~o , o~,
.

*Athens 1n kathareusa 1s l &


303

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G REEK BASIC COURSE

',, .-&.. ~
. 6 . , . C .

6 . .6 '.

-& ' . .

& ~~

~, ~ . 6 U.

. . . Kow ~ ~
. .
.

nEPVOUV

-& t

. .
. ,

6 . ~o.
~

. , .

~ . ' .
' ., . ' .

. u ' ..

'

lxovv

. , t- '~ 6
. . . l. ~ .
vo ~ ~xo .
~t , K~ .

. nOUV .
.~
~,

. ,

' ' -&. . .

. ,

.. .

.U . .

- ' . .. ,

~
~

. .

-&
..

-&. . !

~o .

u . ~*.*.

.~ . . ~K .
..

*
**

**.

. .

.6

psycholog1oa1

!rn tU

-&, ~

.-

proble

to t1Jne
an Athenian

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Review a, - a$

G REEK BASIC COURSE

. 6 6" .

W1nd your vatch,

, . .

1t's out order, 1t'8 not. runrdng "811.

6 .6 . .

Mine 1s too !ast.

' . .

Mine 18

( : .;

81011.

What ~ 18 it7

. !

1t'8 9:00 a.m.

.'.V

9:30

9:45

'0:10

10:,$

& ".V

10':30

l'.v

1~:30

12:00

& ".V 6 .

12:30 ..

noon

. '.V

1:30

6 '.V

2:30

t .V

3130

. .V 6 6

4:)0 ..

$1)0

".V

6:)0

'.V

7:30

K'.V

6:)0.

lvvfa

'.

bK

9:25
,2:00 JII1dn1gbt
5:00 ..

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

GLOSSARY

(~6)

()

17

()

stat.ue

-&6:"

love

to love

IIIrket

place

. (~)
~

(~)

22

()

caUM, reason, IIIOt1ve

eternal

&

( )

attache

sti11, yct, 80re

t.~

. ()

tal'lD

to feel

hear, to

expen8i"ene88 ,

.6

rral,

~.a ()

...",., per:1 t, l1cene

xact

~y

expen8i"e

/& ()

s1ster

"

exactly'

. ()

Acropol1s

~" ()

XorY

~" (~)

8&1t

&. ()

truth,

but

agr1cult\l1"Ii

o~ ()

head nurse

6/

()

.a-& ()

brother
eae,

exactea.

tn.ly,

~","6

otheri8e

. ","

anymore

&

other

a1r,

indeed

1rd1a-

.&-&-

()

lt

1nd

11

to change

. ()

(~)

()

carrlage, cart
()

tra1n

()

av1ation

..

Aericm

"-& ()

Athena

, .

AJIIerican

"

Amer1ca

-&. ()

(adj.)

-&. ()

aWetlcs, sport

~ately

-& ()

hall, parlor

:~~o

lnnumerable

(~)

blood

22

doubt

306

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G REEK BASIC COURSE

1f

! :

although

a&

:
ci

16

to put

(~)

.....t.,

&K~oo()

(~6)

&:
()

.
:

()

()

need

p2'Cp0rt10n

(~)

ch1cken

81ply

n6

con",ment OK~

to 1eYe

to cl1Jllb up

contort

1e1aUl"8,

14

1nd1apeD8able

noo~

to

!.

aa~o

v81t1ng

deprt,

()

to . . . . .

oo~oa.

to

.&

16

recol1eC10n

25

a~

6"a (~6)

contort.ab1e,

1nd1ttent

8l1B18

:czn6

18

to grant

d:n6

palaee
1

&.

poatpone

23

orr7

18

18

17

to obta1n, aaqu1re

no~.a&

18

t.o

8307, bet1

' ()

" ( )
6~oo
a(;

16

to dec1de

.a (~)

nephen

.&/.ci ()

mece

tomght

.6/-

nephef

cipyci

1.te

.6

and niece8

(6)

!v-&no
c1(

(6)

huun

23

c1o.K~6
&..

()

~&.

()

be1ng, peop1.e

open

(6)

to ...01d

10

to l1ke

&.n& (~ci)

arthr1t18

.&6

nU8t:er

(6)

open, 11&ht (oolor)

c1."

to the 1eft

c1K~&

sutt1c181to17, eOI1gb

lIIeet1ng

K~6

autt1c1ent, Hyval

6.

~(o
&~:/!a

25

1n

char~e

ale, bU8b8d, un

&./( (~6)

un6

ip.t1ent

!co

111

: ()

valU8

~ono.o (~6)

b8kery

to be vort.b

anc1ent

vorth

a.6~/-~~a ()

Mq1y

(;

11

.o:~o
..a~.6

(6)

8eeir:

8I'\IJ' ott1cer

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GREEK BASIC <=OURSE

()

beginnin~,

6 ()

leader

begin, start

('t6)

e1.r

-&.a ()

111ness

-&~ ()

sick person, patient

&

ugly

-& (6)

depth

. ()

asplr1n

()

su1t.case

vh1 te

cotton (adj.)

d:'tvj-

policeman

6 .

autl\ority

't

't

pol1cean

()

. 1..

traff1c

porter

. (6)

pear

()
'tv

:-&6 ()

1nsurance, security

()

('t6)

16

sleeping car
18,

to put,

('t6 )

ahip

..

18

17

to torture

be bored

16

to take out

15

to go out

sure

insured

certainly

certainly

,- ()

pasol1ne

be w1 t.h

't ()

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14

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309

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to shOW',

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

()

lVOCKLO(V)
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G REEK BASIC COURSE

-& ()

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

cxo. (~6)

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GREEK BASIC COVRSE

()

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

( )

( )

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

f ()

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318

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G REEK BAS1C COURSE

vL(V) (~6)

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Hosted for free on livelingua.com

GREEK BASIC COURSE

ne1ther nor even

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G REEK BASIC COURSE

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GREEK BASIC COURSE

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G REEK BASIC COURSE

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'87
\: tJ. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTIN(; F'f.'J::.: : 1957 252-220 (228)