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An Overview of the Cement Manufacturing

Process
Dick Bekker (CTL/TT)

The Cement Manufacturing Process


Objectives of this presentation ...
To provide a general overview of the cement

manufacturing process.
To provide some specific insights into the main parts of

the process including:


- the materials involved
- the equipment used

Holcim Group Support

Introduction to Cement

August

Contents

Overview

Raw Material Extraction

Raw Material Preparation

Rawmeal Preparation

Clinker Manufacture
-

Cement Grinding
-

Alternative Fuels

Mineral Components

Packing - Dispatch - Logistics

Holcim Group Support

Introduction to Cement

August

Contents

Overview

Raw Material Extraction

Raw Material Preparation

Rawmeal Preparation

Clinker Manufacture
-

Cement Grinding
-

Alternative Fuels

Mineral Components

Packing - Dispatch - Logistics

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Introduction to Cement

August

Raw material supply


- Mechanical processes
- Thermal process
- Chemical process

Cement plant boundaries

Overview - Cement Manufacturing Processes

Customer

Cement

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Introduction to Cement

Concrete
& Mortar
August

Cement Manufacturing Processes


Mechanical Processes

Raw
Materials
Calcareous
Argillaceous
Silica correctives
Iron correctives

Quarrying
Crushing
Pre-blending
Grinding
Homogenizing...

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Thermal &
Chemical
Processes

Mechanical Processes

Alternative

Raw
Meal

Fuels
Gypsum
Mineral
Components

Clinker
Burning...

Cement
Grinding
Blending...

Introduction to Cement

Dispatch
August

Cement Manufacturing Process - Schematic

Alternative Fuels

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Introduction to Cement

August

Contents

Overview

Raw Material Extraction

Raw Material Preparation

Rawmeal Preparation

Clinker Manufacture
-

Cement Grinding
-

Alternative Fuels

Mineral Components

Packing - Dispatch - Logistics

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Introduction to Cement

August

Quarry: Limestone and Marl (Clay/Shale)

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Introduction to Cement

August

Materials: Raw Mix Components ...


Main Raw Mix Components

Calcareous (Calcium/Lime) Materials -- CaCO 3 (Limestone)

Argillaceous Materials -- SiO 2, Al2O3 & Fe2O3 (Clay, Marl)

Main Components (Chemistry):

CaO = Lime / C

SiO2 = Silica / S

Al2O3 = Alumina / A Fe2O3 = Iron / F

Raw Mix Corrective Materials

Materials rich in C, S, A, F to correct the rawmix

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August

Materials: Raw Mix Components ...

Limestone

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Introduction to Cement

Marl

August

Raw Material Blasting (Preparation)

Explosive Charge

Stemming

Primer
Cartridge

Column
Charge

Detonator or Cap

Toe
Charge

Drilling and blasting


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August

Quarry Operation - Blasting

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Introduction to Cement

August

Quarry Operation, Loading & Haulage

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Introduction to Cement

August

Haulage
90 Tonnes

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Introduction to Cement

August

Contents

Overview

Raw Material Extraction

Raw Material Preparation

Rawmeal Preparation

Clinker Manufacture
-

Cement Grinding
-

Alternative Fuels

Mineral Components

Packing - Dispatch - Logistics

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Introduction to Cement

August

Raw Material Crushing ...


After quarrying, the material is
crushed to reduce it from a
size of ~ 1.5m to ~ 30 - 100mm

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August

Transport to the Clinker Producing Site (1)

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August

Transport to the Clinker Producing Site (2)

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August

Raw Material Pre-blending

Direction of travel during


stacking/making the pile

Reclaiming is at 900 to
the direction of stacking

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August

Pre - blending: stacking and reclaiming


Stacking: How do you make a Black Forest cake?
Reclaiming: How do you eat a Black Forest cake?

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Introduction to Cement

August

Contents

Overview

Raw Material Extraction

Raw Material Preparation

Rawmeal Preparation

Clinker Manufacture
-

Cement Grinding
-

Alternative Fuels

Mineral Components

Packing - Dispatch - Logistics

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Introduction to Cement

August

The Vertical Roller Mill Operating principle ...

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August

Raw Material Grinding ...

Tube mill

Vertical mill
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August

Dust Collection (To clean gas streams) ...


Bagfilter

Electrostatic Precipitator
with Conditioning Tower
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Introduction to Cement

August

Raw Meal Homogenisation ...


In
Filter

FR

The raw meal is homogenised by


a combination of the way it is
added to / extracted from the silo
and the air mixing in the silo.

FR

Out
Bypass

HS
GKA

GKJ

Active Inactive

GAS

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August

Raw Meal Homogenisation ...


Stacking: How do you make a Black Forest cake?
Reclaiming: How do you eat a Black Forest cake?
Homogenising: It is no longer a Black Forest cake!

Holcim Group Support

Introduction to Cement

August

Contents

Overview

Raw Material Extraction

Raw Material Preparation

Rawmeal Preparation

Clinker Manufacture
-

Cement Grinding
-

Alternative Fuels

Mineral Components

Packing - Dispatch - Logistics

Holcim Group Support

Introduction to Cement

August

Main Equipment of a Modern Kiln System

Dry process kiln (with 5-stage SP and PC


Dry process kiln (with 5-stage SP and PC)
Kiln ID
Kiln ID
Fan

Fan
Filter
Fan

Cooler
Dedusting
Meal
Dosing

Precalciner
Fuel Dosing
Air-to-Air

Meal
Dosing

5-stage
5-stage
Suspension
Suspension
Preheater

Precalciner
Fuel Dosing

Preheater

Cooler

Water

Kiln Fuel
Dosing

Low NOx
Precalciner
Low
NOx
Burner

Precalciner

Primary
Burner
Air Fan
Cyclone
Preheater

Cyclone
Preheater

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Introduction to Cement
Kiln Drive

Conditioning
Tower

August

Process: Preheating/Pre-calcination...
Stages

315

50

2
3
4
5
0

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315

Raw meal
500 Exhaust gas

500

660

660

785

785

880
1000

500
1000
Temperature 0C

Introduction to Cement

August

Clinker Production - Kiln

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Introduction to Cement

August

Contents

Overview

Raw Material Extraction

Raw Material Preparation

Rawmeal Preparation

Clinker Manufacture
-

Cement Grinding
-

Alternative Fuels

Mineral Components

Packing - Dispatch - Logistics

Holcim Group Support

Introduction to Cement

August

Clinker Manufacture Conventional Fuels

Heavy Fuel Oil


Pulverized Coal ( Bituminous & Lignite)
Natural Gas
Pulverized Petroleum Coke

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August

Alternative Fuels and Raw Materials


Alternative fuels
Dry sewage sludge

Plastics

Old / Worn out tyres

Used oil

Animal meal, animal fat


Solvents

Distillation residues

Paper

Waste Wood

Alternative raw materials


Earth from oil spills
Aqueous systems (Oily water)

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August

Fuel Combustion ...


A complex burner is used
to mix different fuels with
air and deliver them to the
burning zone of the kiln for
combustion

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August

Clinker Manufacture - Fuels


Coal, Heavy oil

Flame

Animal meal
Fuels
Dried sewage sludge

Ash

Solvents

Tires

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August

Clinker Cooling ...


Clinker at ~1350oC enters
the cooler and forms a bed
through which air is blown to
cool it to ~150oC

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August

Cooling Principle
Hot combustion air to kiln

Hot waste air to filter

Hot clinker in
Slightly negative pressure!

Grate

Positive pressure!

Cooled
clinker out
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Introduction to Cement

August

Materials: Raw Meal to Clinker ...


The basic sequence of reactions ...
Reactants +
Raw Meal
(60C)

Natural
Earth
Minerals

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Products
(450 - 1450C)

C S+ C S
3
2
AND
Liquids/Melt
(1450C)

Cooled
Clinker
(150C)

Synthetic Rock
Artificial Minerals
Alite & Belite
Aluminate & Ferrite
Introduction to Cement

August

Contents

Overview

Raw Material Extraction

Raw Material Preparation

Rawmeal Preparation

Clinker Manufacture
-

Cement Grinding
-

Alternative Fuels

Mineral Components

Packing - Dispatch - Logistics

Holcim Group Support

Introduction to Cement

August

Cement grinding ...


90% Clinker

+ 5% Gypsum
+ 5% Mineral Compt

Grinding

Portland
Cement

Ball mill
Note Composite
Cements contain > 5%
mineral components as
a clinker replacement

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Introduction to Cement

August

Cement grinding

Operation principle
of a Tube mill

Holcim Group Support

Introduction to Cement

August

Contents

Overview

Raw Material Extraction

Raw Material Preparation

Rawmeal Preparation

Clinker Manufacture
-

Cement Grinding
-

Alternative Fuels

Mineral Components

Packing - Dispatch - Logistics

Holcim Group Support

Introduction to Cement

August

Mineral Components (MIC)


Definition
Mineral Components are materials with binding

properties which are not derived from the clinker


manufacturing process
Mineral Components can be used:

as alternative materials for clinker (clinker substitute), or

for the manufacture of concrete (cement substitute)

When added at the cement mill or added to Portland

Cement, the product is called Composite Cement

Holcim Group Support

Introduction to Cement

August

Contents

Overview

Raw Material Extraction

Raw Material Preparation

Rawmeal Preparation

Clinker Manufacture
-

Cement Grinding
-

Alternative Fuels

Mineral Components

Packing - Dispatch - Logistics

Holcim Group Support

Introduction to Cement

August

Cement grinding ...


90% Clinker

+ 5% Gypsum
+ 5% Mineral Compt

Milling

Portland
Cement

Ball mill
Note Composite
Cements may
contain >5% mineral
components as a
clinker replacement
Holcim Group Support

Introduction to Cement

August

Contents

Overview

Raw Material Extraction

Raw Material Preparation

Rawmeal Preparation

Clinker Manufacture
-

Cement Grinding
-

Alternative Fuels

Mineral Components

Packing - Dispatch - Logistics

Holcim Group Support

Introduction to Cement

August

Cement storage, packaging & dispatch ...

Cement from the mills

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August

Cement Packaging

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August

Cement Palletizing (Example)...


Single
bags in ...

Multi-pack out
Direct to load
out, or plastic
wrapped first

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Introduction to Cement

August

Bag Loading of Trucks

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Introduction to Cement

August

Bulk Loading of trucks...

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Introduction to Cement

August

Contents

Overview

Raw Material Extraction

Raw Material Preparation

Rawmeal Preparation

Clinker Manufacture
-

Cement Grinding
-

Alternative Fuels

Mineral Components

Packing - Dispatch - Logistics

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August

Distribution / Logistics

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Technical Data (Typical Example) ...


5
8
6720
840

days/week
hours/day
tonnes/day 1.4 7
22
tonnes/hour
Quarrying & Raw
4800
material preparation
220

d/w
h/d
t/d Factor 1.6
t/h

Raw meal preparation

Note: 3000 t/d ~ 1 Mio. t/y


7
24
3000
125

d/w
h/d
t/d
t/h

Clinker burning process

7
16
3300
140

d/w
h/d
t/d
t/h

Cement grinding

5
8
4600
600

d/w
h/d
t/d
t/h

Storing/Dispatching

5 kWh/t
30 kWh/t
30 kWh/t
40 kWh/t

Total cement plant ~3500 MJ/t clinker


(ie. 120 kg coal/t ); and ~100 kWh/t cement
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2 kWh/t
3 kWh/t

Auxiliaries

August