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1. “HYDRODGEN - FUEL OF THE FUTURE”.

It has been suggested that hydrogen could be used as a fuel instead of the fossil fuels that are
used at present. The equation below shows how hydrogen burns in air.

2H2 + O2 → 2H2O + heat

(a) Hydrogen was successfully used as a fuel for a Soviet airliner in 1988.

Suggest why burning hydrogen might cause less pollution problems than burning fossil
fuels.

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(b) Hydrogen can be made by splitting up water molecules.

The water splitting reaction can be represented by the equations below.

2H2O → 2H2 + O2

H H
O O
+ + O O
H H H H H H

The table gives some bond energies.

Bond Bond energy in kJ per mole


O–H 464
H–H 436
O=O 498

Keswick School 1
(i) Calculate the energy transferred in this reaction.

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Energy transferred ............................ kJ/mol


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(ii) Explain, in terms of bond energies, why this reaction is endothermic.

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(2)

(c) The energy needed for the water splitting reaction can be obtained from renewable
sources of energy such as wind or solar power.

The hydrogen produced by this reaction can be stored in large tanks ready for use.

Suggest why the stored hydrogen could be more useful as a fuel than using wind or solar
power directly.

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(1)
(Total 8 marks)

Keswick School 2