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‫ ݔ݀ݔݏ݋ܿ ‪ ௡‬ݔ ‪න‬‬

‫ ݔ݊݅ݏ ‪ ൌ‬ݑ ฺ ݔݏ݋ܿ ‪ᇱ ൌ‬ݑݐ݁ܮ‬

‫‪ ௡ିଵ g‬ݔ݊ ‪ ᇱ ൌ‬ݒ  ฺ  ‪ ௡‬ݔ  ‪ ൌ‬ݒݐ݁ܮ‬

‫‪g
g  g  g‬‬

‫ ݔ݀ݔ݊݅ݏ ‪ ௡ିଵ‬ݔ ‪ െ ݊ න‬ݔ݊݅ݏ ‪ ௡‬ݔ ‪ ൌ‬ݔ݀ݔݏ݋ܿ ‪ ௡‬ݔ ‪න‬‬

‫
  " !
 
   

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‫ ݔ݀ݔ݊݅ݏ ‪ ௡‬ݔ ‪න‬‬

‫ ݔݏ݋ܿ‪ ൌ െ‬ݑ ฺ ݔ݊݅ݏ ‪ᇱ ൌ‬ݑݐ݁ܮ‬

‫‪ ௡ିଵ g‬ݔ݊ ‪ ᇱ ൌ‬ݒ  ฺ  ‪ ௡‬ݔ  ‪ ൌ‬ݒݐ݁ܮ‬

‫‪g
g  g  g‬‬

‫ ݔ݀ݔݏ݋ܿ ‪ ௡ିଵ‬ݔ ‪ ൅ ݊ න‬ݔݏ݋ܿ ‪ ௡‬ݔ‪ ൌ െ‬ݔ݀ݔ݊݅ݏ ‪ ௡‬ݔ ‪න‬‬

‫‬

‫
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‬

‫ ݔ݀ݔ ‪݅݊௡‬ݏ ‪න‬‬

‫ ݔݏ݋ܿ‪ ൌ െ‬ݑ ฺ ݔ݊݅ݏ ‪ᇱ ൌ‬ݑݐ݁ܮ‬


‫ ݒݐ݁ܮ‬ൌ  ‫݊݅ݏ‬௡ିଵ ‫ ݒ  ฺ ݔ‬ᇱ ൌ ሺ݊ െ ͳሻ‫݊݅ݏ‬௡ିଶ ‫ ݔݏ݋ܿݔ‬g

ฺ  න ‫݊݅ݏ‬௡ ‫ ݔ݀ݔ‬ൌ െ‫݊݅ݏ‬௡ିଵ ‫ ݔݏ݋ܿݔ‬൅  ሺ݊ െ ͳሻ න ‫݊݅ݏ‬௡ିଶ ‫ ݔ݀ ݔݏ݋ܿݔݏ݋ܿݔ‬

#"

ܿ‫ ݏ݋‬ଶ ‫ ݔ‬ൌ ͳ െ ‫݊݅ݏ‬ଶ ‫ݔ‬

ฺ  ‫݊݅ݏ‬௡ିଶ ‫ ݔݏ݋ܿݔݏ݋ܿݔ‬ൌ ‫݊݅ݏ‬௡ିଶ ‫ ݔ‬ሺͳ െ ‫݊݅ݏ‬ଶ ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ‫݊݅ݏ‬௡ିଶ ‫ ݔ‬െ ‫݊݅ݏ‬௡ ‫ ݔ‬

ฺ  න ‫݊݅ݏ‬௡ ‫ ݔ݀ݔ‬ൌ െ‫݊݅ݏ‬௡ିଵ ‫ ݔݏ݋ܿݔ‬൅  ሺ݊ െ ͳሻ නሺ‫݊݅ݏ‬௡ିଶ ‫ ݔ‬െ ‫݊݅ݏ‬௡ ‫ݔ‬ሻ ݀‫ݔ‬

ฺ  න ‫݊݅ݏ‬௡ ‫ ݔ݀ݔ‬ൌ െ‫݊݅ݏ‬௡ିଵ ‫ ݔݏ݋ܿݔ‬൅  ሺ݊ െ ͳሻ ൜න ‫݊݅ݏ‬௡ିଶ ‫ ݔ݀ݔ‬െ න ‫݊݅ݏ‬௡ ‫ݔ݀ݔ‬ൠ

ฺ  න ‫݊݅ݏ‬௡ ‫ ݔ݀ݔ‬ൌ െ‫݊݅ݏ‬௡ିଵ ‫ ݔݏ݋ܿݔ‬൅  ሺ݊ െ ͳሻ න ‫݊݅ݏ‬௡ିଶ ‫ ݔ݀ݔ‬െ ሺ݊ െ ͳሻ න ‫݊݅ݏ‬௡ ‫ݔ݀ݔ‬

ฺ  න ‫݊݅ݏ‬௡ ‫ ݔ݀ݔ‬൅ ሺ݊ െ ͳሻ න ‫݊݅ݏ‬௡ ‫ ݔ݀ݔ‬ൌ െ‫݊݅ݏ‬௡ିଵ ‫ ݔݏ݋ܿݔ‬൅  ሺ݊ െ ͳሻ න ‫݊݅ݏ‬௡ିଶ ‫ݔ݀ݔ‬

ฺ ݊ න ‫݊݅ݏ‬௡ ‫ ݔ݀ݔ‬ൌ െ‫݊݅ݏ‬௡ିଵ ‫ ݔݏ݋ܿݔ‬൅  ሺ݊ െ ͳሻ න ‫݊݅ݏ‬௡ିଶ ‫ ݔ݀ݔ‬

࢙࢏࢔࢔ି૚ ࢞ࢉ࢕࢙࢞ ࢔െ૚


ฺ  න ࢙࢏࢔ ࢞ࢊ࢞ ൌ െ

൅  න ࢙࢏࢔࢔ି૛ ࢞ࢊ࢞
࢔ ࢔


   
 
! "  


න ܿ‫ ݏ݋‬௡ ‫ ݔ݀ݔ‬

‫ݑݐ݁ܮ‬ᇱ ൌ ܿ‫ ݑ ฺ ݔݏ݋‬ൌ ‫ ݔ݊݅ݏ‬

‫ ݒݐ݁ܮ‬ൌ  ܿ‫ ݏ݋‬௡ିଵ ‫ ݒ  ฺ ݔ‬ᇱ ൌ െሺ݊ െ ͳሻܿ‫ ݏ݋‬௡ିଶ ‫ ݔ݊݅ݏݔ‬g

ฺ  න ܿ‫ ݏ݋‬௡ ‫ ݔ݀ݔ‬ൌ ܿ‫ ݏ݋‬௡ିଵ ‫ ݔ݊݅ݏݔ‬൅  ሺ݊ െ ͳሻ න ܿ‫ ݏ݋‬௡ିଶ ‫ ݔ݀ ݔ݊݅ݏݔ݊݅ݏݔ‬

#"

‫݊݅ݏ‬ଶ ‫ ݔ‬ൌ ͳ െ ܿ‫ ݏ݋‬ଶ ‫ݔ‬

ฺ  ܿ‫ ݏ݋‬௡ିଶ ‫ ݔ݊݅ݏݔ݊݅ݏݔ‬ൌ ܿ‫ ݏ݋‬௡ିଶ ‫ݔ‬ሺͳ െ ܿ‫ ݏ݋‬ଶ ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ܿ‫ ݏ݋‬௡ିଶ ‫ ݔ‬െ ܿ‫ ݏ݋‬௡ ‫ݔ‬

ฺ  න ܿ‫ ݏ݋‬௡ ‫ ݔ݀ݔ‬ൌ ܿ‫ ݏ݋‬௡ିଵ ‫ ݔ݊݅ݏݔ‬൅ ሺ݊ െ ͳሻ නሺܿ‫ ݏ݋‬௡ିଶ ‫ ݔ‬െ ܿ‫ ݏ݋‬௡ ‫ݔ‬ሻ ݀‫ ݔ‬
ฺ  න ܿ‫ ݏ݋‬௡ ‫ ݔ݀ݔ‬ൌ ܿ‫ ݏ݋‬௡ିଵ ‫ ݔ݊݅ݏݔ‬൅  ሺ݊ െ ͳሻ ൜න ܿ‫ ݏ݋‬௡ିଶ ‫ ݔ݀ݔ‬െ න ܿ‫ ݏ݋‬௡ ‫ݔ݀ݔ‬ൠ

ฺ  න ܿ‫ ݏ݋‬௡ ‫ ݔ݀ݔ‬ൌ ܿ‫ ݏ݋‬௡ିଵ ‫ ݔ݊݅ݏݔ‬൅  ሺ݊ െ ͳሻ න ܿ‫ ݏ݋‬௡ିଶ ‫ ݔ݀ݔ‬െ ሺ݊ െ ͳሻ න ܿ‫ ݏ݋‬௡ ‫ ݔ݀ݔ‬

ฺ  න ܿ‫ ݏ݋‬௡ ‫ ݔ݀ݔ‬൅ ሺ݊ െ ͳሻ න ܿ‫ ݏ݋‬௡ ‫ ݔ݀ݔ‬ൌ ܿ‫ ݏ݋‬௡ିଵ ‫ ݔ݊݅ݏݔ‬൅  ሺ݊ െ ͳሻ න ܿ‫ ݏ݋‬௡ିଶ ‫ ݔ݀ݔ‬

ฺ ݊ න ܿ‫ ݏ݋‬௡ ‫ ݔ݀ݔ‬ൌ ܿ‫ ݏ݋‬௡ିଵ ‫ ݔ݊݅ݏݔ‬൅  ሺ݊ െ ͳሻ න ܿ‫ ݏ݋‬௡ିଶ ‫ ݔ݀ݔ‬

ࢉ࢕࢙࢔ି૚ ࢙࢞࢏࢔࢞ ࢔െ૚


ฺ  න ࢉ࢕࢙ ࢞ࢊ࢞ ൌ

൅  න ࢉ࢕࢙࢔ି૛ ࢞ࢊ࢞
࢔ ࢔
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න ‫ ݔ‬ଶ ܿ‫ ݔ݀ݔݏ݋‬

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න ‫ ݔ‬௡ ܿ‫ ݔ݀ݔݏ݋‬ൌ ‫ ݔ‬௡ ‫ ݔ݊݅ݏ‬െ ݊ න ‫ ݔ‬௡ିଵ ‫ ݔ݀ݔ݊݅ݏ‬

 
గ గ
න ‫ ݔ‬ଶ ܿ‫ ݔ݀ݔݏ݋‬ൌ ൤‫ ݔ‬ଶ ‫ ݔ݊݅ݏ‬െ ʹ න ‫ ݔ‬ଶିଵ ‫ݔ݀ݔ݊݅ݏ‬൨ 
଴ ଴


ൌ ሾ‫ ݔ‬ଶ ‫ݔ݊݅ݏ‬ሿగ଴ െ ʹ න ‫ݔ‬ଵ ‫ ݔ݀ݔ݊݅ݏ‬

#"!
   

 
&&

න ‫ ݔ‬௡ ‫ ݔ݀ݔ݊݅ݏ‬ൌ െ‫ ݔ‬௡ ܿ‫ ݔݏ݋‬൅ ݊ න ‫ ݔ‬௡ିଵ ܿ‫ ݔ݀ݔݏ݋‬

గ గ
ฺ න ‫ݔ‬ଵ ‫ ݔ݀ݔ݊݅ݏ‬ൌ ൤െ‫ݔ‬ଵ ܿ‫ ݔݏ݋‬൅ ͳ න ‫ݔ‬ଵିଵ ܿ‫ݔ݀ݔݏ݋‬൨ 
଴ ଴


ൌ ሾെ‫ݔ‬ଵ ܿ‫ݔݏ݋‬ሿగ଴ ൅ ͳ න ‫ ݔ‬଴ ܿ‫ݔ݀ݔݏ݋‬


ൌ ሾെ‫ݔݏ݋ܿݔ‬ሿగ଴ ൅ න ܿ‫ݔ݀ݔݏ݋‬

ൌ ሾെ‫ݔݏ݋ܿݔ‬ሿగ଴ ൅ ሾ‫ݔ݊݅ݏ‬ሿగ଴ 
ൌ ሼ‫ۃ‬െߨܿ‫ ۄߨݏ݋‬െ ‫ۃ‬െͲܿ‫ۄͲݏ݋‬ሽ ൅ ሼ‫ ۄߨ݊݅ݏۃ‬െ ‫ۄͲ݊݅ݏۃ‬ሽ

ൌ ሼ‫ۃ‬െߨሺെͳሻ‫ۄ‬Ȅ Ͳ ‫ۄͳ כ‬ሽ ൅ ሼ‫ ۄͲۃ‬െ ‫ۄͲۃ‬ሽ

ൌ ሼߨ‫ ۄ‬൅ ሼͲሽ

ൌ ߨ

ฺ  ሾ‫ ݔ‬ଶ ‫ݔ݊݅ݏ‬ሿగ଴ െ ʹ න ‫ݔ‬ଵ ‫ ݔ݀ݔ݊݅ݏ‬ൌ ሾ‫ ݔ‬ଶ ‫ݔ݊݅ݏ‬ሿగ଴ െ ʹሼߨሽ

#"

ሾ‫ ݔ‬ଶ ‫ݔ݊݅ݏ‬ሿగ଴ ൌ ‫ ߨۃ‬ଶ ‫ ۄߨ݊݅ݏ‬െ ‫Ͳۃ‬ଶ ‫ۄͲ݊݅ݏ‬

ൌ ‫ ߨ ۃ‬ଶ ‫ ۄͲ כ‬െ ‫Ͳ ۃ‬ଶ ‫ ۄͲ כ‬

ൌ ‫ ۄͲۃ‬െ ‫ۄͲۃ‬

ൌ Ͳ
గ గ
ฺ  න ‫ ݔ݀ݔݏ݋ܿ ݔ‬ൌ 
ଶ ሾ‫ ݔ‬ଶ ‫ݔ݊݅ݏ‬ሿగ଴ െ ʹ න ‫ݔ‬ଵ ‫ ݔ݀ݔ݊݅ݏ‬ൌ ሾ‫ ݔ‬ଶ ‫ݔ݊݅ݏ‬ሿగ଴ െ ʹሼߨሽ
଴ ଴


ฺ  න ‫ ݔ‬ଶ ܿ‫ ݔ݀ݔݏ݋‬ൌ Ͳ െ ʹሼߨሽ


ฺ  න ࢞૛ ࢉ࢕࢙࢞ࢊ࢞ ൌ െ૛࣊

'%
గൗ

න ‫݊݅ݏ‬ଶ ‫ ݔ݀ݔ‬

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‫݊݅ݏ‬ଶିଵ ‫ݔݏ݋ܿݔ‬ ሺ ʹ െ ͳሻ
න ‫݊݅ݏ‬ଶ ‫ ݔ݀ݔ‬ൌ െ ൅  න ‫݊݅ݏ‬ଶିଶ ‫ ݔ݀ݔ‬g
ʹ ʹ

‫ͳ ݔݏ݋ܿݔ݊݅ݏ‬
ൌെ ൅ න ‫݊݅ݏ‬଴ ‫ ݔ݀ݔ‬
ʹ ʹ

‫ͳ ݔݏ݋ܿݔ݊݅ݏ‬
ൌെ ൅ න ݀‫ݔ‬
ʹ ʹ

‫ͳ ݔݏ݋ܿݔ݊݅ݏ‬
ൌെ ൅ ‫ݔ‬
ʹ ʹ
గൗ గ
ଶ ‫ͳ ݔݏ݋ܿݔ݊݅ݏ‬ ൗଶ
ฺන ‫ ݔ݀ݔ ݊݅ݏ‬ൌ ൤െ

൅ ‫ݔ‬൨ 
଴ ʹ ʹ ଴

‫݊݅ݏ‬൫ߨൗʹ൯ܿ‫ݏ݋‬൫ߨൗʹ൯ ͳ ‫݊݅ݏ‬ሺͲሻܿ‫ݏ݋‬ሺͲሻ ͳ
ൌ ‫ۃ‬െ ൅ ൫ߨൗʹ൯‫ ۄ‬െ ‫ۃ‬െ ൅ ሺͲሻ‫ۄ‬
ʹ ʹ ʹ ʹ
ͳ‫ͳ ߨ Ͳכ‬ Ͳ‫ͳכ‬
ൌ ‫ۃ‬െ ൅ ‫ ۄ כ‬െ ‫ۃ‬െ ൅ Ͳ‫ ۄ‬
ʹ ʹ ʹ ʹ
ߨ ͳ
ൌ ‫ ۄ כ ۃ‬െ ‫ ۄͲ ۃ‬
ʹ ʹ

࣊ ૚ ࣊
ൌ ‫ כ‬ൌ 
૛ ૛ ૝
(%
గൗ

න ‫݊݅ݏ‬ଷ ‫ ݔ݀ݔ‬

m 
  
 

‫݊݅ݏ‬ଷିଵ ‫ݔݏ݋ܿݔ‬ ሺ ͵ െ ͳሻ
න ‫݊݅ݏ‬ଷ ‫ ݔ݀ݔ‬ൌ െ ൅  න ‫݊݅ݏ‬ଷିଶ ‫ ݔ݀ݔ‬g
͵ ͵

‫݊݅ݏ‬ଶ ‫ʹ ݔݏ݋ܿݔ‬
ൌെ ൅ න ‫ ݔ݀ݔ݊݅ݏ‬
͵ ͵

‫݊݅ݏ‬ଶ ‫ʹ ݔݏ݋ܿݔ‬
ൌെ ൅ ሺെܿ‫ݔݏ݋‬ሻ
͵ ͵
గൗ గൗ
ଶ ‫݊݅ݏ‬ଶ ‫ʹ ݔݏ݋ܿݔ‬ ଶ
ฺන ‫݊݅ݏ‬ଷ ‫ ݔ݀ݔ‬ൌ ቈെ െ ܿ‫ݔݏ݋‬቉ 
଴ ͵ ͵ ଴

‫݊݅ݏ‬ଶ ൫ߨൗʹ൯ܿ‫ݏ݋‬൫ߨൗʹ൯ ʹ ‫݊݅ݏ‬ଶ ሺͲሻܿ‫ݏ݋‬ሺͲሻ ʹ


ൌ ‫ۃ‬െ െ ܿ‫ݏ݋‬൫ߨൗʹ൯‫ ۄ‬െ ‫ۃ‬െ െ …‘•ሺͲሻ‫ۄ‬
͵ ͵ ͵ ͵

ͳଶ ‫ʹ Ͳ כ‬ Ͳଶ ‫ʹ ͳ כ‬
ൌ ‫ۃ‬െ െ ‫ ۄͲ כ‬െ ‫ ۃ‬െ െ ‫ ۄͳ כ‬
͵ ͵ ͵ ͵
ʹ
ൌ ‫ ۄͲۃ‬െ ‫ۃ‬െ ‫ۄ‬
͵






)%
గൗ

න ‫݊݅ݏ‬ସ ‫ ݔ݀ݔ‬

m 
  
 

‫݊݅ݏ‬ସିଵ ‫ݔݏ݋ܿݔ‬ ሺ Ͷ െ ͳሻ
න ‫݊݅ݏ‬ସ ‫ ݔ݀ݔ‬ൌ െ ൅  න ‫݊݅ݏ‬ସିଶ ‫ ݔ݀ݔ‬g
Ͷ Ͷ

‫݊݅ݏ‬ଷ ‫͵ ݔݏ݋ܿݔ‬
ൌെ ൅ න ‫݊݅ݏ‬ଶ ‫ ݔ݀ݔ‬
Ͷ Ͷ

‫݊݅ݏ‬ଷ ‫͵ ݔݏ݋ܿݔ‬
ൌെ ൅ න ‫݊݅ݏ‬ଶ ‫ ݔ݀ݔ‬
Ͷ Ͷ
గൗ గൗ
ଶ ‫݊݅ݏ‬ଷ ‫͵ ݔݏ݋ܿݔ‬ ଶ
ฺන ‫݊݅ݏ‬ସ ‫ ݔ݀ݔ‬ൌ ቈെ ൅ න ‫݊݅ݏ‬ଶ ‫ݔ݀ݔ‬቉ 
଴ Ͷ Ͷ ଴

గൗ గൗ
‫݊݅ݏ‬ଷ ‫ݔݏ݋ܿݔ‬ ଶ ͵ ଶ
ൌ ቈെ ቉ ൅ න ‫݊݅ݏ‬ଶ ‫ ݔ݀ݔ‬
Ͷ ଴
Ͷ ଴

࣊ൗ
— 
    ó૙ ૛ ࢙࢏࢔૛ ࢞ࢊ࢞ 

࣊ൗ
૛ ࣊ ૚
න ࢙࢏࢔૛ ࢞ࢊ࢞ ൌ ‫ כ‬g
૙ ૛ ૛

గൗ గൗ
ଶ ‫݊݅ݏ‬ଷ ‫ݔݏ݋ܿݔ‬ ଶ ͵ ࣊ ૚
ฺන ‫ ݔ݀ݔ ݊݅ݏ‬ൌ ቈെ
ସ ቉ ൅ ൬ ‫ כ‬൰g
଴ Ͷ ଴
Ͷ ૛ ૛

గൗ
‫݊݅ݏ‬ଷ ‫ ݔݏ݋ܿݔ‬ଶ
ܰ‫ ݓ݋‬ቈെ ቉ g
Ͷ ଴

‫݊݅ݏ‬ଷ ൫ߨൗʹ൯ܿ‫ݏ݋‬൫ߨൗʹ൯ ‫݊݅ݏ‬ଷ ሺͲሻܿ‫ݏ݋‬ሺͲሻ


ൌ ‫ۃ‬െ ‫ ۄ‬െ ‫ۃ‬െ ‫ۄ‬
Ͷ Ͷ

ͳଷ ‫Ͳ כ‬ Ͳଷ ‫ͳ כ‬
ൌ ‫ۃ‬െ ‫ ۄ‬െ ‫ۃ‬െ ‫ۄ‬
Ͷ Ͷ

ൌ ‫ ۄͲۃ‬െ ‫ۄͲۃ‬

ൌ ૙
గൗ
͵ ࣊ ૚
‫݊݅ݏ‬ସ ‫ ݔ݀ݔ‬ൌ ૙ ൅ ൬ ‫ כ‬൰g

ฺන
଴ Ͷ ૛ ૛
࣊ൗ
૛ ࣊ ૚ ૜
ฺන ࢙࢏࢔૝ ࢞ࢊ࢞ ൌ  ‫ כ כ‬g
૙ ૛ ૛ ૝

}%
గൗ

න ‫݊݅ݏ‬ହ ‫ ݔ݀ݔ‬

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‫݊݅ݏ‬ହିଵ ‫ݔݏ݋ܿݔ‬ ሺ ͷ െ ͳሻ
න ‫݊݅ݏ‬ହ ‫ ݔ݀ݔ‬ൌ െ ൅  න ‫݊݅ݏ‬ହିଶ ‫ ݔ݀ݔ‬g
ͷ ͷ

‫݊݅ݏ‬ସ ‫ ݔݏ݋ܿݔ‬Ͷ
ൌെ ൅ න ‫݊݅ݏ‬ଷ ‫ ݔ݀ݔ‬
ͷ ͷ
గൗ గൗ
ଶ ‫݊݅ݏ‬ସ ‫ ݔݏ݋ܿݔ‬Ͷ ଶ
ฺන ‫݊݅ݏ‬ହ ‫ ݔ݀ݔ‬ൌ ቈെ ൅ න ‫݊݅ݏ‬ଷ ‫ݔ݀ݔ‬቉ 
଴ ͷ ͷ ଴

గൗ గൗ గൗ
ଶ ‫݊݅ݏ‬ସ ‫ݔݏ݋ܿݔ‬ ଶ Ͷ ଶ
ฺන ‫ ݔ݀ݔ ݊݅ݏ‬ൌ ቈെ
ହ ቉ ൅ න ‫݊݅ݏ‬ଷ ‫ݔ݀ݔ‬
଴ ͷ ଴
ͷ ଴

గൗ
ଶ ʹ
ܰ‫ ݐ݄ܽݐ݁ݒ݋ܾܽ݉݋ݎ݂ݓ݋݊݇݁ݓݓ݋‬න ‫݊݅ݏ‬ଷ ‫ ݔ݀ݔ‬ൌ 
଴ ͵

గൗ గൗ
ଶ ‫݊݅ݏ‬ସ ‫ݔݏ݋ܿݔ‬ ଶ Ͷ ʹ
ฺන ‫ ݔ݀ݔ ݊݅ݏ‬ൌ ቈെ
ହ ቉ ൅ ሺ ሻ
଴ ͷ ଴
ͷ ͵

గൗ
‫݊݅ݏ‬ସ ‫ ݔݏ݋ܿݔ‬ଶ
ܰ‫ ݓ݋‬ቈെ ቉ 
ͷ ଴

‫݊݅ݏ‬ସ ൫ߨൗʹ൯ܿ‫ݏ݋‬൫ߨൗʹ൯ ‫݊݅ݏ‬ସ ሺͲሻܿ‫ݏ݋‬ሺͲሻ


ൌ ‫ۃ‬െ ‫ ۄ‬െ ‫ۃ‬െ ‫ۄ‬
ͷ ͷ

ͳସ ‫Ͳ כ‬ Ͳସ ‫ͳ כ‬
ൌ ‫ۃ‬െ ‫ ۄ‬െ ‫ۃ‬െ ‫ۄ‬
ͷ ͷ

ൌ ‫ ۄͲۃ‬െ ‫ۄͲۃ‬

ൌ ૙
గൗ
Ͷ ʹ
‫݊݅ݏ‬ହ ‫ ݔ݀ݔ‬ൌ ૙ ൅ ሺ ሻ

ฺන
଴ ͷ ͵
૛ ૝
ൌ ‫ כ‬
૜ ૞
 *!
   
&!" 
!     
 
గൗ
ଶ ߨ ͳ ͵ ͷ ʹ݊ െ ͳ
න ‫݊݅ݏ‬ଶ௡ ‫ ݔ݀ݔ‬ൌ ‫ כ כ כ‬ǥ
ʹ ʹ Ͷ ͸ ʹ݊



గൗ
ଶ ʹ Ͷ ͸ ͺ ʹ݊
න ‫݊݅ݏ‬ଶ௡ାଵ ‫ ݔ݀ݔ‬ൌ ‫ כ כ כ‬ǥ
͵ ͷ ͹ ͻ ʹ݊ ൅ ͳ


„  
గൗ

න ‫݊݅ݏ‬ଶ௡ ‫ ݔ݀ݔ‬



+
  " !
   

 
&&

‫݊݅ݏ‬௠ିଵ ‫ݔݏ݋ܿݔ‬ ݉െͳ


න ‫݊݅ݏ‬௠ ‫ ݔ݀ݔ‬ൌ െ ൅  න ‫݊݅ݏ‬௠ିଶ ‫ ݉ݎ݋݂ ݔ݀ݔ‬൒ ʹ
݉ ݉

#"&   
 ! " +
  

‫݊݅ݏ‬ଶ௡ିଵ ‫ݔݏ݋ܿݔ‬ ʹ݊ െ ͳ
න ‫݊݅ݏ‬ଶ௡ ‫ ݔ݀ݔ‬ൌ െ ൅  න ‫݊݅ݏ‬ଶ௡ିଶ ‫ ݊ʹݎ݋݂ ݔ݀ݔ‬൒ ʹ ฺ ݊ ൒ ͳ
ʹ݊ ʹ݊
గൗ గൗ
ଶ ‫݊݅ݏ‬ଶ௡ିଵ ‫ݔݏ݋ܿݔ‬ ʹ݊ െ ͳ ଶ
න ‫݊݅ݏ‬ଶ௡ ‫ ݔ݀ݔ‬ൌ ቈെ ൅  න ‫݊݅ݏ‬ଶ௡ିଶ ‫ݔ݀ݔ‬቉ 
଴ ʹ݊ ʹ݊ ଴

గൗ గൗ
‫݊݅ݏ‬ଶ௡ିଵ ‫ݔݏ݋ܿݔ‬ ଶ ʹ݊ െ ͳ ଶ
ൌ ቈെ ቉ ൅  න ‫݊݅ݏ‬ଶ௡ିଶ ‫ ݔ݀ݔ‬
ʹ݊ ଴
ʹ݊ ଴

గൗ
௦௜௡మ೙షభ௫௖௢௦௫ ଶ
,-ቂെ ଶ௡





‫݊݅ݏ‬ଶ௡ିଵ ߨൗʹ ܿ‫ߨ ݏ݋‬ൗʹ


గൗ
‫݊݅ݏ‬ଶ௡ିଵ ‫ݔݏ݋ܿݔ‬ ଶ ‫݊݅ݏ‬ଶ௡ିଵ Ͳܿ‫Ͳݏ݋‬
ቈെ ቉ ൌ ‫ۃ‬െ ‫ ۄ‬െ ‫ۃ‬െ ‫ۄ‬
ʹ݊ ଴
ʹ݊ ʹ݊

൫‫ߨ ݊݅ݏ‬ൗʹ൯ ܿ‫ߨ ݏ݋‬ൗʹ


ଶ௡ିଵ
ሺ‫Ͳ݊݅ݏ‬ሻଶ௡ିଵ ܿ‫Ͳݏ݋‬
ൌ ‫ۃ‬െ ‫ ۄ‬െ ‫ۃ‬െ ‫ۄ‬
ʹ݊ ʹ݊

ሺͳሻଶ௡ିଵ ‫Ͳ כ‬ ሺͲሻଶ௡ିଵ ‫ͳ כ‬
ൌ ‫ۃ‬െ ‫ ۄ‬െ ‫ۃ‬െ ‫ۄ‬
ʹ݊ ʹ݊
ሺ ͳሻ ‫Ͳ כ‬ ሺ Ͳሻ ‫ͳ כ‬
ൌ ‫ۃ‬െ ‫ ۄ‬െ ‫ۃ‬െ ‫ۄ‬
ʹ݊ ʹ݊

ൌ ‫ ۄͲۃ‬െ ‫ۄͲۃ‬

ൌ Ͳ

గൗ గൗ గൗ
ଶ ‫݊݅ݏ‬ଶ௡ିଵ ‫ݔݏ݋ܿݔ‬ ଶ ʹ݊ െ ͳ ଶ
ฺ  න ‫ ݔ݀ݔ ݊݅ݏ‬ൌ ቈെ
ଶ௡ ቉ ൅  න ‫݊݅ݏ‬ଶ௡ିଶ ‫ݔ݀ݔ‬
଴ ʹ݊ ଴
ʹ݊ ଴

గൗ గൗ
ଶ ʹ݊ െ ͳ ଶ
ฺ  න ‫ ݔ݀ݔ ݊݅ݏ‬ൌ Ͳ ൅ 
ଶ௡ න ‫݊݅ݏ‬ଶ௡ିଶ ‫ ݔ݀ݔ‬
଴ ʹ݊ ଴

గൗ గൗ
ଶ ʹ݊ െ ͳ ଶ
ฺ  න ‫ ݔ݀ݔ ݊݅ݏ‬ൌ 
ଶ௡ න ‫݊݅ݏ‬ଶ௡ିଶ ‫ ݔ݀ݔ‬
଴ ʹ݊ ଴

,-
" ! .   * 
+
  "
గൗ గൗ
ଶ ଶ
ࢩ૚ ൌ න ‫݊݅ݏ‬ ଶ‫כ‬ଵ
‫ ݔ݀ݔ‬ൌ න ‫݊݅ݏ‬ଶ ‫ݔ݀ݔ‬ǡ ܹ݄݁‫ࢩ݊݋ͳݐ݌݅ݎܿݏܾݑݏ݄݁ݐ݁ݎ‬૚ ‫ ݊݋ݐݏݎ݂݁݁ݎ‬ൌ ͳg
଴ ଴

g g g
 gg gg

ߨ ͳ
çଵ ൌ ‫ כ‬
ʹ ʹ
గൗ గൗ
ଶ ଶ
ܰ‫ࢩݐ݈݁ݓ݋‬૛ ൌ න ‫݊݅ݏ‬ ଶ‫כ‬ଶ
‫ ݔ݀ݔ‬ൌ න ‫݊݅ݏ‬ସ ‫ݔ݀ݔ‬ǡ ܹ݄݁‫ࢩ݊݋ʹݐ݌݅ݎܿݏܾݑݏ݄݁ݐ݁ݎ‬૛ ‫ ݊݋ݐݏݎ݂݁݁ݎ‬ൌ ʹg
଴ ଴

m   
   
గൗ గൗ
ଶ ʹ݊ െ ͳ ଶ
න ‫݊݅ݏ‬ ଶ௡
‫ ݔ݀ݔ‬ൌ  න ‫݊݅ݏ‬ଶ௡ିଶ ‫ݔ݀ݔ‬
଴ ʹ݊ ଴


గൗ
ʹ‫ʹכ‬െͳ ଶ
ࢩ૛ ൌ න ‫݊݅ݏ‬ଶ‫כ‬ଶିଶ ‫ ݔ݀ݔ‬g
ʹ‫ʹכ‬ ଴

͵
ฺ  ࢩ૛ ൌ ࢩ 
Ͷ ૚
͵ ߨ ͳ ߨ ͳ ͵
ฺ  ࢩ૛ ൌ ൜ ‫ כ‬ൠൌ ‫ כ כ‬
Ͷ ʹ ʹ ʹ ʹ Ͷ

O 
గൗ
ʹ‫͵כ‬െͳ ଶ
ࢩ૜ ൌ න ‫݊݅ݏ‬ଶ‫כ‬ଷିଶ ‫ ݔ݀ݔ‬
ʹ‫͵כ‬ ଴

ͷ
ฺ  ࢩ૜ ൌ ࢩ 
͸ ૛
ͷ ͵
ฺ  ࢩ૜ ൌ ൜ ࢩ ൠg
͸ Ͷ ૚

ͷ ͵ ߨ ͳ
ฺ  ࢩ૜ ൌ ቊ ൜ ‫ כ‬ൠቋg
͸ Ͷ ʹ ʹ

ߨ ͳ ͵ ͷ
ฺ  ࢩ૜ ൌ ‫ כ כ כ‬g
ʹ ʹ Ͷ ͸

  


ʹ݊ െ ͳ
ࢩ࢔ ൌ ࢩ࢔ି૚ g
݊
ʹ݊ െ ͳ ʹሾ݊ െ ͳሿ െ ͳ
ฺ  ࢩ࢔ ൌ ൜ ࢩ࢔ି૛ ൠ
݊ ሾ݊ െ ͳሿ

ʹ݊ െ ͳ ʹሾ݊ െ ͳሿ െ ͳ ʹሾ݊ െ ʹሿ െ ͳ ૠ
ฺ  ࢩ࢔ ൌ ൝ ൜ ൠ ࢩ࢔ି૜ ǥ ൜ ࢩ૜ ൠൡg
݊ ሾ݊ െ ͳሿ ሾ݊ െ ʹሿ ૡ

ʹ݊ െ ͳ ʹሾ݊ െ ͳሿ െ ͳ ʹሾ݊ െ ʹሿ െ ͳ ͹ ߨ ͳ ͵ ͷ
ൌ ൝ ൜ ൠ ࢩ࢔ି૜ ǥ ൜ ൠ ൜ ‫ כ כ כ‬ൠൡ
݊ ሾ݊ െ ͳሿ ሾ݊ െ ʹሿ ͺ ʹ ʹ Ͷ ͸

ʹ݊ െ ͳ ʹሾ݊ െ ͳሿ െ ͳ ʹሾ݊ െ ʹሿ െ ͳ ͹ ߨ ͳ ͵ ͷ
ൌ ൝ ൜ ൠ ࢩ࢔ି૜ ǥ ൜ ൠ ൜ ‫ כ כ כ‬ൠൡg
݊ ሾ݊ െ ͳሿ ሾ݊ െ ʹሿ ͺ ʹ ʹ Ͷ ͸


࣊ ʹ݊ െ ͳ
ฺ  ࢩ࢔ ൌ  ‫כ‬ෑ
૛ ݊
g
࢔ൌ૚

࣊ ૚ ૜ ૞ ૛࢔ െ ૚
ฺ  ࢩ࢔ ൌ ‫ כ כ כ‬ǥǤ
૛ ૛ ૝ ૟ ࢔
g

gggg
గൗ

න ‫݊݅ݏ‬ଶ௡ାଵ ‫ ݔ݀ݔ‬



+
  " !
   

 
&&
‫݊݅ݏ‬௠ିଵ ‫ݔݏ݋ܿݔ‬ ݉െͳ
න ‫݊݅ݏ‬௠ ‫ ݔ݀ݔ‬ൌ െ ൅  න ‫݊݅ݏ‬௠ିଶ ‫ ݉ݎ݋݂ ݔ݀ݔ‬൒ ʹ
݉ ݉

#"&  / 


 ! " +
  

‫݊݅ݏ‬ଶ௡ ‫ݔݏ݋ܿݔ‬ ʹ݊
න ‫݊݅ݏ‬ଶ௡ାଵ ‫ ݔ݀ݔ‬ൌ െ ൅  න ‫݊݅ݏ‬ଶ௡ିଵ ‫ ݊ݎ݋݂ ݔ݀ݔ‬൒ ͳ
ʹ݊ ൅ ͳ ʹ݊ ൅ ͳ
గൗ గൗ
ଶ ‫݊݅ݏ‬ଶ௡ ‫ݔݏ݋ܿݔ‬ ʹ݊ ଶ
න ‫݊݅ݏ‬ଶ௡ାଵ ‫ ݔ݀ݔ‬ൌ ቈെ ൅  න ‫݊݅ݏ‬ଶ௡ିଵ ‫ݔ݀ݔ‬቉ 
଴ ʹ݊ ൅ ͳ ʹ݊ ൅ ͳ ଴

గൗ గൗ
‫݊݅ݏ‬ଶ௡ ‫ݔݏ݋ܿݔ‬ ଶ ʹ݊ ଶ
ൌ ቈെ ቉ ൅  න ‫݊݅ݏ‬ଶ௡ିଵ ‫ݔ݀ݔ‬
ʹ݊ ൅ ͳ ଴ ʹ݊ ൅ ͳ ଴

గൗ గൗ
‫݊݅ݏ‬ଶ௡ ‫ݔݏ݋ܿݔ‬ ଶ ʹ݊ ଶ
ൌ ቈെ ቉ ൅  න ‫݊݅ݏ‬ଶ௡ିଵ ‫ݔ݀ݔ‬
ʹ݊ ൅ ͳ ଴ ʹ݊ ൅ ͳ ଴

గൗ
ʹ݊ ଶ
ൌ Ͳ ൅  න ‫݊݅ݏ‬ଶ௡ିଵ ‫ ݔ݀ݔ‬
ʹ݊ ൅ ͳ ଴
గൗ గൗ
ଶ ʹ݊ ଶ
ฺන ‫݊݅ݏ‬ ଶ௡ାଵ
‫ ݔ݀ݔ‬ൌ න ‫݊݅ݏ‬ଶ௡ିଵ ‫ݔ݀ݔ‬
଴ ʹ݊ ൅ ͳ ଴

O 
గൗ గൗ
ଶ ଶ
W૚ ൌ න ‫݊݅ݏ‬ ଶ‫כ‬ଵାଵ
‫ ݔ݀ݔ‬ൌ න ‫݊݅ݏ‬ଷ ‫ݔ݀ݔ‬ǡ ܹ݄݁‫݊݋ͳݐ݌݅ݎܿݏܾݑݏ݄݁ݐ݁ݎ‬W૚ ‫ ݊݋ݐݏݎ݂݁݁ݎ‬ൌ ͳg
଴ ଴

O g 
g g
 gg gg
గൗ
ଶ ʹ
W૚ ൌ න ‫݊݅ݏ‬ଷ ‫ ݔ݀ݔ‬ൌ 
଴ ͵

 
గൗ గൗ
ଶ ʹ‫ʹכ‬ ଶ
W૛ ൌ න ‫ ݔ݀ݔ ݊݅ݏ‬ൌ
ହ න ‫݊݅ݏ‬ଶ‫כ‬ଶିଵ ‫ ݔ݀ݔ‬
଴ ʹ‫ʹכ‬൅ͳ ଴
గൗ
Ͷ ଶ
ฺ  W૛ ൌ න ‫݊݅ݏ‬ଷ ‫ ݔ݀ݔ‬
ͷ ଴

Ͷ
ฺ  W૛ ൌ
ͷ ૚
W 

Ͷ ʹ
ฺ  W૛ ൌ ൜ ൠ
ͷ ͵
ʹ Ͷ
ฺ  W૛ ൌ ‫ כ‬
͵ ͷ

 
గൗ గൗ
ଶ ʹ‫͵כ‬ ଶ
W૜ ൌ න ‫ ݔ݀ݔ ݊݅ݏ‬ൌ
଻ න ‫݊݅ݏ‬ଶ‫כ‬ଷିଵ ‫ ݔ݀ݔ‬
଴ ʹ‫͵כ‬൅ͳ ଴
గൗ
͸ ଶ
ฺ  W૜ ൌ න ‫݊݅ݏ‬ହ ‫ ݔ݀ݔ‬
͹ ଴

͸
ฺ  W૜ ൌ
͹ ૛
W g

͸ ʹ Ͷ
ฺ  W૜ ൌ ൜ ‫ כ‬ൠ
͹ ͵ ͷ
ʹ Ͷ ͸
ฺ  W૜ ൌ ‫ כ כ‬
͵ ͷ ͹

  


૛࢔
W࢔ ൌ
࢔ ൅ ૚ ࢔ି૚
W g

૛࢔ ૛ሾ࢔ െ ૚ሿ
ฺ  W࢔ ൌ ൜ ൠg
࢔ ൅ ૚ ሾ࢔ െ ૚ሿ ൅ ૚ ࢔ି૛
W

૛࢔ ૛ሾ࢔ െ ૚ሿ ૛ሾ࢔ െ ૛ሿ
ฺ  W࢔ ൌ ൝ ൜ ൠൡg
࢔ ൅ ૚ ሾ࢔ െ ૚ሿ ൅ ૚ ሾ࢔ െ ૛ሿ ൅ ૚ ࢔ି૜
W

૛࢔ ૛ሾ࢔ െ ૚ሿ ૛ሾ࢔ െ ૛ሿ ૡ
ฺ  W࢔ ൌ ቐ ൝ W࢔ି૜ ǥ ൜ W૜ ൠൡቑg
࢔ ൅ ૚ ሾ࢔ െ ૚ሿ ൅ ૚ ሾ࢔ െ ૛ሿ ൅ ૚ ૢ

૛࢔ ૛ሾ࢔ െ ૚ሿ ૛ሾ࢔ െ ૛ሿ ૡ ʹ Ͷ ͸
ฺ  W࢔ ൌ ቐ ൝ W࢔ି૜ ǥ ൜ ‫ כ כ כ‬ൠൡቑg
࢔ ൅ ૚ ሾ࢔ െ ૚ሿ ൅ ૚ ሾ࢔ െ ૛ሿ ൅ ૚ ૢ ͵ ͷ ͹


ʹ݊
ฺ  W࢔ ൌ  ෑ
ʹ݊ ൅ ͳ
g
࢔ൌ૚

૛ ૝ ૟ ૡ ૛࢔
ฺ  W࢔ ൌ ‫ כ כ כ‬ǥ
૜ ૞ ૠ ૢ ૛࢔ ൅ ૚
g

g
g