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STUART PALMER | DAVID GREENWOOD
BRYN HUMBERSTONE | JUSTIN ROBINSON
JENNY GOODMAN | JENNIFER VAUGHAN
David Greenwood et al. 2013
ISBN: 9781107626973
Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party

Cambridge University Press

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Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9781107626973
Stuart Palmer, David Greenwood, Bryn Humberstone,
Justin Robinson, Jenny Goodman, Jennifer Vaughan 2013
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David Greenwood et al. 2013


ISBN: 9781107626973
Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party

Cambridge University Press

Table of Contents
Strand and substrand

About the authors


Introduction and guide to this book
Acknowledgements

Computation with positive integers


1A
1B
1C
1D
1E
1F
1G
1H
1I

Pre-test
Place value in ancient number systems FRINGE
Place value in Hindu-Arabic numbers REVISION
Adding and subtracting positive integers
Algorithms for adding and subtracting
Multiplying small positive integers
Multiplying large positive integers
Dividing positive integers and dealing with remainders
Estimating and rounding positive integers
Order of operations with positive integers
Investigation
Puzzles and challenges
Review: Chapter summary
Multiple-choice questions
Short-answer questions
Extended-response questions

Angle relationships
2A
2B
2C
2D
2E
2F
2G

Pre-test
Points, lines, intervals and angles
Measuring and classifying angles REVISION
Adjacent angles and vertically opposite angles
Transversal lines and parallel lines
Solving geometry problems
Circles and constructions with ruler and compasses FRINGE
Constructions with dynamic geometry software EXTENSION
Investigation
Puzzles and challenges

viii
ix
xii

2
4
5
10
14
19
23
27
31
36
40
44
46
47
48
49
50

52
54
55
60
66
71
78
83
87
90
91

Number and Algebra


Computation with Integers
MA44NA

Measurement and Geometry


Angle Relationships
MA418MG

iii
David Greenwood et al. 2013
ISBN: 9781107626973
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Cambridge University Press

Review: Chapter summary


Multiple-choice questions
Short-answer questions
Extended-response questions

Computation with positive and negative integers


3A
3B
3C
3D
3E
3F

Pre-test
Working with negative integers
Adding or subtracting a positive integer
Adding or subtracting a negative integer
Multiplying or dividing by an integer
Order of operations with positive and negative integers
The Cartesian plane
Investigation
Puzzles and challenges
Review: Chapter summary
Multiple-choice questions
Short-answer questions
Extended-response questions

Understanding fractions, decimals and percentages


4A
4B
4C
4D
4E
4F
4G
4H
4I
4J
4K
4L
4M
4N

Pre-test
Factors and multiples
Highest common factor and lowest common multiple
What are fractions?
Equivalent fractions and simplified fractions
Mixed numerals and improper fractions
Ordering positive and negative fractions
Place value in decimals and ordering decimals
Rounding decimals
Decimal and fraction conversions
Connecting percentages with fractions and decimals
Decimal and percentage conversions
Fraction and percentage conversions
Percentage of a quantity
Using fractions and percentages to compare two quantities
Investigation
Puzzles and challenges
Review: Chapter summary
Multiple-choice questions
Short-answer questions
Extended-response questions

92
93
94
97

98

Number and Algebra

100
101
105
109
114
118
122
126
127
128
129
130
131

Computation with Integers

132

Number and Algebra

134
135
140
144
150
156
162
168
172
176
181
188
193
198
203
208
210
212
213
214
216

Fractions, Decimals and

MA44NA

Percentages
MA45NA

iv
David Greenwood et al. 2013
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Cambridge University Press

Probability
5A
5B
5C
5D
5E
5F

Computation with decimals and fractions


6A
6B
6C
6D
6E
6F
6G
6H
6I

Pre-test
Describing probability
Theoretical probability in single-step experiments
Experimental probability in single-step experiments
Compound events in single-step experiments
Venn diagrams and two-way tables
Probability in two-step experiments EXTENSION
Investigation
Puzzles and challenges
Review: Chapter summary
Multiple-choice questions
Short-answer questions
Extended-response questions

Pre-test
Adding and subtracting decimals
Adding fractions
Subtracting fractions
Multiplying fractions
Multiplying and dividing decimals by 10, 100, 1000 etc.
Multiplying by a decimal
Dividing fractions
Dividing decimals
Computation with negative fractions EXTENSION
Investigation
Puzzles and challenges
Review: Chapter summary
Multiple-choice questions
Short-answer questions
Extended-response questions

218
220
221
228
233
238
243
250
255
257
259
260
261
262

MA421SP

Number and Algebra

266
267
271
278
284
292
297
301
307
312
318
321
322
323
323
325

Fractions, Decimals and

327

Time

336

7A
7B
7C

Probability

264

Semester review 1

Pre-test
Units of time
Working with time
Using time zones
Puzzles and challenges

Statistics and Probability

338
339
344
349
355

Percentages
MA45NA

Measurement and Geometry


Time
MA413MG

v
David Greenwood et al. 2013
ISBN: 9781107626973
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Cambridge University Press

Review: Chapter summary


Multiple-choice questions
Short-answer questions
Extended-response question

Algebraic techniques 1
8A
8B
8C
8D
8E
8F
8G
8H
8I
8J
8K
8L

Pre-test
Introduction to formal algebra
Substituting positive numbers into algebraic expressions
Equivalent algebraic expressions
Like terms
Multiplying, dividing and mixed operations
Expanding brackets
Applying algebra EXTENSION
Substitution involving negative numbers and mixed operations
Number patterns EXTENSION
Spatial patterns EXTENSION
Tables and rules EXTENSION
The Cartesian plane and graphs EXTENSION
Investigation
Puzzles and challenges
Review: Chapter summary
Multiple-choice questions
Short-answer questions
Extended-response questions

Equations 1
9A
9B
9C
9D
9E
9F
9G
9H

Pre-test
Introduction to equations
Solving equations by inspection
Equivalent equations
Solving equations systematically
Equations with fractions
Equations with brackets
Formulas and relationships EXTENSION
Using equations to solve problems EXTENSION
Investigation
Puzzles and challenges
Review: Chapter summary
Multiple-choice questions
Short-answer questions
Extended-response questions

356
357
357
359

360
362
363
368
373
377
381
385
390
395
398
403
411
417
424
426
427
428
429
430

432
434
435
440
444
449
456
461
465
469
474
475
476
477
478
479

Number and Algebra


Algebraic Techniques
MA48NA

Number and Algebra


Equations
MA410NA

vi
David Greenwood et al. 2013
ISBN: 9781107626973
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Cambridge University Press

10

Measurement and computation of length, perimeter and area 480


10A
10B
10C
10D
10E
10F
10G
10H
10I
10J

11

Pre-test
Measurement systems of the past and present FRINGE
Using and converting units of length REVISION
Perimeter of rectilinear figures
Pi and circumference of circles
Arc length and perimeter of sectors and composite figures
Units of area and area of rectangles
Area of triangles
Area of parallelograms
Area of composite figures
Mass and temperature REVISION
Investigation
Puzzles and challenges
Review: Chapter summary
Multiple-choice questions
Short-answer questions
Extended-response questions

Introducing indices
11A
11B
11C
11D
11E
11F

Pre-test
Divisibility tests
Prime numbers
Using indices
Prime decomposition
Squares, square roots, cubes and cube roots
The zero index and index laws
Investigation
Puzzles and challenges
Review: Chapter summary
Multiple-choice questions
Short-answer questions
Extended-response question

482
483
489
493
498
503
509
515
521
525
530
536
537
538
539
540
543

544
546
547
552
555
560
564
569
574
575
577
578
579
580

Semester review 2

581

Answers
Index

589
645

Measurement and Geometry


Length and Area
MA412MG, MA413MG

Number and Algebra


Indices
MA49NA

vii
David Greenwood et al. 2013
ISBN: 9781107626973
Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party

Cambridge University Press

Table of
About
theContents
authors
Stuart Palmer was born and educated in NSW. He is a high school mathematics teacher

with more than 25 years experience teaching students from all walks of life in a variety of
schools. Stuart has taught all the current NSW Mathematics courses in Stages 4, 5 and 6
numerous times. He has been a head of department in two schools and is now an
educational consultant who conducts professional development workshops for teachers all
over NSW and beyond. He also works with pre-service teachers at The University of
Sydney and The University of Western Sydney.
David Greenwood is the Head of Mathematics at Trinity Grammar School in Melbourne

and has 19 years experience teaching mathematics from Years 7 to 12. He has run
numerous workshops within Australia and overseas regarding the implementation of the
Australian Curriculum and the use of technology for the teaching of mathematics. He
has written more than 20 mathematics titles and has a particular interest in the sequencing
of curriculum content and working with the Australian Curriculum proficiency strands.
Bryn Humberstone graduated from University of Melbourne with an Honours degree in

Pure Mathematics, and is currently teaching both junior and senior mathematics in
Victoria. Bryn is particularly passionate about writing engaging mathematical
investigations and effective assessment tasks for students with a variety of backgrounds
and ability levels.
Justin Robinson is Head of Positive Education and a mathematics teacher at Geelong

Grammar School. Prior to this, he spent 20 years teaching mathematics and was a key writer
of in-house maths material. He has a keen interest in engaging all students through a wide
variety of effective teaching methods and materials.
Jenny Goodman has worked for 20 years in comprehensive State and selective high schools

in NSW and has a keen interest in teaching students of differing ability levels. She was
awarded the Jones medal for education at Sydney University and the Bourke prize for
Mathematics. She has written for Cambridge NSW and was involved in the Spectrum and
Spectrum Gold series.
Jennifer Vaughan has taught secondary mathematics for over 30 years in NSW, WA,
Queensland and New Zealand and has tutored and lectured in mathematics at Queensland
University of Technology. She is passionate about providing students of all ability levels with
opportunities to understand and to have success in using mathematics. She has taught special
needs students and has had extensive experience in developing resources that make
mathematical concepts more accessible; hence, facilitating student confidence, achievement
and an enjoyment of maths.
viii
David Greenwood et al. 2013
ISBN: 9781107626973
Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party

Cambridge University Press

Introduction and
Table of
guide
to Contents
this book
This resource has been developed from an analysis of the NSW Syllabus for the Australian Curriculum
and the Australian Curriculum: Mathematics. It is structured on a detailed teaching program for the
implementation of the NSW Syllabus, and a comprehensive copy of the teaching program can be found
on the companion website.
The chapters are based on a logical teaching and learning sequence for the syllabus topic concerned,
so that chapter sections can be used as ready-prepared lessons. Exercises have questions graded by
level of difficulty, as indicated in the teaching program, and are grouped according to the Working
Mathematically components of the NSW Syllabus, as indicated by badges in the margin of the exercises.
This facilitates the management of differentiated learning and reporting on students achievement.
For certain topics the prerequisite knowledge has been given in sections marked as REVISION,
whereas EXTENSION marks a few sections that go beyond the Syllabus. Similarly, the word FRINGE
is used to mark a few topics treated in a way that lies at the edge of the Syllabus requirements, but which
provide variety and stimulus. Apart from these, all topics are aligned exactly to the NSW Syllabus, as
indicated at the start of each chapter and in the teaching program.
In Stage 5, separate textbooks are provided for 5.1/5.2 and 5.1/5.2/5.3. In addition the NSW Syllabus
allocates topics to certain pathways, which are designated 5.2, 5.3 and 5.3#. These categories, together
with Stage 4, 5.1, 5.2 and 5.3, are indicated for each chapter section by ladder icons in the Year 9 and 10
textbooks and teaching programs.

Guide to this book

NSW Syllabus
for the Australian
Curriculum

Features:

Strand: Number and Algebra


Substrand: COMPUTATION WITH INTEGERS

Outcome: A student compares, orders,


and calculates with integers, applying a
range of strategies to aid computation

NSW Syllabus for the Australian


Curriculum: strands, substrands and
content outcomes for chapter (see
teaching program for more detail)

(MA4 4NA)

Computation with
positive integers

Chapter

What you will learn

What you will learn: an


overview of chapter contents

Pre-test: establishes prior knowledge


(also available as a printable worksheet)

Place value in ancient number systems


Place value in Hindu-Arabic numbers
Adding and subtracting positive integers
Algorithms for adding and subtracting
Multiplying small positive integers
Multiplying large positive integers
Dividing positive integers and dealing with remainders
Estimating and rounding positive integers
Order of operations with positive integers

Whole numbers and number systems have been used


for thousands of years to help count objects and
record information.
In ancient Egypt in about 3000 BCE, if one
hundred and twenty-four blocks of stone were needed
to build a monument, this number would have been
represented as
Today, we use whole numbers to help deal with all
sorts of situations. Here are some examples:
Recording the number of points in a game
Calculating the number of pavers required for a
terrace
Counting the number of items purchased at a shop
Tallying the number of votes in an election
Calculating the approximate distance between
two towns.

Chapter 1 Computation with positive integers

Pre-test

Chapter introduction: use


to set a context for students

1A
1B
1C
1D
1E
1F
1G
1H
1I

Whole numbers in the ancient


world and now

1 For each of the following, match the word with the symbol.
a add
A
b subtract
B
c multiply
C +
d divide
D
2 Write each of the following as numbers.
a fifty-seven
c two thousand and forty-four

3 Answer which number is:


David Greenwood et al. a2013
2 more than 11
ISBN: 9781107626973
Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred
another
party
c 1to
less
than 1000

b
d

one hundred and sixteen


eleven thousand and two

Cambridge University
b Press
5 less than 42
d 3 more than 7997

ix

Guide to this book (continued)

14

14

Topic introduction: use to relate the topic


to mathematics in the wider world

Chapter 1 Computation with positive integers


Chapter 1 Computation with positive integers

1C Adding and subtracting positive integers


1C Adding and subtracting positive integers
The process of finding the total value of two or more numbers is called
The process
of finding
the total
value
of and
two sum
or more
is called
addition.
The words
plus,
add
arenumbers
also used
to describe
addition.
The words plus, add and sum are also used to describe
addition.
addition. The process for finding the difference between two numbers is called
Thesubtraction.
process forThe
finding
theminus,
difference
betweenand
twotake
numbers
is are
called
words
subtract
away
also used
subtraction.
The words
minus, subtract and take away are also used
to describe
subtraction.
to describe subtraction.

HOTmaths icons: links to interactive


online content via the topic number,
1C in this case (see next page for more)

Lets start: Your mental strategy


Lets Many
start:problems
Your mental
strategy
that involve addition and subtraction can be solved

Stage
5.3#
5.3
5.3
5.2
5.2
5.1
4

Stage
5.3#
5.3
5.3
5.2
5.2
5.1
4

15

Number and Algebra

Many problems that involve addition and subtraction can be solved


mentally without the use of a calculator or complicated written working.
mentally without the use of a calculator or complicated written working.
Consider
98 + 22 31 + 29
Example
Consider 4 Mental
98 + 22addition
31 + 29and subtraction
How would you work this out? What are the different ways it could be
How would you work this out? What are the different ways it could be
Whats the difference in our heights?
Use the suggested
strategyExplain
to mentally
out the answer.
done mentally?
yourwork
method.
Whats the difference in our heights?
Explain your method. b 25 + 19 (compensating)
a done
132 mentally?
+ 156 (partitioning)

Lets start: an activity (which can


often be done in groups) to start the lesson

c 56 18 (compensating)

Key ideas

16

35 + 36 (doubling or halving)

Chapter
1 Computation
positive
integers
The
symbol +with
is used
to show
addition or find a sum.

SOLUTION

c
7

Example 4b

Example 4c

Number and Algebra

Examples: solutions with explanations and


descriptive titles to aid searches (digital
versions also available for use with IWB)

6
b

MA

Example 4a

LL

Exercise questions categorised by


the working mathematically
components and enrichment
(see next page)

The symbol + is used to show addition or find a sum.


+3
1C
+3
E X P L A N AT I O N
e.g. 4 + 3 = 7
e.g. 4 + 3 = 7
=a288
+b=b+a
e.g. 4100
+ 3+=303 ++24
132 + 156
3 4 5 6 7 8
a + b = b + a
e.g. 4 + 3 = 3 + 4
3 4 5 6 7 8
50 addition,
+6
This is the commutative 100
law+for
meaning that
2WORKING
This is the commutative law for addition, meaning that
2
U
F
the order does not matter.200 + 80 + 8
C
does not
matter.
Mentally the
findorder
the answers
to these
sums. Hint: Use the partitioning strategy.
R PS
HE

44
a + (b + c) = (a + b) + c
e.g.
4 ++ 20
(11 +1 3) = (4 + 11) + 3
A
25
+
19
=
25
+
19
=
25
M A7
TIC 8
a 23a++41(b + c) = (a + b) +bc 71 + 26 e.g. 4 + (11 + 3) c= (4138
+ 441
+ 11)
+3
4
5
6
is the
associative
law
it4293
does not 4 5 6 7 8
for
addition,
=
45 1 meaning
Example
Mental
addition
d 246
502 isThis
e 937
+411
f itand
1304
+ This
the associative
law
for
addition,
meaning
does+subtraction
not
2
2

=
44
matter
which
pair
is
added
first.
g 140 273
+ 238which
410 pair his added
390 447
+ 201 132
i 100 001 + 101 010
matter
first.
Use
the suggested
strategy
tomentally
out the
38
a c)(b
c)
(a
c
(4
=work
(82 2)
2 answer.
56
18 =(b
56 818
= 56
20
+ 22)
a find
(a

b)to
these
c b)
e.g.
e.g.
(4
8 2)
= (8
2)

46 57 68 7 8
Mentally
the answers
Hint:
Use
the
partitioning
strategy.
a 132
+differences.
156 (partitioning)
b 25 4+ 195 (compensating)
subtraction
= 36 + or
2 find a difference.
The symbol is
used
to
show
a 29The
18
b
57

21
c
249 137 d 35 + 36 (doubling or halving)
symbol is used
to show
subtraction or find a difference.
c 56
18 (compensating)

=
38
d 1045
f 10 101 100
e.g.71041
e.g.
2 =75 2 = 5 e 4396 1285

Key ideas

Key ideas: summarises the knowledge and


skills for the lesson

d 35 + 36 = 71a b b a (in general...) 35 + 36 = 35 +e.g.


35 + 1
34
a find
b bthe answers
a (in general...)
e.g. 4compensating
3 43 34 strategy.
8 Mentally
to these sums. Hint:
SOLUTION
EXPLANATION
Use
=the
70+ 1
addition
can beusing
donedifferent
strategies.
a 15Mental
+ 9 Mental
b and
64 subtraction
+ 11 can be
cusing
19 +different
76
addition
and subtraction
strategies.
done
= 71
a 132 + 156 = 288
100 + 30 + 2
Partitioning
in theposition)
same
d 18+ 115
e (Grouping
31 +digits
136 indigits
f position)
245 + 52
Partitioning
(Grouping
the same

100 + 50 + 6
171 + 23 = 100 + (70 + 20) + (1 + 3)

171 + 23 =strategy.
100 + (70 + 20) + (1 + 3)
9 Mentally find the answers to these differences. Hint: Use the compensating
200 + 80 + 8
= 194
a 35 11
b 45 19
c 156 48 = 194
Exercise
1C b (Making
+(Making
19a =10,
25 +or19
= 25 by
+ 20
1byOor
a 10,
and
then
compensating
or
K I NG
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d 244
22 Compensating
e25 376
5944100
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5216 adjusting
199
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etc.100
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adding
W

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subtracting)

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16

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10 aMentally
findwords
the answers
to these
sums and differences. Hint: Use the doubling or
1
List three
that mean
addition.
R PS
= 44
HE
Chapter
Computation
integers
M AT I C A
= 46
strategy.
46 + 9 =4646++910
1+ 10 1 1C
bhalving
List1 three
words with
that positive
mean subtraction.
c b56 65
18
= 38

18
=
56

20
+
2
a 25 + 26
+ 63
c 121 + 123 56
=
55
= 55
2 Write
the number
which is: e 482 240
= 36with
+ 2 addition
d 240
121 Doubling
f half
1006and
504
Chapter
with positive
integers
18
or
or
then adjusting
1 Computation
Doubling
a double
or half and
then adjusting
with addition
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a 3 more
than 7 or halving
b halving
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R K I NG
= 38
WO
subtraction)
11 c
Mentally
find the
answers todthese
U
F
7 less than
19subtraction)
137computations.
less than 157
Example 4a 6 Mentally
find
the
answers
to
these
sums.
Hint:
Use
the
partitioning
strategy.
d
35
+
36
=
71
35
+
36
=
35
+
35
+3 7519+ +3 9
124
+ 61
124
a 11 + 18 75
17+ 7875= +7578+ =75
b75+37
c 101
15
21=62
124
61
= 124
+ 1 62 + 1 + 1 R C PS
K
H
IN
R
3 aa
pairs of71
WOE M AGT I C A
23
4112sum
cf 138
441
d Find
136++the
15of these
28numbers.
326
10 9 + 5
39 ++71
6210+ 1=10
++
62 +=170 + 1
= 150 +=be3150
=
U
F
2 and
ii 19
8
iii 62 and
C
937
1304
+harder
g i246
1010
502
116 +strategy
21 =1153
5 and
7++11
10but
7025
+6318 for
18 ad
The +
mental
of partitioning
is2easy to apply for 23fi + 54
23 +=59.
=4293
=eh153
= 63
71
R PS
bg Find
the difference
pairs
of numbers.
HE
140
273
+ 238 410 between
h these
390 447
+ 201
132
i 100 001 + 101 010
M AT I C A
Explain
why.
and 5strategy of partitioning
ii 29 andis13easy to apply foriii158
101
andbut
93harder for 151 46.
R K I NG
O
b i The11
mental
46
W
7 Mentally find the answers to these differences. Hint: Use the partitioning strategy.
U
F
Chapter 1 Computation with positive integers
Explain
why. of these statements is true or false.
46
C
413
State
a
29whether
18 7each
b integers
575hours
21 on Tuesday, 13 hours
c 249
137
Chapter
1Computation
with
18
1D
Chapter 1 Computation with positive integers
Gary
worked
hours
onpositive
Monday,
on Wednesday,
11 hours on
R PS
41045
+ 3 >14
61041
be 11
19
the
30 total
13
9 <Gary
8100 worked during the H E M A T I C A
EMAC_NSW_7_txtdesign.indd
19/02/13
d
4396
is1285
10 numbers.
101
19 a
Complete
these
if+ the
letters
a, b number
and c represent
EMAC_NSW_7_txtdesign.indd
14
Thursday
and
2 number
hours
onsentences
Friday.
What
ofcf hours
that
d
26
10c __ = a e 1 + 7 4 b 4 a + c = b so b f a 50
21 + 6< 35
a +b15
= cso
= __
week?
1 The extra dollar. The cost of dinner for two people is $45 and they both give the waiter $25 each. a
Example 4b 8 Mentally find the answers to these sums. Hint: Use the compensating strategy.
Of the extra $5 the waiter is allowed to keep $3 as a tip and returns $1 to each person.
O R K I NG
The abacus
1
1
a
List
three
words
that
mean
addition.
520
Give
the
result
for
each
of
these
computations.
W
magic
the same
a
+ 9 triangle
b126641+to116, and has each side adding
c 19 to
+ 76
14 This
In a15
batting
innings,uses
Philthe
hit digits
So the two people paid $24 each, making a total of $48, and the waiter has $3. The total is therefore
U
F
plus
11
be List
22
minus
3words
sum
of 11 and
21 + 59.
bside
that mean
+ $3 = $51. Where did the extra $1 come from?
C
The abacus is a counting device that has been used for$48
thousands
total.
This
example
shows
total
ofis9.easy
d
18and
+mental
115
31
+three
136
245
+ 52
19 aa
strategy
of apartitioning
to apply
for 23cf subtraction.
+ the
54 but
harder
for 23
runs7The
Mario
hit 19
runs.
How
6
5
R PS
HE
d
128
add
12
36totals
take away
15
of years. They were used extensively by merchants,
amany
How
many
other
are possible
using the same digits?
2 traders,
The sumtax
along each line is 15. Can you place each of the digits 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
M AT I C A
Explain
why.
more
runs
did different
Phil hite side
2
Write
the
number
which
is:
Example
4c
9
Mentally
find
the
answers
to
these
differences.
Hint:
Use
the
compensating
strategy.
collectors and clerks before modern-day numerals systems
were
2
4
3
6, 7, 8 and 9 to make this true?
f bcompared
the
difference
between
13 and 4 is easy to apply for 158 46 but harder for 151 46.
Explain
method.
b
The
mental
strategy
of partitioning
toyour
Mario?
developed. Counting boards called Abax date back to 500 BCE.
a 35 11
19than 7
156
48than 11
ab 345more
b c 58
more
Explain why.
These were wood or stone tablets with grooves, which would hold
d 244 22
59 19
5216less
199
ce 7376
less than
d f 137
than 157
beans or pebbles.
20 Complete these number sentences if the letters a, b and c represent numbers.
The modern abacus is said to have originated in China in about
Example 4d 10
Mentally
find
the
answers
to
these
sums
and
differences.
Hint:
Use
the
doubling or
Enrichment:
Magic
squares
3a a Find the sum
of+ these
pairs
of
numbers.
a
a
+
b
=
c
so
c

__
=
b
a
c
=
b
so
b

a
=
__
the 13th century and includes beads on wires held 3in aThe
wooden
sum along each side of this triangle is 17. Can you place each
halving strategy.
i 2 and
6main diagonal adding
ii 19toand
iii 62 and 70
of the digits 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 to make this true?
frame.
21 A magic square has every row, column
the8
a 25
+ 26 triangle uses the digits
b 651+to
63and
c 121to
+ the
123same 4 9 12 15
21 This
magic
6, and has each side adding
b sum.
Find For
the example,
difference
these pairs of numbers.
same number, called the magic
thisbetween
magic square
d 240
121
e 482
240
f 1006 504
total.
This
example shows a side
total of
9.
3
5 6 iii
7 5101
15 and 93
has a magic sum of 15.
i 11 and 5
ii 29 and 13
A German woodcut from 1508 showing an abacus in use by gentleman on right,
a How many other different side totals are possible using the same digits?
11 Find
Mentally
find the
answers
to these
computations.
while a mathematician (at left) writes algorithms.
8 21 46 153
the magic
sums
for these
squares,
then fill in the
b Explain your method.
4
State
whether
each
of
these
statements
is
true
or
false.
a 11 + numbers.
18 17
b 37 19 + 9
c 101 15 +15
21 15 15 15 15
missing
ae 428+ 3 10
> 6 9 + 5
b f 11
c 13 9 < 8
d 136 + 12 15
39++19
71 30
10 10
4 Make the total of 100 out of all the numbers 2, 3, 4, 7 and 11, using each number only once. You
dh 26
e i 110
+ 7 25
4+184
f 50 21 + 6 < 35
g 1010 11 + 21 1
5 715
+ 2 10
b
c
d
a
can use any of the operations (+, , , ), as well as brackets.
6
10
15 20
1 15
4
Enrichment: Magic squares
Example 4d

1
8 937

and , then + and


from left to right.
2 + 3 4 (9 3)
= 2 + 12 3
=2+4
=6

2
4

2 3 1000 + 9 10 + 2 1 is the expanded form of:


A 3920
B 392
D 3902
E 329

Here is a diagram showing the number


5716.
A 6
D 8

C 299

C 21

1 1 8
1 5
26
C 9

4
7

C 1

D 2

4 18 3 4 + 5 simplies to:
A 65
B 135

A 0

C 11

D 1

E 20

5 800 5 4 is the same as:


A 160 4
B 800 20

C 800 4 5

D 40

E 4 5 800

B 4

12

E 3

19

955 to the nearest 10 is 960


950 to the nearest 100 is 1000

EMAC_NSW_7_txtdesign.indd 44

Leading digit approximation


39 326 40 300 = 12 000

8 The remainder when 317 is divided by 9 is:


A 7
B 5
D 1
E 0

Mental strategies
7 31 = 7 30 + 7 1 = 217
5 14 = 10 7 = 70
64 8 = 32 4 = 16 2 = 8
156 4 = 160 4 4 4
= 40 1
= 39

9 458 rounded to the nearest 100 is:


A 400
B 500
D 450
E 1000

C 460

10 The answer to [2 + 3 (7 4)] 11 is:


A 1
B 5 19/02/13 6:23 PMC 11
D 121
E 0

Multiplying by 10, 100,


38 100 = 3800
38 700 = 38 7 100
= 26 600

2 Write the numeral for:

a 6 10 000 + 7 1000 + 8 100 + 4 10 + 9 1


This magic square
was known in ancient China as a Lo Shu square and uses only the numbers 1 to 9. It is shown in
b 7 100 000 + 8 100 + 5 10
the middle3 of
this ancient design as symbols on a turtle shell, surrounded by the animals which represent the traditional
Calculate:
a 96 481 + 2760 + 82
10 963 4096
c 147 3
Chinese names
for the years.be 4932
d 980 200
3
f 9177 12
19/02/13 6:23 PM

c 23 = 40 2 + 3

5 How much more than 17 18 is 18 19?


6 Calculate:
a 7643
d 16 [14 (6 2)]

b 8 8 16 2
e 24 6 4

7 State whether each of the following is true or false.


a 4 25 0 = 1000
b 0 10 = 0
d 87=78
e 20 4 = 20 2 2

97805211XXXXXc1_p02-51.indd
18brackets to make 18 7 + 3 = 18 7 + 18 3 true.
8 Insert

c 12 (6 2)
f 56 (7 5) 7
c 80=0
f 8+5+4=8+9

4/10/13 2:34 PM

9 How many times can 15 be subtracted from 135 before an answer of zero occurs?

19/02/13 6:23 PM

EMAC_NSW_7_txtdesign.indd 48

LL

LL

Write the number seventy-four in:


a Babylonian numerals
b Roman numerals
c Egyptian numerals

This magic square was known in ancient China as a Lo Shu square and uses only the numbers 1 to 9. It is shown in
the middle of this ancient design as symbols on a turtle shell, surrounded by the animals which represent the traditional
Chinese names for the years.
EMAC_NSW_7_txtdesign.indd 47

Discuss what numb


Give reasons for yo

Short-answer questions

4 State whether each of the following is true or false.


a 18 < 20 2 3
b 9 6 > 45

C 2

LL

Chapter reviews with multiple-choice, short-answer and extended-response questions


Estimation

M AT I C

lets start: The

Textbooks also include:

Complete answers
11
Index
13
2 16
areUsing
23 The sum of two numbers is 87 and their difference is 29. What
the two numbers?
technology
activities

2
5

C 303

B 1
E 7

3092

5 The difference between 378 and 81 is:


A 459
B 297
D 317
E 299

7 The missing digit in this division is:

C (2 3) 4 = 2 (3 4)

6 The product of 7 and 21 is:


A 147
B 141
D 140
E 207

Algorithms
2
68
29
2
13
3 205
____
87
with 1
290
remainder
____
EMAC_NSW_7_txtdesign.indd
46
377

C XXXLIV

8C

3 Which of the following is not true?


A 2+3=3+2
B 23=32
D 5225
E 72=27

4 The sum of 198 and 103 is:


A 301
B 304
D 199
E 95

4
8

1 The correct Roman numerals for the number 24 is:


A XXIII
B XXIV
D IVXX
E IXXV

Semester review 1

Algorithms
371

th
ou
hu san
n d
te dred s
ns s
on
es

There are 5 beads on one side of a modern


643
+ 843 abacus
_____
_____
Babylonian
294
1214
worth isis12371each and 2 beads on the opposite
side worth
5 each.
Mental strategies
172
+
216
=
300
+
80
+8
Egyptian
= 388
Each wire represents a different unit, e.g.
ones,
is 21
98 19 = 98 20 + 1
= 79
tens,
is 143 hundreds etc.
Beads are counted only when they are pushed
Multiplication
Order of Operations
Whole numbers
and Division
Bracketstoward
first, then the centre.

Chapter summary

Roman
LXXVI is 76
XCIV is 94

Addition and
Subtraction

A modern abacus with thirteen wires

8
1

Multiple-choice questions

MA

Place value

Ancient
Number Systems

2
9

R K I NG
5
11 13
14
6
9
WO
square has every row,
and main diagonal adding
the 3
U
F of 11 and 21
a column
7 plus 11
b 22 to
minus
9 2 c 15the sum
C
19 this magic
11 4
sum.
For 12
example,
13 same
Gary 2number,
worked 7called
hoursthe
on magic
Monday,
512
hours
on Tuesday,
13 hours
Wednesday,
R PS
d 128
add
e square
36ontake
away 1511 hours on
HE
5 7 the15 M A T I C A
has
a magic
sum
of 15.on Friday. What is the total number of hours that
Thursday
and
2 hours
13 Gary worked
2 3 16 during
f the difference between 13 and 4
3
thereview
magic
sums for these squares, then fill in the
week?
8 1 6 15
Semester
1
350 Find
22 missing
The 7sumnumbers.
of two numbers is 87 and their difference is 29. What are the two numbers?
15 15 15 15 15
14 In a batting innings, Phil hit 126
Whole numbers
9
1
questions
runsMultiple-choice
and Mario
hit 19 runs. How
1 Using numerals, thirty-ve thousand, two hundred and six is:
350 260 runs
B 35did
260 Phil
000 206 D 3526
E 35
a
b C 35hit
c206
d
many Amore
6
10
15 20
1 15
4
2 The place value of 8 in 2 581 093 is:
compared
to Mario?
A 8 thousand
B 80 thousand C 8 hundred
D 8 tens
E 8 ones
5EMAC_NSW_7_txtdesign.indd
11 1513
14

6
9
3 7The remainder
when 23 650 is divided by 4 is:

2 Semester reviews per book

Chapter 1 Computation with positive integers

HE

2 100 + 7 10 + 3 1
is the expanded form of 273.

MA

MA

Puzzles and challenges

48

47

It is not always pra


complex problems
Such a procedure is
6:23 For
PM the addition
ORK I NG
sum can Wbe carried
U
F
For the subtract
C
R PS to
the next column

5 Give the result for each of these computations.

5 Sudoku is a popular logic number puzzle made up of a 9 by 9 square, where each column and row
7
can use the digits 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 only once. Also, each digit is to be used only once
22in A magic
each 3 by 3 square. Solve these puzzles.

Number and Algebra

6:23
PM
19/02/13

LL

MA

Chapter summary: mind map of


key concepts & interconnections

Puzzles and challenges

Exercise 1C

The place value of 3 in


1327 is 300.

Algorithm

LL

Investigation

MA

44

LL

MA

Investigations:
inquiry-based activities

Questions are linked to examples

19/02/13 6:23 PM
CUAU093-SR-1.indd 350

9/12/10 12:07:22 PM

x
David Greenwood et al. 2013
ISBN: 9781107626973
Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party

Cambridge University Press

19/02/13

Working Mathematically badges


All exercises are divided into sections marked by Working Mathematically badges, such as this example:
Fluency &
Problem-solving &
Reasoning &
Understanding &
Communicating
Communicating
Communicating
Communicating

HE

F
PS

PS

M AT I C A

R K I NG

LL

HE

WO

F
LL

PS

M AT I C A

R K I NG

MA

HE

M AT I C A

WO

F
MA

PS

R K I NG

LL

HE

WO

F
MA

MA

R K I NG

LL

WO

M AT I C A

The letters U (Understanding), F (Fluency), PS (Problem-solving), R (Reasoning) and C (Communication) are


highlighted in colour to indicate which of these components apply mainly to the questions in that section. Naturally
there is some overlap between the components.

Additional resources online

maths
HOT
interactive maths online

TM

The CambridgeMATHS/HOTmaths integrated program for the Australian Curriculum offers the
best of textbook and interactive online resources. It can be used with a HOTmaths account
(eg for class demos via IWBs or data projectors) or with student accounts, which enable
access to the full range of features, including use at home.
The integrated program is linked from icons and the topic
numbers in the textbooks, as detailed in a document available
(free) from the Cambridge website.

All HOTmaths features are included in the program, eg:


Interactive
simulations &
programs

Interactive
examples

Worksheets
(also available as
workbooks)

Tests with learning management


system

Maths dictionary with links to


content
Practice quizzes with competitive scoring option

xi
David Greenwood et al. 2013
ISBN: 9781107626973
Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party

Cambridge University Press

Table of Contents
Acknowledgements
The author and publisher wish to thank the following sources for permission to reproduce material:
Cover: Shutterstock / Michael Woodruff
Images: Alamy / B.OKane, p.359(b); Dreamstime / Carmentianya, p.311(b) / Miffycat, p.474;
istockphoto / Johanna Doorenbosch, p.167 / TokenPhoto, p.238 / Claudia Dewald, p.453; Jastrow.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License, p.498; Kham Tran www. khamtran.com.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License, p.191; Mark Strozier. Creative Commons
Attribution 2.0 Generic, p.256; Used under license 2013 from Shutterstock.com / Vladimir
Korostyshevskiy, pp.23, 9 / Uro Medved, p.5 / Rgien Paassen, p.8 / Johanna Goodyear, p.11 / Edd
Westmacott, p.13 / Harris Shiffman, p.14 / Eric Gevaert, p.16 / Phillip Minnis, pp.17, 78 / JinYoung Lee,
p.19 / Mel Brackstone, p.21 / Andreja Donko, p.26 / Robyn Mackenzie, pp.27, 171, 550 / paul Prescott,
pp.29(t), 580 / David Woolfenden, p.29(b) / Binkski, p.30 / Vladimir Mucibacic, p.34(t) / Dima Kalinin,
p.34(m) / Yegor Korzh, p.34(b) / Shawn Talbot, p.35 / arvzdix, p.36 / Mihai-Bogdan Lazar, p.38 / GDM,
p.40 / CandyBoxPhoto, pp.42, 299 / Monkey Business Images, pp.43(r), 70, 162, 270, 300, 398(b-r), 471,
554 / szefei, p.44(c) / Lipskiy, p.45 / marilyn barbone, p.50 / Anton Gvozdikov, p.51 / Anatolich, pp.52
53 / Paul Aniszewski, p.55 / Govert Nieuwland, p.57 / Jaren Jai Wicklund, p.59 / prism68, p.60 / Alhovik,
p.65 / Dmitry Pistrov, p.71 / Neale Cousland, pp.79, 255, 359(t), 393, 403, 432433, 468, 534(t) /
Nicemonkey, p.82 / yuyangc, p.83 / Nigel Paul Monckton, p.86 / staskin, p.89 / Deklofenak, pp.90, 105 /
Dmytro Pylypenko, pp.9899 / Alperium, p.104 / Armin Rose, p.107 / Tatiana Belova, p.111 / ashgun,
p.112 / Andrey Shadrin, p.113 / Shmeliova Natalia, p.120 / Anneka, p.121 / Diego Cervo, p.125 / Eder,
p.129 / Jason Maehl, p.131 / Jose Ignacio Soto, pp.132133 / Nikola Bilic, p.135 / Elena Aliaga, p.138 /
my leap year, p.139 / Jlarranaga, p.143 / bullet74, p.144 / Thomas Hansson, p.148 / chrisbrignell, p.149 /
max blain, p.150 / Alex Staroseltsev, p.154(t) / O.V.D, p.154(b) / Lasse Kristensen, p.156 / White_bcgrd,
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Lye, p.290 / Dani Simmonds, p.291 / Heather Prosch-Jensen, p.292 / Paul Matthew Photography, p.295 /
Bonita R. Cheshier, p.297 / Mathias Wilson, p.305 / MC_PP, p.306 / VladKol, p.311(t) / Dontsov Evgeny
Victorovich, p.316 / Rafa Irusta, p.318(l) / BZH22, p.318(r) / Lisa S., p.319 / panyajam patong, p.325 /
Daboost, p.326 / VLADJ55, pp.336337 / Khakimullin Aleksandr, p.338 / Valerie Potapova, p.339 /
Tupungato, pp.342, 470 / Daniel M. Silva, p.343(r) / alessandro0770, p.343(l) / Lev Kropotov, p.344(t) /
sculpies, p.344(b) / Gordon Bell, p.347(t) / alysta, p.347(c) / Matt Gibson, p.349(t) / SF photo, p.349 (c) /
beboy, p.349(b) / Ahmad Faizal Yahya, p.354 / Patrick Foto, p.355(t&b) / WDG Photo, p.358 / Blaz
Kure, pp.360361 / jgp-nyc, p.363 / Marc Dietrich, p.366 / Edw, p.367 / Vlue, p.372 / Gary Paul Lewis,
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Andresr, pp.401, 443 / V.J. Matthew, p.410 / Malysh Falko, p.411 / S.john, p.413 / Rob Marmion, p.417 /
Sinitar, p.415 / Lars Hallstrom, p.422 / Weldon Scloneger, p.424 / Michael William, p.430 / yampi, p.431 /
Jaroslav Machacek, p.435 / terekhov igor, p.438 / MaszaS, p.440 / Marko Poplasen, p.442 / anweber,
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p.568 / Kuzma, p.572 / emin kuliyev, p.573 / Eric Issele, p.574(t) / Morena Valente, p.575(4&9) / Anna
Tsekhmister, p.575(6); Wikimedia Commons. Public domain, pp.10, 18, 44(t), 101, 122, 439.
All curriculum material taken from NSW Mathematics 7-10 Syllabus Board of Studies NSW for and on
behalf of the Crown in right of the State of New South Wales, 2012.
Every effort has been made to trace and acknowledge copyright. The publisher apologises for any
accidental infringement and welcomes information that would redress this situation.

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David Greenwood et al. 2013
ISBN: 9781107626973
Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party

Cambridge University Press