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# 3/9/2016

## Work and Kinetic Energy

WorkandKineticEnergy
Due:11:59pmonWednesday,March2,2016

Amessagefromyourinstructor...
Dot(orScalar)Product

VectorDotProduct
LetvectorsA= (2, 1, 4) ,B =
Calculatethefollowing:

(3, 0, 1)

,andC =

(1, 1, 2)

PartA
Hint1.Rememberthedotproductequation
IfM =

(M x , M y , M z )

andN =

(Nx , Ny , Nz )

,then

M N = M x Nx + M y Ny + M z Nz

= 10

A B

Correct

PartB
Whatistheangle AB betweenAandB?

Hint1.Rememberthedefinitionofdotproducts

A B = |A | |B| cos()

,where istheanglebetweenAandB.

AB

Correct

PartC
= 30

2B 3C

Correct

PartD
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## Work and Kinetic Energy

2(B 3C )

= 30

Correct

PartE
Whichofthefollowingcanbecomputed?

Hint1.Dotproductoperator
Thedotproductoperatesonlyontwovectors.Thedotproductofavectorandascalarisnotdefined.

A B C

A (B C )

A (B + C )
3A

Correct

## andV 2 aredifferentvectorswithlengthsV1 andV2 respectively.Findthefollowing:

PartF

Hint1.Whatistheanglebetweenavectoranditself?
Theanglebetweenavectoranditselfis0.

Hint2.Rememberthedefinitionofdotproducts

A B = |A | |B| cos()

,where istheanglebetweenAandB.

Correct

PartG
IfV 1 andV 2 areperpendicular,

Hint1.Whatistheanglebetweenperpendicularvectors?

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## Work and Kinetic Energy

V 1 V 2 cos(

Correct

PartH
IfV 1 andV 2 areparallel,

Hint1.Whatistheanglebetweenparallelvectors?
Theanglebetweenvectorsthatareparallelisequalto0.
V

V1 V2

Correct

Amessagefromyourinstructor...
DefinitionofWork

AllWorkandNoPlay
LearningGoal:
Tobeabletocalculateworkdonebyaconstantforcedirectedatdifferentanglesrelativetodisplacement
Ifanobjectundergoesdisplacementwhilebeingacteduponbyaforce(orseveralforces),itissaidthatworkisbeing
doneontheobject.Iftheobjectismovinginastraightlineandthedisplacementandtheforceareknown,theworkdone
bytheforcecanbecalculatedas

cos
W = F s = F
s

## whereW istheworkdonebyforceF ontheobjectthatundergoesdisplacements directedatangle relativetoF .

Notethatdependingonthevalueofcos ,theworkdonecanbepositive,negative,orzero.
Inthisproblem,youwillpracticecalculatingworkdoneonanobjectmovinginastraightline.Thefirstseriesofquestions
isrelatedtotheaccompanyingfigure.

PartA

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## Work and Kinetic Energy

Itispositive.
Itisnegative.
Itiszero.

Correct
When

= 90

,thecosineof iszero,andthereforetheworkdoneiszero.

PartB
Itispositive.
Itisnegative.
Itiszero.

Correct
When0

< < 90

,cos ispositive,andsotheworkdoneispositive.

PartC
TheworkdonebyforceF 3 is
positive
negative
zero

Correct
When90

## < < 180

,cos isnegative,andsotheworkdoneisnegative.

PartD
TheworkdonebyforceF 4 is
positive
negative
zero

Correct

PartE
TheworkdonebyforceF 5 is
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## Work and Kinetic Energy

positive
negative
zero

Correct

PartF
TheworkdonebyforceF 6 is
positive
negative
zero

Correct

PartG
TheworkdonebyforceF 7 is
positive
negative
zero

Correct

Inthenextseriesofquestions,youwillusetheformulaW

cos
= F s = F
s

tocalculatetheworkdonebyvariousforcesonanobjectthatmoves160meterstotheright.

PartH
FindtheworkW donebythe18newtonforce.

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## Work and Kinetic Energy

W

= 2900 J

Correct

PartI
FindtheworkW donebythe30newtonforce.
W

= 4200 J

Correct

PartJ
FindtheworkW donebythe12newtonforce.
W

= 1900 J

Correct

PartK
FindtheworkW donebythe15newtonforce.
W

= 1800 J

Correct

Exercise6.8
i ( 41

^
N )j

^
9.1m)^
i ( 3.3m)j .

PartA
Howmuchworkdoestheforceyouapplydoonthegrocerycart?
W

= 120 J

Correct

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## Work and Kinetic Energy

WorkfromaConstantForce
LearningGoal:
Tounderstandhowtocomputetheworkdonebyaconstantforceactingonaparticlethatmovesinastraightline.
Inthisproblem,youwillcalculatetheworkdonebyaconstantforce.AforceisconsideredconstantifF ( r ) is
independentofr .ThisisthemostfrequentlyencounteredsituationinelementaryNewtonianmechanics.

PartA
ConsideraparticlemovinginastraightlinefrominitialpointBtofinalpointA,acteduponbyaconstantforceF .In
thefiguretheforceisindicatedbyaseriesofidentical
vectorspointingtotheleft,paralleltothehorizontalaxis.
Thevectorsareallidenticaltoreflecttheideathatthe
forceisconstanteverywherealongthepath.The
magnitudeoftheforceisF ,andthedisplacementvector
frompointBtopointAisL(ofmagnitudeL,makingan
workthattheforceF performsontheparticleasitmoves
frompointBtopointA.
ExpresstheworkintermsofL,F ,and .Remember

Hint1.Formulaforworkdonebyaconstantforce
ForaparticlesubjectedtoaconstantforceF alongastraightpathrepresentedbythedisplacementvector

,thenetworkdonebyF isF L.

Hint2.FindtheanglebetweenF andL
YouneedtofindtheanglebetweenthevectorF ,whichisdirectedhorizontallytotheleft,andthevectorL
visualizeF directedalongthenegativexaxisattheorigin.Whatistheangle betweenF andL?

W BA

F Lcos( )

Correct
Thisresultisworthremembering!TheworkdonebyaconstantforceofmagnitudeF ,whichactsatanangleof
withrespecttothedirectionofmotionalongastraightpathoflengthL ,isW BA = F L cos() .This
equationcorrectlygivesthesigninthisproblem.Since istheanglewithrespecttothepositivexaxis(in
radians), = hencecos() = cos( ) = cos() .

PartB
NowconsiderthesameforceF actingonaparticlethattravelsfrompointAtopointB.ThedisplacementvectorL
nowpointsintheoppositedirectionasitdidinPartA.FindtheworkW AB donebyF inthiscase.

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## Work and Kinetic Energy

Hint1.Aphysicalargument
Theeasiestargumenttomakeisaphysicalone:IftheparticleweretogostraightfrompointAtopointBand
thenbackfrompointBtopointAwiththesameforceacting,thetotalworkdonewouldbezero(i.e.,thegain
inenergyonthewaytopointBduetothisforcewouldbelostonthewayback,andviceversa).Thisholds
forallconservativeforces(butdoesnotholdfornonconservativeforces),andaconstantforceisindeed
conservative.Therefore,W BA + W AB = 0.
W AB

F Lcos( )

Correct

Exercise6.14
YouapplyaconstantforceF = (68.0 N)^
i + (36.0
is240.0 counterclockwisefromthe+x axis.

^
N) j

PartA
Howmuchworkdoestheforceyouapplydoonthecar?
W

= 113J

Correct

Amessagefromyourinstructor...
WorkEnergyTheorem

WorkEnergyTheoremReviewed
LearningGoal:
Reviewtheworkenergytheoremandapplyittoasimpleproblem.
increase.IfyoupushwithaconstantforceF ,thentheparticlewillacceleratewith
accelerationa = F /M (fromNewton's2ndlaw).
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## Work and Kinetic Energy

accelerationa

= F /M

(fromNewton's2ndlaw).

PartA
Iftheconstantforceisappliedforafixedintervaloftimet,thenthe_____oftheparticlewillincreasebyanamount
at.

Hint1.Kinematicequationsrecalled
Recallthekinematicequations
v = u + at ;

s = ut +
v

= u

1
2

at

+ 2as

velocity

Correct

PartB
IftheconstantforceisappliedoveragivendistanceD,alongthepathoftheparticle,thenthe_____oftheparticle
willincreasebyF D.
energy

Correct
TheworkW doneontheparticlebytheforceF overthedistanceDisF D.

PartC
IftheinitialkineticenergyoftheparticleisKi ,anditsfinalkineticenergyisKf ,expressKf intermsofKi andthe
workW doneontheparticle.
Kf

W + Ki

Correct
Thisistheworkenergytheorem,oftenwrittenW = Kf Ki .Itis,essentially,astatementofenergy
conservationthatdoesnotincludepotentialenergyexplicitly.Allforcesevenconservativeforceslikegravity
contributetothework.

PartD
Ingeneral,theworkdonebyaforceF iswrittenas
W =

f
i

dr .
F (r )

Now,considerwhetherthefollowingstatementsaretrueorfalse:
Thedotproductassuresthattheintegrandisalwaysnonnegative.
Thedotproductindicatesthatonlythecomponentoftheforceperpendiculartothepathcontributesto
theintegral.
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## Work and Kinetic Energy

Thedotproductindicatesthatonlythecomponentoftheforceparalleltothepathcontributestothe
integral.
Entertfortrueorfforfalseforeachstatement.Separateyourresponseswithcommas(e.g.,t,f,t).
f,f,t

Correct

PartE
Assumethattheparticlehasinitialspeedv i .FinditsfinalkineticenergyKf intermsofv i ,M ,F ,andD.

Hint1.Findtheinitialkineticenergy
ExpresstheinitialkineticenergyKi intermsoftheparticle'sinitialvelocityv i anditsmassM .
Ki

.5M v i

Kf

.5M v i

+ FD

Correct

PartF
Whatisthefinalspeedoftheparticle?

vf

2K f
M

Correct

WorkonaSlidingBlock
Ablockofweightw sitsonafrictionlessinclinedplane,whichmakesanangle withrespecttothehorizontal,as
shown.AforceofmagnitudeF ,appliedparalleltotheincline,pullstheblockuptheplaneatconstantspeed.

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## Work and Kinetic Energy

PartA
movewithconstantspeed.WhatisthetotalworkW tot doneontheblockbyallforces?(Includeonlytheworkdone
aftertheblockhasstartedmoving,nottheworkneededtostarttheblockmovingfromrest.)

Hint1.Whatphysicalprincipletouse
Tofindthetotalworkdoneontheblock,usetheworkenergytheorem:
W tot = Kf Ki .

Hint2.Findthechangeinkineticenergy
Whatisthechangeinthekineticenergyoftheblock,fromthemomentitstartsmovinguntilithasbeen

Hint1.Considerkineticenergy
Iftheblock'sspeeddoesnotchange,itskineticenergycannotchange.
Kf Ki

= 0

W tot

= 0

Correct

PartB
Expresstheworkdonebygravityintermsoftheweightw andanyotherquantitiesgivenintheproblem
introduction.

Hint1.Forcediagram

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## Work and Kinetic Energy

Hint2.Forceofgravitycomponent
Whatisthecomponentoftheforceofgravityinthedirectionoftheblock'sdisplacement(alongtheinclined
plane)?

Hint1.Relativedirectionoftheforceandthemotion
Rememberthattheforceofgravityactsdowntheplane,whereastheblock'sdisplacementisdirected
uptheplane.
F g||

wsin()

Wg

wLsin()

Correct

PartC

Hint1.Howtofindtheworkdonebyaconstantforce
Rememberthattheworkdoneonanobjectbyaparticularforceistheintegralofthedotproductoftheforce
andtheinstantaneousdisplacementoftheobject,overthepathfollowedbytheobject.Inthiscase,sincethe
forceisconstantandthepathisastraightsegmentoflengthLuptheinclinedplane,thedotproduct
becomessimplemultiplication.
WF

FL

Correct

PartD
plane?
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## Work and Kinetic Energy

Hint1.Firststepincomputingthework
Theworkdonebythenormalforceisequaltothedotproductoftheforcevectorandtheblock's
displacementvector.Thenormalforceandtheblock'sdisplacementvectorareperpendicular.Therefore,
whatistheirdotproduct?
= 0

N L

W normal

= 0

Correct

WorkandKineticEnergy
Twoblocksofice,onefourtimesasheavyastheother,areatrestonafrozenlake.Apersonpusheseachblockthe
samedistanced .IgnorefrictionandassumethatanequalforceF isexertedoneachblock.

PartA

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
Theworkenergytheoremstatesthatthechangeinkineticenergyofanobjectequalsthenetworkdoneon
thatobject:
W total = K .
Theworkdoneonanobjectcanalsoberelatedtothedistanced thattheobjectmoveswhilebeingactedon
byaforceF :
W = F d

## whereF|| isthecomponentofF paralleltothedirectionofdisplacement.

Hint2.Findtheworkdoneoneachblock
Itisgreaterthantheworkdoneonthelighterblock.
Itisequaltotheworkdoneonthelighterblock.
Itislessthantheworkdoneonthelighterblock.

Itissmallerthanthekineticenergyofthelighterblock.
Itisequaltothekineticenergyofthelighterblock.
Itislargerthanthekineticenergyofthelighterblock.
Itcannotbedeterminedwithoutknowingtheforceandthemassofeachblock.

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## Work and Kinetic Energy

Correct
Theworkenergytheoremstatesthatthechangeinkineticenergyofanobjectequalsthenetworkdoneonthat
object.Theonlyforcedoingworkontheblocksistheforcefromtheperson,whichisthesameinbothcases.
Sincetheinitialkineticenergyofeachblockiszero,bothblockshavethesamefinalkineticenergy.

PartB
Comparedtothespeedoftheheavierblock,whatisthespeedofthelightblockafterbothblocksmovethesame
distanced ?

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
InPartA,youdeterminedthatthekineticenergyoftheheavierblockwasthesameasthatofthelighter
block.Relatethistothespeedoftheblocks.

Hint2.Proportionalreasoning
Proportionalreasoningbecomeseasierwithpractice.Firstrelatethekineticenergiesoftheblockstoeach
other.Toaccomplishthis,letthesubscripthrefertotheheavierblockandthesubscript tothelighterblock.
Now
Kh = K

canbewrittenas
1
2

m h (v h )

1
2

m (v )

Theproblemstatesthattheheavierblockisfourtimeasmassiveasthelighterblock.Thiscanbe
representedbytheexpression
m h = 4m

Substitutingthisexpressionintotheexpressionforkineticenergyyields
1
2

(4m )(v h )

1
2

m (v )

Howmanytimeslargerthanv 2h isv 2 ?
v

= 4 v 2h

onequarterasfast
halfasfast
thesamespeed
twiceasfast
fourtimesasfast

Correct
Sincethekineticenergyofthelighterblockisequaltothekineticenergyoftheheavierblock,thelighterblock
mustbemovingfasterthantheheavierblock.

PartC
NowassumethatbothblockshavethesamespeedafterbeingpushedwiththesameforceF .Whatcanbesaid

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
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## Work and Kinetic Energy

Theworkenergytheoremstatesthatthechangeinkineticenergyofanobjectequalsthenetworkdoneon
thatobject:
W total = K .
Theworkdoneonanobjectcanalsoberelatedtothedistanced thattheobjectmoveswhilebeingactedon
byaforceF :
W = F d

## whereF|| isthecomponentofF paralleltothedirectionofdisplacement.

Hint2.Relatethekineticenergiesoftheblocks
Letthesubscripthrefertotheheavierblockandthesubscript tothelighterblock.Whatistheratio
Kh

Hint1.Thekineticenergies
Torelatethekineticenergiesoftheblockstoeachother,recallthat
vh = v

and
m h = 4m

Kh
K

= 4

Hint3.Comparetheamountofworkdoneoneachblock
Intheprevioushint,youfoundthatKh
workdoneonthelighterblock,
Wh
W

= 4K

.Whatistheratiooftheworkdoneontheheavyblocktothe

Wh
W

Theheavyblockmustbepushed16timesfartherthanthelightblock.
Theheavyblockmustbepushed4timesfartherthanthelightblock.
Theheavyblockmustbepushed2timesfartherthanthelightblock.
Theheavyblockmustbepushedthesamedistanceasthelightblock.
Theheavyblockmustbepushedhalfasfarasthelightblock.

Correct
Becausetheheavierblockhasfourtimesthemassofthelighterblock,whenthetwoblockstravelwiththe
samespeed,theheavierblockwillhavefourtimesasmuchkineticenergy.Theworkenergytheoremimplies
thatfourtimesmoreworkmustbedoneontheheavierblockthanonthelighterblock.Sincethesameforceis
appliedtobothblocks,theheavierblockmustbepushedthroughfourtimesthedistanceasthelighterblock.

Exercise6.27
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## Work and Kinetic Energy

A12packofOmniCola(mass4.30kg )isinitiallyatrestonahorizontalfloor.Itisthenpushedinastraightlinefor
1.20mbyatraineddogwhoexertsahorizontalforcewithmagnitude36.0N.

PartA
Usetheworkenergytheoremtofindthefinalspeedofthe12packifthereisnofrictionbetweenthe12packand
thefloor.
v

= 4.48 m/s

Correct

PartB
Usetheworkenergytheoremtofindthefinalspeedofthe12packifthecoefficientofkineticfrictionbetweenthe
12packandtheflooris0.30.
v

= 3.6 m/s

Correct

Amessagefromyourinstructor...
Power

Exercise6.51

PartA
Howmanyjoulesofenergydoesa100wattlightbulbuseperhour?
W

= 3.6105 J

Correct

PartB
Howfastwoulda66kg personhavetoruntohavethatamountofenergy?
v

= 100 m/s

Correct

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## Work and Kinetic Energy

Exercise6.57
Yourjobistolift30kg cratesaverticaldistanceof0.90mfromthegroundontothebedofatruck.

PartA
thecratestoequal0.50hp ?
85 1/min

Correct

PartB
Howmanycratesforanaveragepoweroutputof100W ?