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Dan definitely won't be able to afford a holiday this year.

to afford a holiday this
1. John has hinted that he doesn't wish to remain in the group any longer.
John has
wishes to
remain in the group.
Five actors were competing for the leading role in the play
leading role in the play.
A spokesman said that the story was pure speculation.
The story
than speculation by
a spokesman.
4. She was concentrating so hard on her work that she didn't notice when I
carne in.
She was
that she
didn't notice when I came in.
They still haven't found out what caused the accident.
They have yet
the accident was.
I reluctantly signed the contract.
It was with
on the contract.
Suzanne is far superior to me in terms of technical knowledge.
When it comes
for Suzanne.
Anthony wasn't at all discouraged by this bad experience.
This bad experience
9. The company lent us an apartment as part of the deal.
As part of the deal, we were
by the company.
I always enjoy this film, no matter how often I see it.
this film.
I don't know why Fred made such an extraordinary decision.
I don't know
a decision.
12.Inefficient treatment of customers creates a bad impression of the company.

Treating customers with a lack

the company.
The organizers planned everything as carefully as they could possibly
have done.
Everything was planned
by the organizers.
Coming second didn't make her feel any better because she only
wanted to win.
Coming second
was all
that mattered to her.
15.I promised him that the situation would not be repeated in the future.
no repetition of the situation
in the future.
16. Tim tried to be like one of his heroes when he was a young musician.
one of his
17.Diane finds that creating things stops her from thinking about her work.
Diane finds that being
her work.
18. I tried not to get involved in that situation.
I tried to avoid
that situation.
19. After announcing his resignation, he said that he had done nothing
After announcing his resignation, he went
20.I had to go to an expert and ask her to advise me.
I was forced
21.I realized that I was in a terrible position and I wasn't to blame for it.
myself in a terrible position.
22.I'm doubtful that this plan is very realistic.
realistic this plan is.
23.Francis chose computing rather than marketing for his next course.
Francis opted
marketing for his next course.
24.Presumably you're still interested in travelling this summer.
I take
travelling this summer.
25.Eventually, Jim admitted that he was responsible for the error.
Eventually, it
responsible for the error.
26.Without your assistance, I could never have done this job so well.


, I could never
have done this job so well.
27.The manager praised one particular player.
One particular player
praise by the manager.
28.He denied the accusation unconvincingly, which made me think he was
believe that he was guilty.
29.There came a time when I completely ran out of patience.
more patience left.
30.Once I had made sure there was no reason to be afraid, I went ahead.
Having satisfied
, I went ahead.
31.It is likely that she will get very angry when she finds out.
fit when she finds out.
32.Being inexperienced was a disadvantage to her when she applied for
she applied for promotion.
33.Do you mind if I watch you while you paint?
Do you
you while you paint?
34. The author describes his childhood vividly in the book.
The author's book
his childhood.
35.This plant often gets attacked by insects.
This plant
by insects.
36. Do you have any idea about how Jack made enough money to buy that new
sports car?
Can you
Jack made enough money
to buy that new sports car?
37. Kate has finally accepted that their friendship is over.
Kate has finally
their friendship is over.
38. I wasn't expecting you to begin singing when they asked you to speak.
when they asked you to speak.
39.Janice soon recovered from her cold.
It did
her cold.
40.Only when the storm subsided was it clear just how much damage had been

It was not
the damage was clear.
41.When he won the scholarship, Alan began to realise just how lucky he was.
When he won the scholarship, it began
just how lucky he was.
42.Only passengers with Gold Star tickets may use the executive lounge.
Use of the executive lounge
possession of Gold Star tickets.
43.You should not lock this door for any reason when the building is open to the
locked when the
building is open to the public.
44.Helen was always embarrassed by her father's jokes.
Helen's father's jokes
45.How likely is the new venture to get off the ground?
off the ground?
46.Damien paid little attention to his brother's warnings.
Damien didn't
his brother's warnings.
47.In Colin's opinion, he hasn't done anything he should apologise for.
, he hasn't done anything
he should apologise for.
48.Dr Potter was offended by some of the remarks that were made about her
Dr Potter
some of the remarks that were
made about her work.
49.She had her own reasons for not telling us anything about her past.
As to her past, she kept us


is no possibility of Dan being able

2. dropped/given a hint (1 mark)

that he no longer (1 mark)
If someone drops/gives a hint that something is the case, they say something that
suggests indirectly that it is the case. In this phrase 'hint' is a noun; in the first
sentence it is a verb.
The structure subject + no longer + verb = subject + negative verb + any longer.
3. were five actors (1 mark) in contention for (1 mark)
In this sentence There acts as the subject instead of 'Five actors' in the first
sentence and it is therefore immediately followed by the verb 'were' and 'five
actors' to form the structure there + to be + noun.
If someone is in contention for something, they are one of a group who are all
competing for and trying to get it and who all have at least some chance of getting
4. was dismissed as (1 mark) nothing/no more or nothing other (1
If someone dismisses something as something, they say that it should not be
believed or that it has no value because it is fact the thing mentioned (in this case
`speculation'). In this sentence, the verb has to be in the past simple passive form.
The phrases nothing/no more than and nothing other than mean 'only' or `simply'.
In the first sentence `pure' means `complete' or 'only' and so it has the same
meaning as `nothing/no more than' and `nothing other than'.
5. so wrapped up (1 mark) in her work (1 mark)
In this sentence, wrapped up acts as an adjective in the structure so + adjective +
that, which replaces the structure so + adverb + that in the first sentence.
If you are wrapped up in something, you are concentrating very hard on it or are
completely absorbed or involved in it, so that it has all your attention and you do
not notice other things.
6. to find out (1 mark)
what the cause of (1 mark)
The structure yet + infinitive means `not done yet/still not done but perhaps will be
done'. The structure subject + still + negative auxiliary + past participle in the first
sentence has to be replaced by the structure subject + positive auxiliary + yet +
In the second part of the sentence, the verb 'caused' has to be changed to the noun
cause, which is followed by the preposition of.
7. (some) reluctance that (1 mark) I put/wrote my signature (1 mark)
In this sentence the adverb has to be changed to the structure with + noun and the
noun from 'reluctantly' is `reluctance'.
If you put your signature on/to something, you sign it with your name.
8. to technical knowledge (1 mark) I'm/I am no match (1 mark)
The phrase when it comes to something/doing something
means 'when the situation is a matter of/relates to' or `when the subject is'.
If someone/something is no match for
someone/something, they are not at all equal to the other thing/person because
they are very inferior to them.
9. didn't put Anthony off (1 mark) in the (1 mark)
If something puts someone off (something/doing something), it makes them not
want to do or experience something or it discourages them in some way.
The adverbial phrase not + verb/adjective + in the least means `not +
verb/adjective + at all', 'absolutely not + verb/adjective' or `not + verb/adjective +
in any way'.
10.given the loan (1 mark)
of an apartment (1 mark)

If someone lends someone something, the person receiving it is given the loan of
something. The verb `give' has to be used to form a collocation with the noun 'loan'
and it has to be put into the passive form.
The preposition 'of' is required after 'loan' before the thing that is lent.
11.often I see it (1 mark)
I never tire of (1 mark)
The structure however + adjective/adverb means `no matter how/it doesn't matter
how/it makes no difference how + adjective/adverb'.
If you tire of something/doing something, you stop being interested in or wanting to
do it and you begin to find it boring because you have done or experienced it a
great many times.
12.what prompted Fred to make (1 mark) so extraordinary (1 mark)
If something prompts someone to do something, it causes them to do it by giving
them the idea that they should do it. In this sentence, 'why' has to be changed to
the pronoun `what' (meaning 'the thing which') to provide a subject for the verb
The structure such + a/an + adjective + noun can also be expressed, more
emphatically, by the structure so + adjective + a/an + noun.
13. of efficiency (1 mark) reflects badly on (1 mark)
The phrase (a) lack of + uncountable noun = `not enough of' or 'complete absence
of' something. The negative adjective Inefficient' has to be changed into the
positive noun 'efficiency'.
If something reflects well/badly on someone/something, it
gives a good/bad impression of them or makes them appear good/bad.
14. with the utmost (1 mark) care (1 mark)
The phrase the utmost + uncountable noun means 'the greatest possible amount of
If something is done carefully, it is done with care. The structure with + noun is
used to describe how something is done.
15.was (of) no consolation (to her) (1 mark) because winning (1
If something is (of) no consolation to someone, it does not make them feel any
better about something bad that has happened because it in no way compensates
for or balances it.
The gerund form of the verb `win' has to be used as the subject of the verb `was'.
`Winning' is therefore used as a noun.
16.gave him my word (1 mark)
(that) there would be (1 mark)
If you give someone your word that something will be the case, you promise them
that it will be the case.
In the second part of the sentence, there must be used to provide a subject because
the subject 'the situation' in the first sentence is not a subject in this sentence. The
negative 'would not be' has to be changed to the positive `would be' because the
negative is now supplied by the phrase `no repetition'.
17.a young musician (1 mark)
Tim modelled himself on (1 mark)
In this context, As means 'when he was' and simply replaces that phrase.
If you model yourself on someone, you try to copy them or be like them because
you admire them or consider that they are a very good example of something you
are trying to be.
18.creative (1 mark)
takes her mind off (1 mark)
To follow 'being', the verb 'creating' has to be changed to the adjective 'creative'.
If something takes your mind off something, it stops you from thinking about
something unpleasant or worrying because it causes you to direct your thoughts
and attention to it instead.
19.getting (1 mark) mixed up in (1 mark)
The verb 'avoid' is followed by the '-ing' form of another verb.
If you get mixed up in something, you become involved in something that you don't
wish to get involved in or that it is a bad idea to get involved in.
20.on to deny (1 mark) (that) he had done/doing/having done
anything (1 mark)
If someone goes on to do something, they do a second thing alter completing a first

If you deny something, you say that it is not true or not the case. The verb is used
with the following structures: deny + (that) ; deny + -ing; deny + having + past
participle; deny + noun.
21.to seek advice (1 mark) from an (1 mark)
If you are forced to do something, you have to do it, either because of
circumstances or because someone else has given you the obligation to do it. The
structure seek + uncountable noun means 'ask for something' or `try to get
something'. The verb advise has to be changed to the noun advice.
If the person or place that might provide the thing that someone seeks is
mentioned, this is preceded by the preposition from.
22.no fault of my own (1 mark) I found (1 mark)
The phrase through no fault of someone's own is used for saying that something
bad happened to someone but that they were not responsible for the fact that it
If you find yourself in a particular situation, you become aware of the fact that you
are in that situation, especially when you feel that it is a situation that you did not
create yourself.
23. have/am having (some) reservations (1 mark) about/as
to/concerning/regarding how (1 mark)
If you have reservations, you have doubts about whether something is a good idea
and can think of reasons why it might not be.
In this sentence very + adjective has to be changed to how + adjective because the
doubts concern the extent to which the plan is realistic. The two structures must be
linked by a word or phrase that means 'on the subject of' to express what the
reservations concern. The linking phrase as to means with 'regard to' or 'concerning'
and is used very commonly, both informally and formally.
24.for computing (1 mark) in preference to (1 mark)
If you opt for something, you choose it, especially as a result of careful thought.
The linking phrase in preference to means `rather than' when saying that the
subject prefers one thing to another.
25.it (that) you (1 mark)
haven't/have not Iost interest in (1 mark)
If you take it (that) something is the case, you assume or suppose that it is the case
and therefore do not feel that you have to check or confirm that it is the case.
If you lose interest in something, you stop being interested in it or do not continue
to be interested in it.
26.was Jim who/that (1 mark) owned up to having/(that) he had (1
This is a 'cleft' sentence, which means that the structure it + to be + subject +
relative clause is used for emphasis (in this case, to emphasize that it was Jim and
not someone else). For this reason, the structure Jim + verb has to be transformed
into the structure It was + Jim + who/that + verb.
If you own up to doing/having done something, you admit that you did something
27.you not (1 mark)
assisted me (1 mark)
The first part of a third conditional sentence can begin with Had + subject + past
participle instead of If + subject + had + past participle. In this structure, if the verb
is negative, `not' must come after the subject and before the past participle, not
immediately after 'Had'.
If you assist someone, you help them. The noun `assistance' has to be changed to
the verb 'assist' in order to complete the above third conditional structure and the
object 'me' has to be supplied alter it.
28.was singled out (1 mark)
for (1 mark)
If someone singles someone/something out, they mention or treat them as being
different in some way from all the others. The past simple active verb has to be
transformed into the past simple passive here.
The phrasal verb 'single out' is followed by for + noun to say in what way the person
is spoken of or treated differently from others. In this sentence 'praise' is a noun.
29.unconvincing denial (of the accusation) (1 mark)
led me to (1

The possessive His in this sentence must be followed by an adjective and a noun,
and so the adverb 'unconvincingly' must be changed to the adjective `unconvincing'
and the verb `denied' must be change to the noun `denial'. If `denial' is followed by
a noun, the preposition 'of' must come after `denial' and before the noun.
If something makes you think that something is true, it leads you to believe it. The
relative clause in the first sentence must be replaced by a verb clause, since the
first part of the sentence is now a subject ('His unconvincing denial') rather than a
complete clause.
30.reached/got to a/the stage when/where (1 mark) I had no (1 mark)
The phrase subject + reach/get to + the/a + stage + when/where means that, after
a period of time when something has continued, there is a point in time when
something happens that changes the situation.
The structure run out of + noun has to be transformed into the structure have + no
more + noun + left.
31.myself (that) (1 mark) there was nothing to fear/I had nothing to
fear (1 mark)
If you satisfy yourself (that) something is the case, you make sure or confirm that
you are right to believe that it is the case.
In this sentence, fear has to be a verb (rather than a noun), and the structure 'there
was no reason to be + adjective' has to be transformed into the structure there was
nothing + infinitive or I had nothing + infinitive.
32.is liable to (1 mark)
have a (1 mark)
The structure subject + be liable + infinitive = `it + be likely + that + subject +
verb' or 'subject + be likely + infinitive'.
If someone has a fit, they become extremely angry or shocked and show that they
feel this way by shouting, etc.
33.lack of experience/inexperience (1 mark) counted against her (1
In this sentence, the possessive Her must be followed by a noun, and so the
adjective inexperienced must be changed to the noun inexperience or to the noun
phrase lack of experience.
If something counts against someone, it is considered a
negative aspect concerning them when a decision or judgement is being made
about them.
34.have any objection to my watching
35.has/includes/contains/gives/is (1) + a vivid account of (1)
36.is prone to (1) + attack/getting attacked/being attacked (1)
37.cast/shed/throw (1) + some/any light on how (1)
38.come to terms (1) + with the fact that (1)
39.took me aback / by surprise (1) + when/that you began OR to hear/see you
OR hearing/seeing you (1)
40.not take Janice long (1) + to get over / to get rid of (1) OR not take long for
Janice (1) + to get over (1)
41.until the storm (had) subsided that (1) + the extent (1)
42.to dawn (1) + on Alan (1)
43.is restricted to (1) + those in / those passengers in / passengers in (1)
44.no circumstances (1) + should/must this door be / should/must you leave
this door / is this door to be (1)
45.were (always) a (constant/continual) source (1) + of (continual)
embarrassment to (1)
46.prospects are there / are the prospects (1) + of the new venture's/venture
getting (1) OR prospects does the new venture (1) + have of getting (1)
47.take much / take a lot of (1) + notice of (1)
48.far as Colin (1) + is/'s concerned (1)
49.took (1) + exception to (1)
50.in the dark (1) + for her own (1)