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SPANISH COLONIAL TIMES:

Manila became capital


1573 Laws of the Indies pronounced by King
Philipp II Spanish town planning influenced by
the Romans and the Piazza planning of Italian
Renaissance
1596 Spatial segregation along racial and social
lines Indios and Chinese has separate districts;
Parian or market spatial concentration of
merchants and artisans to regulate the exchange
of goods
1600s to 1700s process of Hispanization through
the founding of cabeceras (poblaciones) and
visitas (barrios); natives living on the unplanned
fringes of the neighborhood; debajo de las
campanas
Laws of the Indies:
- In 1573, King Philip II proclaimed the Laws of the
Indies that established uniform standards and
planning procedures for colonial settlements.
- These laws provided guidelines for site selection,
layout and dimensioning of streets and squares,
the location of civic and religious buildings, open
space, cultivation and pasturing lands, and even
the main procedural phases of planning and
construction.
The Plaza Complex:
- a result of several ordinances of the Laws of the
Indies.
- The plaza is surrounded by important buildings
such as the Catholic church, municipal hall,
Marketplace and merchants stores, elementary
school, the homes of the principalia, and other
government buildings
Intramuros - the walled City of Manila
- 1.2 sq. KM in area; perimeter is 3.4 KM
- home of the Spanish (except for the friars & the
high ranking officials)
- decentralization occurred and settlements were
built in Malate, San Miguel, and Paco, among other
areas
early 1600s Manila became the first primate city
in Southeast Asia.
1650 chapels or small churches in the cabecera
were built to attract tenacious natives from the
barrios
(hinterlands)
through
fiestas
and
processions
1790s opening of the Manila- Acapulco galleon
trade; emergence of semi-urban places in the
provinces

1850s-late 1800s Chinese dominated central


commercial business districts in al settlements;
commercial shops on the ground floors of centrally
located houses; no more spatially segregated
peripheral clusters of Chinese.; decentralized
residential pattern for Spaniards
THE AMERICAN PERIOD:
1890s other port cities continue to become
regional urban centers; bridges were built along
postal routes facilitating transport in Luzon.
1903 City of Manila was incorporated covering
Intramuros and 12 fast-growing suburban towns.
The American Agenda:
- guide urban growth and physical development
- put more emphasis on other values such as
sanitation, housing, and aesthetic improvements.
1905 Manila and Baguio Plans of Daniel Burnham
introduced the City Beautiful western type of town
planning.
Burnhams Design for Manila:
- Designed with grand avenues & a strong central
civic core
- Included a civic mall to house national buildings
(only the Finance
&Agriculture buildings were built)
- Fronted Manila Bay like most Baroque plans
fronted a large body of water
1910 rebuilding of settlements complete with
hygiene and sanitary facilities and drainage
systems called sanitary barrios.
1920s - Barrio Obrero or the working class district
evolved as government response to the needs of
low-income labor families in urban areas.
1928 zoning ordinance for Manila promulgated
but took effect only in 1940; zoning became
popular in America in the 1920s.
Manila as the First Chartered City:
- On July 31, 1903, by virtue of Act No. 183, the
city of Manila was incorporated
- Manila encompassed Intramuros, and the towns
of Binondo, Tondo, Sta. Cruz, Malate, Ermita, Paco,
and Pandacan.
- The population then was 190,000 people
Growth of Manila:
The Arrabales
Quiapo- the illustrado territory; the enclave of the
rich and powerful. Also the manifestation of folk
religiosity.
Binondo- the trading port developed by the
Chinese and Arabs

Sta. Cruz- the main commercial district with swirls


of shops, movie houses, restaurants, etc.
San Nicolas- also a commercial town built by the
Spanish with streets of specialized categories
(i.e. ceramics, soap, etc.)
Sampaloc- centered on two churches (Our Lady of
Loreto and Saint Anthony of Padua). Also known as
the first University Town.

- Master Plan designed by Architect and Planner,


Carlos
P.
Arguelles,
based
on
suburban
developments in California with modifications

FURTHER SUBURBANIZATION:

The Owenite Communities:


- New Harmony, Indiana, USA by Owens, Jr.
- Brook Farm, Massachusetts, by a group of
New England Planners
- Icarus, Red River, Texas, by Cabet
(eventually, Cabet joined the Mormons in laying
out Salt-lake City, Utah)
- Bournville, outside Birmingham built by
chocolate manufacturer George Cadbury
- Port Sunlight, in the Mersy built by William Lever

After the war - RA 333 designated Quezon city as


new Capital and master planning it by the Capital
City Planning Commission.
In 1939, Commonwealth Act No. 457, authorized
the transfer of the capitol to an area of 1572
hectares
A master plan of Quezon City was completed in
1941 by Architects Juan Arellano, Harry T. Frost,
Louis Croft, and Eng. A.D. Williams
City beautiful plan reflected the aspirations of an
emerging nation and the visions of a passionate
leader
Constitution Hill:
- In 1946, a search committee was formed to find
a new site
- a 158 ha area in the Novaliches watershed was
selected and called Constitution Hill and National
Government Center
- The three seats of government were to form a
triangle at the center of the complex
- It included a 20 hectare civic Space referred to as
the Plaza of the Republic
1950s - National Planning Commission (later on as
NEDA) was established.
RA 2264 local Autonomy Act of 1959 empowered
LGUs to enact zoning ordinances and subdivision
rules; all towns and cities required to form
planning boards to craft development plans under
the guidance of the NPC
1987 Constitution and Local Government Code of
1991 devolved powers to LGUs; local autonomy;
developments plans under the supervision of
NEDA.
HOUSING DEVELOPMENTS:
Philippine Homesite and Housing Corporation
- Precursor of the National Housing Authority
- Built homes for the masses (the projects, i.e.
proj.4, proj. 6, etc.)
Philamlife Homes
- icon of middle class suburbanization

BLISS (bagong lipunan sites and services)


- Walk-up developments for government sector
INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION:

Tony Garnier, 1868-1948 (Une Cite Industrielle )


- like Howards garden city, was to be a selfcontained new settlement with its own industries
and housing close by.
- Locational features may have been a precursor
to modern zoning
- Ideas and theories adopted by Dutch Architect JJP
Oud in the design of
Rotterdam
THE CONSERVATIONISTS AND THE PARK
MOVEMENT:
Frederick Law Olmstead - Believed that cities
should be planned two generations ahead;
maintain sufficient breathing space, be constantly
renewed and that suburban design should
embrace the whole city.
- Use of open space as element of urban system;
despoilment of land through landscape system;
urban park as an aid to social reform.
THE GARDEN CITY MOVEMENT:
Ebenezer Howard
Author of Tomorrow: A Peaceful Path to Social
Reform
- Garden City of Tomorrow one of the most
important books in the history of urban planning.
cluster with a mother town of 58,000 to 65,000
with smaller garden cities of 30,000 to 32,000
each with permanent green space separating the
cities with the towns serving as horizontal fence of
farmland; rails and roads would link the towns with
industries and nearby towns supplying fresh food.
Idea of Howard:
all of the industry was decentralized deliberately
from the city or at least from its inner sectors.

new town was built around the decentralized


plant.
Combining working and living in a healthy
environment.
the first garden cities.
Who influenced Howard?:
EDWARD GIBBON WAKEFIELD had advocated the
planned movement of population.
JAMES SICK BUCKINGHAM- developed the idea of a
model city.
ALFRED MARSHALL- invented the idea of the new
town as an answer to the problems of the city.
Howard advocated the concept of Social City
polycentric settlement, growth without limit,
surrounded by a greenbelt; town grows by cellular
addition into a complex multi-centered
agglomeration of towns set against a green
background of open country.
The 3 magnets in his paradigm depicted both the
city and the countryside had a indisoluble mixture
of advantages and disadvantages the city has
the opportunities offered through jobs and urban
services of all kinds, which resulted in poor natural
environment; the countryside offered an excellent
natural environment but virtually no opportunities
of any kind
Garden City combined the advantages of the town
by way of access and all the advantages of the
country by way of the environment without any of
the disadvantages of either. Achieved by planned
decentralization of workers and their places of
employment thus transferring the advantages of
urban agglomeration en bloc to the new
settlement.
The Garden City Association
established by Howard in 1899
Letchworth:
first Garden City designed by Raymond Unwin &
Barry Parker in 1902
- Consisted of 4,500 acres (3000 for agriculture,
1500 for city proper)
Welwyn, 1920 (by Louis de Soisson) - brought
formality and Georgian taste
Followers of Howard:
SIR FREDERICK OSBORNE
RAYMUND UNWIN
BARRY PARKER
- Hampstead Garden Suburbs opened in 1907
meant only for housing but with a variety of
housing types lined along streets with terminating
axes on civic buildings in a
large common green
- Wythenshawe - called the 3rd garden city meant
only for housing but with a variety of housing

types lined along streets with terminating axes on


civic buildings in a large common green
Modifications on Howards principles:
- Background of open space instead of greenbelts
(adaptation of inter-urban railway)
- Dividing the town into clearly articulated
neighborhood units
Ernst May
Germany city planner and architect
Ernst May (1886-1970), developed a series of
satellite towns (Trabantenstadte) on open land
outside the built-up limits, and separated from the
city proper by a green belt.
May combined uncompromising use of the then
new functional style of architecture with a free use
of low-ride apartment blocks, all set in a park
landscape.
May's "brigade" of German architects and planners
established twenty cities in three years, including
Magnitogorsk
successfully applied urban design techniques to
the city of Frankfurt, "one of the most remarkable
city planning experiments in the twentieth
century".
THE CITY BEAUTIFUL ERA (1900 to 1945)
Daniel Burnham Father of American City Planning
spearheaded the movement with his design for
Chicago and his famous words: make no little
plans
- Influenced by the world fairs of the late 19th
century, like the 1891Columbian Exposition in
Chicago
- Emphasis was on grand formal designs, with
wide boulevards, civic spaces, arts, etc.
- Also credited for the designs of San Francisco
and Cleveland
Golden era of urban design in the US; according to
Burnham, city was totally designed system of
main circulation arteries., a network of parks and
clusters or focal buildings or building blocks of
civic centers incl. City hall, a country court house,
a library, an opera house, a museum, and a plaza
Total concentration on the monumental and on the
superficial, on architecture as symbols of power,
and an almost complete lack of interest on the
wider social purposes of planning. Planning was
intended to impress or for display.
Daniel Burnham wrote Chicago Plan but was
heavily criticized & referred to as centro-centrist;
based on business core with no conscious

provision for business expansion in the rest of the


city; planned as an aristocratic city for merchant
princess; not in accord with the realities of
downtown real estate development which
demanded overbuilding and congestion; utopian
- castigated by Lewis Mumford as cosmetic,
comparing Burnhams approach with planning
practiced in totalitarian regimes; approach ignored
housing, schools & sanitation. According to
Abercrombie, beauty stood supreme for Burnham,
commercial convenience was significant but
health and sanitation concerns were almost
nowhere. Burnhams plan devoted scant attention
to zoning.
Baron George Eugene Hausmann- worked on the
reconstruction of Paris- linear connection between
the Place de Concord, Arc de Triomph, Eiffel Tower
and others
THE URBAN THEORIST:
Constantine Doxiadis - Addressed problem of
urbanization on a worldwide scale and his major
designs have been made for countries where the
economy and productive system can be
coordinated by policy and decree such as the new
developing countries of Africa and the MiddleEast.
Published his Ekistics Grid a system for
recording planning data and ordering the planning
process.
Approaches town planning as a science which
includes planning and design as well as
contributions from the sociologist, geographer,
economist, demographer, politician, social
anthropologist, ecologist, etc. all these he
assembles into a total rational and human
approach which he calls Ekistics the science of
human settlements.
THE NEW COMMUNITIES MOVEMENT (EARLY
1920s):
Clarence Stein, Lewis Mumford, Frederick Lee
Ackerman
- Piecemeal development of residential
communities on endless gridiron tracts was
wasteful & unnecessary; practice of laying out
block pattern streets prevented clustered
community design & the interspersal of open and
built-up spaces.
- One of the aims of the group was the creation of
neighborhood centers and the physical delineation
of neighborhood groups
Christopher Alexander
a city is not a tree - suggested that
sociologically, different people had varied needs

for local services & the privilege* of choice was


paramount.
Alker Tripp
- assistant commissioner of police at Londons
Scotland Yard.
- published a book called TOWN PLANNING &
TRAFFIC.
- idea that after the war, cities should be
reconstructed in the basis of PRECINTS.
- hierarchy of roads in which main arterial or sub
arterial roads were sharply segregated from the
local streets with only occasional access and also
were free of direct frontage development.
- influenced Patrick Abercrombie and Forshaw
(called for application of the PRECINTUAL
PRINCIPLE to London.)
Clarence Stein - The Radburn Idea or new town
idea was to create a series of superblocks (an
island of greens, bordered by homes and carefully
skirted by peripheral auto roads), each around
open green spaces which are themselves
interconnected. The greenways were the
pedestrian ways.
The basic layout of the community introduced the
ff:
- "super-block" concept
- cul-de-sac (cluster) grouping
- interior parklands
- and separation of vehicular and pedestrian traffic
to promote safety.
Every home was planned with access to park
walks.
TOWN & COUNTRY PLANNING OF BRITAIN:
The Neighborhood Unit
-book by Clarence Perry (1929)
-the embryo of NEIGHBORHOOD UNIT AREAcertain services which are provided everyday for
groups of population who cant or do not travel far,
should be provided at an accessible central place
for a small community w/in walking distance.
-defined as the physical environment wherein
social, cultural, educational,
and commercial are within easy reach of each
other
-he discussed the idea of organized towns into
cohesive neighborhoods which was applicable not
only to new towns but to large city areas.
- concerns self sustainability of smaller units
- Principle based on the natural catchment area of
community facilities such as primary schools and
local shops. the elementary school as the center
of development, determines the size of the
neighborhood
THE REGIONAL CITY:

Patrick Geddes - Survey before plan


- The answer to the sordid congestion of the giant
city is a vast program of regional planning within
which each sub-regional part would be
harmoniously developed on the basis of its own
natural resources with total respect for the
principles of ecological balance and resource
renewal. Cities in the scheme became subordinate
to the region; old cities and new towns alike would
grow just as necessary parts of the regional
scheme.
- Planning must start with a survey of the
resources of such a region and of human
responses to it, and of the resulting complexities
of the cultural landscape; emphasis on survey
method.
- Wrote Cities in Evolution (1915); coined the
term conurbation which meant conglomeration
of town aggregates; describing the waves of
population to large cities followed by overcrowding
and slum formation, and the wave of backflow; the
whole process resulting in amorphic sprawl, waste
and unnecessary obsolescence; stressed social
basis of the city concerned with the relationship
between people and cities and how they affect
one another;
Stages in the creation of conurbation:
Inflow - build-up - backflow(central slums) sprawling mass (central blight)
THE REGIONAL CITY:
Patrick Abercrombie
- most notable professional planner in Britain in
the Anglo American period.
- most notable contribution to planning to a wider
scale: the scale which region around it in a single
planning exercise.
- did the Greater London Plan 1944
Lewis Mumford
- Geddes Follower
- wrote CULTURE OF CITIES, the Bible of regional
planning movement
P.G.F. Le Play
-stressed the intimate and subtle relationship
between human settlement and the land through
the nature of local economy.
PLACE-WORK-FOLK
Le Plays famous triad- was the fundamental study
of men living and on their land; social-survey
method of determining relationships of the family
and worker to the environment.
MODERN ARCHITECTURE AND PLANNING:
Charles-Eduoard Jeanneret - Popularly known as Le
Corbusier.

- His most outstanding contribution as a thinker


and writer was an urban planner on the grand
scale.
- the most notable are his Unite d Habitation
(1946-52) at Marseilles in France, a self-contained
'vertical city', with modular housing units for 1600
people, internal streets and community services.
In 1933, proposed La Ville Radieuse (Radiant
City) anchored on objective to decongest the
centers of our cities by increasing their densities
by building high on small part of the total ground
area. Accordingly, every great city must rebuild on
centers
Le Corbusier also conceptualized Le
Contemporaine, high-rise offices and residential
buildings with a greenbelt for a population of
3,000,000 people
Last of the City Beautiful planners, he commented
that it was hard to build a City Beautiful amidst
the confusion of democracy and the market.
Chandigarh
Capital of Punjab province of India, and the only
realized plan of Le Corbusier: criticized for shifting
from a planning style to an architectural style,
meaning a shift towards the preoccupation with
visual form, symbolism, imagery, and aesthetics
rather than the problems of the Indian population;
plan was completely impervious to economic and
human considerations.
- A regular grid of major roads for rapid transport
surrounding residential superblocks or sections
each based on the rectangle and measuring
800x1200 meters
- The whole plan represents a large scale
application of the Radburn principle regularized by
Le Corbusiers predilection for the rectilinear and
the monumental.
Two important books- The City of Tomorrow (1922)
and The Radiant City;
small number of propositions:
- traditional city has become functionally obsolete,
due to increasing size and increasing congestion
at the centre. As the urban mass grew through
concentric additions, more and more strain was
placed on the communications of the innermost
areas, above all the central business district,
which had the greatest accessibility and where all
business wanted to be.
- the paradox that the congestion could be cured
by increasing the density. There was a key to this,
of course: the density was to be increased at one
scale of analysis, but decreased at another.
Locally, there would be very high densities in the
form of massive, tall structures; but around each
of these a very high proportion of the available

ground space- Corbusier advocated 95%- could


and should be left open.
- concerned the distribution of densities within the
city.
- argued that this new urban form could be
accommodate a new and highly efficient urban
transportation system, incorporating both rail lines
and completely segregated elevated motorways,
running above the ground level, though, of course,
below the levels at which most people lived.
- he did teach planners in general the importance
of scale in analysis.
- his insistence on the elementary truth that dense
local concentrations of people helped support a
viable, frequent mass-transportations system.

Jane Jacobs - Wrote the The Death and Life of the


Great American Cities one of the most
influential books in the history of city planning.
- She argued that there was nothing wrong with
high urban densities of people so long as they did
not entail overcrowding in buildings. She
prescribed keeping the inner-city neighborhood
more or less as it was before the planners had got
their hands on it. It should have mixed functions
and therefore land uses to ensure that people
were there for different purposes, of different time
schedules, but using many facilties in common.
Dense concentrations of people and residents,
mixed blocks of different age and conditions
resulted in the yuppification of the city.

BRASILIA
- capital of Brazil and a completely new twentiethcentury city, the biggest planning exercise of the
20th century
- designed by Lucio Costa with a lot of influence
from Le Corbusier, his plans or schemes did not
include a single population projection, economic
analyses, land use schedule, model or mechanical
drawing, yet it was awarded to him; plan did not
attempt to resolve pedestrian-vehicle conflicts.
Unplanned city grew up beside the planned one.
with two huge axes in the sign of the cross, one
for govt, commerce, and entertainment, the other
for the residential component
Oscar Niemeyer was among the architects
employed to design the buildings

RADICAL IDEAS:

Frank Lloyd Wright


In the 1930s, he wrote the The Disappearing
City and later Broadacres proposing that
every family live on an acre of land and where the
city would be built by its inhabitants using massproduced components; this met difficulties in land
supply and logistics as the population increased.

The Barbican City - a 63 acre area. mixed used


development that was built in response to the
pressures of the automobile. An early type of
Planned Urban development that had all amenities
in one compound with multi-level circulation
patterns.
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Labels: Planning 3 lesson modules, Planning
Review
MODULE 4: Planning 3 History Part 1
MODULE 4: HISTORY OF PLANNING

Broadacres
- it was desirable to preserve the sort of
codependent rural life of the homesteaders.
- that mass car would allow cities to spread widely
into countryside.
- homes would be connected by super highways.
Easy and fast travel by car to any direction.
- he anticipated out- of-town shopping center
Problems with lack of land lead to his design of the
Mile High Tower.
Proposed to house a significant amount of
Manhattan residents to free up space for
Greenfields
10 or more of these could possibly replace all
Manhattan buildings
URBAN RENEWAL:

The Arcology Alternative - the 3D city by Paolo


Soleri
Motopia - proposed by Edgar Chambless (Vehicular
traffic will be along rooftops
of a continuous network of buildings, while the
streets will be for pedestrian use only)
Science Cities - Proposed by the metabolism
group; visionary urban designers that proposed
underwater cities, biological cities, cities in
pyramids, etc.
The Floating City - Kiyonori Kikutake

ANCIENT TIMES:
- Innovations that influenced the development of
the earliest cities
a) The plow and rectilinear farming.
b) Circular and radiocentric planning (for herding
and eventually for defense)
NEOLITHIC CITIES:
* Jericho: early settlement in Israel -9000 BC
- A well-organized community of about 3000
people
- Built around a reliable source of freshwater

- Only 3 hectares and enclosed with a circular


stone wall
- Overrun in about 6500 b.c., rectangular layouts
followed
* Khirokitia: early settlement in Cyprus - 5500 BC
- First documented settlement with streets
- The main street heading uphill was narrow but
had a wider terminal, which may have been a
social spot
2000-4000 B.C.
Cities in the Fertile Crescent were formed by the
Tigris and Euphrates river valleys of Mesopotamia
- Eridu- acknowledged as the oldest city.
- Damascus- oldest continually inhabited city
- Babylon- the largest city with 80,000 inhabitants
Rectilinear plotting with the use of the plow
suited all the needs of agriculture societies on the
Nile, Tigris, and the Euphrates river for easy land
division for crop planning, land ownership and land
plotting and reapportionment after a flood.
3000 B.C.
Cities of Thebes and Memphis along the Nile Valley
- characterized by monumental architecture
- cities had monumental avenues, colossal temple
plazas and tombs
- workers communities were built in cells along
narrow roads
Egyptian Civilization:
- No need for defensive walls
- Urban mobility
- Little evidence of controlled planning
- No zoning, no defined blocks for housing
- Social classes determined housing sites
- Workers camps
- Dependence on Nile River
- Egyptians built reservoirs to store water, and dug
canals to carry it to the fields
2500 B.C.
Indus Valley (present day Pakistan)
Cities of Mohenjo Daro and Harrapa:
- administrative-religious centers with 40,000
inhabitants
- archeological evidence indicates an advanced
civilization lived here as there were housing
variations, sanitary and sewage systems, etc.

Beijing
founded in approximately same location its in
today
- present form originated in the Ming Dynasty
(1368-1644)
B.C. to A.D.
Elaborate network of cities in Mesoamerica were
built by the Zapotecs, Mextecs, and Aztecs in
rough rugged land.
Teotijuacan and Dzibilchatun were the largest
cities
ANCIENT GREECE
Greek cities spread to the Aegean region
Westward to France and Spain
polis : defined as a city-state. Most famous is
the Acropolis- a religious and defensive structure
up on the hills, with no definite geometrical plan
Neopolis and Paleopolis (new and old cities)
Sparta and Athens : the largest cities (100-150T)
Compact urban form
Never planned as a whole
Started with natural springs
Integration of social and civic life
Components
Acropolis
Main Harbors
Agora Complex
Cultural and leisure facilities
Acropolis- visible relationship between buildings
and nature; sacred
Agora- buildings served as facades to form an
enclosed urban space; grouped around central
open space
Hippodamus of Miletus (Father of Town Planning) Greek Architect who emphasized geometric
designs grid pattern of streets. The first noted
urban planner, he introduced the grid system and
the Agora (public marketplace)
Miletus: 3 sections: for artisans, farmers, and the
military
ANCIENT ROME

1900 B.C.

Roman Cities : adopted Greek forms but with


different scale- monumental, had a social
hierarchy

Yellow River Valley of China


land within the passes. Precursor of Linear City.

During the Etruscans reign, Rome grew into a


great city built on seven hills along the Tiber.

800 B.C.

Vitruvius - 10-volume treatise De Arkitectura


relates experience of Roman architecture and
town design; treats architecture and town design
as a single theme; suggested location of streets in
relation to prevailing wind; the siting of public
buildings; the testing of drinking water; design of
plazas

Rebirth of classical towns ; piazza planning in


Venice; grandeur in civic structure and public
spaces; streets were wide regular and
circumferential with the piazza at the center as in
Italy.
- Piazza de San Antonio Marco
- Vatican Square

Organization of towns - a system of gridiron


streets enclosed by a wall; theater, arena and
market were common places for public assembly

15th Century France: display of power


Arts and architecture became a major element of
town planning and urban design
Geometrical forms of cities were proposed

Perfected enclosed urban and architectural space


collonaded plazas with a temple or basilica at
the end of the space.
Romans as engineers- built aqueducts (serving
200 cities), elaborate plumbing systems for public
baths, network of paved roads (covering 50,000
miles), drainage systems, large open interiors for
public gatherings
Romans incorporated public works and arts into
city designs.
Romans as conquerors- built forum after forum
Developed housing variations and other spaces:
Basilica- covered markets; later, law courts
Curia- the local meeting hall; later, the capitol
Domus- traditional Roman house; with a central
atrium
Insulae- 3 to 6- storey apartments with
storefronts
MEDIEVAL AGES:
Decline of Roman power left many outposts all
over Europe, where growth revolved around either
a monastery or castle, assumed a radiocentric
pattern; relied on protective town walls or
fortification for security
Towns were fine and intimate with winding roads
and sequenced views of cathedrals or military
fortifications
Sienna and Constantinople: signified the rise of
the Church
Feudalism affected the urban design of most
towns
11th century towns in Europe: Coastal port towns
(many of these coastal towns grew from military
fortifications, but expansion was limited to what
the city
could support)
Mercantilist cities : continuous increase in size
World trade and travel created major population
concentrations like Florence, Paris, and Venice
Growth eventually led to congestion and slums
RENAISSANCE & BAROQUE PERIODS:

Vienna emerged as the city of culture and the arts


- the first university town
Landscape architecture showcased palaces and
gardens
- Karlsruhe (Germany)
- Versailles (France)
Pierre Charles LEnfant - Prepared plan for
Washington, DC.
- Axial plan of the Mall, Washington, D.C.: the
Reflecting Pool and Lincoln Memorial extend the
central axis
ROME (1500s)
Leonardo da Vinci
In his Codex Atlanticus he described a new
concept of urban planning that was suited for
Milan sketched a city straddling a river where
upstream, the river was directed into 6 or 7
branches, all parallel to the main stream and
rejoining it below the city.
1844:
Arturo Soria Y Mata Spanish Engineer
Suggested the idea of Linear City from Cadiz,
Spain across Europe through St. Petersburg, Russia
in which he proposed that the logic of linear utility
line should be the basis of all city lay-out. Houses
and buildings could be set alongside linear utility
systems supplying water, communications and
electricity. Proposed high-speed, high-intensity
transport from an existing
N.A Milyutin, 1930 - Stalingrad
SETTLEMENTS IN THE AMERICAS:
Medieval Organic City
- taken after the boug (military town) and
fauborg (citizens town) of the medieval ages
edieval Bastide
- taken from the French bastide (eventually
referred to as new towns)
- came in the form of grids or radial plans
reflecting flexibility

The Spanish Laws of the Indies town


- King Philip IIs city guidelines that produced 3
types of towns- the pueblo (civil), the presidio
(military), and the mission (religious)
The English Renaissance
- the European Planned City ex. Savannah
(designed by James Oglethorpe), Charleston,
Annapolis, and Williamsburg (Col. Francis
Nicholson)
- Today, Savannah is the worlds largest officially
recognized historical district

Annapolis - government bldgs were focal points of


the plan, though a civic square
was also provided
Williamsburg - plan was anchored by the
Governors palace, the state capitol, and the
College of William and Mary
The Speculators Town
- developments were driven by speculation
- Philadelphia (built between the Delaware and
Scool Kill) designed by William Penn

HUMAN SETTLEMENT
Settlement, locality or populated place are general terms
used in statistics, archaeology, geography, landscape
history and other subjects for a permanent or temporary
community in which people live or have lived, without
being specific as to size, population or importance.
A settlement can therefore range in size from a small
number of dwellings grouped together to the largest of
cities with surrounding urbanized areas. The term may
include hamlets, villages, towns and cities.
A settlement conventionally includes its constructed
facilities such as roads, enclosures, field systems,
boundary banks and ditches, ponds, parks and woods,
wind and water mills, manor houses, moats and
churches.
A settlement hierarchy is a way of arranging settlements
into a hierarchy based upon their population or some
other criteria. The greater the population in a settlement,
the larger geographic area, the higher the status, the
greater the availability of services.
Position in a settlement hierarchy can also depend on the
sphere of influence. This is how far people will travel to
use the services in the settlement; if people travel further
the town becomes more important and ranks higher in
settlement hierarchy.

Ecumenopolis - the entire area of Earth that is


taken up by human settlements. As of the year 2009,
the United Nations estimated that for the first time
more than 50% of the world's populations lived in
cities, so the total population of this area would be
about 3,400,000,000 people as of 2010.

Megalopolis - a group of conurbations,


consisting of more than ten million people each.

Conurbation - a group of large cities and


their suburbs, consisting of three to ten million
people.

Metropolis a large city and


its suburbs consisting of multiple cities and towns.
The population is usually one to three million.

Large city a city with a large population and


many services. The population is <1 million people
but over 300,000 people.

City a city would have abundant services, but


not as many as a large city. The population of a city is
over 100,000 people up to 300,000.

Large town a large town has a population of


20,000 to 100,000.

Town a town has a population of 1,000 to


20,000.

Example of a settlement hierarchy


In this example, an isolated building is at the lowest point,
and the ecumenopolis is at the top with the greatest
number of people:

Village a village generally does not have many


services, possibly only a small corner shop or post
office. A village has a population of 100 to 1,000.

Hamlet a hamlet has a tiny population (<100)


and very few (if any) services, and few buildings.

1,000. A village is a clustered human settlement


or community, larger than a hamlet, but smaller
than a town or city. Though generally located in
rural areas.

Isolated dwelling an isolated dwelling would

only have 1 or 2 buildings or families in it. It would


have negligible services, if any.

Dispersed Settlement - It includes the


temporary camp of the hunters and herders;

Hamlet a hamlet has a tiny population (<100)


and very few (if any) services, and few buildings.
A hamlet is a rural community a small
settlement which is too small to be considered
a village.

Isolated dwelling an isolated dwelling would


only have 1 or 2 buildings or families in it. It would
have negligible services, if any.

Settlements types

Conurbation/metropolitan area a supercity


consisting of multiple cities and towns. The
population is usually several million.
A conurbation is an urban area or agglomeration
comprising a number of cities, large towns and
larger urban areas that, through population
growth and physical expansion, have merged to
form one continuous urban and industrially
developed area.
A conurbation can be confused with a
metropolitan area. As the term is used in North
America, a metropolitan area consists of many
neighborhoods, while a conurbation consists of
many different metropolitan areas that are
connected with one another and are usually
interdependent economically and socially.

Site refers to the actual piece of ground on which the


settlement is built.
The site of a settlement is its exact location.

The physical geography of an area was very


important to early people when they were
deciding on the site for a new settlement.

Site Factors:

A metropolitan area is a large population center


consisting of a large metropolis and its adjacent
zone of influence
Large City a city with a large population and
many services. The population is >1 million
people.
City a city would have abundant services, but
not as many as a large city. The population of a
city is over 100,000 people. A city is an urban
area with a large population and a particular
administrative, legal, or historical status.
Large town a large town has a population of
20,000 to 100,000.
Town a town has a population of 1,000 to
20,000. It is a type of settlement ranging from a
few to several thousand (occasionally hundreds
of thousands) inhabitants. Usually, a "town" is
thought of as larger than a village but smaller
than a "city",
Village a village generally does not have many
services, possibly only a small corner shop or
post office. A village has a population of 100 to

Water supply: a clean supply of water


was
needed for drinking, cooking and
cleaning.
Water could be taken from a river or a
well.

Relief- the area needed to be high


enough to be safe from flooding, but low
enough to be sheltered from strong
winds.

Defence - a hilltop, or the inside of a river


meander, would provide protection from
attackers.

Transport - a site at a crossroads, on a


river or at the coast gave easier access
to other settlements.

Soil - deep fertile soil made it easier to


farm crops and rear animals.

Resources - a source of timber or rock


was needed for building. Wood was
needed as a fuel for heat and cooking.

Situation or Position refers to the location of the


village or town in relation to surrounding areas.

If a settlement had good access to


natural resources, and to other
settlements, it would grow in size. Many
settlements with a good site and situation
have grown into large cities.

When early settlements began to grow there


were no planning regulations.

People built houses where they wanted to. Some


houses were built far apart from each other
(dispersed). Other houses were built close
together, making villages.

Villages began to grow outwards and the shape


of the settlements changed. Some settlements
became long and narrow (linear), others stayed
clustered together (nucleated). Today, people
must have permission from the local authority to
build houses. Settlements now grow in a planned
way.
Dispersed settlements are usually
farms. They are spreadLinear
out because of the
space taken up by fields. Other dispersed
settlement
settlements are found in mountainous
areas where it is difficultsto live.
Linear Settlement sometimes follow the
shape of the land. It is easier to build on
the floor of a valley than on the steep
sides. Linear settlements also follow
features such as roads, railway lines or
rivers.
Nucleated
settlements
are
where
buildings are clustered round a central
point. The centre of the settlement may be
a crossroads, a church, a water supply, or a
market place. Nucleated settlements also
occur on hill tops.
Planned settlements often have a
regular pattern. They may have a square
shape, or a crescent shape for example.
Brasilia, the capital of Brazil, is a planned
settlement in the shape of an aeroplane.

The layout of a city is the way its


estreets and buildings are distributed.

There are different types of layout:

Irregular layout

The urban growth has not been planned.


tourist resorts.

It has no particular order. The streets may


be narrow and winding. There are few open
spaces. There are typical of Muslim and
medieval towns.

Grid plan

The grid plan or gridiron plan is a type of


city plan in which streets run at right
angles to each other, forming a grid. It is
typical of North American cities, and of
newer districts in European cities.

Radiocentric layout
The streets radiate out from a central point.
Settlement functions
The functions of a settlement are the things
that happen there.
The function of most early settlements was
farming. As settlements grew, the functions
increased to include things such as markets
and inns. Today settlements have many
functions, which continue to change over
time.
The function of most early settlement:
Residential
The main function of many settlements
today is to give people places to live.
People may live in one settlement and work
in another.
Administrative

Local authority offices run the local


services, such as road maintenance and
waste disposal.
Industrial
Goods are manufactured in factories. Today
many factories are located in business
parks on the outskirts of settlements.
Commercial
Shopping centres and recreation facilities,
such as sports centres and cinemas,
provide services for people.
Services
Settlements contain public services, such
as schools, hospitals and libraries.
Tourism
Some settlements are attractive to tourists.
Many coastal settlements in Spain have
changed from fishing villages into large