Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 30

Challenge

Problems
A Glencoe Program

Hands-On Learning: Teacher Resources:


Laboratory Manual, SE/TE Lesson Plans
Forensics Laboratory Manual, SE/TE Block Scheduling Lesson Plans
CBL Laboratory Manual, SE/TE Spanish Resources
Small-Scale Laboratory Manual, SE/TE Section Focus Transparencies and Masters
ChemLab and MiniLab Worksheets Math Skills Transparencies and Masters
Teaching Transparencies and Masters
Review/Reinforcement: Solutions Manual
Study Guide for Content Mastery, SE/TE
Solving Problems: A Chemistry Handbook Technology:
Reviewing Chemistry Chemistry Interactive CD-ROM
Guided Reading Audio Program Vocabulary PuzzleMaker Software,
Windows/MacIntosh
Applications and Enrichment: Glencoe Science Web site:
Challenge Problems science.glencoe.com
Supplemental Problems

Assessment:
Chapter Assessment
MindJogger Videoquizzes (VHS/DVD)
Computer Test Bank, Windows/MacIntosh

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


All rights reserved. Permission is granted to reproduce the material contained herein
on the condition that such material be reproduced only for classroom use; be provided
to students, teachers, and families without charge; and be used solely in conjunction
with the Chemistry: Matter and Change program. Any other reproduction, for use or
sale, is prohibited without prior written permission of the publisher.

Send all inquiries to:


Glencoe/McGraw-Hill
8787 Orion Place
Columbus, OH 43240-4027

ISBN 0-07-824533-8
Printed in the United States of America.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 045 09 08 07 06 05 04 03 02 01
CHALLENGE PROBLEMS

Contents

Chapter 1 Production of Chlorofluorocarbons, 1950–1992 . . . . . . . . . 1

Chapter 2 Population Trends in the United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

Chapter 3 Physical and Chemical Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

Chapter 4 Isotopes of an Element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

Chapter 5 Quantum Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

Chapter 6 Döbereiner’s Triads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6


Chapter 7 Abundance of the Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

Chapter 8 Comparing the Structures of Atoms and Ions . . . . . . . . . . . 8

Chapter 9 Exceptions to the Octet Rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

Chapter 10 Balancing Chemical Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

Chapter 11 Using Mole-Based Conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

Chapter 12 Mole Relationships in Chemical Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

Chapter 13 Intermolecular Forces and Boiling Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

Chapter 14 A Simple Mercury Barometer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14


Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Chapter 15 Vapor Pressure Lowering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

Chapter 16 Standard Heat of Formation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

Chapter 17 Determining Reaction Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

Chapter 18 Changing Equilibrium Concentrations in a Reaction . . . . . 18

Chapter 19 Swimming Pool Chemistry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

Chapter 20 Balancing Oxidation–Reduction Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

Chapter 21 Effect of Concentration on Cell Potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

Chapter 22 Structural Isomers of Hexane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

Chapter 23 Boiling Points of Organic Families . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

Chapter 24 The Chemistry of Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

Chapter 25 The Production of Plutonium-239 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

Chapter 26 The Phosphorus Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

Answer Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T27

Challenge Problems Chemistry: Matter and Change iii


iv
Chemistry: Matter and Change
Challenge Problems
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Name Date Class

CHAPTER 1 CHALLENGE PROBLEMS

Production of Use with Chapter 1,


Section 1.1

Chlorofluorocarbons, 1950–1992
400
C hlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) were first produced in
350

(billion kilograms)
the laboratory in the late 1920s. They did not

Amount of CFCs
300
become an important commercial product until some
250
time later. Eventually, CFCs grew in popularity until 200
their effect on the ozone layer was discovered in the 150
1970s. The graph shows the combined amounts of two 100
important CFCs produced between 1950 and 1992. 50
Answer the following questions about the graph. 0
1950 1960 1970 1980 1990
Year

1. What was the approximate amount of CFCs produced in 1950? In 1960? In 1970?

2. In what year was the largest amount of CFCs produced? About how much was produced
that year?

3. During what two-year period did the production of CFCs decrease by the greatest
amount? By about how much did their production decrease?
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

4. During what two-year period did the production of CFCs increase by the greatest
amount? What was the approximate percent increase during this period?

5. How confident would you feel about predicting the production levels of CFCs during the
odd numbered years 1961, 1971, and 1981? Explain.

6. Could the data in the graph be presented in the form of a circle graph? Explain.

Challenge Problems Chemistry: Matter and Change • Chapter 1 1


Name Date Class

CHAPTER 2 CHALLENGE PROBLEMS

Population Trends in the Use with Chapter 2,


Section 2.4

United States

T he population of the United States is becoming more diverse. The circle graphs below show the
distribution of the U.S. population among five ethnic groups in 1990 and 2000. The estimated
total U.S. population for those two years was 2.488  108 in 1990 and 2.754  108 in 2000.

U.S. Population Distribution


1990 2000
African American African American
11.8% 12.2%
Hispanic American Hispanic American
9.0% 11.8%
Asian American Asian American
2.8% 3.8%
Caucasian Caucasian
Native American
75.7% Native American 71.4%
0.70%
0.70%

(Percentages may not add up to 100% due to rounding.)

1. By how much did the total U.S. population increase between 1990 and 2000? What was
the percent increase during this period?

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


2. Calculate the total population for each of the five groups for 1990 and 2000.

3. Make a bar graph that compares the population for the five groups in 1990 and 2000. In
what ways is the bar graph better than the circle graphs? In what way is it less useful?

2 Chemistry: Matter and Change • Chapter 2 Challenge Problems


Name Date Class

CHAPTER 3 CHALLENGE PROBLEMS

Physical and Chemical Use with Chapter 3,


Section 3.2

Changes

P hysical and chemical changes occur all around us. One of the many places in which
physical and chemical changes occur is the kitchen. For example, cooking spaghetti in a
pot of water on the stove involves such changes. For each of the changes described below, tell
(a) whether the change that occurs is physical or chemical, and (b) how you made your choice
between these two possibilities. If you are unable to decide whether the change is physical or
chemical, tell what additional information you would need in order to make a decision.

1. As the water in the pot is heated, its temperature rises.

2. As more heat is added, the water begins to boil and steam is produced.

3. The heat used to cook is produced by burning natural gas in the stove burner.

4. The metal burner on which the pot rests while being heated becomes red as its
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

temperature rises.

5. After the flame has been turned off, a small area on the burner has changed in color from
black to gray.

6. A strand of spaghetti has fallen onto the burner, where it turns black and begins to
smoke.

7. When the spaghetti is cooked in the boiling water, it becomes soft.

Challenge Problems Chemistry: Matter and Change • Chapter 3 3


Name Date Class

CHAPTER 4 CHALLENGE PROBLEMS

Isotopes of an Element Use with Chapter 4,


Section 4.3

A mass spectrometer is a device for separating 30


atoms and molecules according to their

Percent abundance
25
mass. A substance is first heated in a vacuum and
20
then ionized. The ions produced are accelerated
through a magnetic field that separates ions of dif- 15
ferent masses. The graph below was produced 10
when a certain element (element X) was analyzed 5
in a mass spectrometer. Use the graph to answer
the questions below. 0
190 192 194 196 198 200 202 204 206 208 210
Atomic mass (amu)

1. How many isotopes of element X exist?

2. What is the mass of the most abundant isotope?

3. What is the mass of the least abundant isotope?

4. What is the mass of the heaviest isotope?

5. What is the mass of the lightest isotope?

6. Estimate the percent abundance of each isotope shown on the graph.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


7. Without performing any calculations, predict the approximate atomic mass for element
X. Explain the basis for your prediction.

8. Using the data given by the graph, calculate the weighted average atomic mass of
element X. Identify the unknown element.

4 Chemistry: Matter and Change • Chapter 4 Challenge Problems


Name Date Class

CHAPTER 5 CHALLENGE PROBLEMS

Quantum Numbers Use with Chapter 5,


Section 5.2

T he state of an electron in an atom can be completely described by four quantum numbers,


designated as n, , m, and ms. The first, or principal, quantum number, n, indicates the
electron’s approximate distance from the nucleus. The second quantum number, , describes
the shape of the electron’s orbit around the nucleus. The third quantum number, m, describes
the orientation of the electron’s orbit compared to the plane of the atom. The fourth quantum
number, ms, tells the direction of the electron’s spin (clockwise or counterclockwise).
The Schrödinger wave equation imposes certain mathematical restrictions on the quantum
numbers. They are as follows:
n can be any integer (whole number),
 can be any integer from 0 to n  1,
m can be any integer from  to , and
ms can be  1 or  1

2 2
As an example, consider electrons in the first energy level of an atom, that is, n  1. In
this case,  can have any integral value from 0 to (n  1), or 0 to (1  1). In other words,
 must be 0 for these electrons. Also, the only value that m can have is 0. The electrons in
this energy level can have values of   1 or  1 for m . These restrictions agree with the
 s
2 2
observation that the first energy level can have only two electrons. Their quantum numbers
1 and 1, 0, 0  1 .
are 1, 0, 0,   
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

2 2
Use the rules given above to complete the table listing the quantum numbers for each
electron in a boron atom. The correct quantum numbers for one electron in the atom is
provided as an example.

Boron (B)
Electron n  m ms
1
1 1 0 0 
2

Challenge Problems Chemistry: Matter and Change • Chapter 5 5


Name Date Class

CHAPTER 6 CHALLENGE PROBLEMS

Döbereiner’s Triads Use with Chapter 6,


Section 6.2

O ne of the first somewhat successful attempts to arrange the elements in a systematic way
was made by the German chemist Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner (1780–1849). In 1816,
Döbereiner noticed that the then accepted atomic mass of strontium (50) was midway between
the atomic masses of calcium (27.5) and barium (72.5). Note that the accepted atomic masses
for these elements today are very different from their accepted atomic masses at the time
Döbereiner made his observations. Döbereiner also observed that strontium, calcium, and bar-
ium showed a gradual gradation in their properties, with the values of some of strontium’s
properties being about midway between the values of calcium and barium. Döbereiner eventu-
ally found four other sets of three elements, which he called triads, that followed the same pat-
tern. In each triad, the atomic mass of the middle element was about midway between the
atomic masses of the other two elements. Unfortunately, because Döbereiner’s system did not
turn out to be very useful, it was largely ignored.
Had Döbereiner actually discovered a way of identifying trends among the elements?
Listed below are six three-element groups in which the elements in each group are consecutive
members of the same group in the periodic table. The elements in each set show a gradation in
their properties. Values for the first and third element in each set are given. Determine the miss-
ing value in each set by calculating the average of the two given values. Then, compare the val-
ues you obtained with those given in the Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. Record the
actual values below your calculated values. Is the value of the property of the middle element
in each set midway between the values of the other two elements in the set?

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


Set 1 Set 2 Set 3
Element Melting Point (°C) Element Atomic Mass Element Boiling Point (°C)

Fluorine 219.6 Lithium 6.941 Magnesium 1107

Chlorine Calculated: Sodium Calculated: Calcium Calculated:

Actual: Actual: Actual:

Bromine 7.2 Potassium 39.098 Strontium 1384

Set 4 Set 5 Set 6


Element Boiling Point (°C) Element Melting Point (°C) Element Boiling Point (°C)

Krypton 153 Germanium 937 Beryllium 1285

Xenon Calculated: Tin Calculated: Magnesium Calculated:

Actual: Actual: Actual:

Radon 62 Lead 327 Calcium 851

6 Chemistry: Matter and Change • Chapter 6 Challenge Problems


Name Date Class

CHAPTER 7 CHALLENGE PROBLEMS

Abundance of the Elements Use with Chapter 7,


Section 7.1

T he abundance of the elements differs significantly in various parts of the


universe. The table below lists the abundance of some elements in various
parts of the universe. Use the table to answer the following questions.

Abundance (Number of atoms per 1000 atoms)*


Element Universe Solar System Earth Earth’s Crust Human Body
Hydrogen 927 863 30 606
Helium 71.8 135
Oxygen 0.510 0.783 500 610 257
Nitrogen 0.153 0.0809 24
Carbon 0.0811 0.459 106
Silicon 0.0231 0.0269 140 210
Iron 0.0139 0.00320 170 19
* An element is not abundant in a region that is left blank.

1. What percent of all atoms in the universe are either hydrogen or helium? What percent of
all atoms in the solar system are either hydrogen or helium?
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

2. Explain the relatively high abundance of hydrogen and helium in the universe compared
to their relatively low abundance on Earth.

3. Only the top four most abundant elements on Earth and in Earth’s crust are shown in the
table. Name two additional elements you would expect to find among the top ten ele-
ments both on Earth and in Earth’s crust. Explain your choices.

4. Name at least three elements in addition to those shown in the table that you would
expect to find in the list of the top ten elements in the human body. Explain your choices.

Challenge Problems Chemistry: Matter and Change • Chapter 7 7


Name Date Class

CHAPTER 8 CHALLENGE PROBLEMS

Comparing the Structures of Use with Chapter 8,


Section 8.1

Atoms and Ions

T he chemical properties of an element depend primarily on its number of valence electrons in


its atoms. The noble gas elements, for example, all have similar chemical properties
because the outermost energy levels of their atoms are completely filled. The chemical properties
of ions also depend on the number of valence electrons. Any ion with a complete outermost
energy level will have chemical properties similar to those of the noble gas elements. The fluo-
ride ion (F), for example, has a total of ten electrons, eight of which fill its outermost energy
level. F has chemical properties, therefore, similar to those of the noble gas neon.

Shown below are the Lewis electron dot structures for five elements: sulfur (S), chlorine (Cl),
argon (Ar), potassium (K), and calcium (Ca). Answer the questions below about these structures.

S Cl Ar K Ca

1. Write the atomic number for each of the five elements shown above.

2. Write the electron configuration for each of the five elements.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


3. Which of the above Lewis electron dot structures is the same as the Lewis electron dot
structure for the ion S2? Explain your answer.

4. Which of the above Lewis electron dot structures is the same as that for the ion Cl?
Explain your answer.

5. Which of the above Lewis electron dot structures is like that for the ion K? Explain
your answer.

6. Name an ion of calcium that has chemical properties similar to those of argon. Explain
your answer.

8 Chemistry: Matter and Change • Chapter 8 Challenge Problems


Name Date Class

CHAPTER 9 CHALLENGE PROBLEMS

Exceptions to the Octet Rule Use with Chapter 9,


Section 9.3

T he octet rule is an important guide to understanding how most compounds are formed.
However, there are a number of cases in which the octet rule does not apply. Answer the
following questions about exceptions to the octet rule.

1. Draw the Lewis structure for the compound BeF2.

2. Does BeF2 obey the octet rule? Explain.

3. Draw the Lewis structure for the compound NO2.

4. Does NO2 obey the octet rule? Explain.


Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

5. Draw the Lewis structure for the compound N2F2.

6. Does N2F2 obey the octet rule? Explain.

7. Draw the Lewis structure for the compound IF5.

8. Does IF5 obey the octet rule? Explain.

Challenge Problems Chemistry: Matter and Change • Chapter 9 9


Name Date Class

CHAPTER 10 CHALLENGE PROBLEMS

Balancing Chemical Use with Chapter 10,


Section 10.1

Equations

E ach chemical equation below contains at least one error. Identify the error or errors and
then write the correct chemical equation for the reaction.

1. K(s)  2H2O(l) 0 2KOH(aq)  H2(g)

2. MgCl2(aq)  H2SO4(aq) 0 Mg(SO4)2(aq)  2HCl(aq)

3. AgNO3(aq)  H2S(aq) 0 Ag2S(aq)  HNO3(aq)

4. Sr(s)  F2(g) 0 Sr2F

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


5. 2NaHCO3(s)  2HCl(aq) 0 2NaCl(s)  2CO2(g)

6. 2LiOH(aq)  2HBr(aq) 0 2LiBr(aq)  2H2O

7. NH4OH(aq)  KOH(aq) 0 KOH(aq)  NH4OH(aq)

8. 2Ca(s)  Cl2(g) 0 2CaCl(aq)

9. H2SO4(aq)  2Al(NO3)3(aq) 0 Al2(SO4)3(aq)  2HNO3(aq)

10 Chemistry: Matter and Change • Chapter 10 Challenge Problems


Name Date Class

CHAPTER 11 CHALLENGE PROBLEMS

Using Mole-Based Use with Chapter 11,


Section 11.3

Conversions

T he diagram shows three containers, each of which holds a certain mass of the
substance indicated. Complete the table below for each of the three substances.

UF6 (g) CCl3CF3 (l) Pb (s)


225.0 g 200.0 g 250.0 g

Molar Mass Number of Number of Representative


Substance Mass (g) (g/mol) Moles (mol) Particles

UF6(g)

CCl3CF3(l)

Pb(s)

1. Compare and contrast the number of representative particles and the mass of UF6 with
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

the number of representative particles and mass of CCl3CF3. Explain any differences
you observe.

2. UF6 is a gas used in the production of fuel for nuclear power plants. How many moles of
the gas are in 100.0 g of UF6?

3. CCl3CF3 is a chlorofluorocarbon responsible for the destruction of the ozone layer in


Earth’s atmosphere. How many molecules of the liquid are in 1.0 g of CCl3CF3?

4. Lead (Pb) is used to make a number of different alloys. What is the mass of lead present
in an alloy containing 0.15 mol of lead?

Challenge Problems Chemistry: Matter and Change • Chapter 11 11


Name Date Class

CHAPTER 12 CHALLENGE PROBLEMS

Mole Relationships in Use with Chapter 12,


Section 12.2

Chemical Reactions

T he mole provides a convenient way of finding the amounts of the substances in a chemical
reaction. The diagram below shows how this concept can be applied to the reaction
between carbon monoxide (CO) and oxygen (O2), shown in the following balanced equation.

2CO(g)  O2(g) 0 2CO2(g)

Use the equation and the diagram to answer the following questions.

Moles of 1 Moles of
3 7
CO CO2
Particles of Particles of
2 6
CO CO2
4 5
Grams of Grams of
CO CO2

1. What information is needed to make the types of conversions shown by double-arrow 1


in the diagram?

2. What conversion factors would be needed to make the conversions represented by

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


double-arrow 2 in the diagram for CO? By double-arrow 6 for CO2?

3. What information is needed to make the types of conversions represented by


double-arrows 3 and 7 in the diagram?

4. What conversion factors would be needed to make the conversions represented by


double-arrow 3 in the diagram for CO?

5. Why is it not possible to convert between the mass of a substance and the number of
representative particles, as represented by double-arrow 4 of the diagram?

6. Why is it not possible to use the mass of one substance in a chemical reaction to find the mass
of a second substance in the reaction, as represented by double-arrow 5 in the diagram?

12 Chemistry: Matter and Change • Chapter 12 Challenge Problems


Name Date Class

CHAPTER 13 CHALLENGE PROBLEMS

Intermolecular Forces and Use with Chapter 13,


Section 13.3

Boiling Points

T he boiling points of liquids depend partly on the mass of the 100 H2O Group 6A

Boiling point (°C)


particles of which they are made. The greater the mass of hydrides
the particles, the more energy is needed to convert a liquid to a H2Te
0
gas, and, thus, the higher the boiling point of the liquid. This pat- H2Se
tern may not hold true, however, when there are significant forces H2S SnH4
between the particles of a liquid. The graph plots boiling point 100 GeH4
versus molecular mass for group 4A and group 6A hydrides. A SiH4 Group 4A
hydride is a binary compound containing hydrogen and one other CH4 hydrides
element. Use the graph to answer the following questions. 0
0 50 100 150
Molecular mass

1. How do the boiling points of the group 4A hydrides change as the molecular masses of
the hydrides change?

2. What are the molecular structure and polarity of the four group 4A hydrides?
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

3. Predict the strength of the forces between group 4A hydride molecules. Explain how
those forces affect the boiling points of group 4A hydrides.

4. How do the boiling points of the group 6A hydrides change as the molecular masses of
the hydrides change?

5. What are the molecular structure and polarity of the four group 6A hydrides?

6. Use Table 9-4 in your textbook to determine the difference in electronegativities of the
bonds in the four group 6A hydrides.

Challenge Problems Chemistry: Matter and Change • Chapter 13 13


Name Date Class

CHAPTER 14 CHALLENGE PROBLEMS

A Simple Mercury Barometer Use with Chapter 14,


Section 14.1

I n Figure 1, a simple mercury barometer is made by filling a long


glass tube with mercury and then inverting the open end of the
tube into a bowl of mercury. Answer the following questions about
Glass tube

Mercury
column
the simple mercury barometer shown here.
1. What occupies the space above the mercury column in the Bowl of
barometer’s glass tube? mercury

At sea level At 500 meters


above sea level
Figure 1 Figure 2

2. What prevents mercury from flowing out of the glass tube into the bowl of mercury?

3. When the barometer in Figure 1 is moved to a higher elevation, such as an altitude of


5000 meters, the column of mercury changes as shown in Figure 2. Why is the mercury
column lower in Figure 2 than in Figure 1?

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


4. Suppose the barometer in Figure 1 was carried into an open mine 500 meters below sea
level. How would the height of the mercury column change? Explain why.

5. Suppose the liquid used to make the barometer was water instead of mercury. How would
this substitution affect the barometer? Explain.

6. Suppose a tiny crack formed at the top of the barometer’s glass tube. How would this
event affect the column of mercury? Explain why.

14 Chemistry: Matter and Change • Chapter 14 Challenge Problems


Name Date Class

CHAPTER 15 CHALLENGE PROBLEMS

Vapor Pressure Lowering Use with Chapter 15,


Section 15.3

Y ou have learned that adding a nonvolatile solute to a solvent


lowers the vapor pressure of that solvent. The amount by
which the vapor pressure is lowered can be calculated by means of
a relationship discovered by the French chemist François Marie
Raoult (1830–1901) in 1886. According to Raoult’s law, the vapor
pressure of a solvent (P) is equal to the product of its vapor pressure
when pure (P0) and its mole fraction (X) in the solution, or

P  P0X
Solution
The solution shown at the right was made by adding 75.0 g of
sucrose (C12H22O11) to 500.0 g of water at a temperature of 20°C.
Answer the following questions about this solution. Water Sucrose
molecule molecule

1. Why do the sugar molecules in the solution lower the vapor pressure of the water?
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

2. What is the number of moles of sucrose in the solution?

3. What is the number of moles of water in the solution?

4. What is the mole fraction of water in the solution?

5. What is the vapor pressure of the solution if the vapor pressure of pure water at 20°C is
17.54 mm Hg?

6. How much is the vapor pressure of the solution reduced from that of water by the
addition of the sucrose?

Challenge Problems Chemistry: Matter and Change • Chapter 15 15


Name Date Class

CHAPTER 16 CHALLENGE PROBLEMS

Standard Heat of Formation Use with Chapter 16,


Section 16.4

C(s)  O2(g)
H ess’s law allows you to determine the
standard heat of formation of a compound
when you know the heats of reactions that lead H  110 kJ/mol
to the production of that compound. The first
1
diagram on the right shows how Hess’s law can CO(g)  O (g)
2 2
be used to calculate the heat of formation of
CO2 by knowing the heats of reaction of two
steps leading to the production of CO2. Use this
H  393 kJ/mol
diagram to help you answer the questions below
about the second diagram.
Enthalpy
H  283 kJ/mol
The equations below show how NO2 can be
formed in two ways: directly from the elements
or in two steps.

1
 N2(g)  O2(g) 0 NO2(g) H  33 kJ/mol
2
or
1 1 CO2(g)
 N2(g)   O2(g) 0 NO(g) H  91 kJ/mol
2 2

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


1 O (g) 0 NO (g)
NO(g)   H  58 kJ/mol
2 2 2
C NO(g)  1/2 O2(g)
1. On the diagram at the right, draw arrowheads
to show the directions in which the three lines
labeled 1, 2, and 3 should point.

2. Write the correct reactants and/or products on


each of the lines labeled A, B, and C. 2 H  58 kJ/mol
3. Write the correct enthalpy change next to 1 H  91 kJ/mol
each number on the diagram.
Enthalpy

B NO2(g)

3 H  33 kJ/mol

A 1/2 N2(g)  O2(g)

16 Chemistry: Matter and Change • Chapter 16 Challenge Problems


Name Date Class

CHAPTER 17 CHALLENGE PROBLEMS

Determining Reaction Rates Use with Chapter 17,


Section 17.1

D initrogen pentoxide decomposes to produce 1.6

Concentration (mol/L)
nitrogen dioxide and oxygen as represented 1.4
by the following equation. 1.2
1.0
2N2O5(g) 0 4NO2(g)  O2(g)
0.8
The graph on the right represents the concen- 0.6
tration of N2O5 remaining as the reaction proceeds 0.4
over time. Answer the following questions about 0.2
the reaction.
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Time (h)

1. What is the concentration of N2O5 at the beginning of the experiment? After 1 hour?
After 2 hours? After 10 hours?

2. By how much does the concentration of N2O5 change during the first hour of the
reaction? Calculate the percentage of change the concentration undergoes during the
first hour of the reaction.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

3. The instantaneous rate of reaction is defined as the change in concentration of reactant


during some specified time period, or instantaneous rate of reaction = [N2O5]/t. What is
the instantaneous rate of reaction for the decomposition of N2O5 for the time period
between the first and second hours of the reaction? Between the second and third hours?
Between the sixth and seventh hours?

4. What is the instantaneous rate of reaction for the decomposition of N2O5 between the sec-
ond and fourth hours of the reaction? Between the third and eighth hours of the reaction?

5. How long does it take for 0.10 mol of N2O5 to decompose during the tenth hour of the reaction?

6. What is the average rate of reaction for the decomposition of N2O5 overall?

Challenge Problems Chemistry: Matter and Change • Chapter 17 17


Name Date Class

CHAPTER 18 CHALLENGE PROBLEMS

Changing Equilibrium Use with Chapter 18,


Section 18.1

Concentrations in a Reaction
8

R eversible reactions eventually reach an equilibrium

Concentration (mol/L)
7
SO2
condition in which the concentrations of all reactants 6 SO2
and products are constant. Equilibrium can be disturbed, 5
however, by the addition or removal of either a reactant or 4 O2 O2
product. The graph on the right shows how the concentra- 3
tions of the reactants and product of a reaction change 2 SO3
when equilibrium is disturbed. Use the graph to answer the SO3
1
following questions. 0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Time (sec)
1. Write the equation for the reaction depicted in the graph.

2. Write the equilibrium constant expression for the reaction.

3. Explain the shapes of the curves for the three gases during the first 2 minutes of the
reaction.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


4. At approximately what time does the reaction reach equilibrium? How do you know
equilibrium has been reached?

5. What are the concentrations of the three gases at equilibrium?

6. Calculate the value of Keq for the reaction.

7. Describe the change made in the system 4 minutes into the reaction. Tell how you know
the change was made.

8. At what time does the system return to equilibrium?

18 Chemistry: Matter and Change • Chapter 18 Challenge Problems


Name Date Class

CHAPTER 19 CHALLENGE PROBLEMS

Swimming Pool Chemistry Use with Chapter 19,


Section 19.2

T he presence of disease-causing bacteria in swimming pools is a major health concern.


Chlorine gas is added to the water in some large commercial swimming pools to kill
bacteria. However, in most home swimming pools, either solid calcium hypochlorite
(Ca(OCl)2) or an aqueous solution of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is used to treat the
water. Both compounds dissociate in water to form the weak acid hypochlorous acid
(HOCl). Hypochlorous acid is a highly effective bactericide. By contrast, the hypochlorite
ion (OCl) is not a very effective bactericide. Use the information above to answer the
following questions about the acid-base reactions that take place in swimming pools.

1. Write an equation that shows the reaction between hypochlorous acid and water. Identify
the acid, base, conjugate acid, and conjugate base in this reaction.

2. Write an equation that shows the reaction that occurs when the hypochlorite ion (OCl),
in the form of calcium hypochlorite or sodium hypochlorite, is added to water. Name the
acid, base, conjugate acid, and conjugate base in this reaction.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

3. What effect does the addition of hypochlorite ion have on the pH of swimming pool water?

4. The effectiveness of hypochlorite ion as a bactericide depends on pH. How does high pH
affect the equilibrium reaction described in question 2? What effect would high pH have
on the bacteria?

5. In the presence of sunlight, hypochlorite ion decomposes to form chloride ion and oxygen
gas. Write an equation for this reaction and tell how it affects the safety of pool water.

Challenge Problems Chemistry: Matter and Change • Chapter 19 19


Name Date Class

CHAPTER 20 CHALLENGE PROBLEMS

Balancing Oxidation– Use with Chapter 20,


Section 20.3

Reduction Equations

S cientists have developed a number of methods for protecting


metals from oxidation. One such method involves the use of a
sacrificial metal. A sacrificial metal is a metal that is more easily
oxidized than the metal it is designed to protect. Galvanized iron, for
example, consists of a piece of iron metal covered with a thin layer Steel wire
of zinc. When galvanized iron is exposed to oxygen, it is the zinc, Iron
rather than the iron, that is oxidized. Sacrificial casing
metal
Water heaters often contain a metal rod that is made by coating
a heavy steel wire with magnesium or aluminum. In this case, the
magnesium or aluminum is the sacrificial metal, protecting the iron Water
casing of the heater from corrosion.
The diagram shows a portion of a water heater containing
a sacrificial rod. Answer the following questions about the diagram.

1. In the absence of a sacrificial metal, oxygen dissolved in water may react with the iron
casing of the heater. One product formed is iron(II) hydroxide (Fe(OH)2). Which element
is oxidized and which is reduced in this reaction?

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


2. Balance the oxidation–reduction equation for this reaction:
Fe(s)  O2(aq)  H2O 0 Fe(OH)2(aq)

3. Write the two half-reactions for this example of corrosion.

4. Suppose the sacrificial rod in the diagram above is coated with aluminum metal. Write
the balanced equation for the reaction of aluminum with oxygen dissolved in the water.
(Hint: The product formed is aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH)3).

5. Write the two half-reactions for this example of corrosion.

6. Suppose that some iron in the casing of the water heater is oxidized, as shown in the
equation of question 2 above. The sacrificial metal (aluminum, in this case) immediately
restores the Fe2 ions to iron atoms. Write two half-reactions that represent this situation.

20 Chemistry: Matter and Change • Chapter 20 Challenge Problems


Name Date Class

CHAPTER 21 CHALLENGE PROBLEMS

Effect of Concentration on Use with Chapter 21,


Section 21.1

Cell Potential

I n a voltaic cell where all ions have a concentration of 1M, the cell potential is
equal to the standard potential. For cells in which ion concentrations are greater or
less than 1M, as shown below, an adjustment must be made to calculate cell potential.
That adjustment is expressed by the Nernst equation:
[product ion]x
0.0592 log 
Ecell  E 0cell   n  [reactant ion]y

In this equation, n is the number of moles of electrons transferred in the reaction,


and x and y are the coefficients of the product and reactant ions, respectively, in the
balanced half-cell reactions for the cell.

Voltmeter

Ag Cu
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Ag Cu2
1.0  102M 1.0  103M

1. Write the two half-reactions and the overall cell reaction for the cell shown above.

2. Use Table 21-1 in your textbook to determine the standard potential of this cell.

3. Write the Nernst equation for the cell.

4. Calculate the cell potential for the ion concentrations shown in the cell.

Challenge Problems Chemistry: Matter and Change • Chapter 21 21


Name Date Class

CHAPTER 22 CHALLENGE PROBLEMS

Structural Isomers of Hexane Use with Chapter 22,


Sections 22.1 and 22.3

T he structural formula of an organic compound can sometimes be written in a


variety of ways, but sometimes structural formulas that appear similar can
represent different compounds. The structural formulas below are ten ways of
representing compounds having the molecular formula C6H14.

a. CH3 e. CH3 CH2 CH3 i. CH2 CH2 CH3

CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH3 CH CH2 CH3 CH2 CH2

CH3

b. CH3 f. CH3 CH CH CH3 j. CH3 CH3 CH3

CH CH2 CH2 CH3 CH3 CH3 CH2 CH CH2

CH3

c. CH3 g. CH2 CH CH3


CH3 CH CH CH3 CH3 CH2 CH3
CH3

d. CH3 h. CH3

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


CH3 C CH2 CH3 CH3 CH CH2

CH3 CH2 CH3

1. In the spaces provided, write the correct name for each of the structural formulas, labeled
a–j, above.

a. e. i.

b. f. j.

c. g.

d. h.

2. How many different compounds are represented by the structural formulas above? What
are their names?

22 Chemistry: Matter and Change • Chapter 22 Challenge Problems


Name Date Class

CHAPTER 23 CHALLENGE PROBLEMS

Boiling Points of Organic Use with Chapter 23,


Section 23.3

Families

T he most important factor determining the boiling point of


a substance is its atomic or molecular mass. In general,
100

Boiling point (°C)


the larger the atomic or molecular mass of the substance, the
50
more energy is needed to convert the substance from the liquid
phase to the gaseous phase. As an example, the boiling point
of ethane (molecular mass  30; boiling point  89°C) is 0
much higher than the boiling point of methane (molecular
mass  16; boiling point  161°C). 50

Intermolecular forces between the particles of a liquid also


can affect the liquid’s boiling point. The graph shows trends in 30 40 50 60 70 80
the boiling points of four organic families: alkanes, alcohols, Molecular mass
aldehydes, and ethers. Use the graph and your knowledge of
intermolecular forces to answer the following questions.  alkane  aldehyde
 alcohol  ether

1. For any one family, what is the relationship between molecular mass and boiling point?

2. For compounds of similar molecular mass, which family of the four shown in the graph
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

has the lowest boiling points? Which family has the highest boiling points?

3. Find and list the boiling points for ethanol (molecular mass  46) and dimethyl ether
(molecular mass  46) on the graph. Why would you expect these two compounds to
have relatively similar boiling points?

4. Find the aldehyde with a molecular mass of about 58. Name that aldehyde and write its
chemical formula.

5. Can this aldehyde form hydrogen bonds? Can other aldehydes form hydrogen bonds?
Explain.

Challenge Problems Chemistry: Matter and Change • Chapter 23 23


Name Date Class

CHAPTER 24 CHALLENGE PROBLEMS

The Chemistry of Life Use with Chapter 24,


Section 24.4

P roteins are synthesized when RNA molecules


translate the DNA language of nitrogen bases
into the protein language of amino acids using a
The Genetic Code
Second base
U C A G
genetic code. The genetic code is found in RNA mole-
cules called messenger RNA (mRNA), which are syn-
U
UUU
UUC } Phe
UCU
UCC
UAU
UAC }Tyr UGU
UGC } Cys U
C
thesized from DNA molecules. The genetic code Ser
Stop Stop A
consists of a sequence of three nitrogen bases in the
UUA
UUG } Leu
UCA
UCG
UAA
UAG Stop
UGA
UGG Trp G
mRNA, called a codon. Most codons code for specific
amino acids. A few codons code for a stop in the syn-
CUU
CUC
CCU
CCC
CAU
CAC } His CGU
CGC
U
C
C Leu Pro Arg

First base

Third base
thesis of proteins. The table shows the mRNA codons CUA
CUG
CCA
CCG
CAA
CAG } Gln CGA
CGG
A
G
that make up the genetic code. To use the table, read
the three nitrogen bases in sequence. The first base is
AUU
AUC Ile
ACU
ACC
AAU
AAC } Asn AGU
AGC } Ser
U
C
A Thr
shown along the left side of the table. The second base
is shown along the top of the table. The third base is
AUA
AUG
ACA
Met ACG
AAA
AAG } Lys AGA
AGG } Arg
A
G
shown along the right side of the table. For example, GUU
GUC
GCU
GCC
GAU
GAC } Asp GGU
GGC
U
C
the sequence CAU codes for the amino acid histidine G Val Ala Gly
(His). The table gives abbreviations for the amino
GUA
GUG
GCA
GCG
GAA
GAG } Glu GGA
GGG
A
G
acids. Answer the following questions about the
genetic code.

1. What amino acid is represented by each of the following codons?

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


a. CUG b. UCA

2. Write the sequence of amino acids for which the following mRNA sequence codes.
-C-A-U-C-A-C-C-G-G-U-C-U-U-U-U-C-U-U-

3. Errors sometimes occur when mRNA molecules are synthesized from DNA molecules.
Nitrogen bases may be omitted, an extra nitrogen base may be added, or a nitrogen base
may be changed during synthesis. The two mRNA sequences shown below are examples
of such errors. In each case, tell how the mRNA sequence shown differs from the correct
mRNA sequence given in question 2.
a. -C-A-U-C-A-C-C-G-G-U-U-C-U-U-U-U-C-U-U-

b. -C-A-U-U-A-C-C-G-G-U-C-U-U-U-U-C-U-U-

4. Write the amino acid sequence for each of the mRNA sequences shown in question 3.

a.

b.

24 Chemistry: Matter and Change • Chapter 24 Challenge Problems


Name Date Class

CHAPTER 25 CHALLENGE PROBLEMS

The Production of Use with Chapter 25,


Section 25.4

Plutonium-239
45p
75n B

W hen nuclear fission was first discovered, only two


isotopes, uranium-233 and uranium-235, were
known of being capable of undergoing this nuclear change.
92p
1n
0
92p
143n
143n 1n
1n
Scientists later discovered a third isotope, plutonium-239, 0
A
0

also could undergo nuclear fission. Plutonium-239 does not


occur in nature but can be made synthetically in nuclear 92p
Source 146n
reactors and particle accelerators. of 0

0
neutrons C
The diagram shows the process by which plutonium-239
1n
is made in nuclear reactors. Answer the questions about the 0

–1
0
diagram.
D
–1
0
1. Identify the isotope whose nucleus is labeled A in the
F
diagram. 48p
77n E
2. Name the type of nuclear reaction that occurs when a G

neutron strikes nucleus A.


3. Identify the isotope whose nucleus is labeled B.
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

4. Besides fragmented nuclei, what else is produced when a neutron strikes nucleus A?

5. Identify the isotope whose nucleus is labeled C.

6. Write the nuclear equation for the reaction that occurs when a neutron strikes nucleus C.
Identify the product D formed in the reaction.

7. Write the nuclear equation for the decay of nucleus D. Identify isotope E formed in the
reaction.

8. Write a balanced nuclear equation for the decay of nucleus E. Identify isotope F formed
in the reaction.

9. Name the type of nuclear reaction that occurs when a neutron strikes nucleus F.

10. Write the nuclear equation for the reaction that occurs when a neutron strikes nucleus F.
Identify isotope G formed in the reaction.

Challenge Problems Chemistry: Matter and Change • Chapter 25 25


Name Date Class

CHAPTER 26 CHALLENGE PROBLEMS

The Phosphorus Cycle Use with Chapter 26,


Section 26.4

P hosphorus is an important element both in organisms and in the lithosphere. In


organisms, phosphorus occurs in DNA and RNA molecules, cell membranes, bones
and teeth, and in the energy–storage compound adenosine triphosphate (ATP). In the litho-
sphere, phosphorus occurs primarily in the form of phosphates, as a major constituent of
many rocks and minerals. Phosphate rock is mined to produce many commercial products,
such as fertilizers and detergents. When these products are used, phosphates are returned to
the lithosphere and hydrosphere. Thus, phosphorus—like carbon and nitrogen—cycles in the
environment. Use the diagram of the phosphorus cycle to answer the questions below.

Phosphate
rocks

Geological uplift Phosphate rocks

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


1. By what methods does phosphorus get into soil?

2. By what method do plants obtain the phosphorus they need?

3. By what method do animals obtain the phosphorus they need?

4. In what way is the phosphorus cycle different from the carbon and nitrogen cycles you
studied in the textbook?

5. The phosphorus cycle has both short-term and long-term parts. Use different colored
pencils to show each part on the diagram.

26 Chemistry: Matter and Change • Chapter 26 Challenge Problems