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Religions

Question # 1: What is religion?


Question # 2: What religions are there?
Question # 3: What are some characteristics of Abrahamic religions?
Question # 4: What are some characteristics of Indian religions?
Question # 5: What are some characteristics of East Asian religions?

Question # 1
What is religion?

Religion is about belonging.

Thabo Cecil Makgoba.


http://livestream.com/globalshapers/events/3732080/videos/74447211
Minute 8.35.

True religion is the active


discipline of compassion,
the ability to feel with the
other person.
Karen Armstrong.
http://bigthink.com/videos/what-good-does-god-do

Four examples explaining what is fascinating about religion:


1. That people regularly come together.
2. That people tell each other to be nice to one another.
3. That people create a sense of community, for example by acting as hosts
and making sure that people of different ages and people with different
income levels learn to see each other as human beings.
4. That people appeal to us via art and beauty. For example, beautiful
churches, mosques, and temples use art to remind us about what
matters and to feel calm and pity.
https://youtu.be/CL--1Z_g4DE

Common to all religions is an appeal for meaning beyond


the empty vanities and lowly realities of existence:
Beyond sin, suffering, and death.
Beyond fear.
Beyond ourselves.
http://youtu.be/m6dCxo7t_aE
10:30

Religions can be praised for moderating egoistic impulses


and urging the powerful to think of the defenseless.
Religions ask the powerful to imagine themselves as
unfortunate.
https://youtu.be/ge071m9bGeY
Minute 4:30.

Further inspiration
https://www.teacherspayteachers.com/Product/Questions-to-discover-your-values-1329394

Question # 2
What religions are there?

Abrahamic religions. Examples: Chritianity, Islam, and Judaism.


Indian religions. Examples: Hinduism and Buddhism.
East Asian religions. Examples: Confucianism and Taoism.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abrahamic_religions

Major religions

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Religion

Size of major religious groups


in percent of the global
population.

http://www.pewforum.org/2014/04/04/global-religious-diversity/

There are 4,200 religions in the world,


each of them believing theyre
absolutely correct, and everyone
should follow their views.
And some 90% of human beings are
describable by themselves, if not
others, as religious.
http://bigthink.com/videos/big-think-interview-with-lionel-tiger

Lionel Tiger

Religious diversity around the world

http://www.pewforum.org/2014/04/04/global-religious-diversity/

http://www.pewglobal.org/2007/10/04/world-publics-welcome-global-trade-but-not-immigration/

In general,
the wealthier
people are, the
less religious
they are.

Question # 3
What are some characteristics
of Abrahamic religions?

1 God
1 central prophet

1 central book
1 main day of worship
1 holy city
1 house of worship

Christianity
X

Judaism
X

Islam
X

Jesus Christ,
the son of God.

Moses.

Muhammed,
the messenger of God.

The Bible.

The Torah.

The Koran.

Sunday.

Saturday.

Friday.

Jerusalem.

Jerusalem.

Mekka.

Church.

Synagogue.

Mosque.

http://www.beliefnet.com/features/abrahamicfaiths.html

People go to heaven
or hell after death

Diet

Equality between
men and women

Charity

Christianity
X

Judaism
X

Islam
X

No dietary
restrictions.

No pork.

No pork.
No alcohol.

Men and women Men and women are


worship together. equal in the eyes of
God.

10% of income.

10% of income.

http://www.beliefnet.com/features/abrahamicfaiths.html

In the Koran, men and


women are generally
treated the same.

2.5% of total wealth


yearly.

Christianity

The 10 commandments

1. You must have only 1 God.


2. You must serve only 1 God.
3. You must not misuse the name of God.
4. You must remember to not work 1 day of the week.
5. You must honor your mother and father.
6. You must not kill.
7. You must not divorce.
8. You must not steal.
9. You must not lie.
10.You must not make love to other persons than your wife.
Adapted from
http://www.the-ten-commandments.org/the-ten-commandments.html

There are a lot of great biblical principles that are


fundamental to operating a good business.
Being fair and telling the truth are biblical principles.
Donnie Smith,
Tyson Foods.
http://fortune.com/2014/11/11/7-ceos-with-notably-devout-religious-beliefs/

Though its not a religious company, faith is important at Aflac.


Every employee receives a book called The Aflac Way, which
outlines the companys basic principles, ethics, and codes of
conduct.
Almost all of those principles come in some way from Scripture,
adapted for use in the workplace. They might be as simple as,
Everyone is important. No matter who walks through the door,
whether its the man in overalls or a straw hat or the man in a
USD 500 suit, everyone is treated equally.

Daniel P. Amos

http://fortune.com/2014/11/11/7-ceos-with-notably-devout-religious-beliefs/

Church attendance tends to be low and has been falling


across the much of the rich world. Just 70 million of
Western Europes 375 million adults attend church at
least once a month.

http://www.economist.com/blogs/graphicdetail/2015/12/daily-chart-4

In sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America, the church appears as


strong as ever.
There are 277 million adherent Christians in sub-Saharan Africa
and 250 million in Latin America.

http://www.economist.com/blogs/graphicdetail/2015/12/daily-chart-4

Almost half of all Catholics live


in South America.

http://www.tagesanzeiger.ch/ausland/europa/Der-neue-Papst-ist-ein-Mann-ohne-Beruehrungsaengste/story/16197201

Christianity grew out of Judaism.

http://youtu.be/m6dCxo7t_aE
6:30.

Judaism

3 branches of Judaism - each with different approaches to religious life:


Orthodox Judaism
Holds that both the written and oral Torah were divinely revealed to Moses,
and that the laws within it are binding and unchanging.
Conservative Judaism
Teaches that Jewish law is not static.
Reform Judaism, also called liberal or progressive Judaism
Regards Jewish law as basically non-binding and has great openness to external
influences and progressive values.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Judaism

Jewish life includes different traditions / rituals.

http://www.religionfacts.com/judaism

A kippah is a slightly rounded cap worn on the head


by many Jews while praying, eating, reciting blessings,
or studying Jewish religious texts.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Judaism

During the sabbath, the weekly day of rest that begins


at nightfall on Friday and lasts until nightfall on Saturday,
people come together.

During the period of the sabbath, it is not allowed for


Jewish people to, for example, use electricity.
http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/judaism/holydays/sabbath.shtml
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Judaism

Islam

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muslim

A muslims 5 most important duties


are called the 5 pillars.

http://youtu.be/m6dCxo7t_aE
9:10

Pillar # 1: Shahadah. 1 God.


There is no other God but Allah.
Muhammad is his final profet, his messenger.
Pillar # 2: Salah. Praying.
Every muslim prays 5 times every day facing Mecca.
Pillar # 3: Zakat. Financial donation.
Every muslim, who can afford it, is required to donate to help the poor.
Size of donation: 2-3% of net worth.
http://www.economist.com/node/21560542
http://www.religion.dk/islam/de-ti-vigtigste-ting-vide-om-islam
http://youtu.be/m6dCxo7t_aE

Pillar # 4: Sawn. Fasting.


Each muslims fasts during daylight hours for the lunar month of
Ramadan to strengthen their will power and their reliance on God.
Pillar # 5: Hajj. Pilgrimmage to Mecca.
At least once in a lifetime, every muslim who is physically and financially
able to do so, must make a pilgrimmage to the holy city of Mecca
rehearsing for the time when they will stand before God to be judged
worthy or unworthy of eternal life with him.
9% of muslims have been to Mecca.
http://www.economist.com/node/21560542
http://www.religion.dk/islam/de-ti-vigtigste-ting-vide-om-islam
http://youtu.be/m6dCxo7t_aE

The Kaaba
in Mecca,
Saudi Arabia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Islam

How muslims
practice.

http://www.economist.com/node/21560542

Numbers are in %.

75% - 90% of all Muslims


are Sunni muslims.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Islam

http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/worldviews/wp/2014/01/13/40-more-maps-that-explain-the-world/

Question # 4
What are some characteristics
of Indian religions?

Buddhism

The middle way means living in moderation.


This allows people to concentrate on cultivating
compassion for others.

https://youtu.be/tilBs32zN7I

Buddhism grew out of Hinduism.

http://youtu.be/m6dCxo7t_aE
6:30.

Hinduism

Hinduism differs from Christianity in that it does not have


a single founder,
a specific theological system,
a single concept of deity,
a single holy text,
a single system of morality,
a central religious authority,
the concept of a prophet.

http://www.religioustolerance.org/hinduism.htm

Santana Dharma refers to eternal duties all Hindus have to follow regardless of class, caste, or sect. 4 examples:
Honesty.
Refraining from injuring living beings.
Patience.
Generosity.
This is contrasted with svadharma, one's own duty, the duties to be
followed by members of a specific caste and stage of life.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hinduism

Question # 5
What are some characteristics
of East Asian religions?

Confucianism

In Confucianism, there is particular emphasis on


the importance of the family and social harmony.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Confucianism

2 important Confucian ethical concepts and practices are


rn and y.
Rn is the essence of the human being which manifests
as compassion.
Y is the upholding of righteousness and the moral
disposition to do good.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Confucianism

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Confucianism

Temple of Confucius.
Jiangyin, Wuxi, Jiangsu, China

Daoism

http://www.iep.utm.edu/daoism/

The first suggestion of Daoism is to make


more time for stillness.

http://youtu.be/dFb7Hxva5rg

We need to be in touch with our real / true selves.

We need to spend time discovering who we are.

http://youtu.be/dFb7Hxva5rg