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Cu(+2a) + H2CO3(a) = CuCO3 + 2H(+a)

T
C
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
95
100

H
kJ
35.849
36.514
37.106
37.644
38.142
38.612
39.065
39.508
39.947
40.386
40.828
41.273
41.720
42.173
42.636
43.108
43.592
44.089
44.599
45.124
45.665

S
J/K
-11.291
-8.877
-6.765
-4.883
-3.170
-1.579
-0.073
1.376
2.790
4.182
5.559
6.926
8.279
9.628
10.985
12.353
13.733
15.129
16.543
17.979
19.439

G
kJ
38.933
38.983
39.022
39.051
39.071
39.083
39.087
39.084
39.073
39.056
39.032
39.000
38.962
38.918
38.866
38.808
38.743
38.670
38.591
38.505
38.411

K
3.583E-008
4.771E-008
6.320E-008
8.325E-008
1.090E-007
1.420E-007
1.839E-007
2.368E-007
3.033E-007
3.865E-007
4.901E-007
6.186E-007
7.773E-007
9.724E-007
1.211E-006
1.503E-006
1.858E-006
2.289E-006
2.810E-006
3.438E-006
4.194E-006

Cu(+2a) + HCO3(-a) = CuCO3 + H(+a)


T
C
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90

H
kJ
24.615
25.698
26.626
27.435
28.156
28.813
29.428
30.017
30.592
31.160
31.727
32.294
32.861
33.433
34.018
34.619
35.237
35.874
36.533

S
J/K
72.640
76.571
79.878
82.710
85.190
87.414
89.461
91.387
93.236
95.037
96.806
98.548
100.261
101.966
103.684
105.421
107.183
108.975
110.803

G
kJ
4.773
4.400
4.009
3.602
3.182
2.751
2.308
1.856
1.395
0.924
0.444
-0.044
-0.541
-1.047
-1.561
-2.084
-2.615
-3.155
-3.705

K
1.222E-001
1.492E-001
1.821E-001
2.223E-001
2.710E-001
3.297E-001
4.002E-001
4.845E-001
5.853E-001
7.052E-001
8.476E-001
1.016E+000
1.216E+000
1.451E+000
1.728E+000
2.054E+000
2.437E+000
2.886E+000
3.412E+000

95
100

37.217
37.927

112.672
114.590

-4.264
-4.832

4.027E+000
4.747E+000

CuOH(+a) + HCO3(-a) = CuCO3 + H2O


T
C
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
95
100

T
C
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60

H
kJ
-27.281
-20.430
-19.663
-18.954
-18.285
-17.644
-17.019
-16.403
-15.787
-15.170
-14.546
-13.917
-13.283
-12.639
-11.983
-11.313
-10.627
-9.924
-9.203
-8.462
-7.699

S
J/K
50.148
75.200
77.933
80.417
82.718
84.887
86.965
88.983
90.963
92.920
94.863
96.796
98.715
100.631
102.558
104.498
106.454
108.430
110.429
112.456
114.514

G
kJ
-40.979
-41.347
-41.730
-42.126
-42.534
-42.953
-43.383
-43.823
-44.272
-44.732
-45.202
-45.681
-46.170
-46.668
-47.176
-47.694
-48.221
-48.758
-49.305
-49.862
-50.430

K
6.871E+007
5.826E+007
4.999E+007
4.336E+007
3.798E+007
3.356E+007
2.990E+007
2.685E+007
2.429E+007
2.212E+007
2.028E+007
1.871E+007
1.736E+007
1.620E+007
1.520E+007
1.433E+007
1.358E+007
1.293E+007
1.237E+007
1.189E+007
1.148E+007

Cu(OH)3(-a) + HCO3(-a) + 2H(+a) = CuCO3 + 3H2O


K
H
S
G
kJ
J/K
kJ
-135.635
14.145
-139.499
4.772E+026
-114.797
90.341
-139.925
1.902E+026
-112.040
100.166
-140.402
7.999E+025
-109.324
109.673
-140.926
3.537E+025
-106.635
118.925
-141.498
1.640E+025
-103.960
127.973
-142.115
7.945E+024
-101.289
136.858
-142.777
4.013E+024
-98.613
145.612
-143.484
2.109E+024
-95.928
154.257
-144.233
1.150E+024
-93.228
162.810
-145.026
6.497E+023
-90.512
171.281
-145.861
3.796E+023
-87.778
179.675
-146.739
2.289E+023
-85.028
187.992
-147.658
1.423E+023

65

-82.258

196.245

-148.619

9.105E+022

70

-79.464

204.447

-149.620

5.988E+022

75

-76.646

212.601

-150.663

4.042E+022

80

-73.802

220.713

-151.746

2.797E+022

85

-70.930

228.786

-152.870

1.983E+022

90
95
100

-68.031
-65.102
-62.142

236.826
244.837
252.823

-154.034
-155.238
-156.482

1.438E+022
1.066E+022
8.067E+021

T
C
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40

Cu(OH)3(-a) + CO3(-2a) + 3H(+a) = CuCO3 + 3H2O


K
H
S
G
kJ
J/K
kJ
-158.170
135.048
-195.058
2.014E+037
-135.427
218.153
-196.107
6.769E+036
-130.976
234.015
-197.237
2.448E+036
-126.732
248.875
-198.445
9.469E+035
-122.640
262.952
-199.725
3.897E+035
-118.658
276.422
-201.074
1.699E+035
-114.750
289.423
-202.488
7.815E+034
-110.886
302.063
-203.967
3.780E+034
-107.047
314.421
-205.508
1.916E+034

45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85

-103.218
-99.391
-95.562
-91.734
-87.894
-84.030
-80.140
-76.219
-72.265

326.553
338.490
350.248
361.825
373.266
384.608
395.863
407.045
418.164

-207.111
-208.774
-210.496
-212.276
-214.114
-216.008
-217.960
-219.967
-222.030

1.016E+034
5.616E+033
3.231E+033
1.930E+033
1.195E+033
7.651E+032
5.061E+032
3.453E+032
2.425E+032

90

-68.272

429.233

-224.148

1.753E+032

95

-64.239

440.264

-226.322

1.301E+032

100

-60.160

451.270

-228.551

9.906E+031

T
C
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60

Cu(OH)4(-2a) + CO3(-2a) + 4H(+a) = CuCO3 + 4H2O


K
H
S
G
kJ
J/K
kJ
-214.230
219.222
-274.110
2.646E+052
-184.637
327.377
-275.697
6.003E+051
-179.334
346.276
-277.382
1.496E+051
-174.228
364.151
-279.158
4.064E+050
-169.267
381.221
-281.022
1.196E+050
-164.406
397.663
-282.970
3.795E+049
-159.610
413.617
-284.998
1.291E+049
-154.850
429.190
-287.105
4.692E+048
-150.106
444.461
-289.289
1.814E+048
-145.363
459.487
-291.549
7.435E+047
-140.613
474.301
-293.884
3.221E+047
-135.853
488.918
-296.292
1.470E+047
-131.086
503.337
-298.773
7.056E+046

65
70
75
80
85
90
95
100

-126.298
-121.477
-116.620
-111.725
-106.787
-101.803
-96.768
-91.679

517.604
531.755
545.805
559.766
573.650
587.471
601.240
614.971

-301.325
-303.949
-306.643
-309.407
-312.240
-315.143
-318.115
-321.155

3.549E+046
1.867E+046
1.025E+046
5.866E+045
3.489E+045
2.154E+045
1.378E+045
9.120E+044

Log(K)
-7.446
-35.333
-7.199
-7.080
-6.962
-6.848
-6.736
-6.626
-6.518
-6.413
-6.310
-6.209
-6.109
-6.012
-5.917
-5.823
-5.731
-5.640
-5.551
-5.464
-5.377

Log(K)
-0.913
-0.826
-0.740
-0.653
-0.567
-0.482
-0.398
-0.315
-0.233
-0.152
-0.072
0.007
0.085
0.162
0.238
0.313
0.387
0.460
0.533

[H(+a)]
1.00E+00
3.16E-01
1.00E-01
3.16E-02
1.00E-02
3.16E-03
1.00E-03
3.16E-04
1.00E-04
3.16E-05
1.00E-05
3.16E-06
1.00E-06
3.16E-07
1.00E-07
3.16E-08
1.00E-08
3.16E-09
1.00E-09
3.16E-10
1.00E-10
3.16E-11
1.00E-11
3.16E-12
1.00E-12
3.16E-13
1.00E-13
3.16E-14
1.00E-14
3.16E-15
1.00E-15
3.16E-16
1.00E-16
3.16E-17
1.00E-17
3.16E-18
1.00E-18
3.16E-19
1.00E-19
3.16E-20
1.00E-20

pH
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
6.0
6.5
7.0
7.5
8.0
8.5
9.0
9.5
10.0
10.5
11.0
11.5
12.0
12.5
13.0
13.5
14.0
14.5
15.0
15.5
16.0
16.5
17.0
17.5
18.0
18.5
19.0
19.5
20.0

H2CO3(a)/HCO3(-a)/CO3(-2a)
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001

Diagrama de
100%
95%
90%
85%

Diagrama de
100%

0.605
0.676

95%
90%
85%

Log(K)
7.837
7.765
7.699
7.637
7.580
7.526
7.476
7.429
7.385
7.345
7.307
7.272
7.240
7.209
7.182
7.156
7.133
7.112
7.093
7.075
7.060

80%
75%
70%
65%
60%
55%
50%

% Concentracin

45%
40%
35%
30%
25%
20%
15%
10%
5%
0%
0

3H2O
Log(K)

Diagrama d

26.679
26.279
25.903
25.549
25.215
24.900
24.603
24.324
24.061
23.813
23.579
23.360
23.153
22.959
22.777
22.607

0
0
-5
-10
-15
-20
-25

log[CuT]

-30
-35
-40
-45

10

log[CuT]

-30
-35

22.447
-40

22.297
22.158
22.028
21.907

-45
-50

H2O

-55

Log(K)

-60

37.304
36.831
36.389
35.976
35.591
35.230
34.893
34.577
34.282

pH

Diagrama
0

34.007
33.749
33.509
33.286
33.077
32.884
32.704
32.538
32.385

1.000E+001

32.244

1.000E-023

32.114
31.996

4H2O
Log(K)

1.000E-003
1.000E-007
1.000E-011
1.000E-015
1.000E-019

log[CuT]

1.000E-027
1.000E-031
1.000E-035
1.000E-039

52.423
51.778
51.175
50.609
50.078
49.579
49.111
48.671
48.259
47.871
47.508
47.167
46.849

1.000E-043
1.000E-047
1.000E-051
1.000E-055
1.000E-059

46.550
46.271
46.011
45.768
45.543
45.333
45.139
44.960

[Cu(+2a)]
7.043E+009
7.043E+008
7.043E+007
7.043E+006
7.043E+005
7.044E+004
7.046E+003
7.053E+002
7.073E+001
7.139E+000
7.346E-001
8.002E-002
1.008E-002
1.664E-003
3.738E-004
1.030E-004
3.104E-005
9.663E-006
3.040E-006
9.600E-007
3.034E-007
9.593E-008
3.033E-008
9.593E-009
3.033E-009
9.592E-010
3.033E-010
9.592E-011
3.033E-011
9.592E-012
3.033E-012
9.592E-013
3.033E-013
9.592E-014
3.033E-014
9.592E-015
3.033E-015
9.592E-016
3.033E-016
9.592E-017
3.033E-017

[CuOH(+a)]
2.980E-005
2.980E-005
2.980E-005
2.980E-005
2.980E-005
2.980E-005
2.980E-005
2.980E-005
2.980E-005
2.980E-005
2.980E-005
2.980E-005
2.980E-005
2.980E-005
2.980E-005
2.980E-005
2.980E-005
2.980E-005
2.980E-005
2.980E-005
2.980E-005
2.980E-005
2.980E-005
2.980E-005
2.980E-005
2.980E-005
2.980E-005
2.980E-005
2.980E-005
2.980E-005
2.980E-005
2.980E-005
2.980E-005
2.980E-005
2.980E-005
2.980E-005
2.980E-005
2.980E-005
2.980E-005
2.980E-005
2.980E-005

[Cu(OH)3(-a)]
[Cu(OH)4(-2a)]
1.2587130E-022 2.63494657E-047
1.2587130E-021 2.63494657E-045
1.2587130E-020 2.63494657E-043
1.2587130E-019 2.63494657E-041
1.2587130E-018 2.63494657E-039
1.2587130E-017 2.63494657E-037
1.2587131E-016 2.63494657E-035
1.2587132E-015 2.63494657E-033
1.2587136E-014 2.63494657E-031
1.2587149E-013 2.63494657E-029
1.2587189E-012 2.63494657E-027
1.2587316E-011 2.63494657E-025
1.2587719E-010 2.63494657E-023
1.2588991E-009 2.63494657E-021
1.2593016E-008 2.63494657E-019
1.2605743E-007 2.63494657E-017
1.2645991E-006 2.63494657E-015
1.2773264E-005 2.63494657E-013
0.0001317574 2.63494657E-011
0.0014448465 2.63494657E-009
0.0184731867 2.63494657E-007
0.3120047533 2.63494657E-005
7.1447695854
0.0026349466
198.72058221
0.2634946575
6011.92787479 26.349465747
187392.165104 2634.946574696
5898643.70373 263494.6574696
186259323.393 26349465.74696
5887315286.63 2634946574.696
186146039222 263494657469.6
5886182444917 26349465746958
1.861347E+014 2.6349466E+015
5.886069E+015 2.6349466E+017
1.861336E+017 2.6349466E+019
5.886058E+018 2.6349466E+021
1.861335E+020 2.6349466E+023
5.886057E+021 2.6349466E+025
1.861335E+023 2.6349466E+027
5.886057E+024 2.6349466E+029
1.861335E+026 2.6349466E+031
5.886057E+027 2.6349466E+033

Diagrama de Predominancia

[CuT]
7.043E+009
7.043E+008
7.043E+007
7.043E+006
7.043E+005
7.044E+004
7.046E+003
7.053E+002
7.073E+001
7.139E+000
7.347E-001
8.005E-002
1.011E-002
1.693E-003
4.036E-004
1.329E-004
6.210E-005
5.223E-005
1.646E-004
1.476E-003
1.850E-002
3.121E-001
7.147E+000
1.990E+002
6.038E+003
1.900E+005
6.162E+006
2.126E+008
8.522E+009
4.496E+011
3.224E+013
2.821E+015
2.694E+017
2.654E+019
2.641E+021
2.637E+023
2.636E+025
2.635E+027
2.635E+029
2.635E+031
2.635E+033

Diagrama de Predominancia

[Cu(+2a)]/[CuT]
[CuOH(+a)]/[CuT]
[Cu(OH)3(-a)]/[CuT]
[Cu(OH)4(-2a)]/[CuT]

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

pH

Diagrama de Bjerrum
4

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

log[Cu(+2a)]
log[CuOH(+a)]
log[Cu(OH)3(-a)]
log[Cu(OH)4(-2a)]

log[CuOH(+a)]
log[Cu(OH)3(-a)]
log[Cu(OH)4(-2a)]

pH

Diagrama de Bjerrum
3

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

[Cu(+2a)]
[CuOH(+a)]
[Cu(OH)3(-a)]
[Cu(OH)4(-2a)]

pH

[Cu(+2a)]/[CuT]
1.000E+000
1.000E+000
1.000E+000
1.000E+000
1.000E+000
1.000E+000
1.000E+000
1.000E+000
1.000E+000
1.000E+000
1.000E+000
9.996E-001
9.971E-001
9.824E-001
9.261E-001
7.748E-001
4.998E-001
1.850E-001
1.847E-002
6.505E-004
1.640E-005
3.074E-007
4.244E-009
4.821E-011
5.024E-013
5.048E-015
4.923E-017
4.512E-019
3.559E-021
2.133E-023
9.410E-026
3.400E-028
1.126E-030
3.615E-033
1.149E-035
3.638E-038
1.151E-040
3.640E-043
1.151E-045
3.640E-048
1.151E-050

[CuOH(+a)]/[CuT]
4.231E-015
4.231E-014
4.231E-013
4.231E-012
4.231E-011
4.230E-010
4.229E-009
4.225E-008
4.213E-007
4.174E-006
4.056E-005
3.722E-004
2.948E-003
1.760E-002
7.383E-002
2.242E-001
4.798E-001
5.705E-001
1.810E-001
2.019E-002
1.610E-003
9.549E-005
4.169E-006
1.497E-007
4.935E-009
1.568E-010
4.836E-012
1.402E-013
3.496E-015
6.627E-017
9.244E-019
1.056E-020
1.106E-022
1.123E-024
1.128E-026
1.130E-028
1.131E-030
1.131E-032
1.131E-034
1.131E-036
1.131E-038

[Cu(OH)3(-a)]/[CuT]
1.787E-032
1.787E-030
1.787E-028
1.787E-026
1.787E-024
1.787E-022
1.786E-020
1.785E-018
1.780E-016
1.763E-014
1.713E-012
1.572E-010
1.246E-008
7.434E-007
3.120E-005
9.486E-004
2.036E-002
2.445E-001
8.005E-001
9.792E-001
9.984E-001
9.998E-001
9.996E-001
9.987E-001
9.956E-001
9.861E-001
9.572E-001
8.761E-001
6.908E-001
4.140E-001
1.826E-001
6.598E-002
2.185E-002
7.014E-003
2.229E-003
7.059E-004
2.233E-004
7.064E-005
2.234E-005
7.064E-006
2.234E-006

[Cu(OH)4(-2a)]/[CuT]
3.741E-057
3.741E-054
3.741E-051
3.741E-048
3.741E-045
3.741E-042
3.740E-039
3.736E-036
3.725E-033
3.691E-030
3.587E-027
3.292E-024
2.607E-021
1.556E-018
6.529E-016
1.983E-013
4.243E-011
5.045E-009
1.601E-007
1.786E-006
1.424E-005
8.444E-005
3.687E-004
1.324E-003
4.364E-003
1.387E-002
4.276E-002
1.239E-001
3.092E-001
5.860E-001
8.174E-001
9.340E-001
9.781E-001
9.930E-001
9.978E-001
9.993E-001
9.998E-001
9.999E-001
1.000E+000
1.000E+000
1.000E+000

Diagrama de So
0
40
35
30

10

11

12

Diagrama de So
0

10

11

12

40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5

[Cu(+2a)]/[CuT]

[CuOH(+a)]/[CuT]
[Cu(OH)3(-a)]/[CuT]

log[CuT]

[Cu(OH)4(-2a)]/[CuT]

-5
-10
-15
-20
-25
-30
-35
-40
-45
-50
-55

pH

Diagrama de So
0
35

30

25

20
log[Cu(+2a)]
log[CuOH(+a)]
log[Cu(OH)3(-a)]
log[Cu(OH)4(-2a)]

log[CuT]

15

10

10

11

12

log[CuOH(+a)]
log[Cu(OH)3(-a)]

log[CuT]

log[Cu(OH)4(-2a)]

15

10

-5

-10

pH

Diagrama de So
20

-3

[Cu(+2a)]
[CuOH(+a)]
[Cu(OH)3(-a)]
[Cu(OH)4(-2a)]

log[CuT]

-4

-5

pH

log[CuT]
9.8477527993
8.8477532038
7.8477544828
6.8477585274
5.8477713171
4.8478117595
3.847939626
2.8483437389
1.8496192997
0.8536296124
-0.1339161755
-1.0966307693
-1.9954153638
-2.7712561113
-3.3940698512
-3.8765024053
-4.2069026831
-4.2820466039
-3.7835815791
-2.8310293253
-1.7327449083
-0.505760509
0.8541501756
2.2988183897
3.7809130586
5.2788155674
6.7897314455
8.3275812141
9.9305548745
11.6528656121
13.5083364074
15.4504155999
17.4303665201
19.4238289009
21.4217408779
23.4210784927
25.4208688178
27.4208024916
29.4207815154
31.4207748819
33.4207727842

log[Cu(+2a)]
9.8477527993
8.8477532038
7.8477544828
6.8477585274
5.8477713171
4.8478117593
3.8479396241
2.8483437206
1.8496191168
0.8536277996
-0.133933791
-1.0967924585
-1.9966977751
-2.7789668004
-3.4273955088
-3.9872988938
-4.5081009758
-5.0148920815
-5.5170619076
-6.0177503292
-6.5179682545
-7.0180371913
-7.5180589933
-8.0180658879
-8.5180680682
-9.0180687577
-9.5180689757
-10.0180690446
-10.5180690665
-11.0180690733
-11.5180690755
-12.0180690762
-12.5180690764
-13.0180690765
-13.5180690765
-14.0180690765
-14.5180690765
-15.0180690765
-15.5180690765
-16.0180690765
-16.5180690765

log[CuOH(+a)]
-4.5258152172
-4.5258152172
-4.5258152172
-4.5258152172
-4.5258152172
-4.5258152172
-4.5258152172
-4.5258152172
-4.5258152172
-4.5258152172
-4.5258152172
-4.5258152172
-4.5258152172
-4.5258152172
-4.5258152172
-4.5258152172
-4.5258152172
-4.5258152172
-4.5258152172
-4.5258152172
-4.5258152172
-4.5258152172
-4.5258152172
-4.5258152172
-4.5258152172
-4.5258152172
-4.5258152172
-4.5258152172
-4.5258152172
-4.5258152172
-4.5258152172
-4.5258152172
-4.5258152172
-4.5258152172
-4.5258152172
-4.5258152172
-4.5258152172
-4.5258152172
-4.5258152172
-4.5258152172
-4.5258152172

grama de Solubilidad

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

log[Cu(OH)3(-a)]
-21.9000732783
-20.9000732783
-19.9000732781
-18.9000732777
-17.9000732763
-16.9000732719
-15.900073258
-14.9000732141
-13.9000730752
-12.9000726361
-11.9000712475
-10.9000668562
-9.9000529701
-8.9000090613
-7.8998702388
-6.8994315354
-5.8980471425
-4.8936981263
-3.8802251231
-2.8401783006
-1.7334581807
-0.5058387896
0.8539882276
2.2982428509
3.7790137617
5.272751429
6.7707521642
8.270118021
9.7699172944
11.2698537998
12.7698337191
14.2698273689
15.7698253607
17.2698247257
18.7698245249
20.2698244614
21.7698244413
23.2698244349
24.7698244329
26.2698244323
27.7698244321

log[Cu(OH)4(-2a)]
-46.579228186
-44.579228186
-42.579228186
-40.579228186
-38.579228186
-36.579228186
-34.579228186
-32.579228186
-30.579228186
-28.579228186
-26.579228186
-24.579228186
-22.579228186
-20.579228186
-18.579228186
-16.579228186
-14.579228186
-12.579228186
-10.579228186
-8.579228186
-6.579228186
-4.579228186
-2.579228186
-0.579228186
1.420771814
3.420771814
5.420771814
7.420771814
9.420771814
11.420771814
13.420771814
15.420771814
17.420771814
19.420771814
21.420771814
23.420771814
25.420771814
27.420771814
29.420771814
31.420771814
33.420771814

grama de Solubilidad

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

log[CuT]
log[Cu(+2a)]
log[CuOH(+a)]
log[Cu(OH)3(-a)]
log[Cu(OH)4(-2a)]
ECA A1, A2 y A3

pH

grama de Solubilidad
7

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

log[CuT]
ECA A1, A2 y A3

log[CuT]
ECA A1, A2 y A3

pH

grama de Solubilidad
8

log[CuT]
ECA A1, A2 y A3

pH

log([Cu(+2a)]/[CuT])
-1.832222186451E-015
-1.837043823784E-014
-1.837525987518E-013
-1.837429554775E-012
-1.837371695162E-011
-1.837203902532E-010
-1.836662918318E-009
-1.834954772455E-008
-0.000000183
-1.812760335461E-006
-1.761546434202E-005
-0.0001616892
-0.0012824113
-0.0077106891
-0.0333256576
-0.1107964885
-0.3011982928
-0.7328454777
-1.7334803285
-3.1867210039
-4.7852233462
-6.5122766823
-8.3722091689
-10.3168842776
-12.2989811268
-14.2968843251
-16.3078004212
-18.3456502587
-20.448623941
-22.6709346854
-25.0264054829
-27.4684846761
-29.9484355965
-32.4418979774
-34.9398099544
-37.4391475693
-39.9389378943
-42.4388715682
-44.9388505919
-47.4388439584
-49.9388418607

log([CuOH(+a)]/[CuT])
-14.3735680166
-13.373568421
-12.3735697
-11.3735737446
-10.3735865343
-9.3736269767
-8.3737548432
-7.3741589561
-6.3754345169
-5.3794448296
-4.3918990417
-3.4291844479
-2.5303998534
-1.7545591059
-1.1317453661
-0.6493128119
-0.3189125341
-0.2437686134
-0.7422336381
-1.6947858919
-2.7930703089
-4.0200547082
-5.3799653928
-6.8246336069
-8.3067282758
-9.8046307846
-11.3155466627
-12.8533964313
-14.4563700917
-16.1786808293
-18.0341516246
-19.9762308171
-21.9561817373
-23.9496441181
-25.9475560951
-27.9468937099
-29.946684035
-31.9466177089
-33.9465967326
-35.9465900991
-37.9465880014

log([Cu(OH)3(-a)]/[CuT])

-31.7478260776
-29.7478264821
-27.7478277609
-25.747831805
-23.7478445934
-21.7478850314
-19.748012884
-17.748416953
-15.749692375
-13.7537022485
-11.766155072
-9.8034360869
-7.9046376063
-6.1287529501
-4.5058003877
-3.02292913
-1.6911444594
-0.6116515224
-0.0966435439
-0.0091489753
-0.0007132725
-7.82806227519245E-005
-0.000161948
-0.0005755388
-0.0018992969
-0.0060641384
-0.0189792813
-0.0574631931
-0.1606375801
-0.3830118122
-0.7385026883
-1.1805882311
-1.6605411593
-2.1540041752
-2.651916353
-3.1512540314
-3.6510443765
-4.1509780567
-4.6509570825
-5.1509504496
-5.6509483521

ECA Cu

A1

mg/L
mg/L

A2
A3

ECA Mn
mol/L
mol/L

A1
A2
A3

ECA Mn
log[mol/L]
log[mol/L]

A1
A2
A3

No cumple con los lmites permisibles en todo el rango


grfica est por encima de la lnea que determina el EC
Si queremos solucionar este problema de contaminaci

va que no sea elevar el pH ya que no ayudara en nada


otra medida de remediacin (Pregunta #5).

Observamos en la grfica adjunta que existe un mnimo


el pH=8,4. No ayuda en mucho (sino es que nada) llega

log([Cu(OH)4(-2a)]/[CuT])

-56.4269809853
-53.4269813898
-50.4269826688
-47.4269867133
-44.4269995031
-41.4270399455
-38.4271678119
-35.4275719249
-32.4288474857
-29.4328577983
-26.4453120105
-23.4825974166
-20.5838128221
-17.8079720747
-15.1851583348
-12.7027257807
-10.3723255029
-8.2971815821
-6.7956466069
-5.7481988607
-4.8464832777
-4.073467677
-3.4333783616
-2.8780465757
-2.3601412446
-1.8580437534
-1.3689596315
-0.9068094
-0.5097830605
-0.232093798
-0.0875645934
-0.0296437859
-0.009594706
-0.0030570869
-0.0009690639
-0.0003066787
-9.70037303678148E-005
-3.06776150350001E-005
-9.70134790919395E-006
-3.0678590016438E-006
-9.70144541045492E-007

2
2
3.15E-05
3.15E-05
3.15E-05
-4.50202
-4.50202
-4.50202

ibles en todo el rango de pH, dado que lo


a que determina el ECA (A1, A2 y A3).
lema de contaminacin, necesitamos otra

e no ayudara en nada. Es decir, necesitamos


gunta #5).

a que existe un mnimo log[CuT]=-4,3 cuando


sino es que nada) llegar a este mnimo.

T
C
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
95
100

Cu(+2a) + H2CO3(a) = CuCO3 + 2H(+a)


K
H
S
G
kJ
J/K
kJ
35.849
-11.291
38.933
3.583E-008
36.514
-8.877
38.983
4.771E-008
37.106
-6.765
39.022
6.320E-008
37.644
-4.883
39.051
8.325E-008
38.142
-3.170
39.071
1.090E-007
38.612
-1.579
39.083
1.420E-007
39.065
-0.073
39.087
1.839E-007
39.508
1.376
39.084
2.368E-007
39.947
2.790
39.073
3.033E-007
40.386
4.182
39.056
3.865E-007
40.828
5.559
39.032
4.901E-007
41.273
6.926
39.000
6.186E-007
41.720
8.279
38.962
7.773E-007
42.173
9.628
38.918
9.724E-007
42.636
10.985
38.866
1.211E-006
43.108
12.353
38.808
1.503E-006
43.592
13.733
38.743
1.858E-006
44.089
15.129
38.670
2.289E-006
44.599
16.543
38.591
2.810E-006
45.124
17.979
38.505
3.438E-006
45.665
19.439
38.411
4.194E-006

Cu(+2a) + HCO3(-a) = CuCO3 + H(+a)


T
C
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60

H
kJ
24.615
25.698
26.626
27.435
28.156
28.813
29.428
30.017
30.592
31.160
31.727
32.294
32.861

S
J/K
72.640
76.571
79.878
82.710
85.190
87.414
89.461
91.387
93.236
95.037
96.806
98.548
100.261

G
kJ
4.773
4.400
4.009
3.602
3.182
2.751
2.308
1.856
1.395
0.924
0.444
-0.044
-0.541

K
1.222E-001
1.492E-001
1.821E-001
2.223E-001
2.710E-001
3.297E-001
4.002E-001
4.845E-001
5.853E-001
7.052E-001
8.476E-001
1.016E+000
1.216E+000

65
70
75
80
85
90
95
100

33.433
34.018
34.619
35.237
35.874
36.533
37.217
37.927

101.966
103.684
105.421
107.183
108.975
110.803
112.672
114.590

-1.047
-1.561
-2.084
-2.615
-3.155
-3.705
-4.264
-4.832

1.451E+000
1.728E+000
2.054E+000
2.437E+000
2.886E+000
3.412E+000
4.027E+000
4.747E+000

CuOH(+a) + HCO3(-a) = CuCO3 + H2O


T
C
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
95
100

T
C
0
5
10
15

H
kJ
-27.281
-20.430
-19.663
-18.954
-18.285
-17.644
-17.019
-16.403
-15.787
-15.170
-14.546
-13.917
-13.283
-12.639
-11.983
-11.313
-10.627
-9.924
-9.203
-8.462
-7.699

S
J/K
50.148
75.200
77.933
80.417
82.718
84.887
86.965
88.983
90.963
92.920
94.863
96.796
98.715
100.631
102.558
104.498
106.454
108.430
110.429
112.456
114.514

G
kJ
-40.979
-41.347
-41.730
-42.126
-42.534
-42.953
-43.383
-43.823
-44.272
-44.732
-45.202
-45.681
-46.170
-46.668
-47.176
-47.694
-48.221
-48.758
-49.305
-49.862
-50.430

K
6.871E+007
5.826E+007
4.999E+007
4.336E+007
3.798E+007
3.356E+007
2.990E+007
2.685E+007
2.429E+007
2.212E+007
2.028E+007
1.871E+007
1.736E+007
1.620E+007
1.520E+007
1.433E+007
1.358E+007
1.293E+007
1.237E+007
1.189E+007
1.148E+007

Cu(OH)3(-a) + HCO3(-a) + 2H(+a) = CuCO3 + 3H2O


K
H
S
G
kJ
J/K
kJ
-135.635
14.145
-139.499
4.772E+026
-114.797
90.341
-139.925
1.902E+026
-112.040
100.166
-140.402
7.999E+025
-109.324
109.673
-140.926
3.537E+025

20
25
30

-106.635
-103.960
-101.289

118.925
127.973
136.858

-141.498
-142.115
-142.777

1.640E+025
7.945E+024
4.013E+024

35

-98.613

145.612

-143.484

2.109E+024

40

-95.928

154.257

-144.233

1.150E+024

45

-93.228

162.810

-145.026

6.497E+023

50

-90.512

171.281

-145.861

3.796E+023

55

-87.778

179.675

-146.739

2.289E+023

60
65
70
75
80
85
90
95
100

-85.028
-82.258
-79.464
-76.646
-73.802
-70.930
-68.031
-65.102
-62.142

187.992
196.245
204.447
212.601
220.713
228.786
236.826
244.837
252.823

-147.658
-148.619
-149.620
-150.663
-151.746
-152.870
-154.034
-155.238
-156.482

1.423E+023
9.105E+022
5.988E+022
4.042E+022
2.797E+022
1.983E+022
1.438E+022
1.066E+022
8.067E+021

T
C
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45

Cu(OH)3(-a) + CO3(-2a) + 3H(+a) = CuCO3 + 3H2O


K
H
S
G
kJ
J/K
kJ
-158.170
135.048
-195.058
2.014E+037
-135.427
218.153
-196.107
6.769E+036
-130.976
234.015
-197.237
2.448E+036
-126.732
248.875
-198.445
9.469E+035
-122.640
262.952
-199.725
3.897E+035
-118.658
276.422
-201.074
1.699E+035
-114.750
289.423
-202.488
7.815E+034
-110.886
302.063
-203.967
3.780E+034
-107.047
314.421
-205.508
1.916E+034
-103.218
326.553
-207.111
1.016E+034

50

-99.391

338.490

-208.774

5.616E+033

55

-95.562

350.248

-210.496

3.231E+033

60
65
70
75
80
85
90
95

-91.734
-87.894
-84.030
-80.140
-76.219
-72.265
-68.272
-64.239

361.825
373.266
384.608
395.863
407.045
418.164
429.233
440.264

-212.276
-214.114
-216.008
-217.960
-219.967
-222.030
-224.148
-226.322

1.930E+033
1.195E+033
7.651E+032
5.061E+032
3.453E+032
2.425E+032
1.753E+032
1.301E+032

100

T
C
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
95
100

-60.160

451.270

-228.551

9.906E+031

Cu(OH)4(-2a) + CO3(-2a) + 4H(+a) = CuCO3 + 4H2O


K
H
S
G
kJ
J/K
kJ
-214.230
219.222
-274.110
2.646E+052
-184.637
327.377
-275.697
6.003E+051
-179.334
346.276
-277.382
1.496E+051
-174.228
364.151
-279.158
4.064E+050
-169.267
381.221
-281.022
1.196E+050
-164.406
397.663
-282.970
3.795E+049
-159.610
413.617
-284.998
1.291E+049
-154.850
429.190
-287.105
4.692E+048
-150.106
444.461
-289.289
1.814E+048
-145.363
459.487
-291.549
7.435E+047
-140.613
474.301
-293.884
3.221E+047
-135.853
488.918
-296.292
1.470E+047
-131.086
503.337
-298.773
7.056E+046
-126.298
517.604
-301.325
3.549E+046
-121.477
531.755
-303.949
1.867E+046
-116.620
545.805
-306.643
1.025E+046
-111.725
559.766
-309.407
5.866E+045
-106.787
573.650
-312.240
3.489E+045
-101.803
587.471
-315.143
2.154E+045
-96.768
601.240
-318.115
1.378E+045
-91.679
614.971
-321.155
9.120E+044

+a)
Log(K)
-7.446
-7.321
-7.199
-7.080
-6.962
-6.848
-6.736
-6.626
-6.518
-6.413
-6.310
-6.209
-6.109
-6.012
-5.917
-5.823
-5.731
-5.640
-5.551
-5.464
-5.377

a)
Log(K)
-0.913
-0.826
-0.740
-0.653
-0.567
-0.482
-0.398
-0.315
-0.233
-0.152
-0.072
0.007
0.085

[H(+a)]
1.00E+00
3.16E-01
1.00E-01
3.16E-02
1.00E-02
3.16E-03
1.00E-03
3.16E-04
1.00E-04
3.16E-05
1.00E-05
3.16E-06
1.00E-06
3.16E-07
1.00E-07
3.16E-08
1.00E-08
3.16E-09
1.00E-09
3.16E-10
1.00E-10
3.16E-11
1.00E-11
3.16E-12
1.00E-12
3.16E-13
1.00E-13
3.16E-14
1.00E-14
3.16E-15
1.00E-15
3.16E-16
1.00E-16
3.16E-17
1.00E-17
3.16E-18
1.00E-18
3.16E-19
1.00E-19
3.16E-20
1.00E-20

pH
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
6.0
6.5
7.0
7.5
8.0
8.5
9.0
9.5
10.0
10.5
11.0
11.5
12.0
12.5
13.0
13.5
14.0
14.5
15.0
15.5
16.0
16.5
17.0
17.5
18.0
18.5
19.0
19.5
20.0

0.162
0.238
0.313
0.387
0.460
0.533
0.605
0.676

Diagrama
100%
95%
90%
85%

2O

80%

Log(K)
7.837
7.765
7.699
7.637
7.580
7.526
7.476
7.429
7.385
7.345
7.307
7.272
7.240
7.209
7.182
7.156
7.133
7.112
7.093
7.075
7.060

75%
70%
65%
60%
55%
50%

% Concentracin

45%
40%
35%
30%
25%
20%
15%
10%
5%
0%
0

Diagr

+ 3H2O
Log(K)
0
26.679
26.279
25.903
25.549

0
-5
-10
-15
-20

0
-5
-10

25.215
24.900
24.603

-15

24.324

-20

24.061

-25

23.813
23.579
23.360

log[CuT]

-30
-35

23.153
22.959
22.777
22.607
22.447
22.297
22.158
22.028
21.907

-40
-45
-50
-55
-60
-65

+ 3H2O
Log(K)
37.304
36.831
36.389
35.976
35.591
35.230
34.893
34.577
34.282
34.007

Diagr
0
1.000E+001
1.000E-004
1.000E-009

33.749

1.000E-014

33.509
33.286
33.077
32.884
32.704
32.538
32.385
32.244
32.114

1.000E-019
1.000E-024

log[CuT]

1.000E-029
1.000E-034
1.000E-039
1.000E-044
1.000E-049

log[CuT]

1.000E-029
1.000E-034

31.996

1.000E-039
1.000E-044
1.000E-049

3 + 4H2O
Log(K)

1.000E-054

52.423
51.778
51.175
50.609
50.078
49.579
49.111
48.671
48.259
47.871
47.508
47.167
46.849
46.550
46.271
46.011
45.768
45.543
45.333
45.139
44.960

1.000E-059
1.000E-064

H2CO3(a)/HCO3(-a)/CO3(-2a)
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001

[Cu(+2a)]
2.096E+010
2.096E+009
2.096E+008
2.096E+007
2.096E+006
2.096E+005
2.097E+004
2.098E+003
2.103E+002
2.117E+001
2.163E+000
2.308E-001
2.766E-002
4.216E-003
8.800E-004
2.330E-004
6.914E-005
2.141E-005
6.725E-006
2.122E-006
6.707E-007
2.120E-007
6.705E-008
2.120E-008
6.705E-009
2.120E-009
6.705E-010
2.120E-010
6.705E-011
2.120E-011
6.705E-012
2.120E-012
6.705E-013
2.120E-013
6.705E-014
2.120E-014
6.705E-015
2.120E-015
6.705E-016
2.120E-016
6.705E-017

[CuOH(+a)]
1.717E-005
1.717E-005
1.717E-005
1.717E-005
1.717E-005
1.717E-005
1.717E-005
1.717E-005
1.717E-005
1.717E-005
1.717E-005
1.717E-005
1.717E-005
1.717E-005
1.717E-005
1.717E-005
1.717E-005
1.717E-005
1.717E-005
1.717E-005
1.717E-005
1.717E-005
1.717E-005
1.717E-005
1.717E-005
1.717E-005
1.717E-005
1.717E-005
1.717E-005
1.717E-005
1.717E-005
1.717E-005
1.717E-005
1.717E-005
1.717E-005
1.717E-005
1.717E-005
1.717E-005
1.717E-005
1.717E-005
1.717E-005

[Cu(OH)3(-a)]
[Cu(OH)4(-2a)]
5.2581099E-024 1.66583170E-049
5.2581099E-023 1.66583170E-047
5.2581099E-022 1.66583170E-045
5.2581099E-021 1.66583170E-043
5.2581099E-020 1.66583170E-041
5.2581099E-019 1.66583170E-039
5.2581100E-018 1.66583170E-037
5.2581103E-017 1.66583170E-035
5.2581114E-016 1.66583170E-033
5.2581145E-015 1.66583170E-031
5.2581246E-014 1.66583170E-029
5.2581566E-013 1.66583170E-027
5.2582576E-012 1.66583170E-025
5.2585771E-011 1.66583170E-023
5.2595872E-010 1.66583170E-021
5.2627817E-009 1.66583170E-019
5.2728836E-008 1.66583170E-017
5.3048286E-007 1.66583170E-015
5.4058475E-006 1.66583170E-013
0.000057253 1.66583170E-011
0.0006735486 1.66583170E-009
0.0099299828 1.66583170E-007
0.200318692 1.66583170E-005
5.1976838944
0.0016658317
152.995703124 0.1665831701
4724.45400578 16.658317011
148263.404238 1665.831701099
4677131.01692 166583.1701099
147790174.35 16658317.01099
4672398718.04 1665831701.099
147742851361 166583170109.9
4671925488150 16658317010990
1.477381E+014 1.6658317E+015
4.671878E+015 1.6658317E+017
1.477376E+017 1.6658317E+019
4.671873E+018 1.6658317E+021
1.477376E+020 1.6658317E+023
4.671873E+021 1.6658317E+025
1.477376E+023 1.6658317E+027
4.671873E+024 1.6658317E+029
1.477376E+026 1.6658317E+031

Diagrama de Predominancia
100%
95%
90%
85%
80%
75%
70%
65%
60%

[Cu(

55%

[CuO

50%

racin

[Cu(

45%

[Cu(

40%
35%
30%
25%
20%
15%
10%
5%
0%
0

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

pH

Diagrama de Bjerrum
0
0
-5
-10
-15
-20

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

0
-5
-10
-15
-20
-25

lo

lo

-30

lo

lo

-35
-40
-45
-50
-55
-60
-65

pH

Diagrama de Bjerrum
0
1.000E+001
1.000E-004
1.000E-009
1.000E-014
1.000E-019
1.000E-024
1.000E-029
1.000E-034
1.000E-039
1.000E-044
1.000E-049

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

1.000E-029
1.000E-034
1.000E-039
1.000E-044
1.000E-049
1.000E-054
1.000E-059
1.000E-064

pH

[CuT]
2.096E+010
2.096E+009
2.096E+008
2.096E+007
2.096E+006
2.096E+005
2.097E+004
2.098E+003
2.103E+002
2.117E+001
2.163E+000
2.308E-001
2.768E-002
4.233E-003
8.972E-004
2.501E-004
8.636E-005
3.911E-005
2.930E-005
7.654E-005
6.914E-004
9.948E-003
2.004E-001
5.199E+000
1.532E+002
4.741E+003
1.499E+005
4.844E+006
1.644E+008
6.338E+009
3.143E+011
2.133E+013
1.814E+015
1.713E+017
1.681E+019
1.671E+021
1.667E+023
1.666E+025
1.666E+027
1.666E+029
1.666E+031

[Cu(+2a)]/[CuT]
1.000E+000
1.000E+000
1.000E+000
1.000E+000
1.000E+000
1.000E+000
1.000E+000
1.000E+000
1.000E+000
1.000E+000
1.000E+000
9.999E-001
9.994E-001
9.959E-001
9.809E-001
9.314E-001
8.006E-001
5.475E-001
2.296E-001
2.773E-002
9.700E-004
2.132E-005
3.346E-007
4.078E-009
4.377E-011
4.472E-013
4.472E-015
4.377E-017
4.077E-019
3.345E-021
2.133E-023
9.940E-026
3.697E-028
1.238E-030
3.989E-033
1.269E-035
4.021E-038
1.272E-040
4.024E-043
1.273E-045
4.025E-048

[CuOH(+a)]/[CuT]
8.190E-016
8.190E-015
8.190E-014
8.190E-013
8.190E-012
8.189E-011
8.187E-010
8.182E-009
8.164E-008
8.108E-007
7.936E-006
7.437E-005
6.201E-004
4.055E-003
1.913E-002
6.862E-002
1.988E-001
4.389E-001
5.859E-001
2.243E-001
2.483E-002
1.726E-003
8.567E-005
3.301E-006
1.121E-007
3.620E-009
1.145E-010
3.544E-012
1.044E-013
2.708E-015
5.461E-017
8.047E-019
9.465E-021
1.002E-022
1.021E-024
1.028E-026
1.030E-028
1.030E-030
1.030E-032
1.030E-034
1.030E-036

[Cu(OH)3(-a)]/[CuT]
2.509E-034
2.509E-032
2.509E-030
2.509E-028
2.509E-026
2.509E-024
2.508E-022
2.506E-020
2.501E-018
2.484E-016
2.431E-014
2.278E-012
1.900E-010
1.242E-008
5.862E-007
2.104E-005
6.106E-004
1.356E-002
1.845E-001
7.480E-001
9.742E-001
9.982E-001
9.998E-001
9.997E-001
9.989E-001
9.965E-001
9.889E-001
9.656E-001
8.987E-001
7.372E-001
4.700E-001
2.190E-001
8.146E-002
2.728E-002
8.791E-003
2.797E-003
8.861E-004
2.804E-004
8.868E-005
2.804E-005
8.869E-006

Diagram
0

35
30
25
20
15
10
5

[Cu(+2a)]/[CuT]
[CuOH(+a)]/[CuT]
[Cu(OH)3(-a)]/[CuT]
[Cu(OH)4(-2a)]/[CuT]

log[CuT]

-5
-10
-15
-20
-25
-30
-35
-40
-45
-50

8 19 20

18

40

-55

Diagrama
19

20

0
35

30

25

35

30

25

20
log[Cu(+2a)]
log[CuOH(+a)]
log[Cu(OH)3(-a)]

log[CuT]

15

log[Cu(OH)4(-2a)]
10

-5

-10

Diagrama
18

19

20

8
-3

[Cu(+2a)]
[CuOH(+a)]
[Cu(OH)3(-a)]
[Cu(OH)4(-2a)]

log[CuT]

-4

[Cu(OH)3(-a)]
[Cu(OH)4(-2a)]

log[CuT]

-4

-5

[Cu(OH)4(-2a)]/[CuT]
7.948E-060
7.948E-057
7.948E-054
7.948E-051
7.948E-048
7.947E-045
7.946E-042
7.940E-039
7.923E-036
7.869E-033
7.702E-030
7.218E-027
6.018E-024
3.935E-021
1.857E-018
6.659E-016
1.929E-013
4.260E-011
5.686E-009
2.176E-007
2.409E-006
1.675E-005
8.315E-005
3.204E-004
1.088E-003
3.514E-003
1.111E-002
3.439E-002
1.013E-001
2.628E-001
5.300E-001
7.810E-001
9.185E-001
9.727E-001
9.912E-001
9.972E-001
9.991E-001
9.997E-001
9.999E-001
1.000E+000
1.000E+000

log[CuT]
10.3213619556
9.321362256
8.3213632059
7.3213662099
6.3213757092
5.3214057474
4.3215007228
3.3218009272
2.3227489152
1.3257333871
0.3350404855
-0.6367557489
-1.5578298408
-2.3733335476
-3.0471092352
-3.6018091741
-4.0636928405
-4.4077480235
-4.533184492
-4.1161092709
-3.1602793751
-2.0022848925
-0.6982050552
0.7159504661
2.1851518892
3.675880246
5.1758863278
6.6851785088
8.2160298936
9.8019680234
11.4973803356
13.3289957929
15.25853428
17.2336433825
19.2254657716
21.2228474093
23.2220161145
25.2217529046
27.2216696371
29.2216433023
31.2216349741

log[Cu(+2a)]
10.3213619556
9.321362256
8.3213632059
7.3213662099
6.3213757092
5.3214057473
4.3215007225
3.3218009237
2.3227488798
1.325733035
0.3350370388
-0.636788049
-1.5580992404
-2.3750981591
-3.0554988655
-3.6326925455
-4.1602642133
-4.6693604549
-5.1722770458
-5.6732034441
-6.1734968087
-6.67358962
-7.1736189737
-7.6736282565
-8.1736311921
-8.6736321204
-9.1736324139
-9.6736325067
-10.1736325361
-10.6736325454
-11.1736325483
-11.6736325492
-12.1736325495
-12.6736325496
-13.1736325497
-13.6736325497
-14.1736325497
-14.6736325497
-15.1736325497
-15.6736325497
-16.1736325497

log[CuOH(+a)]
-4.7653520957
-4.7653520957
-4.7653520957
-4.7653520957
-4.7653520957
-4.7653520957
-4.7653520957
-4.7653520957
-4.7653520957
-4.7653520957
-4.7653520957
-4.7653520957
-4.7653520957
-4.7653520957
-4.7653520957
-4.7653520957
-4.7653520957
-4.7653520957
-4.7653520957
-4.7653520957
-4.7653520957
-4.7653520957
-4.7653520957
-4.7653520957
-4.7653520957
-4.7653520957
-4.7653520957
-4.7653520957
-4.7653520957
-4.7653520957
-4.7653520957
-4.7653520957
-4.7653520957
-4.7653520957
-4.7653520957
-4.7653520957
-4.7653520957
-4.7653520957
-4.7653520957
-4.7653520957
-4.7653520957

log[Cu(OH)3(-a)]
-23.2791703431
-22.2791703431
-21.279170343
-20.2791703427
-19.2791703419
-18.2791703393
-17.2791703309
-16.2791703045
-15.2791702211
-14.2791699573
-13.2791691229
-12.2791664844
-11.2791581409
-10.2791317574
-9.2790483362
-8.2787846403
-7.277951813
-6.2753286435
-5.2671362127
-4.2422019669
-3.1716310747
-2.0030515046
-0.6982785243
0.7158098636
2.1846792339
3.6743516253
5.1710339676
6.6699795356
8.1696455615
9.6695398961
11.1695064764
12.6694959077
14.1694925655
15.6694915086
17.1694911744
18.6694910687
20.1694910352
21.6694910247
23.1694910213
24.6694910203
26.1694910199

Diagrama de Solubilidad
1

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

log[CuT]
log[Cu(+2a)]
log[CuOH(+a)]

log[Cu(OH)3(-a)

log[Cu(OH)4(-2a

ECA A1, A2 y A3

pH

Diagrama de Solubilidad
1

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

log[CuT]

ECA A1, A2 y A

pH

Diagrama de Solubilidad
9

10

log[CuT]

ECA A1, A2 y A

ECA A1, A2 y A

pH

log[Cu(OH)4(-2a)]
-48.7783688775
-46.7783688775
-44.7783688775
-42.7783688775
-40.7783688775
-38.7783688775
-36.7783688775
-34.7783688775
-32.7783688775
-30.7783688775
-28.7783688775
-26.7783688775
-24.7783688775
-22.7783688775
-20.7783688775
-18.7783688775
-16.7783688775
-14.7783688775
-12.7783688775
-10.7783688775
-8.7783688775
-6.7783688775
-4.7783688775
-2.7783688775
-0.7783688775
1.2216311225
3.2216311225
5.2216311225
7.2216311225
9.2216311225
11.2216311225
13.2216311225
15.2216311225
17.2216311225
19.2216311225
21.2216311225
23.2216311225
25.2216311225
27.2216311225
29.2216311225
31.2216311225

log([Cu(+2a)]/[CuT])
-3.375146132937E-016
-3.568011626247E-015
-3.558368351582E-014
-3.556921860383E-013
-3.556777211276E-012
-3.556526486266E-011
-3.555752614784E-010
-3.553295183965E-009
-3.545547584241E-008
-3.521267388317E-007
-3.446620404280E-006
-3.230011940039E-005
-0.0002693996
-0.0017646115
-0.0083896302
-0.0308833715
-0.0965713728
-0.2616124314
-0.6390925538
-1.5570941732
-3.0132174336
-4.6713047275
-6.4754139185
-8.3895787226
-10.3587830813
-12.3495123663
-14.3495187417
-16.3588110156
-18.3896624297
-20.4756005688
-22.6710128839
-25.0026283421
-27.4321668296
-29.9072759322
-32.3990983213
-34.8964799589
-37.3956486642
-39.8953854543
-42.3953021868
-44.8952758519
-47.3952675238

log([CuOH(+a)]/[CuT])
-15.0867140513
-14.0867143517
-13.0867153016
-12.0867183056
-11.0867278049
-10.0867578431
-9.0868528186
-8.0871530229
-7.0881010109
-6.0910854829
-5.1003925812
-4.1285963468
-3.2075222549
-2.3920185481
-1.7182428605
-1.1635429217
-0.7016592552
-0.3576040722
-0.2321676037
-0.6492428248
-1.6050727206
-2.7630672032
-4.0671470405
-5.4813025618
-6.950503985
-8.4412323417
-9.9412384235
-11.4505306045
-12.9813819894
-14.5673201191
-16.2627324313
-18.0943478886
-20.0238863758
-21.9989954783
-23.9908178673
-25.988199505
-27.9873682103
-29.9871050003
-31.9870217328
-33.986995398
-35.9869870699

ECA Cu
mg/L
mg/L
ECA Mn
mol/L
mol/L
ECA Mn
log[mol/L]
log[mol/L]

log[CuT]
log[Cu(+2a)]
log[CuOH(+a)]
log[Cu(OH)3(-a)]
log[Cu(OH)4(-2a)]
ECA A1, A2 y A3

log[CuT]
ECA A1, A2 y A3

Cumple ligeramente con los lmites permisi


Sin embargo, este pH no es el que normalm
elevar el pH. Una va es la cal, pero daara
muy costoso, por lo que optamos por usar r
no pasarse, ya que el rango permisible es m

Observamos en la grfica adjunta que exist


el pH=8,85. Para este caso, resulta aconsej

log[CuT]
ECA A1, A2 y A3

ECA A1, A2 y A3

log([Cu(OH)3(-a)]/[CuT])

log([Cu(OH)4(-2a)]/[CuT])

-33.6005322987
-31.6005325991
-29.6005335489
-27.6005365527
-25.6005460511
-23.6005760866
-21.6006710538
-19.6009712317
-17.6019191363
-15.6049033444
-13.6142096084
-11.6424107355
-9.7213283001
-7.9057982098
-6.2319391009
-4.6769754662
-3.2142589725
-1.8675806199
-0.7339517207
-0.126092696
-0.0113516996
-0.0007666121
-0.000073469
-0.0001406025
-0.0004726554
-0.0015286206
-0.0048523602
-0.0151989732
-0.0463843322
-0.1324281273
-0.3278738591
-0.6594998852
-1.0890417146
-1.564151874
-2.0559745973
-2.5533563406
-3.0525250793
-3.5522618799
-4.0521786158
-4.552152282
-5.0521439542

-59.099730833
-56.0997311334
-53.0997320834
-50.0997350874
-47.0997445867
-44.0997746248
-41.0998696003
-38.1001698047
-35.1011177927
-32.1041022646
-29.1134093629
-26.1416131286
-23.2205390366
-20.4050353299
-17.7312596422
-15.1765597034
-12.714676037
-10.3706208539
-8.2451843855
-6.6622596065
-5.6180895023
-4.7760839849
-4.0801638223
-3.4943193436
-2.9635207667
-2.4542491234
-1.9542552053
-1.4635473863
-0.9943987711
-0.5803369009
-0.275749213
-0.1073646703
-0.0369031575
-0.01201226
-0.0038346491
-0.0012162867
-0.000384992
-0.0001217821
-3.85145610582428E-005
-1.21797428494638E-005
-3.85160979859869E-006

A1
A2
A3

2
2
2

A1
A2
A3

3.15E-05
3.15E-05
3.15E-05

A1
A2
A3

-4.50202
-4.50202
-4.50202

eramente con los lmites permisibles en el rango de pH de 8,7 a 9,1.


o, este pH no es el que normalmente flucta, por lo que debemos
H. Una va es la cal, pero daaramos las tuberas, adems de ser
o, por lo que optamos por usar rocas carbonatadas. Tener cuidado de
, ya que el rango permisible es muy corto.

s en la grfica adjunta que existe un mnimo log[CuT]=-4,6 cuando


. Para este caso, resulta aconsejable llegar a este mnimo.

dado de

T
C
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
95
100

Cu(+2a) + H2CO3(a) = CuCO3 + 2H(+a)


K
H
S
G
kJ
J/K
kJ
35.849
-11.291
38.933
3.583E-008
36.514
-8.877
38.983
4.771E-008
37.106
-6.765
39.022
6.320E-008
37.644
-4.883
39.051
8.325E-008
38.142
-3.170
39.071
1.090E-007
38.612
-1.579
39.083
1.420E-007
39.065
-0.073
39.087
1.839E-007
39.508
1.376
39.084
2.368E-007
39.947
2.790
39.073
3.033E-007
40.386
4.182
39.056
3.865E-007
40.828
5.559
39.032
4.901E-007
41.273
6.926
39.000
6.186E-007
41.720
8.279
38.962
7.773E-007
42.173
9.628
38.918
9.724E-007
42.636
10.985
38.866
1.211E-006
43.108
12.353
38.808
1.503E-006
43.592
13.733
38.743
1.858E-006
44.089
15.129
38.670
2.289E-006
44.599
16.543
38.591
2.810E-006
45.124
17.979
38.505
3.438E-006
45.665
19.439
38.411
4.194E-006

Cu(+2a) + HCO3(-a) = CuCO3 + H(+a)


T
C
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60

H
kJ
24.615
25.698
26.626
27.435
28.156
28.813
29.428
30.017
30.592
31.160
31.727
32.294
32.861

S
J/K
72.640
76.571
79.878
82.710
85.190
87.414
89.461
91.387
93.236
95.037
96.806
98.548
100.261

G
kJ
4.773
4.400
4.009
3.602
3.182
2.751
2.308
1.856
1.395
0.924
0.444
-0.044
-0.541

K
1.222E-001
1.492E-001
1.821E-001
2.223E-001
2.710E-001
3.297E-001
4.002E-001
4.845E-001
5.853E-001
7.052E-001
8.476E-001
1.016E+000
1.216E+000

65
70
75
80
85
90
95
100

33.433
34.018
34.619
35.237
35.874
36.533
37.217
37.927

101.966
103.684
105.421
107.183
108.975
110.803
112.672
114.590

-1.047
-1.561
-2.084
-2.615
-3.155
-3.705
-4.264
-4.832

1.451E+000
1.728E+000
2.054E+000
2.437E+000
2.886E+000
3.412E+000
4.027E+000
4.747E+000

CuOH(+a) + HCO3(-a) = CuCO3 + H2O


T
C
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
95
100

T
C
0
5
10
15

H
kJ
-27.281
-20.430
-19.663
-18.954
-18.285
-17.644
-17.019
-16.403
-15.787
-15.170
-14.546
-13.917
-13.283
-12.639
-11.983
-11.313
-10.627
-9.924
-9.203
-8.462
-7.699

S
J/K
50.148
75.200
77.933
80.417
82.718
84.887
86.965
88.983
90.963
92.920
94.863
96.796
98.715
100.631
102.558
104.498
106.454
108.430
110.429
112.456
114.514

G
kJ
-40.979
-41.347
-41.730
-42.126
-42.534
-42.953
-43.383
-43.823
-44.272
-44.732
-45.202
-45.681
-46.170
-46.668
-47.176
-47.694
-48.221
-48.758
-49.305
-49.862
-50.430

K
6.871E+007
5.826E+007
4.999E+007
4.336E+007
3.798E+007
3.356E+007
2.990E+007
2.685E+007
2.429E+007
2.212E+007
2.028E+007
1.871E+007
1.736E+007
1.620E+007
1.520E+007
1.433E+007
1.358E+007
1.293E+007
1.237E+007
1.189E+007
1.148E+007

Cu(OH)3(-a) + HCO3(-a) + 2H(+a) = CuCO3 + 3H2O


K
H
S
G
kJ
J/K
kJ
-135.635
14.145
-139.499
4.772E+026
-114.797
90.341
-139.925
1.902E+026
-112.040
100.166
-140.402
7.999E+025
-109.324
109.673
-140.926
3.537E+025

20
25
30

-106.635
-103.960
-101.289

118.925
127.973
136.858

-141.498
-142.115
-142.777

1.640E+025
7.945E+024
4.013E+024

35

-98.613

145.612

-143.484

2.109E+024

40

-95.928

154.257

-144.233

1.150E+024

45

-93.228

162.810

-145.026

6.497E+023

50

-90.512

171.281

-145.861

3.796E+023

55

-87.778

179.675

-146.739

2.289E+023

60

-85.028

187.992

-147.658

1.423E+023

65
70
75
80

-82.258
-79.464
-76.646
-73.802

196.245
204.447
212.601
220.713

-148.619
-149.620
-150.663
-151.746

9.105E+022
5.988E+022
4.042E+022
2.797E+022

85
90
95
100

-70.930
-68.031
-65.102
-62.142

228.786
236.826
244.837
252.823

-152.870
-154.034
-155.238
-156.482

1.983E+022
1.438E+022
1.066E+022
8.067E+021

T
C
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45

Cu(OH)3(-a) + CO3(-2a) + 3H(+a) = CuCO3 + 3H2O


K
H
S
G
kJ
J/K
kJ
-158.170
135.048
-195.058
2.014E+037
-135.427
218.153
-196.107
6.769E+036
-130.976
234.015
-197.237
2.448E+036
-126.732
248.875
-198.445
9.469E+035
-122.640
262.952
-199.725
3.897E+035
-118.658
276.422
-201.074
1.699E+035
-114.750
289.423
-202.488
7.815E+034
-110.886
302.063
-203.967
3.780E+034
-107.047
314.421
-205.508
1.916E+034
-103.218
326.553
-207.111
1.016E+034

50

-99.391

338.490

-208.774

5.616E+033

55

-95.562

350.248

-210.496

3.231E+033

60
65
70
75
80
85
90
95

-91.734
-87.894
-84.030
-80.140
-76.219
-72.265
-68.272
-64.239

361.825
373.266
384.608
395.863
407.045
418.164
429.233
440.264

-212.276
-214.114
-216.008
-217.960
-219.967
-222.030
-224.148
-226.322

1.930E+033
1.195E+033
7.651E+032
5.061E+032
3.453E+032
2.425E+032
1.753E+032
1.301E+032

100

T
C
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
95
100

-60.160

451.270

-228.551

9.906E+031

CuO2(-2a) + CO3(-2a) + 4H(+a) = CuCO3 + 2H2O


K
H
S
G
kJ
J/K
kJ
-215.628
252.223
-284.522
2.594E+054
-198.323
315.404
-286.052
5.286E+053
-193.560
332.379
-287.673
1.184E+053
-189.207
347.618
-289.373
2.889E+052
-185.167
361.522
-291.147
7.621E+051
-181.356
374.413
-292.987
2.160E+051
-177.708
386.547
-294.890
6.539E+050
-174.171
398.119
-296.851
2.107E+050
-170.706
409.273
-298.870
7.192E+049
-167.287
420.106
-300.944
2.593E+049
-163.897
430.678
-303.071
9.841E+048
-160.532
441.013
-305.250
3.922E+048
-157.195
451.104
-307.480
1.636E+048
-153.863
461.033
-309.761
7.133E+047
-150.513
470.866
-312.091
3.241E+047
-147.140
480.624
-314.469
1.532E+047
-143.737
490.328
-316.897
7.521E+046
-140.298
499.999
-319.373
3.828E+046
-136.815
509.657
-321.897
2.017E+046
-133.280
519.324
-324.469
1.099E+046
-129.686
529.019
-327.090
6.178E+045

+a)
Log(K)
-7.446
-7.321
-7.199
-7.080
-6.962
-6.848
-6.736
-6.626
-6.518
-6.413
-6.310
-6.209
-6.109
-6.012
-5.917
-5.823
-5.731
-5.640
-5.551
-5.464
-5.377

a)
Log(K)
-0.913
-0.826
-0.740
-0.653
-0.567
-0.482
-0.398
-0.315
-0.233
-0.152
-0.072
0.007
0.085

[H(+a)]
1.00E+00
3.16E-01
1.00E-01
3.16E-02
1.00E-02
3.16E-03
1.00E-03
3.16E-04
1.00E-04
3.16E-05
1.00E-05
3.16E-06
1.00E-06
3.16E-07
1.00E-07
3.16E-08
1.00E-08
3.16E-09
1.00E-09
3.16E-10
1.00E-10
3.16E-11
1.00E-11
3.16E-12
1.00E-12
3.16E-13
1.00E-13
3.16E-14
1.00E-14
3.16E-15
1.00E-15
3.16E-16
1.00E-16
3.16E-17
1.00E-17
3.16E-18
1.00E-18
3.16E-19
1.00E-19
3.16E-20
1.00E-20

pH
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
6.0
6.5
7.0
7.5
8.0
8.5
9.0
9.5
10.0
10.5
11.0
11.5
12.0
12.5
13.0
13.5
14.0
14.5
15.0
15.5
16.0
16.5
17.0
17.5
18.0
18.5
19.0
19.5
20.0

0.162
0.238
0.313
0.387
0.460
0.533
0.605
0.676

Diagram
100%
95%
90%
85%

2O

80%

Log(K)
7.837
7.765
7.699
7.637
7.580
7.526
7.476
7.429
7.385
7.345
7.307
7.272
7.240
7.209
7.182
7.156
7.133
7.112
7.093
7.075
7.060

75%
70%
65%
60%
55%

% Concentracin

50%
45%
40%
35%
30%
25%
20%
15%
10%
5%
0%
0

Diag

+ 3H2O
Log(K)
0
26.679
26.279
25.903
25.549

0
-5
-10
-15

0
-5
-10

25.215
24.900
24.603

-15

24.324

-20

24.061
23.813
23.579
23.360

-25

log[CuT]

23.153

-30
-35

22.959
22.777
22.607
22.447

-40
-45

22.297
22.158
22.028
21.907

-50
-55
-60

+ 3H2O
Log(K)
37.304
36.831
36.389
35.976
35.591
35.230
34.893
34.577
34.282
34.007

Diag
0
1.000E+001
1.000E-003
1.000E-007

33.749

1.000E-011

33.509
33.286
33.077
32.884
32.704
32.538
32.385
32.244
32.114

1.000E-015
1.000E-019
1.000E-023

log[CuT]

1.000E-027
1.000E-031
1.000E-035
1.000E-039
1.000E-043

log[CuT]

1.000E-027
1.000E-031

31.996

1.000E-035
1.000E-039
1.000E-043
1.000E-047

+ 2H2O
Log(K)
54.414
53.723
53.073
52.461
51.882
51.334
50.816
50.324
49.857
49.414
48.993
48.593
48.214
47.853
47.511
47.185
46.876
46.583
46.305
46.041
45.791

1.000E-051
1.000E-055
1.000E-059

H2CO3(a)/HCO3(-a)/CO3(-2a)
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001

[Cu(+2a)]
2.909E+008
2.909E+007
2.909E+006
2.909E+005
2.909E+004
2.909E+003
2.911E+002
2.917E+001
2.933E+000
2.987E-001
3.157E-002
3.694E-003
5.392E-004
1.076E-004
2.774E-005
8.144E-006
2.512E-006
7.882E-007
2.486E-007
7.856E-008
2.484E-008
7.853E-009
2.483E-009
7.853E-010
2.483E-010
7.853E-011
2.483E-011
7.853E-012
2.483E-012
7.853E-013
2.483E-013
7.853E-014
2.483E-014
7.853E-015
2.483E-015
7.853E-016
2.483E-016
7.853E-017
2.483E-017
7.853E-018
2.483E-018

[CuOH(+a)]
8.409E-005
8.409E-005
8.409E-005
8.409E-005
8.409E-005
8.409E-005
8.409E-005
8.409E-005
8.409E-005
8.409E-005
8.409E-005
8.409E-005
8.409E-005
8.409E-005
8.409E-005
8.409E-005
8.409E-005
8.409E-005
8.409E-005
8.409E-005
8.409E-005
8.409E-005
8.409E-005
8.409E-005
8.409E-005
8.409E-005
8.409E-005
8.409E-005
8.409E-005
8.409E-005
8.409E-005
8.409E-005
8.409E-005
8.409E-005
8.409E-005
8.409E-005
8.409E-005
8.409E-005
8.409E-005
8.409E-005
8.409E-005

[Cu(OH)3(-a)]
[CuO2(-2a)]
9.3827861E-020 9.102232E-044
9.3827861E-019 9.102232E-042
9.3827861E-018 9.102232E-040
9.3827861E-017 9.102232E-038
9.3827862E-016 9.102232E-036
9.3827863E-015 9.102232E-034
9.3827869E-014 9.102232E-032
9.3827885E-013 9.102232E-030
9.3827938E-012 9.102232E-028
9.3828104E-011 9.102232E-026
9.3828630E-010 9.102232E-024
9.3830292E-009 9.102232E-022
9.3835549E-008 9.102232E-020
9.3852172E-007 9.102232E-018
9.3904740E-006 9.102232E-016
0.000094071 9.102232E-014
0.0009459665 9.102232E-012
0.0096258984 9.102232E-010
0.1015157484 0.000000091
1.1813909543 9.102232E-006
17.0706734488 0.0009102232
336.940205134 0.0910223209
8626.1659573 9.1022320922
252495.130219 910.223209224
7781715.20815 91022.3209224
244050622.728 9102232.09224
7697270133.24 910223209.224
243206171978 91022320922
7688825625748 9102232092236
2.431217E+014 9.102232E+014
7.687981E+015 9.102232E+016
2.431133E+017 9.102232E+018
7.687897E+018 9.102232E+020
2.431124E+020 9.102232E+022
7.687888E+021 9.102232E+024
2.431124E+023 9.102232E+026
7.687887E+024 9.102232E+028
2.431123E+026 9.102232E+030
7.687887E+027 9.102232E+032
2.431123E+029 9.102232E+034
7.687887E+030 9.102232E+036

Diagrama de Predominancia
100%
95%
90%
85%
80%
75%
70%
65%
60%
55%

ntracin

50%
45%
40%
35%
30%
25%
20%
15%
10%
5%
0%
0

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

pH

Diagrama de Bjerrum
0
0
-5
-10
-15

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

0
-5
-10
-15
-20
-25
-30
-35
-40
-45
-50
-55
-60

pH

Diagrama de Bjerrum
0
1.000E+001
1.000E-003
1.000E-007
1.000E-011
1.000E-015
1.000E-019
1.000E-023
1.000E-027
1.000E-031
1.000E-035
1.000E-039
1.000E-043

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

1.000E-027
1.000E-031
1.000E-035
1.000E-039
1.000E-043
1.000E-047
1.000E-051
1.000E-055
1.000E-059

pH

[CuT]
2.909E+008
2.909E+007
2.909E+006
2.909E+005
2.909E+004
2.909E+003
2.911E+002
2.917E+001
2.934E+000
2.988E-001
3.165E-002
3.778E-003
6.234E-004
1.926E-004
1.212E-004
1.863E-004
1.033E-003
9.711E-003
1.016E-001
1.181E+000
1.707E+001
3.370E+002
8.635E+003
2.534E+005
7.873E+006
2.532E+008
8.607E+009
3.342E+011
1.679E+013
1.153E+015
9.871E+016
9.345E+018
9.179E+020
9.127E+022
9.110E+024
9.105E+026
9.103E+028
9.102E+030
9.102E+032
9.102E+034
9.102E+036

[Cu(+2a)]/[CuT]
1.000E+000
1.000E+000
1.000E+000
1.000E+000
1.000E+000
1.000E+000
1.000E+000
1.000E+000
1.000E+000
9.997E-001
9.973E-001
9.777E-001
8.650E-001
5.586E-001
2.289E-001
4.371E-002
2.433E-003
8.117E-005
2.447E-006
6.649E-008
1.455E-009
2.330E-011
2.876E-013
3.099E-015
3.154E-017
3.102E-019
2.885E-021
2.349E-023
1.479E-025
6.809E-028
2.516E-030
8.403E-033
2.705E-035
8.604E-038
2.726E-040
8.625E-043
2.728E-045
8.627E-048
2.728E-050
8.627E-053
2.728E-055

[CuOH(+a)]/[CuT]
2.891E-013
2.891E-012
2.891E-011
2.891E-010
2.891E-009
2.890E-008
2.888E-007
2.883E-006
2.866E-005
2.814E-004
2.656E-003
2.226E-002
1.349E-001
4.365E-001
6.937E-001
4.513E-001
8.143E-002
8.659E-003
8.276E-004
7.117E-005
4.925E-006
2.495E-007
9.738E-009
3.318E-010
1.068E-011
3.322E-013
9.769E-015
2.516E-016
5.008E-018
7.291E-020
8.519E-022
8.998E-024
9.161E-026
9.213E-028
9.230E-030
9.236E-032
9.237E-034
9.238E-036
9.238E-038
9.238E-040
9.238E-042

[Cu(OH)3(-a)]/[CuT]
3.226E-028
3.226E-026
3.226E-024
3.226E-022
3.226E-020
3.225E-018
3.223E-016
3.217E-014
3.198E-012
3.140E-010
2.964E-008
2.484E-006
1.505E-004
4.872E-003
7.747E-002
5.049E-001
9.161E-001
9.913E-001
9.992E-001
9.999E-001
9.999E-001
9.997E-001
9.989E-001
9.964E-001
9.884E-001
9.640E-001
8.943E-001
7.277E-001
4.579E-001
2.108E-001
7.788E-002
2.601E-002
8.375E-003
2.664E-003
8.439E-004
2.670E-004
8.445E-005
2.671E-005
8.446E-006
2.671E-006
8.446E-007

Diagrama
0

45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
[Cu(+2a)]/[CuT]
[CuOH(+a)]/[CuT]
[Cu(OH)3(-a)]/[CuT]
[CuO2(-2a)]/[CuT]

log[CuT]

0
-5
-10
-15
-20
-25
-30
-35
-40
-45

17

18

19

-50

20

Diagrama
17

18

19

20

0
40

35

30

25

16

40

35

30

25

20

log[Cu(+2a)]
log[CuOH(+a)]
log[Cu(OH)3(-a)]

log[CuT]

log[CuO2(-2a)]

15

10

-5

-10

Diagrama
17

18

19

20

-3

[Cu(+2a)]
[CuOH(+a)]
[Cu(OH)3(-a)]
[CuO2(-2a)]

log[CuT]

-4

[Cu(OH)3(-a)]
[CuO2(-2a)]

log[CuT]

-4

-5

[CuO2(-2a)]/[CuT]
3.129E-052
3.129E-049
3.129E-046
3.129E-043
3.129E-040
3.129E-037
3.127E-034
3.121E-031
3.103E-028
3.046E-025
2.876E-022
2.409E-019
1.460E-016
4.725E-014
7.509E-012
4.886E-010
8.815E-009
9.373E-008
8.959E-007
7.704E-006
5.332E-005
2.701E-004
1.054E-003
3.592E-003
1.156E-002
3.596E-002
1.057E-001
2.723E-001
5.421E-001
7.892E-001
9.221E-001
9.740E-001
9.916E-001
9.973E-001
9.992E-001
9.997E-001
9.999E-001
1.000E+000
1.000E+000
1.000E+000
1.000E+000

log[CuT]
8.463693953
7.4636947547
6.4636972899
5.463705307
4.4637306592
3.4638108276
2.4640643223
1.4648657412
0.4673980218
-0.5246147968
-1.4995719417
-2.4227349717
-3.2052542157
-3.7152574282
-3.9164332965
-3.7297849551
-2.986082492
-2.0127461548
-0.9931055464
0.0724279261
1.2322759507
2.5276702504
3.9362758344
5.4038157857
6.8961257726
8.4033828293
9.9348766955
11.5240434706
13.2250780545
15.0619592132
16.994362481
18.9705953562
20.9628006245
22.9603063203
24.9595145622
26.9592638857
28.9591845848
30.9591595046
32.9591515732
34.9591490651
36.9591482719

log[Cu(+2a)]
8.463693953
7.4636947547
6.4636972899
5.4637053069
4.4637306579
3.4638108151
2.4640641969
1.4648644891
0.4673855732
-0.5247370293
-1.5007271612
-2.4325112291
-3.2682585177
-3.9681339807
-4.5568782108
-5.0891870875
-5.5999253624
-6.1033771133
-6.6044743871
-7.1048219532
-7.6049319212
-8.104966702
-8.6049777012
-9.1049811795
-9.6049822794
-10.1049826273
-10.6049827373
-11.104982772
-11.604982783
-12.1049827865
-12.6049827876
-13.104982788
-13.6049827881
-14.1049827881
-14.6049827881
-15.1049827881
-15.6049827881
-16.1049827881
-16.6049827881
-17.1049827881
-17.6049827881

log[CuOH(+a)]
-4.0752740753
-4.0752740753
-4.0752740753
-4.0752740753
-4.0752740753
-4.0752740753
-4.0752740753
-4.0752740753
-4.0752740753
-4.0752740753
-4.0752740753
-4.0752740753
-4.0752740753
-4.0752740753
-4.0752740753
-4.0752740753
-4.0752740753
-4.0752740753
-4.0752740753
-4.0752740753
-4.0752740753
-4.0752740753
-4.0752740753
-4.0752740753
-4.0752740753
-4.0752740753
-4.0752740753
-4.0752740753
-4.0752740753
-4.0752740753
-4.0752740753
-4.0752740753
-4.0752740753
-4.0752740753
-4.0752740753
-4.0752740753
-4.0752740753
-4.0752740753
-4.0752740753
-4.0752740753
-4.0752740753

log[Cu(OH)3(-a)]
-19.0276681841
-18.027668184
-17.0276681838
-16.027668183
-15.0276681806
-14.0276681729
-13.0276681485
-12.0276680716
-11.0276678283
-10.0276670589
-9.0276646257
-8.0276569315
-7.0276326012
-6.027555671
-5.0273124859
-4.0265443623
-3.0241242444
-2.0165587245
-0.9934665795
0.0723936412
1.2322506546
2.5275528359
3.9358178092
5.4022530065
6.8910753326
8.3874799202
9.8863367283
11.3859745921
12.8858600117
14.3858237719
15.8858123112
17.385808687
18.8858075409
20.3858071785
21.8858070639
23.3858070276
24.8858070162
26.3858070125
27.8858070114
29.385807011
30.8858070109

Diagrama de Solubilidad
1

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

log[CuT]
log[Cu(+2a)]
log[CuOH(+a)]

log[Cu(OH)3(-a)]
log[CuO2(-2a)]

ECA A1, A2 y A3

pH

Diagrama de Solubilidad
1

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

log[CuT
]

pH

Diagrama de Solubilidad
7

log[CuT

log[CuT

pH

log[CuO2(-2a)]
-43.0408520949
-41.0408520949
-39.0408520949
-37.0408520949
-35.0408520949
-33.0408520949
-31.0408520949
-29.0408520949
-27.0408520949
-25.0408520949
-23.0408520949
-21.0408520949
-19.0408520949
-17.0408520949
-15.0408520949
-13.0408520949
-11.0408520949
-9.0408520949
-7.0408520949
-5.0408520949
-3.0408520949
-1.0408520949
0.9591479051
2.9591479051
4.9591479051
6.9591479051
8.9591479051
10.9591479051
12.9591479051
14.9591479051
16.9591479051
18.9591479051
20.9591479051
22.9591479051
24.9591479051
26.9591479051
28.9591479051
30.9591479051
32.9591479051
34.9591479051
36.9591479051

log([Cu(+2a)]/[CuT])
-1.255554361453E-013
-1.255506145081E-012
-1.255486858548E-011
-1.255466125671E-010
-1.255392597334E-009
-1.255160933984E-008
-1.254428686926E-007
-1.252117616215E-006
-1.244854194431E-005
-0.0001222325
-0.0011552195
-0.0097762574
-0.063004302
-0.2528765525
-0.6404449143
-1.3594021324
-2.6138428704
-4.0906309585
-5.6113688406
-7.1772498793
-8.837207872
-10.6326369524
-12.5412535356
-14.5087969651
-16.5011080521
-18.5083654566
-20.5398594327
-22.6290262427
-24.8300608375
-27.1669419997
-29.5993452687
-32.0755781441
-34.5677834126
-37.0652891084
-39.5644973504
-42.0642466739
-44.5641673729
-47.0641422927
-49.5641343613
-52.0641318532
-54.5641310601

log([CuOH(+a)]/[CuT])
-12.5389680282
-11.53896883
-10.5389713652
-9.5389793823
-8.5390047344
-7.5390849029
-6.5393383976
-5.5401398165
-4.5426720971
-3.5506592785
-2.5757021335
-1.6525391036
-0.8700198596
-0.360016647
-0.1588407788
-0.3454891201
-1.0891915833
-2.0625279205
-3.0821685288
-4.1477020014
-5.307550026
-6.6029443257
-8.0115499097
-9.4790898609
-10.9713998479
-12.4786569046
-14.0101507707
-15.5993175459
-17.3003521298
-19.1372332884
-21.0696365563
-23.0458694314
-25.0380746998
-27.0355803956
-29.0347886375
-31.034537961
-33.03445866
-35.0344335798
-37.0344256485
-39.0344231403
-41.0344223472

log([Cu(OH)3(-a)]/[CuT])

-27.4913621371
-25.4913629387
-23.4913654737
-21.49137349
-19.4913988397
-17.4914790005
-15.4917324709
-13.4925338128
-11.4950658501
-9.503052262
-7.528092684
-5.6049219598
-3.8223783855
-2.3122982428
-1.1108791895
-0.2967594071
-0.0380417524
-0.0038125697
-0.000361033
-3.42848740954274E-005
-2.5296096332801E-005
-0.0001174145
-0.0004580252
-0.0015627792
-0.00505044
-0.0159029092
-0.0485399672
-0.1380688786
-0.3392180428
-0.6761354413
-1.1085501698
-1.5847866692
-2.0769930836
-2.5744991418
-3.0737074984
-3.5734568581
-4.0733775686
-4.573352492
-5.0733445618
-5.573342054
-6.073341261

20

log[CuT]
log[Cu(+2a)]
log[CuOH(+a)]
log[Cu(OH)3(-a)]
log[CuO2(-2a)]
ECA A1, A2 y A3

ECA Cu
mg/L
mg/L

A1
A2
A3

ECA Mn
mol/L
mol/L

A1
A2
A3

ECA Mn
log[mol/L]
log[mol/L]

A1
A2
A3

log[CuT
]

No cumple con los lmites permisibles en todo


grfica est por encima de la lnea que determ
Esta incluso peor (ms por encima de la lnea
Si queremos solucionar este problema de con
va que no sea elevar el pH ya que no ayudar
otra medida de remediacin (Pregunta #5).

Observamos en la grfica adjunta que existe u


el pH=7,0. No ayuda en mucho (sino es que n

log[CuT]

log[CuT]

log([CuO2(-2a)]/[CuT])

-51.5045460479
-48.5045468496
-45.5045493848
-42.5045574019
-39.504582754
-36.5046629225
-33.5049164172
-30.5057178361
-27.5082501167
-24.5162372981
-21.5412801531
-18.6181171232
-15.8355978792
-13.3255946667
-11.1244187984
-9.3110671397
-8.0547696029
-7.0281059401
-6.0477465484
-5.113280021
-4.2731280456
-3.5685223453
-2.9771279293
-2.4446678806
-1.9369778675
-1.4442349242
-0.9757287903
-0.5648955655
-0.2659301494
-0.102811308
-0.0352145759
-0.0114474511
-0.0036527194
-0.0011584152
-0.0003666571
-0.0001159806
-3.6679641507542E-005
-1.1599455923682E-005
-3.6681035185931E-006
-0.00000116
-3.6681174565666E-007

2
2
2
3.15E-05
3.15E-05
3.15E-05
-4.50202
-4.50202
-4.50202

isibles en todo el rango de pH, dado que lo


nea que determina el ECA (A1, A2 y A3).
ma de la lnea de los ECAS) que a 25 C.
oblema de contaminacin, necesitamos otra
que no ayudara en nada. Es decir, necesitamos
egunta #5).

ta que existe un mnimo log[CuT]=-3,91 cuando


(sino es que nada) llegar a este mnimo.