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argument The value(s) assigned to the variable(s) in

A a function.
abscissa The first element of an ordered pair. In the ordered arithmetic sequence A sequence that has a common
pair (x, y), x is the abscissa. See ordinate. difference between consecutive terms.
absolute value The distance from zero of a number on a 1, 4, 7, 10, . . . is an arithmetic sequence.
number line. astronomical unit (AU) The distance from Earth to the Sun,
5  5 or approximately 150 000 000 km.
absolute value function A piecewise function written as asymptote A line that a curve y
y  x, where y  x for x  0 and y  x for x  0. approaches more and more closely
acceleration The rate of change of an object’s velocity with but does not intersect. The line
respect to time. may be a horizontal asymptote,
a vertical asymptote, or a linear
acute angle An angle that measures less than 90°. 0 x
oblique asymptote.
algebraic expression An expression that includes at least
one variable. average rate of change The rate of
2t, 3x2  4x  5, and 2x are algebraic expressions. change that is measured over an interval
algebraic modelling The process of representing a on a continuous curve. It corresponds to
relationship by an equation or a formula, or representing the slope of the secant between the two endpoints
a pattern of numbers by an algebraic expression. of the interval.

altitude The height of a geometric figure. In a triangle, an average rate of change of y with respect to x For a function
altitude is the perpendicular distance from a vertex to the y  f (x), the average rate of change of y with respect to x
opposite side. Δy f(b)  f(a)
over the interval x ∈ [a, b] is _  __ .
Δx ba
amplitude Half the difference between the maximum and
minimum values of a periodic funtion. a for functions in axis of symmetry A vertical mirror line that reflects every
the form y  a sin x or y  a cos x. See period. point on the graph of a function onto another point on the
graph of the function. See line of symmetry.
angle in standard position The position of an angle when
its vertex is at the origin and its initial ray is on the positive
x-axis. The angle is measured counterclockwise from the B
initial ray. For example, 45° is shown in standard position.
base function For various functions, the simplest form of
y the function that others are related to by tranformations.
y  x2 is the base function for quadratic functions.
P base (of a power) The number that is repeatedly multiplied.
In 34, the base is 3.
x binomial A polynomial with two terms.
0 A
5x  2 is a binomial.
break-even point The point at which costs and revenue
are equal.

angular velocity (or speed) The rate at which the central C

angle is changing, often measured in radians per second. capacity The greatest volume that a container can hold,
arc A part of the circumference of a circle. usually measured in litres, millilitres, or kilolitres.

586 MHR • Advanced Functions • Glossary

Cartesian coordinate system The system developed by René compound interest Interest that is calculated at regular
Descartes for graphing points as ordered pairs on a grid, compounding periods and then added to the principal for
using two perpendicular number lines. Also referred to as the next compounding period. The future amount, A, of an
the Cartesian plane, the coordinate grid, or the x-y plane. investment with initial principal P is A  P(1  i)n, where i is
CAST rule A rule that tells which y the interest rate per compounding period, in decimal form,
S A and n is the number of compounding periods.
trigonometric ratios are positive
sine all
in each quadrant. concurrent lines Two or more lines that have one point in
0 x
T C common.
central angle An angle formed tangent cosine
congruence The property of being congruent. Two geometric
by two radii of a circle.
figures are congruent if they are equal in all respects.
log m
change of base formula logb m  _ , m  0, conjecture A generalization, or educated guess, made from
log b
b  0, b 1 available evidence.
chord (of a circle) A line segment with its endpoints on a circle. constant function A function of the form f (x)  b, where
circle The set of all points in the plane that are equidistant b ∈ .
from a fixed point called the centre. constant rate of change The rate of change of a relation is
coefficient The factor by which a variable is multiplied. constant when the average rate of change between any two
In the term 3x2, the coefficient is 3. points on the relation is equal to the average rate of change
cofunction identities Relationships between pairs of between any other two points on the relation. Linear
trigonometric functions involving pairs of complementary relations have a constant rate of change.
angles that are true for all values of the variable. For constant term A term that does not include a variable.
example, sin x  cos _(2 )
π  x and cos x  sin _
π x .
2 ) A numerical term.
In x2  5x  1, the constant term is 1.
common difference The difference between consecutive
coordinate plane A one-to-one pairing of all ordered pairs
terms of an arithmetic sequence.
For 2, 5, 8, 11, . . ., the common difference is 3. of real numbers with all points of a plane. Also called the
Cartesian coordinate plane.
common factor Any factor that two or more numbers, or
two or more terms of a polynomial, share. correlation coefficient A variable used to measure the
2 is a common factor of 4, 6, and 18. strength of a relationship when regression is used to find
3x is a common factor of 3x2  12x. an equation that approximates data.

common logarithm A logarithm with base 10. cosecant ratio The reciprocal of the sine ratio.

common ratio The ratio of consecutive terms of a cosine law See law of consines.
geometric sequence. cosine ratio In a right triangle, for C, the ratio of
For 2, 6, 18, 54, . . ., the common ratio is 3. the length of the side adjacent to C and the length
commutative property The property that the order of the of the hypotenuse.
operands in an expression does not matter. For example, A BC
cos C  _
for a, b ∈ , a  b  b  a and ab  ba. AC
composite function A function made up of (composed of) hypotenuse opposite
other functions. The composition of f and g is defined by
f (g (x)) and read as “f of g of x” or “f following g of x.” In C B
the composition (f(g)(x)), first apply the function g to x, and adjacent
then apply the function f to the result. cotangent ratio The reciprocal of the tangent ratio.
compound angle expression A trigonometric expression coterminal angles Angles that have the same terminal arm.
that depends on two or more angles.
counterexample An example that shows that a conjecture is
compound angle identities The following relationships are not true.
true for all values of x and y.
cubic equation A polynomial equation of degree 3.
sin (x  y)  sin x cos y  cos x sin y
sin (x  y)  sin x cos y  cos x sin y cubic function A polynomial function of degree 3.
cos (x  y)  cos x cos y  sin x sin y curve of best fit A curve that approximates the distribution
cos (x  y)  cos x cos y  sin x sin y of points in a scatter plot.

Glossary • MHR 587

cylinder A three-dimensional shape with two parallel faces
that are congruent circles, and a curved surface connecting
the two circles. elements The individual members of a set.
elimination method A method of solving a system of
D equations by addition or subtraction of the equations to
eliminate one variable.
decibel scale A logarithmic scale used to compare
end behaviour The behaviour of the y-values of a function
sound levels.
as x approaches  and x approaches  .
decreasing function A function f(x) such that f(a)  f(b) for
equation A mathematical sentence formed by two
all a  b.
equivalent expressions.
degree of a polynomial The greatest exponent of the 5x  3  2x  6 is an equation.
variable in any one term.
equilateral triangle A triangle with all sides equal.
The degree of x3  6x2  1 is 3.
equivalent algebraic expressions Expressions that are equal
dependent variable In a relation, the variable whose value
for all values of the variable.
depends on the value of the independent variable. On a
7t  3t and 10t are equivalent algebraic expressions.
coordinate grid, the values of the dependent variable are
on the vertical axis. equivalent equations Equations that have the same solution.
In d  4.9t2, d is the dependent variable. evaluate To determine a value for.
depreciation The amount by which an item decreases even function A function f(x) that satisfies the property
in value over time. f (x)  f (x) for all x in its domain. An even function is
diagonal A line segment joining two non-adjacent vertices symmetric about the y-axis. See odd function.
of a polygon. expand To multiply, usually applied to polynomials.
diameter A chord that passes through the centre of a circle. 4(n  3) expands to 4n  12.
discontinuity A function has a discontinuity at x  a if it exponent A raised number in a power that indicates
1 has a
is not continuous at x  a. For example, f (x)  _ repeated multiplication of the base.
discontinuity at x  0. In (x  3)2  (x  3)(x  3), the exponent is 2.

discontinuous A function is discontinuous at x  a if it has exponential decay Exponential decay occurs when a
a discontinuity at x  a. quantity decreases exponentially over time.

distributive property The property that, for all a, b, c ∈ , exponential equation An equation that has a variable in
a(b  c)  ab  ac. an exponent.
3x  81 is an exponential equation.
dividend A number, or expression, being divided.
In 30
5  6, 30 is the dividend. exponential form A shorthand method for writing
repeated multiplication.
divisor A number, or expression, that is dividing
43 is the exponential form for 4 4 4.
into another.
4x2  10x  25 , 2x  5 is the divisor. exponential function A function of the form y  abx, where
In ___
2x  5 a 0, b  0, and b 1.
f (x)  3(2x) is an exponential function.
domain of a function The set of numbers for which a
function is defined. The set of all first coordinates of the exponential growth Exponential growth occurs when a
ordered pairs in a function. quantity increases exponentially over time.
double root A solution of a polynomial equation that exponential regression A method of determining the
occurs twice. For example, in (x  2)2(x  1)  0, 2 is a exponential equation of a curve that fits the distribution
double root. of points on a scatter plot.
dynamic geometry software Computer software that allows expression A mathematical phrase made up of numbers
the user to plot points on a coordinate system, measure line and/or variables.
segments and angles, construct two-dimensional shapes, create x2  x  5, 2x, and 3n are expressions.
two-dimensional representations of three-dimensional objects, extraneous roots Roots that occur in a solution but that do
and transform constructed figures by moving parts of them. not check in the orginal equation and so are invalid.

588 MHR • Advanced Functions • Glossary

extrapolate Estimate values lying outside the range of the independent variable In a relation, the variable whose
given data. To extrapolate from a graph means to estimate value determines that of the dependent variable. On a
coordinates of a point beyond those that are plotted. coordinate grid, the values of the independent variable are
on the horizontal axis.
In d  4.9t2, t is the independent variable.
F inequality Two expressions related by an inequality symbol
factor A number or an algebraic expression that is multiplied (, , , , ).
by another number or algebriac expression to give a product. 4x  5  8 is an inequality.
The factors of 12 are 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 12. instantaneous rate of change The rate of change that is
The factors of 4x2  8xy are 4, x, and x  2y. measured at a single point on a continuous curve.
factor theorem A polynomial P (x) has ax  b as a factor if Instantaneous rate of change corresponds to the slope of

( )
b  0, where a, b ∈  and a 0.
and only if P _
the tangent line at that point.
integer A number in the sequence
family of functions A group of functions with a common . . ., 3, 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, 3, . . . . Represented by the set
characteristic. For example, a family of polynomial symbol .
functions has the same zeros. integral zero theorem If x  b is a factor of the polynomial
finite differences Differences found from successive y-values function P (x) with leading coefficient one and remaining
in a table of values with evenly spaced x-values. See first coefficients that are integers, then b is a factor of the
differences and second differences. constant term.

first differences In a relation between two variables, the intercept The distance from the origin of the Cartesian
difference between successive values of the second variable coordinate plane to the point at which a line or curve
for regular steps of the first variable. crosses a given axis. See x-intercept and y-intercept.
interest The amount earned on an investment or savings
y ⴝ 2x ⴙ 1
alternative, or the cost of borrowing money.
x y First Differences
interest rate The rate, as a percent, at which an investment
2 3
or savings alternative increases in value, or the cost of
1 1 1  (3)  2 borrowing money, expressed as a percent.
0 1 1  (1)  2
interior angle An angle that is inside a polygon.
1 3 312
2 5 532 interpolate Estimate values for a relation that lie between
given data points.
frequency The number of cycles per unit of time. interval A set of real numbers having one of these forms
function A relation in which each element in the domain where a, b ∈ : x  a, x a, x  a, x  a, a  x  b,
(or x-value) has only one corresponding element in the a  x  b, a  x  b, or a  x  b
range (or y-value). interval notation Representations of intervals using
y  (3x  5)2 is a function. brackets: (a, ), [a, ), ( , a], (a, b), (a, b], [a, b), or [a, b].
invariant point A point that is unchanged by a
inverse function The inverse function f1 of a function f,
half-life The time in which the mass of a radioactive if it exists, is found by writing the function in the form
substance decays to half its original mass. y  f(x), exchanging x and y, and then solving for y.
hypotenuse The longest side of a right triangle. inverse relation The relation formed by interchanging the
domain and the range of a given relation.
inversely proportional If two variables, x and y, are
I k
inversely proportional, then y  _
x , where k is a constant.
image point A point that corresponds to an object point
irrational number A real number that cannot be expressed
under a transformation.
in the form _a , where a and b ∈  and b 0.
increasing function A function f(x) such that b
f(a)  f(b) for all a  b. isosceles triangle A triangle with exactly two equal sides.

Glossary • MHR 589

logarithmic function The inverse of an exponential
L function. A function of the form f (x)  loga x, where a  0,
law of cosines The relationship between the lengths of the a 1, and x  0.
three sides and the cosine of an angle in any triangle. y  loga x means ay  x.
a2  b2  c2  2bc cos A logarithmic scale A scale that uses powers of 10, for
example, the decibel scale.
law of sines The relationship between the sides and their
opposite angles in any triangle.
sin A
_ sin B
sin C M
a b c
mathematical model A description of a real-life situation
leading coefficient The coefficient of the greatest power
using a diagram, a graph, a table of values, an equation, a
of x in a polynomial P (x).
formula, a physical model, or a computer model.
like terms Terms that have exactly the same variable(s) mathematical modelling The process of describing a real-
raised to exactly the same exponent(s). life situation in mathematical form.
3x2, x2, and 7x2 are like terms.
mean The sum of a set of values divided by the number
line of best fit The line that best describes the distribution of values in the set.
of points in a scatter plot. The line passes through, or close
to, as many of the data points as possible. N
line of symmetry A mirror line that reflects an object
n! (n factorial) For any positive integer n, a short form for
onto itself.
the product n (n  1) . . . 2 1.
line segment The part of a line that joins two points. 5!  5 4 3 2 1
line symmetry A graph has line symmetry if there is a line  120
x  a, called the axis of symmetry, that divides the graph natural logarithm A logarithm in base e.
into two parts such that each part is a reflection of the other natural number The set, , of positive integers:
in the line x  a. 1, 2, 3, 4, . . . .
linear equation An equation that represents the relationship non-linear relation A relationship between two variables
between two variables that have a linear relationship and that does not form a straight line when graphed.
form a straight line when graphed.
linear function A function of the form f (x)  mx  b, O
where m and b are constants.
oblique asymptote An asymptote that is neither horizontal
linear growth Growth represented by a linear equation and nor vertical.
a straight-line graph. Arithmetic sequences and simple
oblique triangle A triangle that is not right-angled.
interest show linear growth.
obtuse angle An angle that measures more than 90°, but
linear regression A method for determining the linear equation less than 180°.
that best fits the distribution of points on a scatter plot.
obtuse triangle A triangle containing one obtuse angle.
linear relation A relationship between two variables that
odd function A function that satisfies the property
forms a straight line when graphed.
f (x)  f (x) for all x in its domain. An odd function is
local maximum The point on a function that has the symmetric about the origin. See even function.
greatest y-value on some interval close to the point. order (of a zero) If a polynomial function has a factor (x  a)
local minimum The point on a function that has the least that is repeated n times, then x  a is a zero of order n. For
y-value on some interval close to the point. example, the function f (x)  (x  2)(x  1)2 has a zero of
order 2.
logarithm The logarithm of a number is the value of the
exponent to which a given base must be raised to produce the ordered pair A pair of numbers, such as (3, 8), used to
given number. For example, log3 81  4, because 34  81. locate a point on a graph.

logarithmic equation An equation that has a variable in ordinate The second element in an ordered pair. In the
a logarithm. ordered pair (x, y), y is the ordinate. See abscissa.
log2 x  log2 3  log2 5 is a logarithmic equation. origin The point of intersection of the x-axis and the y-axis
on a coordinate grid. It is described by the ordered pair (0, 0).

590 MHR • Advanced Functions • Glossary

outlier A data point that does not conform to the pattern of point of intersection The point that is common to two
the other data. non-parallel lines.
point of tangency The point of intersection of a tangent
P and a curve.
point symmetry A graph has point symmetry about a point
parabola The graph of a quadratic
(a, b) if each part of the graph on one side of (a, b) can be
relation, which is U-shaped and 0 x
rotated 180° to coincide with part of the graph on the other
symmetric about a line of symmetry.
side of (a, b).

parameter A constant that can polar coordinates A method of locating y

assume different values but does not change the form of the a point in a plane using its distance, r,
r (r, ␪)
expression or function. In y  mx  b, m is a parameter from the origin and its angle in
standard position. ␪
that represents the slope of the line and b is a parameter x
that represents the y-intercept.
percent A number that represents a fraction or ratio with a polygon A two-dimensional closed
denominator of 100. shape whose sides are line segments.
_34 as a percent is 34%. polyhedron A three-dimensional object with faces that
100 are polygons.
perfect square A whole number that can be expressed as polynomial An expression of the form
the square of a whole number. anxn  an  1xn  1  . . .  a1x  a0, where an, an  1, . . .,
25 is a perfect square. a0 ∈ , an 0, and n ∈, n  0.
perfect square trinomial A trinomial that can be factored as 3x4  2x3  5x2  x  1 is a polynomial.
the square of a binomial. polynomial function A function of the form
a2x2  2abx  b2  (ax  b)2 P (x)  anxn  . . .  a2x2  a1x  a0, where n is a
perimeter The distance around a two-dimensional shape. whole number.

period The magnitude of the interval of the domain over power An abbreviation for repeated multiplication.
which a periodic function repeats itself. The power 53 means 5 5 5 and has value 125.

y power function A function of the form f (x)  axn, where

a 0 and n is a positive integer.
power law of logarithms logb xn  nlogb x, b  0, b 1,
x  0, n ∈ 
Phase primary trigonometric ratios The sine, cosine, and
Shift Period
tangent ratios.
prime number A number with exactly two factors—itself
and 1.
0 x
principal angle The least positive coterminal angle.
Translation prism A three-dimensional shape with two parallel,
congruent polygonal faces. The prism is named according to
periodic function A function that repeats itself over an
the shape of these two faces, for example, triangular prism.
interval of its domain.
probability The likelihood of an event occurring.
pH scale A logarithmic scale used to measure the acidity or
number of favourable outcomes .
P(event)  ______
alkalinity of chemical solutions. pH  log [H], where [H]
number of possible outcomes
is the concentration of hydronium ions, in moles per litre.
product law of logarithms logb (mn)  logb m  logb n, b  0,
phase shift The horizontal translation of a trigonometric
b 1, m  0, n  0
function. See period for diagram.
proportion An equation that states that two ratios
point of inflection A point P on a curve where the curve
are equal.
changes from concave upward to concave downward or 3 x
_  _ is a proportion.
from concave downward to concave upward. 5 80

Glossary • MHR 591

pyramid A polyhedron with one base in the shape of a radical equation An equation that has a variable in the
polygon and the same number of lateral triangular faces as radicand.
there are sides in the base. √
x  1  3  8 is a radical equation.
Pythagorean identity The relationship sin2 x  cos2 x  1, radical expression An expression that contains a radical.
which is true for all values of x. 2 √3 and 3 √x are radical expressions.
Pythagorean theorem In a right triangle, the square of the radical function A function that has a variable in a radicand.
length of the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares f(x)  √
x  3 is a radical function.
of the lengths of the other two sides. radical sign The symbol √R , which indicates the principal
or non-negative square root of an expression.
Q y radicand An expression under a radical sign.
Quadrant 2 Quadrant 1 random number A number chosen from a set of numbers in
quadrant One of the four
regions formed by the such a way that each number has an equally likely chance of
0 x
intersection of the x-axis being selected.
and the y-axis. Quadrant 3 Quadrant 4
range of a function or relation The set of all second
coordinates, or ordinates, of the ordered pairs of a relation.
quadratic equation An equation that
range of data The difference between the greatest and the
can be written in the form ax2  bx  c  0,
least values in a set of data.
where a, b, and c ∈  and a 0.
rate A special type of ratio that compares two quantities
quadratic formula The zeros, or solutions, of a quadratic with different units.
equation of the form ax2  bx  c  0, where a 0, are 8.4 L/100 km is a rate.
b  √
b2  4ac
given by x  ____ . rate of change See instantaneous rate of change and average
rate of change.
quadratic function A relationship between two variables ratio A comparison of quantities with the same unit.
defined by an equation of the form y  ax2  bx  c, where 3 cans of water to 1 can of juice is 3 : 1.
a, b, and c ∈  and a 0. Its graph is a parabola.
rational equation An equation that contains one or more
quadrilateral A polygon with four sides. rational expressions.
quartic function A polynomial of degree four. __ 3
 5 is a rational equation.
x2  4
quintic function A polynomial of degree five.
rational exponent An exponent that is a rational number.
quotient The result of a division. 1
30x3  5x2, 5x2 is the quotient. 5 2 has a rational exponent of _
In _ 2
6x g (x)
f (x) rational function A function of the form f (x)  _ ,
quotient function A function of the form q(x)  _ , h (x)
g (x) where g (x) and h (x) are polynomials and h (x) 0.
g (x) 0.
sin x f (x)  __ 1 is a rational function.
quotient identity The relationship tan x  _
cos x , which is 2x  5
true for all values of x.
rational number A number that can be expressed in the
a , where a and b ∈  and b 0.
( )
m  log m  log n,
quotient law of logarithms logb _
n b b
form _
b  0, b 1, m  0, n  0
rational zero theorem If P (x) is a polynomial function with
integer coefficients and x  _b is a zero of P(x), where a and
R b ∈  and a 0, then
arc of length
radius • b is a factor of the constant term of P(x)
radian The measure of the one radius
␪ • a is a factor of the leading term of P(x)
angle formed by rotating
radius • ax  b is a factor of P(x)
the radius of a circle
through an arc equal in real numbers All the rational and irrational numbers,
length to the radius. There represented by the set symbol .
are 2π radians in one complete revolution (360°). reciprocal function A function, g(x)  _ 1 defined by
1 1 f(x)
In the diagram,  measures 1 rad. g(x)  _ _
 if f (a)  b.
f(a) b

592 MHR • Advanced Functions • Glossary

reciprocal trigonometric ratios The cosecant, secant, and simplest form of an algebraic expression An expression that
cotangent ratios. has no like terms.
cosecant  _ 1 , secant  __1 , cotangent  __ 1 5x  3  x  2 in simplest form is 4x  5.
sine cosine tangent
sine law See law of sines.
reciprocals Two non-zero numbers that have a product of one.
1 A
x and _x are reciprocals.
sine ratio In a right triangle,
for C, the ratio of the length
regression A method for determining the equation of a curve
of the side opposite C and hypotenuse opposite
or line that best fits the distribution of points on a scatter plot.
the length of the hypotenuse.
relation A relationship between variables that can be AB
sin C  _ C
represented by a table of values, a graph, or an equation. AC
remainder theorem When a polynomial P(x) is divided by sinusoidal function A function y
x  b, the remainder is P(b), and when it is divided by that is used to model periodic data.
ax  b, the remainder is P _
a ( )
b , where a, b ∈ , and a 0.

sinusoidal regression A 0 x
restriction A constraint on the value(s) of a variable. For
1 statistical process that determines
example, in √ x , the restriction is x 0; in f (x)  _
x , the a sinusoidal function that best
restriction is x 0.
represents data.
Richter scale A logarithmic scale used to measure the
slope A measure of the steepness y Q(x2, y2)
magnitude of earthquakes.
of a line. The slope, m, of a line
right angle An angle that measures 90°. containing the points P(x1, y1) P(x1, y1) y2  y1
right triangle A triangle that contains a 90° angle. and Q(x2, y2) is
Δy y2  y1
roots The solutions of an equation. m  _  __ , x x1. x2  x1
Δx x2  x1 2
0 x
scalene triangle A triangle with no sides equal. slope and y-intercept form of a linear equation A linear
equation written in the form y  mx  b, where m is the
scatter plot A graph showing two-variable data by means
slope and b is the y-intercept.
of points plotted on a coordinate grid.
secant A line passing through two different points on solve To find the value of a variable in an equation.
a curve. When 2x  16 is solved, x  4.

secant ratio The reciprocal of the cosine ratio. standard form of a linear equation A linear equation written
in the form Ax  By  C  0, where A, B, and C ∈ , A and
second differences The differences between consecutive first
B are not both zero, and x and y ∈ .
differences in a table of values with evenly spaced x-values.
See first differences. standard form of a quadratic function A quadratic function
written in the form y  ax2  bx  c, where a 0.
sector A part of a circle bounded by two
radii and an arc of the circle. substitution method A method of solving a system of
equations by solving one equation for one variable and
then substituting that value into the other equation.
segment A part of a circle bounded by
a chord and an arc of the circle. subtend An arc, AB, of a circle can subtend an angle at the
centre, AOB, or at the cirumference, ACB.
sequence An ordered list of numbers or terms.
similar figures Figures having corresponding angles equal
and corresponding lengths proportional.
simple interest Interest calculated only on the original O
principal using the simple interest formula I  Prt. C B

simplest form The form of a fraction or ratio that has no

common factors.

Glossary • MHR 593

superposition principle The sum of two or more functions
can be found by adding the y-coordinates of the function for
each x-coordinate. unlike terms Terms that have different variables,
surface area The number of square units needed to cover or different powers of the same variable.
the surface of a three-dimensional shape. 2x2, x, and 5y are unlike terms.

symmetric function A function that has either line

symmetry or rotational symmetry. V
vertex A point at which two sides of a polygon meet.
T vertex form of a quadratic function A quadratic equation
tangent ratio In a right triangle, for C, the ratio of the expressed in the form y  a(x  h)2  k, where a, h, and
length of the side opposite A and the length of the side k ∈  and a 0. The vertex of the parabola is (h, k).
adjacent to A. vertex of a parabola The point where the axis of symmetry
tan C  _ AB of the parabola intersects the parabola.
vertical line test A test for determining whether a given
hypotenuse opposite
graph represents a function. If a vertical line intersects the
graph more than once, then the relation is not a function.
adjacent vertical stretch A transformation where (x, y) on the
tangent to a curve A line that intersects a curve at exactly graph of y  f(x) is transformed into (x, ay) on the graph
one point. of y  af(x). The stretch is an expansion when a  1 and
term A number or a variable, or the product or quotient of a compression when 0  a  1.
numbers and variables. volume The amount of space that an object occupies,
3x2  5 has two terms: 3x2 and 5. measured in cubic units.
terminal arm The ray of an angle in standard position that
is not on the positive x-axis.
transformation A mapping of points on a plane onto points
x approaches ⴙⴥ The values of x are positive and increasing
on the same plane.
in magnitude without bound; may be written x →  .
translation A transformation that maps an object onto its
x approaches ⴚⴥ The values of x are negative and increasing
image so that each point in the object is moved the same
in magnitude without bound; may be written x →  .
distance in the same direction.
x-intercept The distance from the origin of the point where
trigonometric equation An equation involving one or more
a line or curve crosses the x-axis.
trigonometric functions of a variable.
cos x  2 sin x cos x  0 is a trigonometric equation.
trigonometric function A function involving a primary Y
trigonometric ratio or a reciprocal trigonometric ratio.
x is a trigomometric function. y-intercept The distance from the origin of the point where
y  2.8 cos _ a line or curve crosses the y-axis.
trigonometric identity A trigonometric equation that is true
for all values of the variable for which both sides of the Z
equation are defined.
zero of a function A value of x (or the independent variable)
trinomial A polynomial with three terms.
that results in a y-value (or value of the dependent variable)
of zero.

594 MHR • Advanced Functions • Glossary