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Chapter 1

In this generation, a lot of poor people believe that life happens to them by fate and they
always give excuses and blame on the circumstances and focus on obstacles. Among of the poor
people are just dreaming about their dreams and just think about how good it is going to be if
they are rich, but they will never do anything about their dreams. And most of them associate
with the same people with the same level in the society. Poverty is every body`s problem. In
every success received by a part of the society, the other part of course experience poverty. The
meaning of it must be thought to the concerned for them to provide and contribute a solution to
the uneven part of survival. In the world today, it is a blessing if one does not often bothered by
the problem like this. The people

who suffer poverty are mostly the unemployed people,

the elderly, the uneducated and the working poor. They may experience lack of income, work,
goods and help from the government. Some of them may have jobs but still the earnings is not
enough to sustain the needs for the whole family

to a certain period of time. Poverty also

causes malnutrition in some parts of the country; it also affects the development of the future of
our country. They cannot think of ways on how to improve their lives and country when they
have to think of where they can get their daily needs.
The 4Ps program is currently being implemented by the Department of Social Welfare
and Development (DSWD).

It is a conditional cash transfer program known as Pantawid

Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps) that had started in 2008 inspired by the successes of similar
programs in Latin American countries such as Bolsa Familia in Brazil, Familias en Accion in
Colombia and OPORTUNIDADES in Mexico (Defensor, 2010). Mexico OPORTUNIDADES,
apart from education and health cash grants are accompanied by cash transfers for food and fare


with clearly while in Brazil, Bolsa Familia is a part of a larger economic and social protection
scheme compose of complementary action and services to poor families. Among the significant
complementary activities are employment creation, provision of income-generating activities,
and impairment of housing conditions (Briones, 2010). The 4Ps is more than a welfare program;
it addresses the structural inequities in society and promotes human capital development of the
poor, thus, breaking the intergenerational cycle of poverty. The conditions attached to the grants
require parents to undergo trainings on responsible parenthood, have their children undergo
health checkups and ensure school attendance (Defensor, 2010).
In the Philippine governments version of the conditional cash transfer in the provision in
cash grants for education and health activities, poor families need to comply with a set of
conditionalitys such as ensuring school attendance of children, regular visit to health centers for
immunization preventive health checkups and maternal care and the program lasts for 5 years
household-beneficiaries (Briones, 2012). These programs are an important relief in measure
because many poor Filipinos are desperate to survive these trying times and it seems that 4Ps is
like a magic bullet for poverty reduction. It was designed to address issues on maternal mortality
and child mortality, and as well as keep children in school for five years but these vulnerable
groups like senior citizens, chronically sick and disabilities people. Some of the beneficiaries are
not contented in the cash grants that they received even though it reveals that most of them
expressed gratitude that with the cash grants, the health and education status of their families
were improving, thus, they need jobs. This program was supported by the local government in
the contribution to the Pantawid Pamilya. They said that they will continually work to find ways
on how they can improve the program and they will provide tighter mechanisms to get views and
recommendations on the program.


According to Taberna (2012), 4P is a conditional cash transfer program of the

government that had started in 2008. The program works quite simple. Very poor families who
had children below 14 years of age are given 500 pesos for health and nutrition expenses while
they receive 300 pesos for each child, a maximum of three, for their educational expenses. Most
of the beneficiaries receive 1,400 pesos per month, for they maximize the 3 children limit of the
4P. In the eyes of a man who has access to the internet to read this, the middle-class or higher
class of Filipinos, 1,400 per month is quite small, and may provide little, if any help, in the
perspective of the not-poor sector of the society. I take no surprise, 1,400 is not even enough to
satisfy a Burgis, for they were raised with a silver spoon, or a bronze spoon, or with a spoon for
crying out loud. The people that are receiving the 4P grew up, not with those spoons in the
mouth like the reader of this, but they grew up without any spoon, hell, they grew up without a
stable source of basic human needs, like food, water or shelter. Again, Taberna said that
according to the theory though I am not sure if it is in practice that the beneficiaries of 4P are
the poorest of the poor and 1,400, is and will be a big help for them, it may not be enough, but as
they say, one cant be a chooser if one is a beggar.


Statement of the Problem

This research aims to assess the implementation of 4Ps in Diffun II District. Specifically,
this study will seek answer the following questions:
1. What is the profile of the 4Ps benefeciaries in terms of:
a. Age of household head
b. Age of spouse
c. Occupation of household head
d. Occupation of spouse
e. Highest educational attainment of household head?
f. Highest educational attainment of spouse?
g. Household size?
h. Average monthly cash grant receive?
2. What will be the strategies of the 4Ps beneficiaries in utilizing the cash grants they
3. What are the significant changes to the children of the 4Ps beneficiaries after 2 years of
receiving cash grants using indicators?
4. What are the possible recommendations to program implementers and stakeholders to
improve the implementation of the 4Ps program?


Objectives of the Study

This research aims to assess the implementation of 4Ps in District II Diffun, Quirino.
Specifically, it aims to:
1. Determine the profile of the 4Ps beneficiaries in terms of:
a. Age of household head
b. Age of spouse
c. Occupation of household head
d. Occupation of spouse
e. Highest educational attainment of household head
f. Highest educational attainment of spouse
g. Household size
h. Average monthly cash grant received
2. Identify the strategies of the 4Ps in utilizing the cash grants they received.
3. Find out significant changes for the children of 4Ps beneficiaries after 2 years of
receiving cash grants using indicators.


4. Provide concrete recommendations to program implementers and stakeholders to

improve the implementation of the 4Ps program.

Scope and Limitations

This research study will be limited only to selected barangays of District II Diffu,
It will assess only the profile, utilization of the cash grants received, significant changes
to the children using indicators and recommendation for the better implementation of 4Ps.


Significance of the study

The result of this study will be beneficial to the following:
1. The Department of Social Welfare Department- It will help them to be aware if their
programs progressively contribute in improving the standard of living of the beneficiaries.
2. The Department of Health- It may serve as a basis for the Department to undertake
considerable measures to monitor and evaluate regularly the health status of the 4Ps
beneficiaries mobilizing their community-based health workers.
3. The Barangay Officials- It may help them to be more aware of the importance of the
program and will solicit more support to sustain help to their poor constituents.
4. The Department of Education- It may provide them insight on the important link of health to
education and an opportunity to embrace the value of 4Ps in improving the health and
education of the poor Filipino households.
5. To the beneficiaries- It will guide them to be more responsible parents in meeting the
conditionalities of the program. It will also provide them with the understanding that the cash
grants provided will contribute for the improvement of their well-being.
6. To the future researchers - This may serve as guide or reference for them in identifying the
contribution of the 4Ps in improving the status of the poor households within 2 years of


program implementation and it may be a good baseline in completely measuring the gains of
the cash grants after their graduation, i.e. after the 5th year.

To have a better understanding of this study,the following terms are operationally
Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps). It is also known as a Conditional Cash Transfer
(CCT) of the Philippine government. It provides incentives for poor families to invest in their
future by ensuring that mothers and children avail of health care and that children go to school.
Health. It is a state of physical, mental and social well-being. The overall condition of an
organism at a given time. Soundness, especially of body or mind; freedom from disease or
Indicators. Refer to the tool used to measure the changes to the children of 4Ps beneficiaries
after 2 years implementation of the program like interest of the study, attendance to school,
increase in body weight improve posture, etc.
Poverty. The condition or quality of being poor, unproductiveness, deficiency in or inadequate
supply of something.
Poverty line. The marginal income level at which an adequate living standard is possible.

Having little money, few possessions and no luxuries. Showing small yield and


Education. Instruction or training by which people learn to develop and use their mental, moral
and physical powers.
Nutrition. The process of nourishing or being nourished, especially the process by which a
living organism assimilates food and uses it for growth and for replacement of tissues.
Economic. Relating to or concerned with economics financially sound, reasonably profitable. It
is useful in the production of health or promotion of commercial prosperity.
In this chapter, the researcher presents readings taken from journals, books including
those materials attained from the internet.
Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program
According to Brul (2009) that Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps) is a poverty
reduction and social development strategy of the national government that provides conditional
cash grants to extremely poor households to improve their health, nutrition and education
particularly of children aged 0-14.

The program is currently being implemented by the

Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD). Additionally, Aquino's Pantawid

Pamilyang Pilipino Program as a stratagem to alleviate poverty is not freedom from but a shackle
that locks up the Filipino people to abject poverty ( de Guia, 2011).
4Ps. Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program is also called as Conditional Cash Transfer
(CCT) as Philippine government version. This program helps the penniless people and most of
them are living in squatter area and family who cant provide their basic needs. Cited by
Department of Social Welfare and development (2010), Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program is
a poverty reduction strategy that provides grants to extremely poor households to improve their

health, nutrition and education particularly of children aged 0-14. The program objectives is to
alleviate the needs (short term poverty alleviation) of the poor people through cash grants and to
provide discontinuity poverty cycle through human investment capital.
According to Felizardo (2009), the 4Ps program is not a dole out. Its not meant to make
the poor become lazy and rely on the government nor the NGOs to alleviate their sad poverty
state. The Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program, just like the other Conditional Cash Transfer
programs of other countries prioritizes human dignity through availability of equal opportunities.
It aims to provide monetary aid to poor beneficiaries with the hope that these investments in
human capital would lessen the great financial divide among the haves and the have nots. The
program was meant not a kind of dole-out because the chosen beneficiaries are following the
conditions through abiding the agreement of the said program. In this, the family received cash
to provide the needs of the children especially the children will attend in school regularly, have
visited the health center for regular checkups and also the mother received a cash for their
medical checkups especially treatments during pregnancy.
MIMAROPA (2011), Pantawid Pamilya is a conditional cash transfer program that
provides incentives for poor families to invest in their future by ensuring that mothers and
children avail of health care and that children go to school. As such, it is a human development
program that invests in the health and education of children. On the other hand, providing
immediate relief from cash flow problems will alleviate through providing cash. The benefits
that can get by the beneficiaries of this program are health and nutrition grant in which a
household receives P500 per month that is intended for their needs in health and nutrition; and
for education the household receives P300 per month per children that is intended for 10 months

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only per year, and those amount that was receive by every household will depends on the
compliance of the conditions that was agreed.
According to Maboloc (2012), it can be argued by the PNOY government that making the
CCT program work should help guarantee the most basic entitlement of people under any
democratic system respect for their humanity. The CCT can be construed as a matter of right,
i.e., the right "not to be hungry", to borrow from Amartya Sen. It can be said that numbers or the
many economic assumptions may be very ambiguous at this point. The right thing to do, in this
regard, is to introduce people, especially the very poor or the poorest of the poor, to fundamental
opportunities that will ultimately untie them from the fetters of poverty. The program is good,
but he has some serious doubts about it. The problem lies in the fact that the Pantawid Pamilya
Program does not address the root cause of poverty - our unjust and inequitable economic
system. At the outset, critics will say that it is more prudent to use this budget to fund the
construction of schools, hospitals, roads and many others. Basically, the argument against it is
built upon the standard idea in development theory that income is not equal to "well-being
achievement". Simply put, the idea is that the CCT is a "butas na balde", metaphorically
suggesting that the CCT can be money down the drain, for it teaches people dependency. In
short, it does not really empower them. But does the CCT uphold the dignity of the poor? It does










According to the Center for Womens resources (2012), the program is a dole out plan
and simple. The families go through the motion of having checked up at the health center and get
certification from the school just to fulfill the requirements of the program, not so much because
they believe that having checked up or getting education should be a regular family activity.

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Once the program is stopped, chances are they would again stop visiting the health center and
stop sending their children to school in order to help in providing income to the impoverished
family, said by Cham Perez the CWR senior researcher and sociologist. This observation has
been validated by a physician in one of the health centers involved in the CCT program.
Requesting anonymity, the doctor reveals that mothers have still a low level of appreciation in
going to the health centers because the centers lack medicines and other amenities needed by the
indigent families. It is frustrating to prescribe a medicine when you know that the patient could
not afford to buy it, the doctor shares. She adds that instead of dole out, the poor can benefit
more when there are an increased government budget for free medicines.
Poverty is a state of being poor physically and financially. A condition in which an
individual or group of people that cant provide their daily needs especially the basic needs such
as; food, shelter and clothing. Being poor is a difficult situation that facing by an individual to
survive in everyday life. According to World Bank (2009), poverty is an income level below
some minimum level necessary to meet basic needs. This minimum level is usually called the
poverty line.
Poverty, According to Eilmot (2009), defined that poverty is already existed from the past
generation and until now it is still remains as a worldwide problem. In society all of the cases
about poverty is that everybody was equally poor. In addition, Spagnolis (2009), poverty is
usually called as a poverty line it means that the family or individual has an income below to
its a minimum level for them to provide their basic needs. It is usually varies across time and
societies for them to be satisfy in their basic needs. Therefore, it varies to the time and place
which is applicable to their norms and values. But this kind of situation is more likely the same
everywhere. Poverty as same time it is hunger and lack of basic needs especially shelter. Also, it

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is evidence that people experiencing poverty is that they are not able to see a doctor if some
members of the family was being sick. The children are not able to enter the school so they
dont know how to read neither to write. Poverty is not a state of being a jobless. Most of them
are losing a child to illness due to the fact that they dont have clean water. In terms to the
society, they dont have power and lack of presentation and freedom. Harack (2012) emphasizes
that people who belong in extreme poverty are the people who are barely meet their minimal
needs for their survival. Also, they are often to feed themselves minimally while in moderate
poverty are in less in danger wherein they are able to access their basic necessities in life but they
are lack in wealth, and they are not able to educate their children.
Poverty Alleviation. Rahman (2012) cited that poverty eradication is the first condition
for the development. He emphasized that in the book of Adam Smith Wealth of Nations noted
that no society can surely be flourishing and happy of which by far the greater part of the
numbers are poor and miserable. Through this, the government made an strategy to combat
poverty reduction both in short and long terms. To address the poverty reduction strategy
framework the National Strategy for Accelerated Poverty Reduction was revised to give an
special importance on critical areas and essential infrastructure for pro-poor growth and social
protection for the vulnerable section of the society and human resource management. Due to
macroeconomic stability the domestic savings rate was increased to 19.93% from 18.77% in the
year of 2002-2004. Based from the survey report of Household Income and Expenditure in the
year 2010, the population living below the poverty line was decreased to 31.5% (20120) from
40.4% in the year 2005. In that period, the poverty gap was reduced while the income inequality
ratio decreased moderately.

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Mangabas (2009), statistically 53 percent of Filipino households call themselves as

mahirap (poor) as evidenced by the Survey Finding and in the last 26 years there is no progress
to fight against poverty as indicated. The result of the survey is that the measurement of poverty
is rapid and frequent due to increase SRP but fluctuations of poverty is cannot be explained
clearly by the economic growth. Filipino who are poor needs increase of wages and stable
consumer price and not the economic growth since they cant benefit. In addition to Bolivar
(2009), the truth about poverty is hunger. As a survey conducted last Nov. 27 to 20, 2010 was
found out that there are 3.4 million families are saying that they experience hunger and because
of that problem the Malacaang said that they are expecting to reduce the poverty as long as the
Conditional Cash Transfer (CCT) program is implemented. Also they categorized hunger base
on the experience of every household included: moderate hunger are those who experience
hunger just once or a few times and severe hunger t refers to those who experience hunger as
often or always. So, Conditional Cash Transfer (CCT) is already implemented and to complete
the list of CCT beneficiaries to be able for it to validate is that Secretary Corazon Soliman had
traveled throughout the country. The DSWD is the group wherein they are capable to manage
the budget and to handle CCT beneficiaries to ease the poverty and hunger situation. Calica
Philippine Star (2011), cited that poverty is arising because of the Philippine economy
due to the poorest performers in Asia as influenced by the rent seekers or vested interests for the
past 50 years. But then, annual gross domestic product (GDP) growth has not been effective in
reducing the incidence rate of poverty. the actual incidence of poverty in the Philippines had
actually risen since 2003 as thought that the economy is grown well. To make it more inclusive
the Stratbase pursue reforms in the governments that would highly guarantee in the civil and

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political liberties in terms of influencing to those vested interests, the grafters, rent seekers,
peddlers and business suits. Other reason for this is the corruption that was cited by the World
Economic Forum (WEF) in doing business in our country because it is to be said that corruption
is due to the inefficient government bureaucracy.
Health. Health is social. Inequalities in health remind us that action is much needed
beyond medical interventions. WHO defined health as a complete state of physical, mental and
social well-being, (cited by Guinto, 2012). He emphasized the word social that it is often
times the missing component in the equation. Based on Social determinants of health, health
products is a toxic combination of poor social policies and programs, unfair economic
arrangements and bad politics are the unacceptable gaps in health. Social determinants of health
refers to the conditions in which people are born, grow, live, work and age. Guinto (2012)
emphasizing the cause of having a poverty country is based on the governance of the country in
which the country has a characterized by factors detrimental to overall population health: lack of
policy coherence and political will; weak accountability and implementation; corruption; lack of
motivation and skills among government workers; and limited participation of citizens and civil
society groups in decision-making, especially in health governance.
Nutrition Education Advocacy. It promotes the importance of proper nutrition and good
education as ways for kids to improve their lives and come closer to attaining their dreams. (Gov.
Vilma Santos, 2011).
The program rendered by the Department of Social Welfare and Development is only the
Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program beneficiaries wherein the beneficiaries are living in one of
the poorest provinces, poorest household based on a ranking system, the economic condition is
equal to or below the provincial poverty threshold, household that has children 0-14 years old or

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having a pregnant women and agree to the conditions rendered by the DSWD can benefit. The
mother or the father of the family is the responsible person to receive the cash and they get the
cash through Land Bank Cash Card.

Framework of the Study

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Conceptual Framework

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Chapter 3
This chapter presents how the research will be undertaken. This included Locale, Sample
and Sampling Procedure, Research Instrument, data gathering procedure and statistical tools
Research Design
In this study, descriptive method will be used in order to get the data and to describe the
findings and information as accurate as possible.
Research Locale
The respondents of this research will be pre identified Set 5 4Ps households of Diffun II
District in the barangays of Aurora West, Liwayway, Cajel, Ricarte Sur, Ricarte Norte, Dumanisi,
Magsaysay, Rafael Palma, Macate, Ifugao Village, Baguio Village, Campamento, Aklan Village
and Dona Imelda. The list of the 4Ps household shall come from the Municipal Link of 4Ps in
Diffun, Quirino.
Sample and Sampling Procedure

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Stratified random sampling will be employed to come up with the desired size in each of
the barangays considered in the study. The Slovins formula will be used:


1+ Ne

n=desired sample size
e=margin of error (5%)
Table 1:

Research Instrument
The researcher will utilize the following instruments in gathering data:
1. Questionnaire which will detail pertinent questions that will qualify some information
regarding the study. This tool will be used for the field interviews at the household level.
2. Quantitative data sets-These are templates that will be used during the preliminary data
gathering to consolidate statistics of the identified barangays in Diffun II District
Data Gathering Procedure:
1. Formal communication letters will be handover by the researcher to identified
respondents signed by authorized signatories of the University and the researcher to
solicit approval.
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2. Preliminary data gathering-The following persons/offices may be tapped as respondents

in acquiring needed preliminary information to come up with identified top and least
performing barangays in terms of nutrition using the minimum indicators.
a. Municipal Link
b. Municipal Social Welfare and Development Office
c. Department of Education
d. Rural Health Unit
For the above-mentioned, there will be templates to be used to gather the needed
information plus interviews to get further details on the data collected.
Field random sampling and interviews- After having identified the two (2) barangays, a
field survey shall be conducted with the following activities and respondents:
a. Survey through questionnaires to at least 5-10% of the total 4Ps household parents of
the barangay with highest and lowest nutritional performance rate.
b. Interview with 4Ps parent leader, Barangay Nutrition Scholar, Barangay Health
Worker, Barangay Captain, School principal and adviser
3. The researcher will then perform the necessary data gathering activities. Once finished,
the researcher should conduct post-research conference with the official or send a letter to
formalize the appreciation.
4. The administration of the field surveys shall also be done with utmost care following
protocols of the barangay. The researcher will pay courtesy to the Barangay Captain prior
to the conduct of the research. For a more convenient field research, the researcher may
opt to request from the Barangay Captain the assistance of any Barangay Official or
BNS/BHW and or the parent leader.
Statistical Tools Used
To come up with the comprehensive analysis of the data, the following statistical tools
will be used:

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1. Frequency counts and Percentages. This will be used to describe the profile, utilization
strategies used and recommendations for the improvement of the implementation to the
4Ps beneficiaries.
2. Mean. This will be used to describe changes using indicators to the children of 4Ps
beneficiaries after 2 years of implementation of the program.
3. T-test. This will be used to determine significant differences on the changes using
indicators to the children of the 4Ps beneficiaries after 2 years of implementation of the

Fiszbein, Rudiger et.al. Conditional Cash Transfers: Reducing Present and Future Poverty. USA:
The World Bank Publications, 1818 H St. NW, Washington DC
Reyes, Tbuga, A. 2012. Conditional Cash Transfer Program in the Philippines: Is It Reaching the
Extremely Poor? Philjewels Publication, Ayala Avenue, Makati City
Smith, A. 2007. Wealth of Nation. Cosimo Inc.
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Son, H.H. 2011. Equity and Well-Being: Measurement and Policy Practice.
USA: Routledge Publishing
World Bank, 2010. The MDGs After the Crisis. USA: The World Bank Publications, 1818 H St.
NW, Washington DC

http://www4.dswd.gov.ph/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=51&Itemid=71Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps)

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Appendix A
(This questionnaire is intended only for identified 4Ps household beneficiaries in the barangays of Diffun
II District with lowest and highest nutritional performance rate per preliminary data gathering)

Name of Pantawid HH Head: ___________________________________________________
Spouse Name: ________________________________________________________________
Home Address: _______________________________________________________________
Occupation of HH Head: ______________________________________________________
Occupation of Spouse: _________________________________________________________
No. of HH Member ages 4-12 years old as of 30 June 2013:
Age Bracket



Average monthly Cash Grant received



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Proceeds of the monthly Cash grant received

(Let the respondent enumerate the actual proceeds of the cash received first then ask what ranks as priority or rank
1 until the least priority)



Top Rank profiling

Description of the proceeds
How much is being allocated
monthly from the CCT?
Who is/are benefiting from the
Who decided for the allocation
of the proceeds?
Is the proceed in compliance to
the conditionalities of the cash

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For the past two (2) years of receiving the cash grant, what changes have you observed to
your children particularly those ages 4-12 years old now?
Rating: 3-very significant; 2-significant; 1-not significant
Interest to study
Active in school
Attendance to school
Participation in class
Socially active

2 1


3 2 1

Eating habit
Increase in body weight
Improve posture
Prone to illness

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