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Roman Republic

Grade 6

Geography
Rome is located on the

peninsula of Italy. The


Mediterranean Sea
provides transportation
and food.
Italy provides fertile
plains and river valleys
for food and easy
communication.

Roman Religious Ideals


Romans were polytheistic,

believing in many gods and


spirits.
Knowledge of the Greek Gods
filtered into Roman culture.
This is known as cultural
diffusion.
The Greek God Zeus became the

almighty Roman God Jupiter.


The Greek Goddess Hera became
the Roman Goddess Juno.

The Roman Republic


Rome was founded about 509 BCE. Romans founded a new

type of government called a republic. In a republic people


chose officials to represent them.
The highest form of government in Rome was the Senate.
Senators were wealthy landowners (called Patricians.)

The Roman Republic Cont


The senators elected two Consuls, whose job it was to run

the government and command the army.

Romans Valued Family Ties


Roman families were headed by the

eldest male. The Romans emphasized


discipline, strength, and loyalty.
Women had many rights and duties in
Roman society. She did not, however
have the key right, the right to vote.
Officially, the Roman women were
expected to remain in the background.

Society was Divided Into Classes


Upper class Romans were known

as patricians. These people held


nearly all the important political
offices.
Common framers, artisans, and
merchants were known as
plebeians.
These two classes were based on
birth alone. The line between the
two classes was extremely rigid.

Rome Built a Mighty Army


Both patricians and

plebeians lead double lives


as farmers and soldiers
because of the constant
threat of war.
All male citizens were
required to serve in the
army, and no one could hold
public office until he served
10 years as a soldier.

Rome Built a Mighty Army


Massive military units were

called legions. Which


consisted of:
Infantry: 4,000-6,000 Heavily

armed foot soldiers.


Cavalry: Smaller groups on
horseback that assisted the
infantry.
Each legion was divided into
60 smaller groups called a
century.

A Fight with Carthage


By 270 BC Rome had conquered all of

Italy. They went on to control northern


Africa (Carthage), Greece and parts of Asia
Minor. But the expansion also led to much
corruption.

Film: Ancient Romes Accomplishments

Julius Caesar
Caesar came to

power in 48 BCE.
Under Julius Caesar,
Rome conquered
many lands.
Caesar also reformed
the government,
founded libraries and
planned public work
projects.

Caesar Murdered
Caesar was murdered in 44 BCE by a group of

Roman aristocrats who feared his power and did


not want a dictator.

Augustus
After Julius Caesar died,

his grandnephew,
Octavian (Augustus)
took over.
Augustus ruled with
absolute power. This
began the Roman Empire
period during which
Rome was ruled by a
series of emperors.

Under Augustus, Rome

enjoyed a peaceful period


that lasted about 200 years.
This was referred to as the
Pax Romana.
The government maintained
order, enforced laws,
defended the borders and
helped the poor. Many
public works projects were
conducted, such as
aqueducts, canals and roads.

Solid paved roads were built to assist trade and

communication around the empire. Many still


exist today.

Roman aqueducts were incredible works of

engineering and architecture.


The aqueducts could carry up to 300 million
gallons of water to the city of Rome every
day.

Roman

architecture
borrowed Greek
elements, but
made them more
grand and heavy.
Roman architects
designed arches
and domes that
could carry great
weights.

The Colosseum

Cultural Contributions
Roman poets, historians

and philosophers like


Virgil and Tacitus wrote
works in Latin that
survive to this day.
Latin is the root of several
modern languages.
Roman numerals can also
be seen in many places
today.

Legal Contributions
The most valued contribution of

the Romans to the world was the


Twelve Tables of written laws.
The Roman legal system provided
security for the empire, equality
under the law, the right to a
defense and to be considered
innocent until proven guilty.
The Roman legal system inspired
legal principles still practiced
around the world today.

Decline and Fall


Rome wasnt built in a day and it took a

long time to decline. Eventually the


emperor Diocletian divided the empire into
eastern and western empires.
While the western empire fell into chaos
and was invaded, the eastern empire
survived as a center of trade and culture and
became the Byzantine Empire.

Invasions of
Visigoths and
Germanic tribes

Heavy taxes,
Shrinking middle
Class,
Not enough
farmers

Causes of
the
Fall of
Rome

Governmental
Corruption,
People stop
Supporting the
government

Population decline
From war and
Famine,
People got lazy