DESIGN OF COUNTER

CURRENT DECANTATION IN
COPPER METALLURGY

Joseph Kafumbila
Design of counter current decantation in copper metallurgy
© 2016 Joseph Kafumbila
jokafumbila@hotmail.com

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Content

1. GENERAL 5

1.1. PULP WASHING METHOD 5
1.2. CHARACTERIZATION OF PULP 5
1.2.1. SOLID 6
1.2.2. LIQUID 8
1.2.3. PULP 10

2. COUNTER CURRENT DECANTATION 12

2.1. DESCRIPTION OF COUNTER CURRENT DECANTATION 12
2.2. EQUATIONS OF MASS BALANCE IN CCD 12
2.2.1. DESIGNATION OF PULP 12
2.2.2. EQUATIONS OF MASS BALANCE 13

3. DESIGN OF COUNTER CURRENT DECANTATION 16

3.1. PRELIMINARY DATA 16
3.1.1. CHARACTERISTICS OF FEED PULP 16
3.1.2. MIXING EFFICIENCY 16
3.1.3. FLOCCULANT CONSUMPTION 17
3.1.4. WASH RATIO 17
3.1.5. SET VALUE OF CONTROL PARAMETER OF UNDERFLOWS 18
3.2. NUMBER OF THICKENER IN THE CCD 21

4. SETTLING TEST 22

4.1. TYPES OF SETTLING TEST 22
4.1.1. RULE THUMB SIZING 22
4.1.2. CYLINDER SETTLING TESTS 22
4.1.3. DYNAMIC THICKENER TEST WORK 22
4.2. CYLINDER SETTLING TESTS 22
4.2.1. EQUIPMENT 22
4.2.2. CHARACTERIZATION OF PULP 23
4.2.3. FLOCCULANT PREPARATION 23
4.2.4. SETTLING TEST 23
4.2.5. SETTLING CURVE 24
4.2.6. SIZE OF THICKENER 25

5. OPTIMUM NUMBER OF THICKENER IN THE CCD CIRCUIT 27

5.1. OLD METHODS 27
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5.1.1. FIRST METHOD 27
5.1.2. SECOND METHOD 27
5.2. NEW METHOD 28
5.2.1. CONSTRAINTS 28
5.2.2. FIRST EXAMPLE 28
5.2.3. SECOND EXAMPLE 32
5.2.4. OBSERVATIONS 36

6. PROCEDURE OF CCD CIRCUIT SIMULATION 37

6.1. GENERAL 37
6.2. PLANT DESCRIPTION 37
6.3. PRELIMINARY DATA OF CCD CIRCUIT 37
6.4. SIMULATION TABLE 37
6.5. PROCEDURE OF CCD CIRCUIT SIMULATION 39

7. REFERENCE 50

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Foreword
The counter current decantation had been used since 90 years ago in the hydrometallurgical plant. It
is currently adopted by all new hydrometallurgical plants located in the Katanga Province of the Democratic
Republic of Congo (Ruashi Mining, Mumi Mining etc.) since it is applicable to all products; but its
malfunction can limit the production of the plant. This publication is an upgrade of the publication called
“Initiation à la simulation des flowsheet” and gives the procedure of CCD circuit design in the simplest way.

In the first chapter, the pulp is characterized using three parameters (mass, volume and specific
gravity). This publication gives the mathematical expressions that link the three parameters for the two
constituents of the pulp (solid and liquid) and for the pulp. Specially, this publication gives the simplest
method to determine the specific gravity of solid when the mineralogical composition of solid is available and
the specific gravity of liquid when chemical composition liquid is available.

In the second chapter, this publication gives the description of CCD circuit and the mass balance
equations of thickener and CCD in the steady state condition. The difference with the first publication
“Initiation à la simulation des flowsheet”, the flocculant is considered a solid.

In the third chapter, this publication gives the preliminary data to have before the design of the
CCD circuit and the method for obtaining the value of these preliminary data (the mixing efficiency, the
flocculant consumption, the wash ratio and the set value of the control parameter of underflows).

In the fourth chapter, this publication gives the procedure of the cylinder free settling test. The
purpose of this chapter is to give the simplest method for obtaining the flocculant consumption and sizing
the thickener.

In the fifth chapter, this publication gives the old and new methods for obtaining the optimum
number of thickeners in the CCD circuit. In the new method, the determination of optimum number of
thickener is illustrated through two examples using the conventional thickener and the High Rate Thickener.

The last chapter gives the procedure of simulation of CCD circuit with the new method on an Excel
spreadsheet through the example.

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1. General

1.1. Pulp washing method

Pulp washing in the CCD is part of the pulp wash process. The pulp wash process is a special
operation that performs both the extraction and the solid - liquid separation. Thus the pulp wash process falls
within the category of mass transfer operations for chemical and metallurgical engineering [1].

There are two main kinds of pulp wash techniques:

 Wash by dilution: the thickened pulps are, at the entrance of various stages, diluted with corresponding
wash solutions to achieve such a perfect mixture as possible. The subsequent solid - liquid separation is
generally done by decantation. Such washes technique is suitable for the muddy pulp formed of very
fine particles.

 Wash by displacement: the impregnation solution of pulp to be washed is generally removed by the
wash solution, which is substituted directly to it more or less complete. This kind of wash technique is
suitable for the permeable grainy pulp. The solid - liquid separation is usually achieved by filtration or
draining.

By dilution or by displacement, the pulp wash technique can be done in two main ways:

 Split wash or cross flow
 Methodical wash or counter current

In what follows, it will be treated the pulp wash in the CCD since it is more effective and widely
used in the metallurgical industry of Copper.

1.2. Characterization of pulp

Generally, the suspension of particles in a solution is called pulp. The suspended particles will be
called solid and form the solid phase while the impregnation solution is the liquid phase. Therefore, the pulp
will always consist of two components: solid and liquid.

It will be discussed first the characterization of the two components of pulp before the
characterization of pulp. The characterization means, in this publication, the designation of important
parameters of a phase and the development of equations linking these parameters.

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1.2.1. Solid

The solid is characterized by a mass (Ms ) expressed in (kg) and a volume (Vs ) expressed in (m3). The
specific gravity (SGs ) expressed in (kg/m3) is the ratio of the mass onto the volume of solid. Equation (1)
gives the mathematical expression that links the mass, the volume and the specific gravity of solid.

Ms (
SGs = Vs (1)

The solid is considered insoluble in the CCD circuit and the specific gravity of solid is constant.
There are two methods for obtaining the specific gravity of solid: the laboratory method and the
mineralogical composition method.

A. Laboratory method

When it is possible to have physically the solid, the laboratory method for obtaining the specific
gravity of solid consisting of mineral rock finely crushed is as follows:

 Dry the crushed solid in an oven at 80 ° C for 24 hours,
 Weigh the solid (kg) (weight between 0.100 and 0.300 kg),
 Put the solid in a test tube of one liter,
 Add the water in the test tube up to 500 ml,
 Mix the solid and the water until complete homogenization,
 Add more water in the test tube to the mark of a liter and,
 Weigh the volume of one liter of pulp.

After the practical operations, the other data is determined as follows:

 The weight of water is the difference between the weight of pulp and the weight of solid.
 The volume of water is the ratio of weight onto the specific gravity of water (1,000 kg/m3).
 The volume of solid is the difference between the volume of pulp and the volume of water.
 Finally, the specific gravity of solid is the ratio of the weight onto the volume of solid.

Table (1) shows an example for obtaining the specific gravity of solid by the laboratory method.
This method seems simple, but it requires great accuracy during the weighing and the measuring of values.

Table 1: Specific gravity of solid from the laboratory method

Description Units Equations values
Weight of solid kg 0.141
Weight of pulp kg 1.089
Volume of pulp l 1.000
Weight of water kg Weight of pulp – Weight of solid 0.948
Volume of water l Weight of water/specific gravity of water 0.948
Volume of solid l Volume of pulp – volume of water 0.052
SG of solid kg/m3 Weight of solid/volume of solid*1000 2,711.54

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B. Mineralogical composition method

When the solid is not provided in order to obtain its specific gravity by the laboratory method, the
determination of specific gravity of solid is taken place by using the mineralogical composition method. This
method is based on the principle that rock is a juxtaposition of minerals. Therefore, the mass of rock is the
sum of masses of minerals and the volume of rock is the sum of volumes of minerals. Based on these
assumptions, the method for obtaining the rock specific gravity consists of:

 Knowing the weight percentage of minerals in the solid.
 Calculating the weight of minerals in a unit mass of solid.
 Knowing the respective specific gravity of minerals.
 Calculating the volumes of minerals.
 Determining the volume of solid by the addition of volumes of minerals.
 Calculating the specific gravity of solid by using the equation (1)

The weakness of this method is that it ignores porosities or structural defects of solid. Table (2)
shows an example for obtaining the specific gravity of solid by using the mineralogical composition method.

The result from Table (2) shows that for a total weight of 1,000 t of solid and a total volume of
359.77 m3 of solid which is the sum of volumes of minerals, the value of specific gravity of solid is 2,779.55
kg/m3.

Table 2: Specific gravity of solid from the mineralogical composition

Minerals Grade weight Specific gravity Volume of Specific gravity
of mineral mineral of solid
% t t/m3 m3 kg/m3
Cu2(OH)2(CO3) 1.584 15.836 4.00 3.959
Cu3(PO4)2.Cu2(OH)4 0.146 1.456 4.20 0.347
2CuO.2SiO2.3H2O 0.199 1.989 2.20 0.904
CuO 0.503 5.029 6.40 0.786
CuS 0.005 0.055 4.68 0.012
Cu2S 0.005 0.055 5.65 0.010
CuFeS2 0.005 0.055 4.20 0.013
CoOOH 0.507 5.070 4.00 1.268
FeO(OH) 1.954 19.543 3.65 5.354
Ni(OH)2 0.001 0.010 4.10 0.002
CaCO3.MgCO3 0.900 9.000 2.85 3.158
MnO2 0.127 1.266 4.85 0.261
ZnS 0.007 0.067 4.00 0.017
SiO2 77.139 771.393 2.65 291.092
UO3 0.004 0.040 10.97 0.004
Mg2SiO4 5.381 53.805 3.15 17.081
Ca2SiO4 0.011 0.110 2.71 0.041
CaCl2 0.025 0.250 2.15 0.116
Al2SiO5 11.471 114.710 3.25 35.295
Cr2O3 0.026 0.256 5.22 0.049
CdO 0.001 0.006 8.15 0.001
Total 1000 359.77 2,779.55

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1.2.2. Liquid

The liquid is characterized by a mass (ML ) expressed in (kg) and a volume (VL ) expressed in (m3).
The specific gravity (SGL ) expressed in (kg/m3) is the ratio of the mass onto the volume of liquid. Equation
(2) gives the mathematical expression that links the mass, the volume and the specific gravity of liquid.

ML (
SGL = VL (2)

There are two methods for obtaining the specific gravity of liquid: the laboratory method and the chemical
composition method.

A. Laboratory method

When it is possible to have physically the liquid, the laboratory method for obtaining the specific
gravity of liquid is as follows:

 Put the liquid in a test tube of one liter to the mark of a liter,
 Weigh the volume of one liter of liquid (g),
 And the ratio of weight onto the one liter volume of liquid gives the specific gravity.

The specific gravity obtained in this condition is the approximated value at ambient temperature.

B. Chemical composition method

A liquid is homogeneous mixture of solvent and solutes. In this publication, the solvent is water and
solutes are the elements appearing in the metallurgy of Copper and dissolved in water as sulphate. These
elements appearing in the metallurgy of Copper are listed in the Table (3). The Sodium is on the list since it
may come from sodium metabisulfite used as a reducing agent during leaching of trivalent Cobalt. The
phosphoric acid comes from pseudo malachite.

The index “k” is an identification number of the chemical element in this publication. At this level, it
is defined two other parameters; the mass of element of index “k” (Mk ) expressed in (kg) in the liquid and the
concentration of element of index “k” (Ck ) expressed in (kg/m3) in the liquid. Equation (3) gives the
mathematical expression that links the mass of element of index “k”, the concentration of element of index
“k” and the volume of liquid.

(
Mk = VL x Ck
(3)

It has been observed for a liquid containing copper sulphate and sulphuric acid that [2]:

 The specific gravity of copper sulphate or sulphuric acid liquid is approximately a linear function of
concentration expressed in (%).
 The specific gravity of liquids of equal concentration expressed in (%) of copper sulphate and of
sulphuric acid is nearly identical.

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 The specific gravity of liquid containing appreciable amounts of copper sulphate and sulphuric acid is
dependent principally upon the total concentration (%) and is almost independent of their proportion.

These observations have been extended to the elements appearing in the Copper metallurgy and the
simplest method that allows having the approximated value of specific gravity of liquid from the chemical
composition is given. The method consists of finding a total concentration (Cts ) expressed in (kg/m3) of
elements as salt in the liquid. In this case, the salt is in form of sulphate except the phosphoric acid. After, the
total concentration must be applied in the equation (4) which gives the relation between the liquid specific
gravity and the total concentration of elements. The equation (4) comes from data which give the specific
gravity of liquid as a function of concentration of element as salt in binary system [3].

Table 3: Elements appearing in metallurgy of copper

Element Index (k)
H2SO4 1
Cu 2
Co 3
Fe 4
Zn 5
Ni 6
Mn 7
Mg 8
Al 9
Ca 10
Na 11
Cr 12
Cd 13
H3PO4 14

(
SGL = -6.139 x 10−4 x [Cts ]2 + 0.9742 x Cts + 1000 (kg/m3)
(4)

Therefore, it is defined a constant αk of element of index “k”. The constant αk is the value to
multiply to the concentration of element index “k” to have the concentration as sulfate salt “Cks ”. The values
of constant ?? are given in Table (4). The value of concentration “Cks ” of element of index “k” is given by
equation (5).

(
Cks = αk x Ck
(5)

Table 4: value of constant ??

Elément Index (k) αk
H2SO4 1 1.000
Cu 2 2.511
Co 3 2.629
Fe 4 2.719
Zn 5 2.468
Ni 6 2.635
Mn 7 2.747
Mg 8 4.949
Al 9 6.337
Ca 10 3.395
Na 11 3.088
Cr 12 3.769
Cd 13 1.854
H3PO4 14 1.000

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Thus, the value of total concentration “Cts ” of elements in the liquid will be calculated according to
equation (6).

(
Cts = ∑k1 Cks = ∑k1 αk x Ck (6)

Table (5) gives an example for obtaining the specific gravity from the chemical composition of given
liquid. The result of Table (5) shows that the value of total concentration “Cts ” of elements in the liquid is
97.251 kg/m3. This value is the sum of concentrations as sulphate salt of elements. By applying the value of
total concentration of elements in the equation (4), the value of specific gravity of liquid “SGL ” is 1088.94
kg/m3. It is important to have ten major elements so that the calculated specific gravity of liquid will be
closed to the true specific gravity.

Table 5: Specific gravity from chemical composition of liquid

Element Index (k) Concentration αk Cks
kg/m3 kg/m3
H2SO4 1 4.956 1.000 4.956
Cu 2 4.670 2.511 11.725
Co 3 11.233 2.629 29.532
Fe 4 2.925 2.719 7.954
Zn 5 0.099 2.468 0.244
Ni 6 0.000 2.635 0.000
Mn 7 2.812 2.747 7.724
Mg 8 4.440 4.949 21.974
Al 9 1.474 6.337 9.341
Ca 10 0.455 3.395 1.543
Na 11 0.000 3.088 0.000
Cr 12 0.108 3.769 0.407
Cd 13 0.001 1.854 0.002
H3PO4 14 1.849 1.000 1.849
Cts 97.251

1.2.3. Pulp

The pulp is a mixture of solid and liquid. The pulp will be characterized by a mass “MP ” expressed
in (kg), a volume “VP ” expressed in (m3) and a specific gravity “SGP ” expressed in (kg/m3). Equation (7) gives
the mathematical expression that links the mass, the volume and the specific gravity of pulp.

MP (
SGP = VP (7)

The mass of pulp is the sum of masses of solid and liquid. The mathematical expression of this
principle is given by equation (8).

(
MP = M S + ML
(8)

The volume of pulp is the sum of volumes of solid and liquid. The mathematical expression of this
principle is given by equation (9).

(
VP = VS + VL
(9)
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The mass of solid can also be calculated from the volume of pulp and the specific gravities of pulp,
solid and liquid. Equation (10) gives the mathematical expression.

(SG −SG ) (
Ms = (SGP−SGL) x SGs x Vp
S L (10)

The volume percentage of solid in the pulp expressed in (%) is given by equation (11).

V
Cvs = V s x 100 (%) (
p (11)

The weight percentage of solid in the pulp expressed in (%) is given by equation (12).

s M (
Cw = MS x 100
P (12)

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2. Counter current decantation

2.1. Description of counter current decantation

The wash of pulp in the CCD is done according to two principles. The mixture of pulp is done in a
particular device (tank, agitated tank or mixer-distributor) and the solid - liquid separation is taken place in the
thickener. The scheme of thickener of rank “p” in the CCD containing “n” thickeners is illustrated in Figure
p−1
(1). The thickener of rank “p” (T p ) is received the underflow from the thickener of rank “p-1” (Tu ) and
p+1
the overflow of thickener of rank “p+1” (To ). Sometimes a solution of flocculant is also added to the
p
thickener of rank “p” (Tf ) allowing faster settling of solid by flock formation. The thickener of rank “p” is
p p
produced the underflow (Tu ) and the overflow (To ). The initial pulp (Tu0 ) is feed in the first thickener. The
overflow of the first thickener (To1 ) is the recovered solution (rich solution). The wash solution (Ton+1) is feed
in the last thickener. The underflow of the last thickener (Tun ) is the final pulp (also called washed pulp).

Figure 1: Scheme of thickener of rank “p” in the CCD containing “n” thickeners

2.2. Equations of mass balance in CCD

2.2.1. Designation of pulp

The characterization of pulp gives the basic equations of pulp. Now, the basic equations of CCD
will be given. The inlet and outlet flows of thickener of rank “p” are pulps which are characterized by the
parameters defined above. For a proper understanding, the parameters of pulp leaving a thickener of rank
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p p
“p” will be preceded by a prefix "Tu " and "To " designating respectively the underflow and overflow of
p
thickener. The flocculant solution entering the thickener of rank “p” will have a prefix "Tf ".

2.2.2. Equations of mass balance

The equations of mass balance of CCD are the mathematical expressions given the principles of
conservation of mass and volume in a thickener of rank “p” and in the CCD.

A. Thickener

 When a thickener operates in a steady state, the sum of masses of solid entering a thickener is equal to
the mass of solid exiting through the underflow. This principle is called the conservation of mass of solid
in a thickener. For a thickener of rank “p”, the equation (13) gives the mathematical expression of this
principle.

p−1 p (
Tu Ms + TfP Ms = Tu Ms (13)

 When a thickener operates in a steady state, the sum of volumes of solid entering a thickener is equal to
the volume of solid exiting through the underflow. This principle is called the conservation of volume of
solid in a thickener. For a thickener of rank “p”, the equation (14) gives the mathematical expression of
this principle.

p−1 p (
Tu Vs + TfP Vs = Tu Vs (14)

 When a thickener operates in a steady state, the sum of masses of liquid entering a thickener is equal to
the sum of masses of liquid exiting through the overflow and the underflow. This principle is called the
conservation of mass of liquid in a thickener. For a thickener of rank “p”, the equation (15) gives the
mathematical expression of this principle.

p+1 p−1 p p p (
To ML + Tu ML + Tf ML = To ML + Tu ML (15)

 When a thickener operates in a steady state, the sum of volumes of liquid entering a thickener is equal to
the sum of volumes of liquid exiting through the overflow and the underflow. This principle is called the
conservation of volume of liquid in a thickener. For a thickener of rank “p”, the equation (16) gives the
mathematical expression of this principle.

p+1 p−1 p p p (
To VL + Tu VL + Tf VL = To VL + Tu VL (16)

 When a thickener is operated in a steady state, the sum of masses of element entering a thickener is equal
to the sum of masses of element exiting through the overflow and underflow. This principle is called the
principle of conservation of mass of element in a thickener. For a thickener of rank “p” and an element
of index “k”, the equations (17) and (18) give the mathematical expressions of this principle.

p+1 p+1 p−1 p−1 p p p p (
To VL x To Ck + Tu VL x Tu Ck = To VL x To Ck + Tu VL xTu Ck (17)
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p+1 p−1 p p (
To Mk + Tu Mk = To Mk + Tu Mk (18)

 As mentioned above, in each thickener in the CCD circuit, the wash is done in two steps: the
homogenization of feed and the solid-liquid separation in the thickener. The performance of the
homogenization is given by mixing efficiency “ME p ” expressed in “%” of thickener of rank “p”. When
the homogenization of thickener feed is not complete, the concentration of an element in the overflow is
lower than the concentration in the underflow. Equation (19) gives the mathematical expression of
mixing efficiency for the thickener of rank “p” and for the element of index “k”.
p p+1
(To Ck −To Ck ) (
ME p = p p+1 x 100
(Tu Ck −To Ck ) (19)
p
 The flocculant consumption Tf Q expressed in (g/t) is the ratio of mass of flocculant fed into a thickener
of rank “p” onto the mass of solid fed in the CCD circuit. Equation (20) gives the mathematical
expression of flocculant consumption for the thickener of rank “p”.
p
p T Ms (
Tf Q = Tf0 M x 106 (20)
u s

 Equation (21) gives the volume of flocculant fed into a thickener of rank “p”. Where 2.650 (kg/m3) is
the specific gravity of the flocculant

p
p
T Ms (
Tf Vs = 2.650
f
(21)

B. CCD

 When a CCD operates in a steady state, the sum of masses of solid entering a CCD containing “n”
thickeners is equal to the mass of solid exiting through the underflow of thickener of rank “n”. This
principle is called the conservation of mass of solid in a CCD circuit. The equation (22) gives the
mathematical expression of this principle.

(
Tu0 Ms + ∑n1 TfP Ms = Tun Ms (22)

 When a CCD operates in a steady state, the sum of volumes of solid entering a CCD circuit is equal to
the volume of solid exiting through the underflow of thickener of rank “n”. This principle is called the
conservation of volume of solid in a CCD circuit. The equation (23) gives the mathematical expression
of this principle.

(
Tu0 Vs + ∑n1 TfP Vs = Tun Vs (23)

 When a CCD operates in a steady state, the sum of masses of liquid entering a CCD circuit is equal to
the sum of volumes of liquid exiting through the overflow of thickener of rank “1” and the underflow of
thickener of rank “n”. This principle is called the conservation of mass of liquid in a CCD circuit. The
equation (24) gives the mathematical expression of this principle.
p
Ton+1 ML + Tu0 ML + ∑n1 Tf ML = To1 ML + Tun ML (

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(24)

 When a CCD operates in a steady state, the sum of volumes of liquid entering a CCD circuit is equal to
the sum of volumes of liquid exiting through the overflow of thickener of rank “n” and the underflow of
thickener of rank “n”. This principle is called the conservation of volume in a CCD circuit. The equation
(25) gives the mathematical expression of this principle.

p (
Ton+1 VL + Tu0 VL + ∑n1 Tf VL = To1 VL + Tun VL
(25)

 When a CCD is operated in a steady state, the sum of masses of element entering a CCD circuit is equal
to the sum of masses of element exiting through the overflow of thickener of rank “1” and the
underflow of thickener of rank “n”. This principle is called the principle of conservation of mass of
element in a CCD circuit. For an element of index “k”, the equations (26) and (27) give the mathematical
expressions of this principle.

(
Ton+1 VL x Ton+1 Ck + Tu0 VL x Tu0 Ck = To1 VL x To1 Ck + Tun VL xTun Ck
(26)

(
Ton+1 Mk + Tu0 Mk = To1 Mk + Tun Mk
(27)

 The wash ratio “WR” expressed in (m3/t) is the ratio of the volume of wash solution “Ton+1 VL ” onto the
mass of solid to be washed “Tu0 MS ”. Equation (28) gives the mathematical expression of wash ratio for a
CCD.

(Tn+1
o VL ) (
WR= x 1.000
(T0u MS ) (28)

p
 Equation (29) gives the mathematical expression of wash efficiency “Tu WEk expressed in “%” after the
thickener of rank “p” and for element of index “k” in the CCD circuit.
p+1
p (T1o VL x(T1o Ck −To Ck )) (
Tu WEk = p+1 x 100
0 0
(Tu VL x(Tu Ck −To Ck )) (29)

 Equation (30) gives the mathematical expression of total flocculant consumption expressed in (g/t) in
the CCD circuit containing “n” thickener.
p
∑n
1 Tf Ms (
Qt = x 106 (30)
T0u Ms

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3. Design of counter current decantation

3.1. Preliminary data

The preliminary data is data that you must have before the design of CCD circuit. These data are the
following:

 The characteristics of feed pulp
 The mixing efficiency
 The flocculant consumption in each thickener
 The wash ratio
 The set value of control parameter of underflows

3.1.1. Characteristics of feed pulp

The essential characteristics of feed pulp to be known before the design of CCD circuit are:

 The solid mass flow MS (kg/h),
 The specific gravity of solid SGS (kg/m3),
 The specific gravity of liquid SGL (kg/m3),
 The chemical composition of feed liquid (Tu0 Ck ), and
s
 The weight percentage of solid in the pulp Cw (%) or the volume percentage of solid in the pulp Cvs (%).

These characteristics come from the characterization of underflow pulp of primary thickener for
existing plant. In the case of a new plant, the settling tests must be done on the pulp from the leach tests. The
procedure of settling tests will be explained in a separated paragraph.

3.1.2. Mixing efficiency

The Mixing efficiency depends on the method used for the homogenization of thickener feeds.

 For the agitated tank with a mechanical agitator, the value of mixing efficiency is more than 98%
 For the no agitated tank but fed tangentially to the internal walls of tank and in counter current, the
mixing efficiency is between 95 and 98%
 For the mixer – distributor advice, the mixing efficiency is between 80 and 95%.

In an existing plant, the mixing efficiency is the average of mixing efficiencies of thickeners in the
CCD circuit.

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3.1.3. Flocculant consumption

The flocculant consumption in each thickener comes from the settling tests done on the outlet pulp
of leach circuit. The type of underflow pump (volumetric or centrifugal) must be taken into account for
adding the flocculant in the CCD circuit.

 For a plant using volumetric pumps, the flocculant is added only in the primary thickener. A volumetric
pump maintains the stability of flocks.

 For a plant using the centrifugal pumps, the flocculant is added at 60% of primary thickener
consumption level in the first thickener of CCD circuit and at 40% of primary thickener consumption
level in the others thickeners of CCD circuit. If “Q” is the flocculant consumption from the settling test
done on the outlet pulp of leach circuit, the mathematical expression (31) gives the flocculant
consumption for the thickener of rank “p”.

p Q (
Tf Q= fp x100
(31)

where “ fp “ expressed in (%) is the proportion of flocculant consumption to be added to the
thickener of rank “p” comparatively to the flocculant consumption of primary thickener.

3.1.4. Wash ratio

There are two types of configuration of Copper hydrometallurgy plant – conventional circuit and the split
circuit.

A. Conventional circuit

The flow diagram of the conventional circuit is given by Figure (2). The wash ratio depends on the
loss of sulphuric acid in the bleed solution of Copper circuit. The loss of sulphuric acid in the bleed of
Copper circuit is taken account the free acid and the acid linked to Copper in the solution. In the case of
Copper and Cobalt production plant, the concentration of Cobalt in the bleed solution of Copper circuit is
also the important parameter. It is better to have a higher concentration of Cobalt to 5 g/l in the bleed
solution for reducing the loss of Cobalt in the effluents of Cobalt circuit.

Figure 2: Conventional circuit

Joseph Kafumbila Page 17
B. Split circuit

The flow diagram of the split circuit is given by the Figure (3). In this case, the free acid and the acid
linked to the Copper which are in the solution of underflow pulp of primary thickener are already lost.

The wash ratio is limited by the flowrate of the first thickener overflow in the CCD circuit.
Generally, the flowrate of overflow of first thickener is limited by the size of secondary Copper solvent
extraction circuit. In the case of Copper and Cobalt production plant, the concentration of Cobalt in the
bleed solution of Copper circuit is also the important parameter. It is better to have a higher concentration of
Cobalt to 5 g/l in the bleed solution for reducing the loss of Cobalt in the effluents of Cobalt circuit.

Figure 3: split circuit

3.1.5. Set value of control parameter of underflows

A. Settling test

In the old configuration of CCD circuit, the control parameter of underflow was the volume
percentage of solid in the pulp. The value of volume percentage of solid in the pulp came from the
characteristics of underflow obtained from the settling test done on the outlet pulp leach circuit. The
characteristics of underflow have been obtained after 24 hours of free settling time. At the beginning, the
volume percentage of solid in the CCD underflows pulp was the same as the volume percentage of solid in
the CCD feed pulp. Later, the values of volume percentage of solid in the CCD underflow pulps were
different from the volume percentage of solid in the CCD feed pulp. The volumetric pump with a constant
speed has been used for the CCD thickener underflows. The operability of these configurations was very bad
because the control of the bed level of solid in the thickeners was difficult.

Since 80 years, for the improving of CCD operability, the control parameter of CCD underflows
became the specific gravity of underflow pulp and the underflow pump became the centrifugal pump with
variable speed. The value of specific gravity of underflow pulp of primary thickener came from the underflow

Joseph Kafumbila Page 18
characteristic obtained from the settling test done on the outlet pulp of leach circuit. The settling time to have
the underflow characteristic remains 24 hours. The value of specific gravity of CCD underflow pulp taken as
the set value of the control parameter of CCD underflows was the value of specific gravity of underflow pulp
of thickener of rank “n” in the CCD circuit having the value of volume percentage of solid of the underflow
pulp of primary thickener. The type of thickener used for the primary and the CCD was the conventional
thickener.

Actually, it has been observed that:

 The weight percentage of solid in the underflow pulp increases with the decreasing of weight percentage
of solid in the feed pulp of thickener for the same dosage of flocculant. This correction is obtained from
the settling tests done in the Outokumpu laboratory in Finland Figure (4).

 The settling rate increases with the decreasing of weight percentage of solid in the feed pulp of thickener.
Figure (5) shows an example of the variation of the settling rate with the initial concentration of solid in
the pulp [4].

 The value of weight percentage of solid in the pulp taken as the set value of the control parameter of the
underflows shows directly the pumping characteristic of underflow pulp than the value of specific gravity
of pulp.

61

59
Underflow (% solids)

57

55

53
15% solids
51 25% solids
42% solids

49
0 5 10 15 20 25
Flocculent dosage (g/t of solids)

Figure 4: Correlation between the solid pulp concentrations of thickener feed and thickener underflow

From these observations, the design of thickener changes from conventional to High Rate
Thickener which is capable to make an auto dilution of feed pulp of thickener with the overflow to reach
10% weight percentage of solid in the thickener feed cylinder. The control parameter of underflow becomes
the weight percentage of solid in the underflow pulp.

The value of weight percentage of solid in the underflow pulp of primary thickener is the value of
weight percentage of solid in the underflow pulp obtained from the settling test done on the outlet pulp of
leach circuit. The settling time to have the underflow characteristic remains 24 hours. The value of weight
percentage of solid in the CCD underflow pulp taken as the control parameter of underflow is the value of
weight percentage of solid in underflow pulp of the primary thickener.

Joseph Kafumbila Page 19
In case of simulation of CCD circuit, the important parameter which characterizes the underflow
pulp of primary thickener is the volume percentage of solid in the underflow pulp for the conventional or the
High Rate Thickener. The volume percentage of solid in the underflow pulp, the specific gravity of liquid and
the specific gravity of solid will provide the value of weight percentage of solid in the underflow pulp.

The underflow pump will be design according to the rheology test done on the underflow of the
primary thickener.

1,40
1,20
Settling rate (m/h)

1,00
0,80
0,60
0,40
0,20
0,00
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160
Solid concentration in thickener feed pulp (kg/m3)

Figure 5: Settling rate versus solid concentration in the thickener feed pulp

B. Rheology test

Actually, the thickener manufactories derive the thickener having the underflow pump with certain
characteristics. Depending on the type of thickener, the High Rate Thickener is designed to consistently
discharge underflow pulp having a yield stress of less than 25 Pa and the High Density Thickener is designed
to consistently discharge underflow pulp having a yield stress of less than 100 Pa.

Therefore, the rheology test will provide the maximum value of volume percentage of solid in the
underflow pulp. The set value of control parameter of underflows in the CCD circuit is fixed by the type of
thickener (High Rate Thickener or High Density Thickener) and the rheology curve. The set value of the
control parameter of the underflows (weight percentage of solid in the pulp) is obtained at 20 Pa of yield
stress for the High rate Thickener and at 60 Pa of yield stress for the High Density Thickener. The settling
time to reach the set value of the control parameter of the underflows must be less than 4 hours for the High
Rate Thickener and less than 6 hours for the High density Thickener in the continuous fill test with rake.

The rheology tests must be carried out on the underflow pulp of primary thickener to determine the
limit of elasticity or "yield stress". The yield stress for the underflow pulp is the pressure required to be
applied to the underflow pulp to flow from a stationery bed. The yield stress is a function of the physical
properties of pulp (the chemical composition of solid, the particle size distribution, and the solid percentage
of pulp), the type of flocculant used, the dosage of flocculant and temperature.

Figure 6 shows the example of yield stress variation according to the solid percentage of underflow
pulp of Ruashi Mining plants. For the High Rate Thickener, the solid percentage of underflow pulp should
not exceed 56.0% and for the High Density Thickener, the solid percentage of underflow pulp should not
exceed 60.4% [5].

Joseph Kafumbila Page 20
200

175

150

Yield stress (Pa)
125

100

75

50

25

0
54 56 58 60 62 64
Underflow pulp solids percentage (%)

Figure 6: Yield stress values versus the underflow pulp percentage of solid of Ruashi Mining plants

3.2. Number of thickener in the CCD

It has been defined above how to fix the set value of the control parameter of underflows, the
mixing efficiency, the flocculant consumption and the wash ratio. It only remains to find the number “n” of
thickener to align in a CCD to reach the set value of the wash efficiency or the concentration of recoverable
element in the underflow of thickener of rank “n”.

It should be noted that the wash efficiency increases with increasing the volume percentage of solid
in the underflow pulp, the wash ratio, the mixing efficiency, and the number of thickener in series. The
determination of the optimum number of thickener in the CCD circuit will be in another paragraph.

The method is to vary the number of thickeners in the CCD circuit until the value of washing
efficiency or the value of the concentration of a valuable component in the underflow liquid of the last
thickener reach the target value.

Joseph Kafumbila Page 21
4. Settling test

4.1. Types of settling test

There are 3 types of settling test: the rule of thumb sizing, the cylinder settling tests, and the
dynamic thickener test work.

4.1.1. Rule thumb sizing

This type of settling test is used when the indicative feed samples are not available. The performance
of the nearly plant with similar feed characteristics can be taken into account.

4.1.2. Cylinder settling tests

These settling tests are the traditional method for thickener sizing. This method can be conducted
with a relatively small amount of feed sample.

4.1.3. Dynamic thickener test work

The dynamic thickener test work method has been developed by the thickener suppliers until the
1990s. This method is the new version to scale the commercial thickeners. This method requires the larger
amount of sample.

4.2. Cylinder settling tests

4.2.1. Equipment

Settling tests are conducted in one liter graduated cylinder whose dimensions are the following:

 Height: 463 mm,
 A graduated height of 10 ml into 10 ml to a liter: Up to a liter equal to 348 mm,
 An internal diameter: 60 mm,
 The agitation of the pulp in the test is done manually by upward and downward movements with the aid
of a 500 mm long rod equipped at its end with a perforated 50 mm diameter disc,
 The perforated disc have 6 holes of 12 mm in diameter,
 The clarity of the solution is estimated using a turbidity meter.

Joseph Kafumbila Page 22
4.2.2. Characterization of pulp

It is necessary to determine the following characteristics of pulp before starting the settling tests:

 The temperature of pulp,
 The pH of pulp,
 The specific gravity of solid,
 The specific gravity of liquid,
 The specific gravity of pulp,
 The weight percentage of solid in the pulp.

It should be noted that if pH adjustment is necessary, the determination of weight percentage of
solid in the pulp comes after the pH adjustment. In the case of High Rate Thickener, the pulp must be
diluted with the leach solution to the desired weight percentage of solid in the pulp (10 % of solid).

4.2.3. Flocculant preparation

The flocculant is prepared into concentrated solution of 5% (stock solution) which is diluted 20
times in use. The flocculant stock solution can be stored for one week. However the retention period of
diluted solution can’t exceed 24 hours. The preparation method of flocculant stock solution is:

 Weigh 2.5 g of flocculant,
 Disperse the flocculant slowly (for 30 minutes) in a one liter beaker containing 500 ml of water with
stirring. The mixer will run at a speed sufficient to create a vortex,
 Leave stirring for 2 hours,
 Transfer to a polyethylene bottle, taking care to close after filling
 This stock solution will be diluted 20 times before use. The weight percentage of flocculant in the dilute
solution will be 0.25 %.

The dosage of flocculant in the settling test cylinder is done according to the assay gram of
flocculant per ton of solid.

4.2.4. Settling test

The settling test is done according to the following procedure:

 Mix well the diluted pulp in a 5 liters bucket,
 Fill the settling test cylinder with pulp to a liter,
 Stir the pulp using the rod ten times with a frequency of one pulse per second,
 Add the calculated volume of diluted flocculant solution,
 Continue to stir the pulp approximately 3 times,
 Start the timer when the settling front of pulp passes by the 1.000 ml graduation of the cylinder,
 Note the height of the settling front of pulp versus time as prescribed on the running sheet (Table 6
shows the running sheet of settling test),

Joseph Kafumbila Page 23
 Determine the clarity of solution after settling test.

The Settling tests are repeated several times for different dosages and flocculant types.

Table 6: Settling test running sheet

Sample Test conditions
Date Temperature Type of flocculant
Type of pulp pH
Temperature Solid %
pH Solid specific gravity
Liquid specific gravity
Times height (mL)
min white Flocculant dosage (g/t)

0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
4
5
6
8
10
12
14
16
20
25
30
35
40
50
60
24h

4.2.5. Settling curve

During the settling test, it will be observed the following behavior:

 At the beginning, the large grains are settled quickly and are deposited on the bottom of the cylinder.
The height of this zone is increased quickly and stabilized after the settling of grains greater than 0.1 mm.
 Then, it is quickly appeared, and sometimes immediately, an interface between a clear liquid and a sludge
phase.

By plotting the variation of height (h) of interface between the clear liquid and the slurry phase
according to the time (t) since the beginning of settling test, the settling curve is obtained (Figure 6). It
appears on the settling curve the following four areas:

 Domain I - it corresponds to the original time of flocculation and is often non-existent if the
flocculation is fast,

 Domain II - this is the area where the flocks begin to gather in flakes and settling rate is constant,

Joseph Kafumbila Page 24
 Domain III - from this point, the disruptive action occurs between the flakes and particles. This point is
often poorly defined on the curve,

 Domain IV - from this point, the isolated solids are in contact and form semi-rigid pseudo-networks.
The liquid is discharged through the mass of sediment following the voids created by the pseudo-
networks and after sliding the mud layers. This domain is called compression zone.

1000
a
900 I
Interface Height (mL)

800

700 II b
600

500 III
IV
400
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
Times (min)

Figure 6: general appearance of the settling curve

4.2.6. Size of thickener

The classic work on the capacity of a continuously operating thickener was provided by Coe and
Clevenger [6]. The choice of flocculant is performed by comparing the settling rate in the Domain (II). The
settling rate expressed in (m/h) in this domain II is obtained by equation (32). The settling test giving high
settling rate with low flocculent consumption is taken.

(ha −hb ) 348 60 (
Vd = x 1.000 x 1.000
(tb −ta ) (32)

Where ha is the height (ml) in the point “a”, hb is the height (ml) in point “b”, t b is the time (min)
in the point “b”, t a is the time (min) in the point “a” and 348 is the height (mm) of the settling test cylinder at
1.000 ml.

The solid flux “G” expressed in (kg/m2.h) that a thickener can process per unit area and per unit
time is given by the equation (33).

Vd (
G= 1 1
( i − u) (33)
Cs Cs

where Csi is the initial solid concentration (kg/m3) of pulp and Csu is the concentration of solid
(kg/m3) in the underflow pulp.

Joseph Kafumbila Page 25
The thickener area is obtained using the equation (34).

Ms (
S= x 1.2
G (34)

where Ms is the solid mass flow (kg/h) and G is solid flux (kg/m2.h).

Joseph Kafumbila Page 26
5. Optimum number of thickener in the CCD circuit

5.1. Old methods

There are two old methods for determining the number of thickener in the CCD circuit. These
two old methods require knowledge of the values of volume percentage of solid in the pulp fed in the CCD
circuit and in the underflows of thickeners.

5.1.1. First method

When the volume percentage of solid in the pulp fed to the CCD circuit is the same as those of
underflows of CCD circuit, the mixing efficiency is 100 % and the flocculant is added only to the primary
thickener, the mathematical expression (35) gives the equation for calculating the concentration of an
element of index "k" in the liquid of underflow of thickener of rank "p".
p+1
T0u Ck −Tu Ck (
p p+1 = Ωp
Tu Ck −Tu Ck (35)

The value of Ω? is given by the mathematical expression (36).

(
Ωp = 1+ β1 + β2 + …….. + βp
(36)

The value of β is given by the mathematical expression (37)

Tn+1
o VL (
β= Tn
u VL (37)

5.1.2. Second method

When the volume percentage of solid in the pulp fed to the CCD circuit is different from those of
underflows CCD circuit, the mixing efficiency is 100 % and the flocculant is added only to the primary
thickener, the mathematical expression (38) gives the equation for calculating the concentration of an
element of index "k" in the liquid of underflow of thickener of rank "n". The CCD circuit contains "n"
thickeners.

Tun Ck = γ
γ(n+1) −1
xTu0 Ck + [1- γ
γ(n+1) −1
]x Ton+1 Ck (
1 xγ2 xγ3 x….xγ(n+1) −1 1 xγ2 xγ3 x….xγ(n+1) −1 (38)

The value of variable γp is given by the mathematical expression (39).

Joseph Kafumbila Page 27
p
To VL (
γp = p−1
Tu VL (39)

The value of γ(n+1) is given by the mathematical expression (40).

Tn+1
o VL (
γ(n+1) = Tn
u VL (40)

5.2. New method

5.2.1. Constraints

The old methods to calculate the number of thickener to upload the CCD circuit are no longer
used today because of:

 When the control parameter of underflows in the CCD circuit becomes the specific gravity of pulp or
the weight percentage of solid in the pulp, the value of volume percentage of solid in the pulp becomes
a function of specific gravity of solid and specific gravity of liquid. It should also be noted that the
specific gravity of liquid is a function of the chemical composition.

 In modern CCD circuits, the centrifugal pumps with variable speed are used for the underflow pulp to
improve the operability of the circuit. Under these conditions, the flocculant is also added in the CCD
circuit

 The mixing efficiency must be taken account in the CCD circuit.

Two examples of simulation of a CCD circuit will be made to illustrate the new method of
simulation

5.2.2. First example

A. CCD circuit description

The CCD circuit is part of Copper and Cobalt production plant from flotation concentrates. The
configuration of Copper circuit is the conventional circuit. Accordingly, the overflow of the first thickener
in the CCD circuit is mixed with the overflow from the primary thickener and the mixture is the feed of
Copper tankhouse. The solution leaving the Copper tankhouse is pumped to the leach section after
bleeding excess water. This bleed solution is the feed of Cobalt circuit.

B. Preliminary data of CCD circuit

Preliminary data of CCD circuit are the following:

Joseph Kafumbila Page 28
 The pulp to be washed from the primary thickener has the following characteristics: the mass flow (MS )
of 26.250 kg/h, specific gravity of solid (dS ) 2,700 kg/m3, the volume percentage of solid in the pulp
after the settling test of 25%.

 The concentrations of elements in the liquid are shown in the table (7)

Tableau 7: Concentrations of elements in the liquid of feed pulp

Elements Cu Co Fe Zn Ca Mn Mg Al H2SO4
(kg/m3) 60.00 29.03 3.41 0.28 0.50 1.38 14.22 2.85 16.82

 The consumption of flocculant in the primary thickener is 30 g/t. The value of "f1 " is 60% and the
value of "f2 " to "fn " is 40%. Note that centrifugal pumps are used for the underflows. The value of
weight percentage of flocculant in the solution fed to the thickener is 0.25 %.

 The value of wash ratio is 1.8 m3/t.
 The value of mixing efficiency is 95 %.
 The type of thickener is the conventional.

C. Simulation results

 First simulation

The control parameter of underflows is the specific gravity of pulp. The set value of the specific
gravity of underflow pulp is the value of specific gravity of underflow of thickener of rank “n” in the CCD
circuit having the volume percentage of solid of the underflow of primary thickener.

Table 8 shows the simulation results of the CCD circuit having the number of thickener ranging
from 1 to 5. The results of the simulation show that:

 Wash efficiency increases with increasing the number of thickener in the CCD circuit. Figure 7 shows
the wash efficiency of the thickener of rank “n” in the CCD circuit as a function of number “n” of
thickener.

100,00

90,00
Wash efficiency (%)

80,00

70,00

60,00

50,00
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Number of thickener in the CCD circuit

Figure 7: Wash efficiency of CCD circuit versus number of Thickener for the first simulation

Joseph Kafumbila Page 29
 The set value of specific gravity of underflows in the CCD circuit decreases with the increasing of
number “n” of thickener in the CCD circuit. This is due to the decreasing of specific gravity of
underflow liquid of the thickener of rank “n”.

 For thickener of rank "p" in the CCD circuit containing "n" thickener, the weight and volume
percentages of solid in the underflow pulp decrease with the increasing the number of thickener "n".
This is due to the increasing of specific gravity of underflow liquid of thickener of rank “p”. This
increasing of specific gravity of underflow liquid of thickener of rank “p” is a consequence of liquid
enrichment.

 For a CCD circuit containing "n" thickener, the values of weight and volume percentages of underflow
pulp increases from the thickener of rank “1” to the thickener of rank “n”. In our case, the increase in
the value of volume percentage from the first to the last thickener is 43.41 % for a CCD circuit
containing 5 thickeners.

Table 8: Simulation results of CCD circuit for the first example (specific gravity – control parameter)

Number of Parameters Tu0 Tu1 Tu2 Tu3 Tu4 Tu5
Thickener
SGP kg/m3 1623.38 1516.22
Cw % 41.58 44.52
Cv % 25.00 25.00
1 SGL kg/m3 1264.50 1121.63
C2 kg/m3 60.00 23.57
Qt g/t 18.00
p
WE2 % 60.71
SGP kg/m3 1623.38 1478.20 1478.20
Cw % 41.58 38.79 45.66
Cv % 25.00 21.23 25
2 SGL Kg/m3 1264.50 1148.81 1070.93
C2 kg/m3 60.00 29.55 13.20
Qt g/t 30
p
WE2 % 55.52 78.00
SGP kg/m3 1623.38 1458.32 1458.32 1458.32
Cw % 41.58 35.73 41.52 46.29
Cv % 25.00 19.30 22.43 25.00
3 SGL kg/m3 1264.50 1161.44 1099.38 1044.43
C2 kg/m3 60.00 32.44 18.91 8.11
Qt g/t 42.00
p
WE2 % 52.55 75.13 86.48
SGP kg/m3 1623.38 1446.42 1446.42 1446.42 1446.42
Cw % 41.58 33.88 39.07 43.40 46.67
Cv % 25.00 18.15 20.93 23.25 25.00
4 SGL kg/m3 1264.50 1168.45 1114.56 1066.65 1028.56
C2 kg/m3 60.00 34.08 22.07 12.37 5.16
Qt g/t 54.00
p
WE2 % 50.70 73.29 84.96 91.41
SGP kg/m3 1623.38 1438.86 1438.86 1438.86 1438.86 1438.86
Cw % 41.58 32.71 37.55 41.61 44.71 46.91
Cv % 25.00 17.43 20.01 22.17 23.83 25.00
5 SGL kg/m3 1264.50 1172.61 1123.42 1079.59 1044.40 1018.49
C2 kg/m3 60.00 35.07 23.96 14.91 8.10 3.32
Qt g/t 66.00
p
WE2 % 49.52 72.09 83.94 90.60 94.47

Joseph Kafumbila Page 30
 Second simulation

Compared to the first simulation, the control parameter of underflows is the weight percentage of
solid in the pulp. The set value of the weight percentage of solid in the underflows is the value of the weight
percentage of solid in the underflow of primary thickener.

Table 9 shows the simulation results of CCD circuit having the number of thickener ranging from
1 to 5. The results of the simulation show that:

 The wash efficiency increases with the increasing the number “n” of thickener in the CCD circuit.
Figure 8 shows the wash efficiency after the thickener of rank “n” in the CCD circuit as a function of
number “n” of thickeners

Table 9: Simulation results of CCD circuit for the first example (Weight percentage of solid – control
parameter)

Number of Parameters Tu0 Tu1 Tu2 Tu3 Tu4 Tu5
Thickener
SGP kg/m3 1623.38 1481.53
Cw % 41.58 41.58
Cv % 25.00 22.82
1 SGL kg/m3 1264.50 1121.35
C2 kg/m3 60 23.52
Qt g/t 18
p
WE2 % 55.80
SGP kg/m3 1623.38 1518.77 1429.06
Cw % 41.58 41.58 41.58
Cv % 25.00 23.39 22.01
2 SGL Kg/m3 1264.50 1158.14 1070.44
C2 kg/m3 60 31.68 13.10
Qt g/t 30.00
p
WE2 % 55.68 74.20
SGP kg/m3 1623.38 1536.49 1462.53 1403.18
Cw % 41.58 41.58 41.58 41.58
Cv % 25.00 23.66 22.52 21.61
3 SGL kg/m3 1264.50 1175.84 1102.79 1045.71
C2 kg/m3 60 35.84 19.61 8.35
Qt g/t 42.00
p
WE2 % 55.58 74.12 83.17
SGP kg/m3 1623.38 1546.49 1481.46 1429.27 1388.17
Cw % 41.58 41.58 41.58 41.58 41.58
Cv % 25.00 23.82 22.81 22.01 21.38
4 SGL kg/m3 1264.50 1185.88 1121.29 1070.64 1031.48
C2 kg/m3 60 38.28 23.50 13.15 5.69
Qt g/t 54.00
p
WE2 % 55.51 74.06 83.11 88.36
SGP kg/m3 1623.38 1552.63 1493.17 1445.51 1407.99 1378.60
Cw % 41.58 41.58 41.58 41.58 41.58 41.58
Cv % 25.00 23.91 22.99 22.26 21.68 21.23
5 SGL kg/m3 1264.50 1192.09 1132.81 1086.29 1050.28 1022.46
C2 kg/m3 60 39.82 25.99 16.25 9.22 4.04
Qt g/t 66.00
p
WE2 % 55.48 74.03 83.09 88.33 91.68

 For a Thickener of rank "p" in the CCD circuit containing "n" thickener, the volume percentage of
solid in the pulp of underflow increases with the increasing the number "n” of thickeners. This is due

Joseph Kafumbila Page 31
to the increasing of specific gravity of underflow liquid of thickener of rank "p". This increasing of
specific gravity of underflow liquid is a consequence of enrichment of liquid.

 For a CCD circuit containing "n" thickeners, the values of volume percentages of solid in the
underflow decrease from the thickener of rank “1” to the thickener of rank “n”. In this case, the
decrease in the value of volume percentage is 11.21 % for a CCD circuit containing "5" thickener.
100,00

Wash efficiency (%) 90,00

80,00

70,00

60,00

50,00
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Number of thickener in the CCD circuit

Figure 8: Wash efficiency of CCD circuit versus number of Thickener for the second simulation

5.2.3. Second example

A. CCD circuit description

The CCD circuit is part of Copper and Cobalt production plant from oxide ores. The
configuration of Copper circuit is the conventional circuit. So, the overflow of the first thickener in the
CCD circuit is mixed with the overflow from the primary thickener and the mixture is the PLS of Copper
solvent extraction. The raffinate from the Copper solvent extraction is pumped to the leach section of ores
after bleeding excess water. This bleed is the feed of Cobalt circuit.

B. Preliminary data of CCD circuit

Preliminary data from the CCD circuit are as follows:

 The Pulp to be washed from the primary thickener has the following characteristics: the mass flow
(MS ) of 260,000 kg/h, the specific gravity of solid (dS ) of 2,600 kg/m3, the volume percentage of solid
in the pulp after the settling tests of 36.92 %.

 The concentrations of elements in the liquid are shown in the table (10)

Tableau 10: Concentration of elements in the liquid of CCD feed pulp

Elements Cu Co Fe Zn Ca Mn Mg Al H3PO4 H2SO4
(kg/m3) 8.04 10.14 0.80 0,10 0,50 2.75 3.80 1.17 1.82 1.99

Joseph Kafumbila Page 32
 The flocculant consumption in the primary thickener is 40 g/t. The value of "f1 " is 60% and the value
of "f2 " to "fn " is 40%. Note that centrifugal pumps are used to pump underflows. The value of weight
percentage of flocculant in the solution fed to the thickener is 0.25 %.
 The value of wash ratio is 1.8 m3/t.
 The value of mixing efficiency is 95 %.
 The type of thickeners is the High Grade Thickener.

C. Simulation results

 First simulation

The control parameter of underflows is the specific gravity of pulp. The set value of the specific
gravity of underflows is the value of specific gravity of underflow of thickener of rank “n” having the
volume percentage of solid in the pulp of the underflow of primary thickener.

Table 11 gives the simulation results of CCD circuit with the number of thickeners ranging from 1
to 5. The results of simulation show that:

 The Wash efficiency increases with the increasing the number of thickener in the CCD circuit. Figure 9
shows the wash efficiency of the thickener of rank “n” in the CCD circuit as a function of number “n”
of thickener.

100,00

95,00
Wash efficiency (%)

90,00

85,00

80,00

75,00

70,00
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Number of thickener in the CCD

Figure 9: Wash efficiency of CCD circuit versus number of Thickener for the first simulation

 The set value of specific gravity of underflows decreases with the increasing of number “n” of
thickener in the CCD circuit. This is due to the decreasing of specific gravity of underflow liquid of
thickener of rank “n”.

 For thickener of rank "p" in the CCD circuit containing "n" thickener, the weight and volume
percentages of solid in the underflow pulp decrease with the increasing the number “n” of thickener in
CCD circuit. This is due to the increasing of specific gravity of underflow liquid. This increasing of
specific gravity of underflow liquid is a consequence of enrichment of liquid.

Joseph Kafumbila Page 33
 For a CCD circuit containing "n" thickener, the values of weight and volume percentages of solid in
the underflow pulp increase from the thickener of rank “1” to the thickener of rank “n”. In this case,
the increase of value of volume percentage from the first to the last thickener is 3.45 % for a CCD
circuit containing 5 thickeners.

Table 11: Simulation results of CCD circuit for the second example (specific gravity – control parameter)

Number of Parameters Tu0 Tu1 Tu2 Tu3 Tu4 Tu5
Thickener
SGP kg/m3 1642.18 1605.61
Cw % 58.46 59.79
Cv % 36.93 36.93
1 SGL kg/m3 1081.46 1023.49
C2 kg/m3 8.04 2.22
Qt g/t 24.00
p
WE2 % 72.35
SGP kg/m3 1642.18 1596.02 1596.02
Cw % 58.46 58.82 60.12
Cv % 36.93 36.10 36.93
2 SGL Kg/m3 1081.46 1028.72 1008.27
C2 kg/m3 8.04 2.73 0.76
Qt g/t 40.00
p
WE2 % 71.60 90.36
SGP kg/m3 1642.18 1592.72 1592.72 1592.72
Cw % 58.46 58.48 59.77 60.28
Cv % 36.93 35.83 36.62 36.93
3 SGL kg/m3 1081.46 1030.41 1010.83 1003.04
C2 kg/m3 8.04 2.89 1.02 0.28
Qt g/t 56.00
p
WE2 % 71.39 90.18 96.47
SGP kg/m3 1642.18 1591.51 1591.51 1591.51 1591.51
Cw % 58.46 58.36 59.64 60.13 60.32
Cv % 36.93 35.73 36.51 36.81 36.93
4 SGL kg/m3 1081.46 1030.95 1011.70 1004.05 1001.13
C2 kg/m3 8.04 2.95 1.10 0.38 0.11
Qt g/t 72.00
p
WE2 % 71.36 90.15 96.43 98.69
SGP kg/m3 1642.18 1591.06 1591.06 1591.06 1591.06 15191.06
Cw % 58.46 58.33 59.59 60.08 60.27 60.34
Cv % 36.93 35.69 36.47 36.77 36.88 36.93
5 SGL kg/m3 1081.46 1031.09 1011.97 1004.4 1001.51 1000.42
C2 kg/m3 8.04 2.96 1.12 0.41 0.14 0.04
Qt g/t 88.00
p
WE2 % 71.39 90.17 96.43 98.68 99.52

 Second simulation

Compared to the first simulation, the control parameter of underflows is the weight percentage of
solid in the pulp. The set value of weight percentage of solid in the underflows is the value of weight
percentage of solid in the underflow pulp of primary thickener.

Table 12 shows the simulation results of the CCD circuit having the number of thickener ranging
from 1 to 5. The results of simulation show that:

Joseph Kafumbila Page 34
 The Wash efficiency increases with the increasing of number of thickener in the CCD circuit. Figure 10
shows the wash efficiency of thickener of rank “n” in the CCD circuit as a function of the number “n”
of thickeners.

Table 12: Simulation results of CCD circuit for the second example (Weight percentage of solid – control
parameter)

Number of Parameters Tu0 Tu1 Tu2 Tu3 Tu4 Tu5
Thickener
SGP kg/m3 1642.18 1585.52
Cw % 58.46 58.46
Cv % 36.93 35.65
1 SGL kg/m3 1081.46 1023.47
C2 kg/m3 8.04 2.22
Qt g/t 24
p
WE2 % 70.81
SGP kg/m3 1642.18 1591.18 1570.48
Cw % 58.46 58.46 58.46
Cv % 36.93 35.78 35.31
2 SGL Kg/m3 1081.46 1029.16 1008.48
C2 kg/m3 8.04 2.77 0.80
Qt g/t 40.00
p
WE2 % 70.77 89.40
SGP kg/m3 1642.18 1593.08 1573.25 1565.23
Cw % 58.46 58.46 58.46 58.46
Cv % 36.93 35.82 35.38 35.19
3 SGL kg/m3 1081.46 1031.08 1011.22 1003.28
C2 kg/m3 8.04 2.96 1.05 0.31
Qt g/t 56.00
p
WE2 % 70.79 89.38 95.90
SGP kg/m3 1642.18 1593.74 1574.25 1566.40 1563.23
Cw % 58.46 58.46 58.46 58.46 58.46
Cv % 36.93 35.84 35.40 35.22 35.15
4 SGL kg/m3 1081.46 1031.74 1012.21 1004.42 1001.29
C2 kg/m3 8.04 3.02 1.15 0.41 0.12
Qt g/t 72.00
p
WE2 % 70.85 89.41 95.89 98.38
SGP kg/m3 1642.18 1593.93 1574.58 1566.83 1563.70 1562.45
Cw % 58.46 58.46 58.46 58.46 58.46 58.46
Cv % 36.93 35.84 35.41 35.23 35.16 35.13
5 SGL kg/m3 1081.46 1031.93 1012.54 1004.84 1001.76 1000.51
C2 kg/m3 8.04 3.04 1.18 0.45 0.16 0.05
Qt g/t 88.00
p
WE2 % 70.91 89.45 95.91 98.38 99.35

 For the thickener of rank "p" in the CCD circuit containing "n" thickener, the volume percentage of
solid in the underflow pulp increases with the increasing the number “n” of Thickener in the CCD
circuit. This is due to the increasing of specific gravity of underflow liquid of thickener of rank “p”.
This increasing of specific gravity of underflow liquid is a consequence of the enrichment of liquid.

 In a CCD circuit containing "n" thickener, the values of volume percentages of solid in the underflow
decrease from the thickener of rank “n” to the thickener of rank “n”. In this case, the decrease in the
value of volume percentage is 1.98 % for a CCD circuit containing "5" thickeners.

Joseph Kafumbila Page 35
100,00

90,00

Wash efficiency (%)
80,00

70,00

60,00

50,00
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Number of thickener in the CCD circuit

Figure 10: Wash efficiency of CCD circuit versus number of Thickener for the second simulation

5.2.4. Observations

The results of the four simulations of the two CCD circuits show that the use of pulp specific
gravity as control parameter of underflows gives high wash efficiency than the use of weight percentage of
solid in the underflows. This is true in the case of using a conventional or High Rate Thickener. On the
other hand, the value of pulp specific gravity does not give directly to the operator an accurate indication of
underflow pumping characteristics (the volume percentage of solid in the pulp).

The operability of the CCD circuit using the weight percentage as the control parameter of
underflow is high because the volume percentage of solid decreases from the first to the last thickener in
the CCD circuit. The decreasing of volume percentage of solid goes in the direction as the degradation of
flock in the underflow pulp. The decreasing in the value of volume percentage of solid in the underflow
pulp from the first to the last thickener is important when the value of specific gravity of underflow liquid
of the feed pulp is big.

Joseph Kafumbila Page 36
6. Procedure of CCD circuit simulation

6.1. General

The simulation of a CCD circuit will be done on an Excel spreadsheet (Microsoft). Excel
spreadsheet gives numbers and formulas in the form of a table (rows and columns). The Excel spreadsheet is
made of lines (numbered with numbers) and of columns (numbered with letters). The intersection of a row
and a column is called "cell." A cell is identified by a letter and a number. The Excel spreadsheet can contain
up to 65,536 rows and 256 columns, more than 17 million cells. Each of the cells of the spreadsheet can
contain data (numbers, text, date,..) which are entered directly or automatically calculated.

6.2. Plant description

The CCD circuit is part of Copper and Cobalt production plant from flotation concentrates. The
configuration of Copper circuit is the conventional circuit. Consequently, the overflow of first thickener in
the CCD circuit is mixed with the overflow from the primary thickener and the mixture is the feed of Copper
tankhouse. The solution leaving the Copper tankhouse is pumped to the leach section of Copper
concentrates after bleeding excess water. This bleed solution is the feed of Cobalt circuit.

6.3. Preliminary data of CCD circuit

The Preliminary data of the CCD circuit are the as the first example of CCD circuit simulation. The
only differences are:

 The number of thickener in the CCD circuit is 2.
 The set value of control parameter of underflow is:

- The weight percentage of solid in the pulp. The set value of weight percentage of solid in the
underflows is the value of weight percentage of solid of the underflow of primary thickener.

- The specific gravity of the pulp. The set value of specific gravity of underflows is the value of the
underflow specific gravity of last thickener having the volume percentage of solid of underflow of
primary thickener.

6.4. Simulation table

The simulation table of CCD circuit is given by Table 13 as it appears on the Excel spreadsheet.
Table 13 is divided into four small tables. The first small table is the simulation table. The columns of this
first small show the names of the inlet and outlet pulps of thickeners in the CCD circuit. The lines show the
pulp parameters. On this first simulation table, the preliminary data attached to the pulp parameters of CCD
circuit are also included. The second small table shows preliminary data that are not the pulp parameters. The
third table shows the wash efficiency after each thickener in the CCD circuit. The fourth table shows data of
the "Solver" program of Excel.

Joseph Kafumbila Page 37
A B C D E F G H I J K L
1
2 Table 13: Simulation table for CCD circuit with two thickeners
3
4 Parameter Tu0 Tf1 Tu1 To1 Tf2 Tu2 To2 To3
5 Mp kg/h
6 Ms kg/h 26,250.00
7 ML kg/h
8 Vp m3/h
9 Vs m3/h
10 VL m3/h
11 SGp kg/m3
12 SGs kg/m3 2,700.00 2,650.00 2,650.00
13 SGL kg/m3 1,000.00 1,000.00
14 Cw % 0.25 0.00 0.25 0.00 0.00
15 Cv % 25.00
16 Cts kg/m3 αk
17 H2SO4 kg/m3 16.82 0.00 1.000
18 Cu kg/m3 60.00 0.00 2.511
19 Co kg/m3 29.03 0.00 2.629
20 Fe kg/m3 3.41 0.00 2.719
21 Zn kg/m3 0.28 0.00 2.468
22 Ca kg/m3 0.50 0.00 3.395
23 Mn kg/m3 1.38 0.00 2.747
24 Mg kg/m3 14.22 0.00 4.949
25 Al kg/m3 2.85 0.00 6.337
26 H2SO4 kg/h
27 Cu kg/h
28 Co kg/h
29 Fe kg/h
30 Zn kg/h
31 Ca kg/h
32 Mn kg/h
33 Mg kg/h
34 Al kg/h
35
36 Data
37 Q 30.00 g/t f1 60 % f2 40 %
38 WR 1.80 m3/t ME 95 %
39
40 Results T1 T2
41 WE %
42
43 Solver 1 Tu1 CV Tu2 CV
44 Variables
45 Constraints
46 Solver 2 H2SO4 Cu Co Fe Zn Ca Mn Mg Al
47 Variables
48 Constraints
49
50
51

Joseph Kafumbila Page 38
6.5. Procedure of CCD circuit simulation

The simulation procedure of CCD circuit having two thickeners is as follow:

1. Calculation of missing parameters of pulp ???

- In the Cell « D9 », type “=D6/D12”
- In the cell “D8”, type “ =D9/D15*100”
- In the cell “D10”, type “=D8-D9”
- In the cell “D16”, type “=$L17*D17+$L18*D18+$L19*D19
+$L20*D20+$L21*D21+$L22*D22+$L23*D23+$L24*D24+$L25*D25
- In the cell “D13”, type “=-6.139*10^-4*D16^2+0.9742*D16+1,000”
- In the cell “D7”, type “=D13*D6”
- In the cell “D5”, type “=D6+D7”
- In the cell “D11”, type “=D5/D8”
- In the cell “D14”, type “=D6/D5*100”
- In the cell “D26”, type “=D$10*D17”
- Copy the formula of cell “D26” into the cells of column “D” from “D27” to “D34”

2. Calculation of missing parameters of pulp ???

- In the cell “K10”, type “=D6*C38/1.000”
- In the cell “K16”, copy the formula of cell “D16”
- In the cell “K13”, copy the formula of cell “D13”
- In the cell “K7”, type “=K10*K13”
- In the cell “K5”, type “=K7/(100-K14)*100”
- In the cell “K6”, type “=K5-K7”
- In the cell “K9”, type “=K6” because the value of To3 Ms is zero
- In the cell “K8”, type “=K9+K10”
- In the cell “K11”, type “=K5/K8”
- Copy the formula of cell “D26” into the cells of column “K” from “K26” to “K34”

3. Calculation of missing parameters of pulp ???

- In the cell “E6”, type “=D6*C37*F37/100/1000/1000”
- In the cell “E5”, type “=E6/E14*100”
- In the cell “E7”, type “=E5-E6”
- In the cell “E9”, type “=E6/E12”
- In the cell “E10”, type “=E7/E13”
- In the cell “E8”, type “=E9+E10”
- In the cell “E11”, type “=E5/E8”

4. Calculation of missing parameters of pulp ???

- In the cell “H6”, type “=D6*C37*I37/100/1000/1000”
- In the cell “H5”, type “=H6/H14*100”
- In the cell “H7”, type “=H5-H6”
- In the cell “H9”, type “=H6/H12”
- In the cell “H10”, type “=H7/H13”
- In the cell “H8”, type “=H9+H10”

Joseph Kafumbila Page 39
- In the cell “H11”, type “=H5/H8”

5. Calculation of mass and volume flows of pulp ???

- In the cell “F6”, type “=D6+E6”
- In the cell “F9”, type “=D9+E9”

The control parameter of underflows is the weight percentage of solid in the pulp. The set value of
weight percentage of solid in the underflows is the value of weight percentage of solid of the underflow of
primary thickener.

- In the cell “D44”, type the number “25.00”. this value is the started value of Tu1 CV for solver 1 variables

The control parameter of underflows is the specific gravity of pulp. The set value of specific gravity
of underflows is the value of specific gravity of underflow of last thickener having with the volume
percentage of solid of the underflow of primary thickener.

- In the cell “D44”, type the number “25.00”. this value is the started value of Tu1 CV for solver 1 variables

- In the cell “F15”, type “=D44”
- In the cell “F8”, type “=F9/F15*100”
- In the cell “F10”, type “=F8-F9”
- In the cell “F16”, copy the formula of cell “D16”
- In the cell “F13”, copy the formula of cell “D13”
- In the cell “F7”, type “=F10*F13”
- In the cell “F5”, type “=F6+F7”
- In the cell “F12”, type “=F6/F9”
- In the cell “F11”, type “F5/F8”

6. Calculation of mass and volume flows of pulp ???

- In the cell “I6”, type “=F6+H6”
- In the cell “I9”, type “=F9+H9”

The control parameter of underflows is the weight percentage of solid in the pulp. The set value of
weight percentage of solid in the underflows is the value of weight percentage of solid of the underflow of
primary thickener.

- In the cell “E44”, type the number “25.00”. this value is the started value of Tu2 CV for solver 1 variables

The control parameter of underflows is the specific gravity of pulp. The set value of specific gravity
of underflows is the value of specific gravity of underflow of last thickener having with the volume
percentage of solid of the underflow of primary thickener (because Tu2 is the underflow of the last Thickener).

- In the cell “E44”, type “=D15”

- In the cell “I15”, type “=E44”
- In the cell “I8”, type “=I9/I15*100”
- In the cell “I10”, type “=I8-I9”
- In the cell “I16”, copy the formula of cell “D16”
- In the cell “I13”, copy the formula of cell “D13”
- In the cell “I7”, type “=I10*I13”
- In the cell “I5”, type “=I6+I7”
- In the cell “I12”, type “=I6/I9”
Joseph Kafumbila Page 40
- In the cell “I11”, type “=I5/I8”

7. Calculation of mass and volume flows of the pulp ??? (start with the overflow of the lost
thickener)

- In the cell “J7”, type “=F7+H7+K7-I7”
- In the cell “J10”, type “=F10+H10+K10-I10”
- In the cell “J5”, type “=J7/(100-J14)*100”
- In the cell “J6”, type “=J5-J7”
- In the cell “J9”, type “=J6” because the value of To2 Ms is zero
- In the cell “J8”, type “=J9-J10”
- In the cell “J13”, type “=J7/J10”
- In the cell “J11”, type “=J5/J8”

8. Calculation of mass and volume flows of pulp ???

- In the cell “G7”, type “=D7+E7+J7-F7”
- In the cell “G10”, type “=D10+E10+J10-F10”
- In the cell “G5”, type “=G7/(100-G14)*100”
- In the cell “G6”, type “=G5-G7”
- In the cell “G9”, type “=G6” because the value of To1 Ms is zero
- In the cell “G8”, type “=G9-G10”
- In the cell “G13”, type “=G7/G10”
- In the cell “G11”, type “=G5/G8”

At this level, it appears table 14 giving the simulation table when the control parameter of
underflows is the weight percentage of solid and Table 15 gives the simulation table when the control
parameter of underflows is the specific gravity of pulp.

9. Calculation of concentrations and mass flows of elements in liquid

- In the cell “D47”, type the number “1.00”. This value is the started value of Tu2 C1 for solver 2 variables
- In the cell “E47”, type the number “1.00”. This value is the started value of Tu2 C2 for solver 2 variables
- In the cell “F47”, type the number “1.00”. This value is the started value of Tu2 C3 for solver 2 variables
- In the cell “G47”, type the number “1.00”. This value is the started value of Tu2 C4 for solver 2 variables
- In the cell “H47”, type the number “1.00”. This value is the started value of Tu2 C5 for solver 2 variables
- In the cell “I47”, type the number “1.00”. This value is the started value of Tu2 C10 for solver 2 variables
- In the cell “J47”, type the number “1.00”. This value is the started value of Tu2 C7 for solver 2 variables
- In the cell “K47”, type the number “1.00”. This value is the started value of Tu2 C8 for solver 2 variables
- In the cell “L47”, type the number “1.00”. This value is the started value of Tu2 C9 for solver 2 variables

- In the cell “I17”, type “=D47”
- In the cell “I18”, type “=E47”
- In the cell “I19”, type “=F47”
- In the cell “I20”, type “=G47”
- In the cell “I21”, type “=H47”
- In the cell “I22”, type “=I47”
- In the cell “I23”, type “=J47”
- In the cell “I24”, type “=K47”
- In the cell “I25”, type “=L47”

Joseph Kafumbila Page 41
A B C D E F G H I J K L
1
2 Table 14: Simulation table for CCD circuit with two thickeners
3
4 Parameter Tu0 Tf1 Tu1 To1 Tf2 Tu2 To2 To3
5 Mp kg/h 63,131.4 189.00 55,417.7 55,278.0 126.00 55,418.3 47,375.3 47,250.0
6 Ms kg/h 26,250.00 0.47 26,250.47 0.00 0.32 26,250.79 0.00 0.00
7 ML kg/h 36,881.4 188.53 29,167.2 55,278.0 125.69 29,167.6 47,375.33 47,250.0
8 Vp m3/h 38,89 0.19 38.89 47.56 0.13 38.89 47.38 47.25
9 Vs m3/h 9,72 0.00 9.72 0.00 0.00 9.72 0.00 0.00
10 VL m3/h 29,17 0.19 29.17 47.56 0.13 29.17 47.38 47.25
11 SGp kg/m3 1,623,38 1001.56 1,425.00 1,162.20 1,001.56 1,425.00 1,000.00 1,000.00
12 SGs kg/m3 2,700.00 2,650.00 2,700.00 2,650.00 2,700.00
13 SGL kg/m3 1,264.50 1,000.00 1,000.00 1,162.20 1,000.00 1,000.00 1,000.00 1.000.00
14 Cw % 41,58 0.25 0.00 0.25 0.00 0.00
15 Cv % 25.00 25.00 25.00
16 Cts kg/m3 347,69 0.00 0.00 αk
17 H2SO4 kg/m3 16.82 0.00 1.000
18 Cu kg/m3 60.00 0.00 2.511
19 Co kg/m3 29.03 0.00 2.629
20 Fe kg/m3 3.41 0.00 2.719
21 Zn kg/m3 0.28 0.00 2.468
22 Ca kg/m3 0.50 0.00 3.395
23 Mn kg/m3 1.38 0.00 2.747
24 Mg kg/m3 14.22 0.00 4.949
25 Al kg/m3 2.85 0.00 6.337
26 H2SO4 kg/h 490.58 0.00
27 Cu kg/h 1,750.00 0.00
28 Co kg/h 846.71 0.00
29 Fe kg/h 99.46 0.00
30 Zn kg/h 8.17 0.00
31 Ca kg/h 14.58 0.00
32 Mn kg/h 40.25 0.00
33 Mg kg/h 414.75 0.00
34 Al kg/h 83.13 0.00
35
36 Data
37 Q 30.00 g/t f1 60 % f2 40 %
38 WR 1.80 m3/t ME 95 %
39
40 Results T1 T2
41 WE %
42
43 Solver 1 Tu1 CV Tu2 CV
44 Variables 25.00 25.00
45 Constraints
46 Solver 2 H2SO4 Cu Co Fe Zn Ca Mn Mg Al
47 Variables
48 Constraints
49
50
51

Joseph Kafumbila Page 42
A B C D E F G H I J K L
1
2 Table 15: Simulation table for CCD circuit with two thickeners
3
4 Parameter Tu0 Tf1 Tu1 To1 Tf2 Tu2 To2 To3
5 Mp kg/h 63,131.4 189.00 55,417.7 55,278.0 126.00 55,418.4 47,375.3 47,250.0
6 Ms kg/h 26,250.0 0.47 26,250.5 0.00 0.32 26,250.8 0.00 0.00
7 ML kg/h 36,881.4 188.53 29,167.2 55,278.0 125.69 29,167.6 47,375.3 47,250.0
8 Vp m3/h 38,89 0.19 38.89 47.56 0.13 38.89 47.38 47.25
9 Vs m3/h 9,72 0.00 9.72 0.00 0.00 9.72 0.00 0.00
10 VL m3/h 29,17 0.19 29.17 47.56 0.13 29.17 47.38 47.25
11 SGp kg/m3 1,623,38 1001.56 1,425.0 1.162.20 1,001.56 1,425.00 1,000.00 1,000.00
12 SGs kg/m3 2,700.00 2,650.00 2,700.0 2,650.00 2,700.00
13 SGL kg/m3 1,264.50 1,000.00 1,000.0 1,162.20 1,000.00 1,000.00 1.000.00 1.000.00
14 Cw % 41,58 0.25 0.00 0.25 0.00 0.00
15 Cv % 25.00 25.00 25.00
16 Cts kg/m3 347,69 0.00 0.00 αk
17 H2SO4 kg/m3 16.82 0.00 1.000
18 Cu kg/m3 60.00 0.00 2.511
19 Co kg/m3 29.03 0.00 2.629
20 Fe kg/m3 3.41 0.00 2.719
21 Zn kg/m3 0.28 0.00 2.468
22 Ca kg/m3 0.50 0.00 3.395
23 Mn kg/m3 1.38 0.00 2.747
24 Mg kg/m3 14.22 0.00 4.949
25 Al kg/m3 2.85 0.00 6.337
26 H2SO4 kg/h 490.58 0.00
27 Cu kg/h 1,750.00 0.00
28 Co kg/h 846.71 0.00
29 Fe kg/h 99.46 0.00
30 Zn kg/h 8.17 0.00
31 Ca kg/h 14.58 0.00
32 Mn kg/h 40.25 0.00
33 Mg kg/h 414.75 0.00
34 Al kg/h 83.13 0.00
35
36 Data
37 Q 30.00 g/t f1 60 % f2 40 %
38 WR 1.80 m3/t ME 95 %
39
40 Results T1 T2
41 WE %
42
43 Solver 1 Tu1 CV Tu2 CV
44 Variables 25.00 25.00
45 Constraints
46 Solver 2 H2SO4 Cu Co Fe Zn Ca Mn Mg Al
47 Variables
48 Constraints
49
50
51

Joseph Kafumbila Page 43
- In the cell “I26”, type “=I$10*I17”
- In the cells of column “I” started from I27 to I34, copy the formula of cell “I26”

- In the cell “J17”, type “=K17+F$38/100*(I17-K17)”
- In the cells of column “J” started from J18 to J25, copy the formula of cell “J17”
- In the cells of column “J” started from J26 to J34, copy the formula of cell “I26”

- In the cell “F26”, type “=I26+J26-K26”
- In the cells of column “F” started from F27 to F34, copy the formula of cell “F26”
- In the cell “F17”, type “=F26/F$10”
- In the cells of column “F” started from F18 to F25, copy the formula of cell “F17”

- In the cell “G17”, type “=J17+F$38/100*(F17-J17)”
- In the cells of column “G” started from G18 to G25, copy the formula of cell “G17”
- In the cells of column “G” started from G26 to G34, copy the formula of cell “I26”

10. “constraints” of solver 1

The control parameter of underflows is the weight percentage of solid in the pulp. The set value of
weight percentage of solid in the underflows is the value of weight percentage of solid of the underflow of
primary thickener.

- In the cell “D45”, type “=D14-F14”
- In the Cell “E45”, type “=D14-I14”

The control parameter of underflows is the specific gravity of pulp. The set value of specific gravity
of underflows is the value of specific gravity of underflow of last thickener having with the volume
percentage of solid of the underflow of primary thickener.

- In the cell “D45”, type “=F11-I11”

11. “Constraints” of solver 2

- In the Cell “D48”, type “=D26+K26-G26-I26”
- In the Cell “E48”, type “=D27+K27-G27-I27”
- In the Cell “F48”, type “=D28+K28-G28-I28”
- In the Cell “G48”, type “=D29+K29-G29-I29”
- In the Cell “H48”, type “=D30+K30-G30-I30”
- In the Cell “I48”, type “=D31+K31-G31-I31”
- In the Cell “J48”, type “=D32+K32-G32-I32”
- In the Cell “K48”, type “=D33+K33-G33-I33”
- In the Cell “L48”, type “=D34+K34-G34-I34”

At this level, it appears table 16 giving the simulation table when the control parameter of
underflows is the weight percentage of solid and Table 17 gives the simulation table when the control
parameter of underflows is the specific gravity of pulp.

Joseph Kafumbila Page 44
A B C D E F G H I J K L
1
2 Table 16: Simulation table for CCD circuit with two thickeners
3
4 Parameter Tu0 Tf1 Tu1 To1 Tf2 Tu2 To2 To3
5 Mp kg/h 63,131.4 189.00 57,399.8 54,475.8 126.00 56,220.6 48,555.2 47,250.0
6 Ms kg/h 26,250.0 0.47 26,250.5 0.00 0.32 26,250.8 0.00 0.00
7 ML kg/h 36,881.4 188.53 31,149.3 54,475.8 125.69 29,969.8 48,555.2 47,250.0
8 Vp m3/h 38,89 0.19 38.89 47.56 0.13 38.89 47.38 47.25
9 Vs m3/h 9,72 0.00 9.72 0.00 0.00 9.72 0.00 0.00
10 VL m3/h 29,17 0.19 29.17 47.56 0.13 29.17 47.38 47.25
11 SGp kg/m3 1,623,38 1001.56 1,475.97 1,145.33 1,001.56 1,445.63 1,024.90 1,000.00
12 SGs kg/m3 2,700.00 2,650.00 2,700.00 2,650.00 2,700.00
13 SGL kg/m3 1,264.50 1,000.00 1,067.96 1,145.33 1,000.00 1,027.51 1,024.90 1.000.00
14 Cw % 41,58 0.25 45.73 0.00 0.25 46.69 0.00 0.00
15 Cv % 25.00 25.00 25.00
16 Cts kg/m3 347,69 73.13 28.76 αk
17 H2SO4 kg/m3 16.82 2.543 2.463 1.000 0.950 0.00 1.000
18 Cu kg/m3 60.00 2.543 2.463 1.000 0.950 0.00 2.511
19 Co kg/m3 29.03 2.543 2.463 1.000 0.950 0.00 2.629
20 Fe kg/m3 3.41 2.543 2.463 1.000 0.950 0.00 2.719
21 Zn kg/m3 0.28 2.543 2.463 1.000 0.950 0.00 2.468
22 Ca kg/m3 0.50 2.543 2.463 1.000 0.950 0.00 3.395
23 Mn kg/m3 1.38 2.543 2.463 1.000 0.950 0.00 2.747
24 Mg kg/m3 14.22 2.543 2.463 1.000 0.950 0.00 4.949
25 Al kg/m3 2.85 2.543 2.463 1.000 0.950 0.00 6.337
26 H2SO4 kg/h 490.58 74.17 117.17 29.17 45.01 0.00
27 Cu kg/h 1,750.00 74.17 117.17 29.17 45.01 0.00
28 Co kg/h 846.71 74.17 117.17 29.17 45.01 0.00
29 Fe kg/h 99.46 74.17 117.17 29.17 45.01 0.00
30 Zn kg/h 8.17 74.17 117.17 29.17 45.01 0.00
31 Ca kg/h 14.58 74.17 117.17 29.17 45.01 0.00
32 Mn kg/h 40.25 74.17 117.17 29.17 45.01 0.00
33 Mg kg/h 414.75 74.17 117.17 29.17 45.01 0.00
34 Al kg/h 83.13 74.17 117.17 29.17 45.01 0.00
35
36 Data
37 Q 30.00 g/t f1 60 % f2 40 %
38 WR 1.80 m3/t ME 95 %
39
40 Results T1 T2
41 WE %
42
43 Solver 1 Tu1 CV Tu2 CV
44 Variables 25.00 25.00
45 Constraints -4.153 -5.112
46 Solver 2 H2SO4 Cu Co Fe Zn Ca Mn Mg Al
47 Variables 1.000 1.000 1.0000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000
48 Constraints 344.2 1,603 700.3 -46.89 -138.2 -131.8 -106.1 268.4 -63.2
49
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Joseph Kafumbila Page 45
A B C D E F G H I J K L
1
2 Table 17: Simulation table for CCD circuit with two thickeners
3
4 Parameter Tu0 Tf1 Tu1 To1 Tf2 Tu2 To2 To3
5 Mp kg/h 63,131.4 189.00 57,399.8 54,475.8 126.00 56,220.6 48,555.2 47,250.0
6 Ms kg/h 26,250.0 0.47 26,250.5 0.00 0.32 26,250,8 0.00 0.00
7 ML kg/h 36,881.4 188.53 31,149.3 54,475.8 125.69 29,969.8 48,555.2 47,250.0
8 Vp m3/h 38,89 0.19 38.89 47.56 0.13 38.89 47.38 47.25
9 Vs m3/h 9,72 0.00 9.72 0.00 0.00 9.72 0.00 0.00
10 VL m3/h 29,17 0.19 29.17 47.56 0.13 29.17 47.38 47.25
11 SGp kg/m3 1,623,38 1001.56 1,475.97 1,145.33 1,001.56 1,445.63 1,024.90 1,000.00
12 SGs kg/m3 2,700.00 2,650.00 2,700.00 2,650.00 2,700.00
13 SGL kg/m3 1,264.50 1,000.00 1,067.96 1,145.33 1,000.00 1,027.51 1,024.90 1.000.00
14 Cw % 41,58 0.25 45.73 0.00 0.25 46.69 0.00 0.00
15 Cv % 25.00 25.00 25.00
s
16 Ct kg/m3 347,69 73.13 28.76 αk
17 H2SO4 kg/m3 16.82 2.543 2.463 1.000 0.950 0.00 1.000
18 Cu kg/m3 60.00 2.543 2.463 1.000 0.950 0.00 2.511
19 Co kg/m3 29.03 2.543 2.463 1.000 0.950 0.00 2.629
20 Fe kg/m3 3.41 2.543 2.463 1.000 0.950 0.00 2.719
21 Zn kg/m3 0.28 2.543 2.463 1.000 0.950 0.00 2.468
22 Ca kg/m3 0.50 2.543 2.463 1.000 0.950 0.00 3.395
23 Mn kg/m3 1.38 2.543 2.463 1.000 0.950 0.00 2.747
24 Mg kg/m3 14.22 2.543 2.463 1.000 0.950 0.00 4.949
25 Al kg/m3 2.85 2.543 2.463 1.000 0.950 0.00 6.337
26 H2SO4 kg/h 490.58 74.17 117.17 29.17 45.01 0.00
27 Cu kg/h 1,750.00 74.17 117.17 29.17 45.01 0.00
28 Co kg/h 846.71 74.17 117.17 29.17 45.01 0.00
29 Fe kg/h 99.46 74.17 117.17 29.17 45.01 0.00
30 Zn kg/h 8.17 74.17 117.17 29.17 45.01 0.00
31 Ca kg/h 14.58 74.17 117.17 29.17 45.01 0.00
32 Mn kg/h 40.25 74.17 117.17 29.17 45.01 0.00
33 Mg kg/h 414.75 74.17 117.17 29.17 45.01 0.00
34 Al kg/h 83.13 74.17 117.17 29.17 45.01 0.00
35
36 Data
37 Q 30.00 g/t f1 60 % f2 40 %
38 WR 1.80 m3/t ME 95 %
39
40 Results T1 T2
41 WE %
42
43 Solver 1 Tu1 CV Tu2 CV
44 Variables 25.00 25.00
45 Constraints 30.338
46 Solver 2 H2SO4 Cu Co Fe Zn Ca Mn Mg Al
47 Variables 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000
48 Constraints 344.3 1603.7 700.4 -46.88 -138.2 -131.8 -106.1 258.4 -63.2
49
50
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Joseph Kafumbila Page 46
12. Solver 1 and 2 operations

Excel solver program execution is as follows:

1) On the ‘Data’, in the ‘Analysis group’ click solver (if the solver command is not available, you must
activate the solver add-in).
2) In the ‘Set objective’ box, enter the cell reference “D45” of Table 16 or Table 17 (first constraint of
solver 1).
3) Click “Value of” and then type the number “0” in the box.
4) In the “By Changing Variable Cells” box, enter the reference for each variable of solver 1 and 2
(blue color in Table 16 or Table 17). Separate the references with commas (English version).
5) In the ‘Subject to the constraints’ box, enter solver constraints by doing the following:
a) In the ‘Solver Parameters’ dialog box, click ‘Add’.
b) In the ‘Cell Reference’ box, enter the cell reference of constraints of solver 1 and 2 (green
color in Table 16 or Table 17)(do not take the first constraint of solver 1).
c) Click the ‘relationship’ ‘=‘, in the ‘Constraint’ box, type the number ‘0’. Click ‘Add’ for the
second solver constraint. When the last solver constraint is added (cell ‘L48’), click ‘OK’
6) Click ‘Solve’. To keep the solution values on the worksheet, in the ‘Solver Results’ dialog box, click
‘Keep solver solution’.

13. Calculation of wash efficiency

For both simulation having the control parameter of the underflow pulp the weight percentage of
solid in the pulp or the specific gravity of the underflow pulps.

- In the cell “D41”, type “=G10*(G18-J18)/(D10*(D18-J18))*100
- In the cell “E41”, type “=G10*(G18-K18)/(D10*(D18-K18))*100

At this level, it appears table 18 giving the table of optimized simulation when the control parameter
of underflows is the weight percentage of solid and Table 19 gives the table of optimized simulation when the
control parameter of underflows is the specific gravity of pulp.

Joseph Kafumbila Page 47
A B C D E F G H I J K L
1
2 Table 18: Simulation table for CCD circuit with two thickeners
3
4 Parameter Tu0 Tf1 Tu1 To1 Tf2 Tu2 To2 To3
5 Mp kg/h 63,131.4 189.00 63,132.6 47,563.9 126.00 63,132.5 47,376.1 47,250.0
6 Ms kg/h 26,250.0 0.47 26,250.5 0.00 0.32 26,250.8 0.00 0.00
7 ML kg/h 36,881.4 188.53 36,882.1 47,563.9 125.69 36,881.7 47,376.1 47,250.0
8 Vp m3/h 38,89 0.19 41.57 42.28 0.13 44.18 44.77 47.25
9 Vs m3/h 9,72 0.00 9.72 0.00 0.00 9.72 0.00 0.00
10 VL m3/h 29,17 0.19 31.85 42.28 0.13 34.45 44.77 47.25
11 SGp kg/m3 1,623,38 1001.56 1,518.76 1,125.08 1,001.56 1,429.07 1,058.29 1,000.00
12 SGs kg/m3 2,700.00 2,650.00 2,700.00 2,650.00 2,700.00
13 SGL kg/m3 1,264.50 1,000.00 1,158.14 1,125.08 1,000.00 1,070.43 1,058.29 1.000.00
14 Cw % 41,58 0.25 41.58 0.00 0.25 41.58 0.00 0.00
15 Cv % 25.00 23.39 22.01
s
16 Ct kg/m3 347,69 183.56 75.93 αk
17 H2SO4 kg/m3 16.82 8.88 8.61 3.67 3.49 0.00 1.000
18 Cu kg/m3 60.00 31.68 30.72 13.10 12.45 0.00 2.511
19 Co kg/m3 29.03 15.33 14.86 6.34 6.02 0.00 2.629
20 Fe kg/m3 3.41 1.80 1.75 0.75 0.71 0.00 2.719
21 Zn kg/m3 0.28 0.15 0.14 0.06 0.06 0.00 2.468
22 Ca kg/m3 0.50 0.26 0.26 0.11 0.10 0.00 3.395
23 Mn kg/m3 1.38 0.73 0.71 0.30 0.29 0.00 2.747
24 Mg kg/m3 14.22 7.51 7.28 3.11 2.95 0.00 4.949
25 Al kg/m3 2.85 1.51 1.46 0.62 0.59 0.00 6.337
26 H2SO4 kg/h 490.58 282.79 364.02 126.57 156.22 0.00
27 Cu kg/h 1,750.00 1008.77 1,298.51 451.49 557.28 0.00
28 Co kg/h 846.71 488.08 628.26 218.45 269.63 0.00
29 Fe kg/h 99.46 57.33 73.80 25.66 31.67 0.00
30 Zn kg/h 8.17 4.71 6.06 2.11 2.60 0.00
31 Ca kg/h 14.58 8.41 10.82 3.76 4.64 0.00
32 Mn kg/h 40.25 23.20 29.87 10.38 12.82 0.00
33 Mg kg/h 414.75 239.08 307.75 107.00 132.08 0.00
34 Al kg/h 83.13 47.92 61.68 21.45 26.47 0.00
35
36 Data
37 Q 30.00 g/t f1 60 % f2 40 %
38 WR 1.80 m3/t ME 95 %
39
40 Results T1 T2
41 WE % 55.68 74.20
42
43 Solver 1 Tu1 CV Tu2 CV
44 Variables 23.39 22.01
45 Constraints 0.000 0.000
46 Solver 2 H2SO4 Cu Co Fe Zn Ca Mn Mg Al
47 Variables 3.673 13.104 6.340 0.745 0.061 0.109 0.301 3.106 0.622
48 Constraints 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
49
50
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Joseph Kafumbila Page 48
A B C D E F G H I J K L
1
2 Table 19: Simulation table for CCD circuit with two thickeners
3
4 Parameter Tu0 Tf1 Tu1 To1 Tf2 Tu2 To2 To3
5 Mp kg/h 63,131.4 189.00 67,680.7 53,209.2 126.00 57,487.2 57,569.6 47,250.0
6 Ms kg/h 26,250.0 0.47 26,250.5 0.00 0.32 26,250.8 0.00 0.00
7 ML kg/h 36,881.4 188.53 41,430.3 53,209.2 125.69 31,236.4 57,569.6 47,250.0
8 Vp m3/h 38,89 0.19 45.79 47.56 0.13 38.89 54.27 47.25
9 Vs m3/h 9,72 0.00 9.72 0.00 0.00 9.72 0.00 0.00
10 VL m3/h 29,17 0.19 36.06 47.56 0.13 29.17 54.27 47.25
11 SGp kg/m3 1,623,38 1001.56 1,478.20 1,118.70 1,001.56 1,478.20 1,060.76 1,000.00
12 SGs kg/m3 2,700.00 2,650.00 2,700.00 2,650.00 2,700.00
13 SGL kg/m3 1,264.50 1,000.00 1,148.81 1,118.70 1,000.00 1,070.93 1,060.76 1.000.00
14 Cw % 41,58 0.25 38.79 0.00 0.25 45.66 0.00 0.00
15 Cv % 25.00 21.23 25.00
16 Cts kg/m3 347,69 171.23 αk
17 H2SO4 kg/m3 16.82 8.28 8.05 3.70 3.52 0.00 1.000
18 Cu kg/m3 60.00 29.55 28.70 13.20 12.54 0.00 2.511
19 Co kg/m3 29.03 14.30 13.89 6.39 6.07 0.00 2.629
20 Fe kg/m3 3.41 1.68 1.63 0.75 0.71 0.00 2.719
21 Zn kg/m3 0.28 0.14 0.13 0.06 0.06 0.00 2.468
22 Ca kg/m3 0.50 0.25 0.24 0.11 0.11 0.00 3.395
23 Mn kg/m3 1.38 0.68 0.66 0.30 0.29 0.00 2.747
24 Mg kg/m3 14.22 7.00 6.80 3.13 2.97 0.00 4.949
25 Al kg/m3 2.85 1.40 1.36 0.63 0.60 0.00 6.337
26 H2SO4 kg/h 490.58 298.73 382.65 107.94 190.79 0.00
27 Cu kg/h 1,750.00 1,065.62 1,364.97 385.03 680.60 0.00
28 Co kg/h 846.71 515.58 660.42 186.29 329.29 0.00
29 Fe kg/h 99.46 60.56 77.58 21.88 38.68 0.00
30 Zn kg/h 8.17 4.97 6.37 1.80 3.18 0.00
31 Ca kg/h 14.58 8.88 11.37 3.21 5.67 0.00
32 Mn kg/h 40.25 24.51 31.39 8.86 15.65 0.00
33 Mg kg/h 414.75 252.55 323.50 91.25 161.30 0.00
34 Al kg/h 83.13 50.62 64.84 18.29 32.33 0.00
35
36 Data
37 Q 30.00 g/t f1 60 % f2 40 %
38 WR 1.80 m3/t ME 95 %
39
40 Results T1 T2
41 WE % 55.52 78.00
42
43 Solver 1 Tu1 CV Tu2 CV
44 Variables 21.23 25.00
45 Constraints 0.000
46 Solver 2 H2SO4 Cu Co Fe Zn Ca Mn Mg Al
47 Variables 3.701 13.201 6.387 0.750 0.062 0.110 0.304 3.129 0.627
48 Constraints 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
49
50
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Joseph Kafumbila Page 49
7. Reference

1) ANONYME, Lavage des pulpes (théorie algébrique), Industrie Minérale – Les techniques, octobre 1981, p. 565-
590.
2) HOLLER h.d., Peffer E.L., Relation between composition and density of aqueous solutions of copper sulphate and
sulphuric acid, Bulletin of the bureau of standards, Vol. 13.
3) David R. Lide, CRC Handbook of chemistry and physics, Internet version 2005.
4) Joel B. Christian, Improve clarifier and thickener Design and operation, Chemical Engineering Progress, July
1994.
5) M.C. MULLIGAN, Soluble metal recovery improvement using high density thickeners in a CCD circuit: Ruashi II case
study, the journal of southern African institute of mining and metallurgy, Vol. 109, Johannesburg,
November 2009.
6) Kourosh Behrouzi, Majid Vafaei Fard, Anabito Raeiszadeh, Aida Faeghi nia, Water recycling at processing
plants in water scarce regions – a case study of thickener design for the Mansour Abad Processing plant, Proceeding
tailings and mine waste, Vancouver, 2011.

Design of copper electrowinning circuit using conventional cells

The improvement in the leaching and solvent extraction technologies continues to increase the
importance of copper electrowinning in the word copper production. The quality of copper deposit
has been improved dramatically by the introduction of the permanent cathode technology. The
paper gives a method of designing the copper electrowinning circuit of a plant having L/SX/EW
technology and using conventional cells with stainless steel cathode blanks. The method is based on
the number of overhead crane revolutions per day and per overhead crane between cells and
stripping machine of the existing copper electrowinning plants. The paper gives also the simulation
procedure of copper electrolyte flowrates of the new and old copper electrowinning circuit.

https://fr.scribd.com/document/339612505/Design-of-Copper-Electrowinning-Circuit-using-
Conventional-cells

Joseph Kafumbila Page 50

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