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CultureBumps

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TOPICSINTRANSLATION
SeriesEditors:SusanBassnett(UniversityofWarwick)
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CultureBumps
AnEmpiricalApproachtotheTranslationofAllusions
TopicsinTranslation10
RitvaLeppihalme
SeriesEditors:SusanBassnett(UniversityofWarwick)
EdwinGentzler(UniversityofMassachusetts,Amherst)
MULTILINGUALMATTERSLTD
Clevedon*Philadelphia*Toronto*Sydney*Johannesburg

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LibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationData
Leppihalme,Ritva
CultureBumps:AnEmpiricalApproachtotheTranslationofAllusions
RitvaLeppihalme
TopicsinTranslation:10
Includesbibliographicalreferencesandindex
1.Translatingandinterpreting.2.Allusions.I.Title.II.Series.
P306.2.L461997
418'.02dc21977446
BritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationData
ACIPcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibrary.
ISBN1853593745(hbk)
ISBN1853593737(pbk)
MultilingualMattersLtd
UK:FrankfurtLodge,ClevedonHall,VictoriaRoad,ClevedonBS217HH.
USA:1900FrostRoad,Suite101,Bristol,PA19007,USA.
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Australia:P.O.Box586,Artamon,NSW,Australia.
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Copyright1997RitvaLeppihalme.
Allrightsreserved.Nopartofthisworkmaybereproducedinanyformorby
anymeanswithoutpermissioninwritingfromthepublisher.
TypesetbyBookcraft,Stroud.
PrintedandboundinGreatBritainbyWBCBookManufacturersLtd

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Contents
Preface

viii

Acknowledgements

xi

Abbreviations

xiii

1.Introduction

CultureOrientedTranslationStudies

CultureBoundTranslationProblems

AllusionsCultureBumps?

TheConceptofAllusion

2.TranslationalIssues
TranslationasCommunication

13

ApproachestoTranslation

13

SendersandReceivers

15

TheTranslatorasCompetentReaderandResponsibleTextProducer

18

TheInvisibleTargetTextAudience

21

TheConceptofTranslationStrategy

24

ProblemSolvingTranslating

24

ADescriptiveorPrescriptiveConcept?

26

3.Analysis:HideandSeek
FunctionsofAllusions

13

31
31

FunctionandEffect

31

ThematicAllusions

37

HumourinAllusions

40

UseofAllusionsforCharacterisation

44

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AllusionsasIndicatorsofInterpersonalRelationships

46

CreativeversusStereotypeduseofAllusions

50

ClichsandProverbs

53

FormsofAllusions
ExpressionsofComparison

57

WaysofModifyingAllusions

59

TheRecognisabilityofAllusions

62

SourcesofAllusions

66

ProperNameAllusions

66

KeyPhraseAllusions

68

4.Problemsolving:TheoryandPractice

78

PotentialStrategiesforAllusions

78

TranslatorAttitudesandCommentsonStrategies

85

Reverbalisation:RealisationsofStrategies

90

StrategiesusedforProperNameAllusions

90

StrategiesusedforKeyPhraseAllusions

94

PossibleReasonsforthePredominantStrategy
ProblemSolvinginPractice:ChoosingfromaWideRangeofStrategies

102
105

5.EmpiricalDataonReaderResponses

132

NotesontheFinnishTargetCulture

133

QuestionsofMethod

135

DesigningtheExperiments

135

PurposeoftheExperiments

139

ArrangingtheExperiments

140

CultureBumps?ReaderResponsestoAllusionsinTargetTexts

142

ResponsestoLiteralTranslations

142

ResponsestootherStrategies

162

6.AllusionsintheClassroom(TheNoviceTranslatorStumbles)
EmpiricalDataonStudentRecognitionofSourcetextAllusion

55

178
178

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StudentInterpretationsandSuggestionsofStrategies

186

ImplicationsforTranslatorTraining

191

7.ConcludingRemarks

196

Bibliography

198

I.Examplesused

198

A.Fiction

198

B.Nonfiction

199

II.TargetTexts

200

III.WorksCited

200

IV.Interviews

209

Appendix1.TheTranslatorInterviews

210

Appendix2.DetailsonRespondents(GRT,KLA,TSE)

212

Appendix3.TheGRTQuestionnaire

216

Appendix4.TheKLAQuestionnaire

219

Appendix5.TheTSEQuestionnaire

220

Appendix6.SourceTextExtracts(GRTandKLA)

222

Appendix7.SourceTextExtracts(TSE)

232

Index

239

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Preface
Theculturalturntakenbytranslationstudiesoverthepast15yearsisnodoubtrelatedpartlytotheincreasinginternationalisationofourworldandtheconsequent
needformoreandbettertranslation.Intoday'sworlditiseasytoseethatforatranslationtowork,wehavetogobeyondmerewords.Itisnotenoughtoworkout
howbesttorenderthewordsofthesourcetextitismuchmoreimportanttoworkoutwhatthewordsmeaninaparticularsituationalandculturalcontext.
Theterm'cultureshock',whichdescribestheresultofsuddencontactwithanotherculture,impliesashocktotheentiresystem.Forlessseriousupsets,theterm
'culturebump'hasbeensuggested.CarolM.Archer(1986)hasusedthetermofproblemsinfacetofacecommunication,culturebumpsoccurringbetweenspeakers
ofdifferentculturalbackgrounds,butwemayobserveculturebumpsinreadingsituationsaswell,whencultureboundelementshindercommunicationofthemeaning
toreadersinanotherlanguageculture.
Allusionsareonetypeofcultureboundelementsinatext.Theyareexpectedtoconveyameaningthatgoesbeyondthemerewordsused.GeorgeSteiner(1991)
maydeplorethefactthatBritainisnolonger,withpollutionandtheChannelTunnel,setinasilversea.Thisphrasewillremindmanyofhisreadersofapassagein
ShakespeareeulogisingsixteenthcenturyEnglandasa'demiparadise'.AFinnishindustrialisttalkingaboutleadershipstyleswillconveyhismeaningclearlytothevast
majorityofFinnishadultsbyurgingmanagerstoemulateKoskela,ratherthanlieutenantLammio.ThesetwocharactersinTheUnknownSoldieraresowellknown
inhiscountrythatnofurtherdescriptionsareneeded.
Butascultureboundelements,allusionsdependlargelyonfamiliaritytoconveymeaning.Totakeanexample:anAmericanjournalistdiscussingproblemswiththe
plannedhealthcarereformintheUnitedStatescomparedthecostissuetotheCheshireCat,explainingthat'itmaysometimesvanish,leavingbehindonlyasmile:the
promiseofnewbenefits.Butthecatisstillthereandit'srapidlygrowingintoatiger'(Peterson,1994).The

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writerofthiscomparisonclearlyexpectshisreaderstoconnecttheimagewithanillustrationinLewisCarroll'sAlice'sAdventuresinWonderland(orverylikely
Disney'scartoonfilm),withitsstrangecatfigurewhichslowlyfadesaway,untilonlythesmileisleft.Butifthisarticleweretobetranslatedforthereadersofa
businessmagazineinanothercountry,targetingeconomists,engineers,executives,investors...whatwouldtheirreactionbetotheintroductionofaforeignchildren's
storytoaseriousarticleonaserioussubject?Insteadoftheallusionmakingthemeaningeasiertograsp,itmightconfusetheissuewhentranslated.
Thetranslationofallusionsthusinvolvestwolanguageculturesaswellasliteraryandpragmaticaspectsonthetextuallevel.Allusionshavemeaninginthecultureor
subcultureinwhichtheyarisebutnotnecessarilyinothers.
Sometimes,ofcourse,allusionspresentnoparticulartranslationproblems.Itispossibletoalludeacrosslanguagebarriersastherearebiculturalreadersaswellas
transculturalallusions,thelattersharedbysourceandtargetculturealike.Amother,hopingtowelcomethesonmissingforweeksinadistantcorneroftheglobeon
hisroundtheworldtrip,maypromisetoslaughterthefattedcalfwhentheprodigalreturns.Thisbiblicalallusioncanbeusedtodescribeherfeelingsinanumberof
languages,aslongasthetargetlanguageculturehasbeensufficientlyinfluencedbytheBible.Similarly,itiseasytotranslateintoEnglishtheopinionofthejournalist
whosuggestedin1994thattheFinnishministerofagricultureshouldseehisroleasthatofthegoodshepherdleadinghisflocktothepasturesoftheEuropean
Union.
Theneedforbetterinterculturalcommunicationandpoststructuralisttheoriesofliteraturehavegivenbetterbalancetoourconceptionofthetranslationprocess.We
seethatthetranslatorisnottheonlyoperatorintheprocess:thereaderstooparticipate,usingwhattheyhavelearnedtomakesenseofwhattheyread.Weseethe
importanceofconsideringnotjusttherelationshipofsourcetextandtargettext,whichinthepastledtofairlyfruitlessdiscussionsofequivalence,andwantaclearer
focusonthetargettextanditsreadersinthetargetculture.Itisnoexcusethatatextis'correctly'translated,ifthetargettextreaderscannotunderstandit.Inthis
bookIemphasisethetranslator'sneedtobemoreawareofhis/herresponsibilitytothereadersofthetargettext,andtheneedtorememberthiswhenchoosing
translationstrategies.Atranslationwhichdisregardsdifferencesinculturalbackgroundsrunstheriskofbeingunintelligible,ifonlyoccasionally.Sometimestheculture
bumpishardlyperceptibleatothertimesitmayhindercommunicationquitebadly.

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Asthecurrenttrendintranslationstudiesincreasinglyfocusesonhowtranslationsworkinthetargetlanguageculture,itis,inevitably,anddespitethelogistical
problemsinvolved,toreadersthatwemustgotolearnhowtheyreceivetargettexts.Ifthereisasubtexttomyefforts,itisthatreadersdeservethebest.Itisaplea
forcreativeandvarieduseofstrategies,thecompetenttranslatorrecognisinghisorherroleasculturalmediatorandstrivingtoproduceatargetlanguageversionthat
willenablethetargettextreaderstoparticipateintextproductionintheirownway,seeingconnectionsandmeaninginsteadofstumblingoverculturebumps.
Inthisbooktranslatorsandreadersarenotdiscussedonlyintheabstract:interviewswithpractisingtranslatorsbringintheprofessional'spointofview,whilereaders
answeropenendedquestionsandoccasionallyofferspontaneouscommentsonparticularexamples.Thereviewofpotentialtranslationstrategiesforallusionsis
complementedbyapresentationofactualchoicesmadebythetranslatorsinterviewed,andbytheresponsesoftargetlanguagereaderstoaselectionofthese
examples.Examplesarediscussedfromafunctionalviewpoint,providinginsightsintothesignificanceofallusionsintheircontextsotherwisetypologiesarekepttoa
minimum.Theprospectofteacherswantingtodiscussallusionsinthelanguageortranslationclassroomisalsokeptinmindthroughoutthebook.
Thisbookisarevisedversionofmydoctoraldissertation(1994).ItgrewoutofexperiencesinteachingtranslationattheHelsinkiUniversityEnglishdepartment.Over
andoveragainIwasstruckbythedifficultymyFinnishstudentstendedtohavewithsourceculturalallusionsinBritishandAmericanfictionandjournalism.'Gettingit'
wasaproblemformost,andfindingatranslationstrategythatwouldconveythehalfhiddenmeaningtotargetlanguagereaderswasinevitablythenextproblem.I
decidedtotrytoexplorethefunctionandmeaningofallusionsinsourcetextsaswellasatranslator'sstrategiesforcopingwiththem.Isoondiscoveredthatthetopic
spreadoutinmanydifferentdirections,requiringnotjustanalysesofsourceandtargettextsandendlessverificationofsources,butalsointerviewswithtranslatorsand
aboveallsomecontactwithpotentialreceiversoftargettexts,aswiththegenresinvolved,translatorswouldnotbetranslatingforthemselvesinordertosolve
intellectualpuzzlesbutforFinnishgeneralreaders.Asaresultthisbookisneitheracomparativestudyofsourceandtargettextsnorapurelydescriptivestudyof
translationstrategiesused.Ithoughtitimportantnottolosesightoftheneedsoftheendusers(thetargettextreaders)andofthenovicetranslatorsintheclassroom.

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Acknowledgements
Iwouldliketoexpressmyheartfeltthankstothosewho,inanofficialorinofficialcapacity,guidedmeinmyresearchprocess.Theywere,aboveall,ProfessorMatti
Rissanen,AssociateProfessorAndrewChesterman,ProfessorSusanBassnett,ProfessorSonjaTirkkonenCondit,AssociateProfessorKristaVarantolaand
AssociateProfessorJanOlastman.ProfessorWolframWilss,ProfessorGideonToury,andthelateProfessorAndrLefeverealsotookakindinterestinmywork
andofferedhelpandencouragement,forwhichIamgreatlyindebtedtothem.
WithwarmfeelingsIacknowledgethesupportofallmyfriendsandcolleaguesattheHelsinkiUniversityEnglishdepartment,theKouvoladepartmentoftranslation
studies,andotheruniversitydepartmentsthroughoutFinland.Iwouldliketothankespeciallythosewho,asnativespeakersofEnglish,gavemeaccesstotheir
responsestoallusions.IalsowishtoexpressmysincerethanksfortheircooperationtothetranslatorsElsaCarroll,LiisaHakola,ErkkiJukarainen,KaleviNyytj,
EilaSalminenandAnnaLauraTalvio'Elone,whokindlyagreedtobeinterviewedforthisstudy.
Iamgratefultoallthegeneralreaderswhotookthetimeandtroubletoanswermyquestionnaires.Iwouldalsoliketothankthestudentswhowerehelpfulin
collectinggeneralreaderresponses.Thekeeninteresttakenbymystudentsinallaspectsofmyresearchhasbeenacontinuedsourceofencouragementandhas
affordedmeachanceofgettingearlyfeedbackonanumberofpoints.
IthanktheBritishCentreforLiteraryTranslationforthebursarywhichenabledmetodoresearchattheUniversityofEastAngliainNovember1989.Likewise,I
wishtothanktheAlfredKordelinFoundationforawardingmeagrantwhichallowedmetotakeatermoffteachingin1991.
Iwouldalsoliketoacknowledgethefollowingwhokindlygrantedpermissiontoreproducecopyrightmaterialinthisbook:VictorGollanczLtdforextractfrom
BitterMedicine,bySaraParetsky(1987)ThePetersFraser&DunlopGroupforextractsfromTheBestMantoDie,byRuthRendell(Hutchinson/Arrow,1969)
andfromPennyPost,bySusanMoody(Mac

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millan,1985)HUICorporationandGelfmanSchneiderLiteraryAgents,Inc.forextractsfromBread,byEvanHunter(1974)CurtisBrownLtdforextractfromThe
ChinaGoverness,byM.Allingham(Chatto&Windus,1963)PenguinUKforextractfromLookingforRachelWallace,byRobertB.Parker(1980)A.P.Watt
LtdforextractfromForeignAffairs,byAlisonLurie(Michaeljoseph/Sphere,1985).
Averyspecialthankyougoestomyfamily,withoutwhosesupportIliterallycouldnothavecompletedmywork.Idedicatethisbookwithloveandgratitudeto
Matti,TuuliaandIlkka.

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Abbreviations
GRT

generalreadertest

KLA

testheldatKouvoladepartmentoftranslationstudies

KP

keyphrase

NS

nativespeaker

PN

propername

SAC

semiallusivecomparison

SL

sourcelanguage

ST

sourcetext

TL

targetlanguage

TSE

testofstudentsofEnglish

TT

targettext

Thefollowingabbreviationsrefertodictionariesandencyclopediaslistedamongtheworkscited:
CDE

CollinsEnglishDictionary

CDQ

ConciseDictionaryofQuotations

COD

ConciseOxfordDictionaryofCurrentEnglish

DMQ

PenguinDictionaryofModernQuotations

ODP

OxfordDictionaryofEnglishProverbs

OED

OxfordEnglishDictionary

PCE

PenguinConciseColumbiaEncyclopedia

PDP

PenguinDictionaryofProverbs

PDQ

PenguinDictionaryofQuotations

PocketTreasury

Reader'sDigestPocketTreasuryofGreatQuotations

TDQ

BloomsburyThematicDictionaryofQuotations

ThebooksoftheBiblearereferredtobytheirstandardabbreviations.

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1
Introduction
CultureOrientedTranslationStudies
Around1980,agradualshiftofemphasisbegantobeperceivedintranslationstudies.1 Thenewapproachwasinterdisciplinaryandculturallyoriented.Itistruethat
perceptiverepresentativesoftheearlier,morelinguisticorientationhadrecognisedtherelevancetotranslationstudiesnotonlyofdifferentsubdivisionsoflinguisticsbut
alsoofotherdisciplinesbutstill,amongitsearlyproponents,thenewtrendwasfelttobeareactionagainstatooconstrictingviewoftranslationstudies,andthe
'semanticterrorismafterbabble'(Lefevere,1981:44)oflinguisticjargon.BassnettMcGuire(1980:6)sawtranslationstudiesas'bridgingthegapbetweenthevast
areaofstylistics,literaryhistory,linguistics,semioticsandaesthetics'.SnellHornby(1988:23)placedtranslationstudiesintoasomewhatdifferentfieldofdisciplines,
butshetooemphasisedtheinterdisciplinaryapproach:
translationstudies,asaculturallyorientedsubject,drawsonanumberofdisciplines,includingpsychology...,ethnology...andphilosophy...withoutbeingasubdivision
ofanyofthem.Similarly,itcanandshouldutiliserelevantconceptsandmethodsdevelopedfromthestudyoflanguage...withoutautomaticallybecomingabranchoflinguistics

andpleadedfordroppingrigidpolarisations.Ingo(1992)seestranslationstudiesrelatedatleasttophilosophy,philology,literarystudies,linguistics,information
theory,sociology,pragmaticsandculturalstudies.Touryevencallstranslationstudiesan'interdiscipline'(SnellHornby,1991:19).Opinionsliketheseseemtoreflect
ageneralmoveawayfromexcessivecompartmentalisationinthehumanities,andadesiretobringtogetherideas,conceptsanddiscoveriesfromvariousdisciplinesso
thatoldandnewproblemsmightbeseeninadifferentlight,andworkwiththemmightbemorefruitful.Asimilarinterestinanintegratedapproachisrevealedinthe
writingsofanumberoflinguistsandliteraryscholarswhomaybeless

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concernedwithtranslationbuteagertoseeworkonlanguagefromawiderangle.'[A]nyattempttomakeastatementaboutlanguage,itscompositionoritsusage,
drawsonmanydisciplines'(Smith,1987:11)similarfeelingsareevidentin,forexample,Sell(1991),Schogt(1988)andHickey(1989).Asaresult,muchofthe
workthatiscurrentlybeingdoneintranslationstudiesforegroundssocialandculturalaspectsoftranslation,withtheemphasisontextsintheir'macrocontext'(Snell
Hornby,1991:15):insteadofsimplyponderingthetranslatabilityofsourcetexts,thereisconcernwiththefunctioningofthetargettextinthetargetlanguageand
culturalcontext.Appliedtranslationstudiesfrequentlyfocusoncrossculturalcommunication,drawingondiscourseanalysisandpragmatics(cf.Delisle,1988:7879).
Alonglistofarticlesbypractisingtranslatorsandcriticsshowsthatpractitioners,too,sharethisinterestintheinterculturalaspectsoftranslation.Thismaybepartly
becauseoftheincreasedtranslationintomajorlanguagesofliteraryworkswritteninlanguagesoflimiteddiffusion,andpartlybecauseofapsychologicaland
pragmaticinterestincrossculturalphenomena.Thereisclearlyapracticalneedforthistrend:theincreasinginternationalisationofourworldmeansthat
communicationacrossculturesneedstoproceedassmoothlyaspossible,withouttoomanyhitchesandbreakdowns.
Thenewinterdisciplinarityshowsthat'boththetranslatorandthetranslationtheoristare...concernedwithaworldbetweendisciplines,languagesandcultures'(Snell
Hornby,1988:35emphasisintheoriginal),andwithtextsintheirlargercontext,situationalandcultural.Thisrequiresanewapproach,nottherigidcategorisationof
theexactsciences,butone'admittingblendsandblurrededges'(p.36).
CultureBoundTranslationProblems
Interestininterculturaltranslationproblemsarisesfromarecognitionthatcultureboundconcepts,evenwherethetwoculturesinvolvedarenottoodistant,canbe
moreproblematicforthetranslatorthanthesemanticorsyntacticdifficultiesofatext(Cordero,1984:473).Someresearchershavefocusedonmainlyextralinguistic
phenomena,fromnatural(topography,floraandfauna,etc.)tomanmade(socialinstitutions,buildings,trademarks,etc.).(Foratypology,seeforinstance
NedergaardLarsen,1993.)Extralinguisticproblemsareoftenexpressedaslexical:isthereawordinthetargetlanguage(TL)foragivenfeatureofthesource
language(SL)world?Othersseecultureboundtranslationproblemsasmainlyintralinguisticandpragmatic(involvingidioms,puns,wordplayorwaysof,forinstance,
addressingaperson,complimentinghimorher,orapologising).

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Quiteoftenintralinguisticproblemsinvolveindirectorimplicitmessagesorconnotations,thequestionbeinghowthemeaningofthesourcetextcanbemadeaccessible
toTLreceivers,if'justtranslatingit'turnsouttobeinadequate.Theemphasistendstobeonhowwellatranslationfunctionsinthereceivinglanguageculture.2
Increasedinternationalcontactsmeanthatthissecondtypeofproblemisnotmerelyacademic.Atranslatorofeconomicorpoliticaltextsnolessthantheliterary
translatorcanhardlyavoidcomingacrossimplicitmessagesgroundedinthesourceculture,andvitalinterestsmaybeatstakeifmisunderstandingsoccur.
Culturallyorientedtranslationstudies,then,donotseethesourcetext(ST)andthetargettext(TT)simplyassamplesoflinguisticmaterial.Thetextsoccurinagiven
situationinagivencultureintheworld,andeachhasaspecificfunctionandanaudienceofitsown.Insteadofstudyingspecimensoflanguageunderlaboratory
conditionsasitwere,themoderntranslationscholarandthetranslatorthusapproachesatextasiffromahelicopter:seeingfirsttheculturalcontext,thenthe
situationalcontext,andfinallythetextitself.Myspecialtopicinthisbookisthetranslationproblemcausedbysmallstretchesofothertextsembeddedinthetextat
hand,whichinteractwithandcolourit,butmaybemeaninglessorpuzzlingintranslation.Somesuchembeddedtextsor'intexts'(Nord,1991:102)areknownas
allusions.
AllusionsCultureBumps?
'Allusion',atermcurrentinliterarystudies,isgivenaslightlyextendedmeaninginthisstudy.Thetermrefersheretoavarietyofusesofpreformedlinguisticmaterial
(Meyer,1968)ineitheritsoriginaloramodifiedform,andofpropernames,toconveyoftenimplicitmeaning:3
(a)keyphraseallusions:
toseparatethewheatfromthechaff
topeeornottopee
hungroundhisnecklikeanalbatross
(b)propernameallusions:
IfeltlikeBenedictArnold
IdomyRumpelstiltskindance
aGadarenerushbyhighstreetretailers
Theviewpointadoptedherefocuseslessonallusionsasaliteraryphenomenonandmoreonthemastranslationproblemsrequiringproblemsolvingandtheuseof
appropriatestrategies.Fortheuseof

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allusionspresupposesaparticularkindofreceiverparticipation.Thewordsoftheallusionfunctionasacluetothemeaning,butthemeaningcanusuallybeunderstood
onlyifthereceivercanconnectthecluewithanearlieruseofthesameorsimilarwordsinanothersourceortheuseofanameevokesthereferentandsome
characteristicfeaturelinkedtothename.Someallusionshavedevelopedintoclichsorbeenlexicalisedsothattheyarenolongernecessarilypopularlylinkedwith
theiroriginalsourcesotherspresupposefamiliaritywithesotericsourcesandarerecognisedbyasmallminorityofreceiversonly.
Allusionsrequireahighdegreeofbiculturalisationofreceiversinordertobeunderstoodacrossaculturalbarrier.Ithasbeenacceptedforsometimethattranslators
needtobenotjustbilingualbutbiculturalinordertofullyunderstandtheSTandtobeabletotransmitittothetargetaudience(forexampleStraight,1981:41Reiss
&Vermeer,1984:26).ButwhatabouttheTTreaders?Isitrealistictoexpectthemtobebiculturalalso?Isthereceiverparticipationwhichtheuseofallusions
presupposespossiblewhentextsaretransferredfromsourcelanguageculturetotargetlanguageculture?Ordoallusionsinfactbecomeculturebumpswhenthey
occurintranslatedtexts?
Theterm'culturebump'hasbeenusedbyCarolM.Archer(1986:1701)ofproblemsinfacetofaceinterculturalcommunicationwhicharemilderthanculture
shocks:'Aculturebumpoccurswhenanindividualfindshimselforherselfinadifferent,strange,oruncomfortablesituationwheninteractingwithpersonsofadifferent
culture'.Ihaveextendedtheuseofhertermtotranslation,forasituationwherethereaderofaTThasaproblemunderstandingasourceculturalallusion.Suchan
allusionmaywellfailtofunctionintheTT,asitisnotpartoftheTLreader'sculture.InsteadofconveyingacoherentmeaningtoTTreaders,theallusionmayremain
unclearandpuzzling.
AsSnellHornby(1988:41)haspointedout,thetranslatabilityofatextdependsontheextenttowhichthetextis'embeddedinitsownspecificculture'andalsoon
howfarapart,withregardtotimeandplace,theSTandTTreceiversare.Inthisstudy,thedistanceisnotparticularlygreat:theSTsarecontemporaryEnglish
languagetextsandthetargetaudienceisFinnishpeopleexposedtoatleastcertainaspectsofAngloAmericanculturethroughoutthiscentury,increasinglysoin
recentdecades.Culturally,then,thereislittledistance,thoughlinguisticallythereismore,asFinnishisoneofthefewEuropeanlanguageswhicharenotIndo
Europeaninorigin.TheSTsconsideredhererepresentgenreswhichareoftentranslated('middlebrow'fictionandqualityjournalism),andreflectcontemporary

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concernsinavarietyofways.TheirpotentialFinnishreaderssharemuchoftheWesterntraditionandhaveaccesstointernationalmassmediaandpopularculture,
frequentlyinEnglish.TheywilloftenknowsomeEnglish,orevenknowitwell.Thiswouldallperhapssuggestthatculturespecifictranslationproblemsmightnotplay
muchofarolewhensuchtextsaretranslatedforsuchanaudiencebutinfact,aconsiderationofthematerialonwhichthisstudyisbasedwillshowthatpotential
cultureboundproblemsarebynomeansuncommoninit.ThiswillalsobeborneoutbytheempiricaldatainChapters5and6.
Iftranslationisseenasaformofinterculturalcommunication,bothpartnersinthetranslationprocessthetranslatorwhoproducestheTTandthereceiverwhoreads
itdeserveattention.AftertheoverviewoftheoreticalconcernsinChapter2,theapproachadoptedinthisstudywillbelargelyempirical.ProblemsofSTanalysis
arepresentedinChapter3withexamplestakenfromacorpusofapproximately700Englishlanguageallusions4 collectedfrom21fictionaland200nonfictional
BritishandAmericantext.ApresentationoftranslationstrategiesforallusionsconsidersbothpotentialstrategiesandthoseactuallyadoptedbyFinnishtranslatorsand
wealsohearfromtheprofessionaltranslatorswhohadthetaskoftranslatingsomeofthosetextsforpublication(Chapter4).Readerresponsesindicatingthatsome
translatedallusionswerereceivedas'culturebumps'byFinnishrespondentsarereportedinChapter5.Henceinthisstudyreferenceismadenotjusttoscholars'
visualisationsofreaders,butalsotorealreadersandtheirreactionswhentheymeetallusionstovariousforeign,sourceculturalmattersintextstranslatedintotheir
mothertongue.
Finally,Chapter6takesustotheclassroomanddiscussesthefailureoftargetculturalstudents(intheroleofnovicetranslators)tospotandunderstandsource
culturalallusionsandtheirfunctionandmeaninginSLtexts,andsomepedagogicalimplicationsofthis.
Atthispointitmayneedtobeemphasisedthatallusionsarenotararity.Onthecontrary,theyarecommoninbothliterarytextsandjournalism,perhapsparticularlyin
English(Lassetal.1987:vi),thoughthereis,ofcourse,variationinfrequencybetweengenresaswellasauthors.Allusionsmaynotalwaysberecognisedasanactual
translationproblembypractisingtranslators(cf.Chapter4)buttheyarearecurrentandoftensignificantfeatureofmanytypesoftexttobetranslated.
TheConceptofAllusion
Theetymologyoftheterm'allusion'showsaconnectionwiththeideaofplay:ad+ludere alludere.Whilenotalluseofallusionisplayful,humour

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isclearlyoneofitsfunctions.Inthelongrhetoricaltraditionallusionhashadaplaceamongsuchothertropesorfiguresofspeechasallegory,hyperbole,metalepsis,
ironyetc.(Fontanier1968:4989).Standarddefinitionsinliterarystudiessharetheideaof'referencetosomething':
ALLUSION.Latinalludere,toplaywith,tojest,toreferto.Areferencetocharactersandeventsofmythology,legends,history.(Scott,1965)
ALLUSION.Tacitreferencetoanotherliterarywork,toanotherart,tohistory,tocontemporaryfigures,orthelike.(Preminger,1965)
Areference,usuallybrief,oftencasual,occasionallyindirect,toaperson,event,orconditionpresumablyfamiliarbutsometimesobscureorunknowntothereader.(Shaw,1976)
areference,explicitorindirect,toaperson,place,orevent,ortoanotherliteraryworkorpassage(Abrams,1984)

SuchreferenceismadeinordertocompareAandB:
Anallusionisafigureofspeechthatcomparesaspectsorqualitiesofcounterpartsinhistory,mythology,scripture,literature,popularorcontemporaryculture.(Lassetal.,1987)

Allusionisnotonlyaliteraryphenomenon,howeverthereareallusionsinnonfictionalwriting,andalsoinmusic,painting,filmetc.Thusalineofdialogueorthebrief
appearanceofanactorinafilmmayalludetoanearlierfilm,andaudiencerecognitionofthisisexpected.(See,forinstance,Eco[1988]forexamples.)More
extendeduseofthetermismadeforexamplebyFreud,whoseesdreamsascontainingallusionstothedreamer'sexperienceswhenawakeandLively(1992),who
inaworkoffiction,repeatedlyspeaksofthephysicalpresentdayLondoncontainingallusionstoitsearlierepochs(p.9,88etc.).
Thedefinitionsandusescitedshowthatthedefinersandusersarewillingtoacceptconsiderablelatitudefortheterm.Indeed,theuseoftheterm'allusion'variestoa
certaindegreefromscholartoscholar.Allusionismoreorlesscloselyrelatedtosuchtermsasreference,quotationorcitation,borrowing(evenoccasionally
plagiarism)5 andthemorecomplexintertextuality,aswellaspunningandwordplay(formodifiedallusions)butpreciselyinwhatrelationshipsuchtermsstandtoone
anotherisseldommadeclear.Definitionsaremostlybasedoncommonintuitionratherthanatheoreticalanalysis(BenPorat,1976:1056).Compilersofanextensive
annotatedallusionbibliography(Perrietal.,1979)sometimescommentthatinaparticularwork'allusion'isusedsynonymouslywith

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'quotation'(p.221),orthatsomescholarsusetheterm'generically'(p.215)or'quiteloosely'(p.213).Theyappeartohavewishedthattherewerelessterminological
vagueness.Asagainstthis,Wilss(1989:13),inhisstudyofapproximately2000Germanallusions(mostlyinjournalistictexts),statesthatforallusions,intuitionismore
importantthandefinitions.
Thefollowingmayserveasabriefindicationoftherangeofallusionstudiesinliterarycriticismandtheory.Itisalistofthedescriptiveadjectivespremodifyingthe
word'allusion(s)'whichoccurinthetitlesofandannotationstobooksandarticlesinPerrietal.(1979):
Aesopic,ambiguous,appliedvs.organic,artistic,astronomical,Balzacian,biblical,biographical,Catholic,Christian,classical,comic,conspicuous,contemporary,cultural,current,
Dantean,deliberate,directvs.indirect,evaluative,evocative,exegetical,fictionalvs.literal,functional,heroic,hidden,historic(al),Homeric,illusive,implicitvs.explicit,intertwined,
involuntary,ironic,literary,liturgical,local,mathematical,medieval,metaphoric,modern,moral,musical,mythic,mythological,obscure,overt,parodic,Platonic,political,proverbial,
pseudocontemporary,satiric,scientific,scriptural,Shakespearean,significant,stylistic,tonal,topical,topicalvs.textual,veiled,verbal,Virgilian,visual.

InherintroductoryremarkstothebibliographyPerriaffirmsthatthetreatmentofallusioninliterarystudiesisamorphous(p.171)thatstatementissurelyborneoutby
thequotedlist,andifupdatedtothe1990s,thelistwoulddoubtlessbeevenlonger.Ingeneraltermsitmightbesaidthatthetrendinallusionstudieshasbeenfromthe
annotativeidentificationofsourcestowardsananalysisofthethematicandstructuralaspectsofallusion.
Amongthepurposesofliteraryallusionresearchershavenotedadesiretocallattentiontoone'slearningorwidereading(Preminger,1965:18)toenrichtheworkby
bringinginnewmeaningsandassociations,'awealthofexperienceandknowledgebeyondthelimitsofplainstatement'(Shaw,1976:14)anattempttocharacterise
people,orsuggestthoughtsorunconsciousimpressionsandattitudesincharacters(Hall,1971:5345)ortoincreasethesignificanceofone'sworkbygeneralisingor
suggestinguniversality(Weisgerber,1970:39).Thefirstoftheseisnolongerthoughtofasanimportantreasonforalludinginliteraturebutmayfeatureininterpersonal
communicationasoneofthepowergamespeopleplay.(SeeChapter3foracloserlookatthefunctionsofallusions.)

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Animportantaspectinalludingisthecapacityofliterature'tocreatenewliteratureoutofold'(Johnson,1976:579),thatis,toinvolvethereaderinarecreationby
hintingathalfhiddenmeaningswhichthereaderisexpectedtorecoverandthenuseforadeeperunderstandingofthework.Theincreasedinterestofliterarystudies
duringthe1980sinreaderreceptionandtheroleofthereaderingeneralhasmadethisaspeciallyrelevantpoint.Similarly,Wilss(1989)seesthefunctionofan
allusiongenerallyasmakingatextmoreattractive(zugkrftiger):theconventionalmeaningandthenewmeaningprovidedbytheallusion'reactchemically'(p.63my
translation)uponeachother.Heemphasisestheintellectualjoyofthereceiverwhoperceivesanotherunexpectedinstanceofwhatcanbedonewithlanguage.Onthe
macrolevel,anentiretextmayplayuponreceivers'familiaritywithanothertext:Stoppard'sRosencrantzandGuildensternAreDeadisadifferentplayaltogether
forthosewhoknowHamletandforthosewhodonot.
Discussionsonintertextuality(thetermwascoinedbyKristevain1969toattempteventosummarisetheliteratureonthiswidetopicisbeyondthescopeofmy
book)haveemphasisedthatitisamorecomplexphenomenonthanmereborrowingofwordsfromearliertexts.Whatisimportantisthefunctionoftheinsertioninthe
newtextandarecognitionthatalltextsowesomethingtoothertextswhichcolourandmayeventransformthem.Foranonliterary(semiotic)discussionof
intertextualityseeHatimandMason(1990:12037),forwhomintertextualityisa'signifyingsystemwhichoperatesbyconnotation'andextendstheboundariesof
textualmeaning(p.129).
Fromacommunicativepointofview,theuseofallusionislinkedtosuchlinguisticandpragmaticphenomenaasimplicature(Grice,1975),inferenceandrelevance.If
communicationisseenprimarilyasaninferentialprocess,anallusioncanbethoughtofasamessageorstimuluswhichthecommunicatorsends,anditisuptothe
receivertofindtheintendedreferenttofillinthegapsinthetext(Gutt,1990:13941,speakingofinferencingwithnospecificmentionofallusion).A'shared
cognitiveenvironment'(p.145)isneededforthistowork,sothatifthereceiversaregroundedinanotherculture,theymaywellbeunabletodrawtheintended
inference.
HatimandMason(1990)intheirsemioticapproachdistinguishbetweenactive(strong)andpassive(weak)intertextualitytheformer'activatesknowledgeandbelief
systemswellbeyondthetextitself'(p.124),involvingexperienceofother'texts'(inawidesense)whilethelatter,usingthedeviceofcoreference(synonymy,
substitutionetc.),simplyensuresthe

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internalcoherence,intelligibility,ofatext.Weisgerber(1970)speaksoftheuseofborrowedmaterial,whichmaybeseentoincludetheuseofborrowedwordsonthe
onehand,andtheuseof'patterns,situations,plots,orcharacters'ontheother(p.37).Thisstudyseestheformerofbothdivisionsworthmoreattentionfromthe
translationpointofviewandthereforefocusesonallusion(toothertexts)expressedthroughborrowed,or,asIprefertosay,preformedmaterial.Useofpreformed
linguisticmaterialincludesmanyothertypesofborrowingthanliteralquotations,astheborrowingofwordsinallusionneedbynomeansbeliteral:allusionsareoften
modified,twistedoutoftheiroriginalwording.
Anevoked6 'text'doesnotnecessarilymeanawrittentext:televisionsoundbitesandadvertisingslogansaretypicaloraltextsthatoftengiverisetomodifiedallusions
andwithpropernames,theconceptoftextmayneedtobewidenedfurther,toincludenamesofreallifeorfictionalcharactersandfeaturesassociatedwithsuch
names.7 IalsoshareBenPorat's(1976:110)viewthatevenanidiomoracollocationcanbealludedto.
Granted,notallinstancesofborrowedwordsinEnglisharetrueallusionswhereechoesoftheevokedcontextareassumedtocolourthenewcontextforthereceiver.
BenPorat's(1976:11316)examplesoftwo'transformations'ofthesamelineofMarloweillustratethedifferencebetweenallusionsthatactivatetheevokedtextand
henceenrichtheinterpretationofthealludingtext,andthosethatdonot:
Thisisthenosethatlaunchedathousandbattles
Thisisthesmellthatlaunchedathousandbarbecues

BothexamplesalludetoMarlowe'slineIsthisthefacethatlaunchedathousandships?,andinboth,themodificationsaresimilar(achangefrominterrogativeto
declarative,andthereplacementofthesametwonounsbyothers).Inthecontext,however,thefirstallusion,whichoccurredinaBritishcinematicversionofEdmond
Rostand'sCyranodeBergerac,will,ifitssourceisrecognisedbythereceiver,actualiseMarlowe'sDrFaustusandthereforeallowforarichinterpretationinvolving
bothmockheroismandtragedy.Contrastthesecondallusion,inacheeseadvertisement,whichisnotmeanttoactivatetheevokedtextbutsimplytosuggestthat
thosewhorecognisethereferentshouldbuytheadvertisedproduct'becauseitisaspecialproductforspecial(intelligent)people'(p.116).BenPorat(1976:1156)
believesthatthereisatacitagreementbetweensenderandreceiverinjournalismandadvertisingtodiscouragefurtherinterpretation,whichmighteven,asinthis
instance,havea'grotesque'effect.

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Limitingthisstudytothesophisticatedinterplayofevokedandalludingtextsinliteraryallusionwould,however,bypasstheproblemscausedfortranslatorsalsobythe
lessevocativeexamplescommoninmanygenres.Adecisiontofocusonliteraryallusionalonemightmaketheresultsofthisstudylessusefulfortranslatorsasboth
allusionsingeneralandliteraryallusionscausetranslationproblems.
Thisstudy,then,willconsidervarioustypesofallusionsfoundinfictionandjournalism.Typologieswilllargelybebypassed,8 asItendtoagreewithPasco
(1973:467)thatclassificationsofallusionsareinadvisable:theymayforegroundwhatisexternalratherthantheimportanceofthecontextforeachallusion.
Specialterminologywillbelimitedtothefollowing:
(I)Allusionsproper:
(A)Propername(PN)allusions=allusionscontainingapropername:
ThinkI'vebecomeaRafflesinmyoldage?
(B)Keyphrase(KP)allusions=allusionscontainingnopropername:
Apparentlytaxisallturnintopumpkinsatmidnight.
Bothoftheseclassesarefurtherdividedinto:
(a)Regularallusions=anunmarkedcategoryof'prototypical'allusions:
Someone'sgottostandupandsaythattheemperorhasnoclothes.
(b)Modifiedallusions=allusionscontaininga'twist',thatis,analterationormodificationofpreformedmaterial:
WherehavealltheoldHillmanImpsgone?Inthescrapyards,everyone.
(II)Stereotypedallusions=allusionsinfrequentusethathavelosttheirfreshnessanddonotnecessarilyevoketheirsourcesalsoclichsandproverbs:9
Wewereshipsthatpassinthenight.

Byanalogywithmetaphors,oneistemptedtospeakofdeadordyingallusions,butthereisnaturallynoclear'timeofdeath',nodistinctboundarybetweenliveand
deadallusions.Instead,therearevariousdegreesoflifeanddeathasnoted,too,byscholarsonmetaphortranslation.Notethatphrasescommonlyusedina
stereotypedwayareoccasionally'reanimated',becomingallusionsproper.

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Littleattentionwillbepaidlatertoexamplesofamoremarginalcharacter:
(III)(A)Semiallusivecomparisons(SACs)=superficialcomparisonsorlooserassociations:
LikethelandofOz,technologyhasgoodandbadwitches.
(B)Eponymousadjectives(adjectivesderivedfromnames)whichdonotformfixedcollocationswiththeircurrentheadwords:
OrwellianimagesinhermostJamesianmanner
Excludedareeponymsinfixedcollocations(apyrrhicvictory,draconianmeasures,aPavlovianresponse)otherlexicalisedeponyms,whichhavebecomelexical
itemsintheirownright:forexampleanodyssey'along,(potentiallyhazardous)journey',aCasanova'anymannotedforhisamorousadventuresarake'(CDE)and
institutionalisedallusionsNewmark's(1988:201)'familiaralternatives'(theEmeraldIsle=IrelandtheWartoEndAllWars=FirstWorldWar).
ThesourcesoftheallusionsinChapter1
toseparatethewheatfromthechaff:'Hewill...gatherhiswheatintothegarnerbuthewillburnupthechaffwithunquenchablefire.'(Matt.3:12)
topeeornottopee:amodificationoftobeornottobe(Hamlet).(Glamour,1995)
hungroundhisnecklikeanalbatross:'theAlbatross/aboutmyneckwashung'(S.T.Coleridge,'TheRimeoftheAncientMariner')
BenedictArnold:17411801,AmericanRevolutionarygeneralandtraitor.
Rumpelstiltskin:acharacterinoneofGrimm'sTales.
Gadarene(swine):Matt.8:2834.
RosencrantzandGuildenstern:minorcharactersinHamlet.
Isthisthefacethatlaunchedathousandships?AskedbyDrFaustus(regardingHelenofTroy)inMarlowe'splayofthesamename.
Raffles:theheroofErnestWilliamHornung'snovelTheAmateurCracksman.
turnintopumpkinsatmidnight:thishappenedtoCinderella'scarriageinthefairytale.
theemperorhasnoclothes:H.C.Andersen,TheEmperor'sNewClothes.
Wherehaveallthe[soldiers]gone?Inthegraveyards,everyone:PeteSeeger'ssong'WhereHaveAlltheFlowersGone?'
shipsthatpassinthenight:H.W.Longfellow,'TalesofaWaysideInn'.
thelandofOz:L.FrankBaum,TheWizardofOz.
Orwellian:GeorgeOrwell.
Jamesian:HenryJames.

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Notes
1.Theterm'translationstudies'(Holmes,1972)isusedasaneutraltermforthedisciplinethroughoutthisstudy,withoutimplyingadherencetoanyparticularschoolof
thought.SeeLambert(1991:2630)foracriticallookatthetermanditsalternatives.
2.Theterm'languageculture'isusedbyHewsonandMartin(1991)toemphasisethatlanguageandcultureareindissoluble.
3.Thesources(referents)oftheallusionsusedasexamplesaregivenattheendofChapters14beforetheNotes,intheorderinwhichtheyoccurineachchapter,
unlesstheinformationisgiveninthetextitself.
4.Aswellasc.160moremarginalexamples,oftypes(III)(A)and(B)(seelater).
5.Bradbury(1988:52)moreorlessplayfullyhasacharactercomment,inreferencetoachargeofplagiarism:'Alasthatnoonehadwhisperedinthatnobleearthe
simpleword''intertextuality".'
6.Theterms'alludingtext'and'evokedtext'aresuggestedbyBenPorat(1976).
7.Ifanideaiscalled'aboutaslikelyasBoyGeorgejoiningtheSAS'(Moody,1985:131),receiversneedtorecognizethenameasthatofasingerandtoknow
that,atthetimethealludingtextwaswritten,hepresentedanexaggeratedlyfeminisedappearance,atoddswiththeimageofprofessionalsoldiersintheSpecialAir
Service.
8.Typologiesofvarioussortshavebeenconstructedbothbyliteraryscholars(forexampleFontanier,1968,Morier,1961)andbylinguisticians(forexampleDittgen,
1989onwordplay).Wilss(1989:18)found,whileconsideringhislargecorpus,thattheimmensevarietyofallusionsmeansthatitisnotpossibletoconstructan
abstractidealtypology.
9.Theinclusionofstereotypedallusionscanbejustifiedonthegroundsthatatranslatorwhoisunawareoftheallusiveoriginofsuchaphrasemightbepuzzledor
evenmisledbytheseeminglyinexplicablemeaningofoneofitscomponentparts(suchastheadjectivefellinatonefellswoop)inthealludingcontext.

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2
TranslationalIssues
TranslationasCommunication
Thepurposeofthischapteristooutlinethedevelopmentofideasforthisstudy,toacknowledgedebtsandtoclarifythepositionstakenoncertainrelevantissues.It
buildsonthebriefintroductoryremarksinChapter1.
ApproachestoTranslation
HewsonandMartin(1991:348)intheirsomewhatabstractreviewoftheoriesoftranslationcompressexistingtranslationtheoriesintotwoapproaches,the
universalistandtherelativist.Theformerisbasedonanidealof'contractualtransaction'(p.34,emphasisdeleted),wheresignificationistransferredthrough
equivalents,andsomedegreeofuniversalityisassumed(thatis,therearethoughttobeuniversalideasthatcanbeexpressedinanumberofdifferentlanguages).The
questionishowtoachieveanoptimalrealisationofmeaning(vandenBroeck,1992:115).Thelatterapproachseessignificationasnonuniversalandnon
transferrable,andtranslationas'productionwithinaninteractivestructure'(Hewson&Martin,1991:37,emphasesdeleted).Forthelatter,'[s]ignificationisalways
potentiallyplural.Thereisnooriginalmeaning,butratheraninterplay...oforiginalmeanings'(Benjamin,1989:44).Thissecondapproachismorereceiverandtarget
textoriented:insteadoffidelitytotheST,thetranslatorisurgedtoseetheimplicationsofanaudienceofindividualswithdifferent,individualinterpretations,andto
acknowledgethathis/hertranslationisbutonesuchinterpretation.Therelativistapproachistosomedegreeinsympathywithsuchcontemporarytrendsas
deconstructionisminliterarycriticism.
Thisbookisbasedontheideaoftranslationascommunication,notjustinvolvingthecommunicationofmessagesacrossaculturallinguisticborderbutincludingthe
subsequentfunctioningofthetranslatedtextascommunicationwithinthetargetculturallinguisticcontext(Toury1980:1516).ThisimpliesamoreTTthanST
orientedapproach,butIwould

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neverthelessliketopreserveabalancedpositionbetweenthetwo.RadicalattemptstototallydevaluetheSThavecomeinfor(inmyview)justifiedcriticism,for
exampleWilss(1990:234)speaksstronglyagainsttheopinionthattheSThasnointrinsicvalueofitsownbutthenmanyofthecontroversialissuesintranslation
studiesareperhapscontroversialmainlybecauseofadesireofsomescholarstogeneraliseovermuch,tostategeneralprinciplesasiftheyappliedacrosstheboard,
insteadofacceptingthattranslationoccursinwidelydifferentsituationsandthatwhatmaybevalidinsomesituationsmaywellnotapplytoothers.
TheSTorTTorientationofapproachesandtranslations(cf.Newmark,1988:458onsemanticandcommunicativetranslation)iscloselyrelatedtothefunctionofthe
TT.Isit,forinstance,intendedtoreveala'sacred'text,forexampleareligiousorphilosophicaltextofanotherculture,toagroupofTLreaderswillingtomakethe
effortofprocessingunfamiliarinformation,inwhichcaseSTorientationisappropriate?Orisitmeanttoconveypracticalinformationonhowtooperateahousehold
applianceinwhichcaseTLculturenormsoninstructionswrittenforsuchapurposeshouldbeobserved,andthetranslationneedstobeTToriented?Evenwhenthe
functionsofSTandTTarenearlythesame,forinstanceinthecaseofcrimefictionpublishedtoprovidegeneralreaderswithafewhours'relaxationorescapefrom
workandfamilyconcerns,TTreadersdifferfromSTreadersinthattheyliveinanotherlanguageculture.
Gutt(1990:144)notestheinterdependenceofthemeaning('explicaturesandimplicatures')ofatextwiththecognitiveenvironmentinwhichthecommunicationis
processed.Atranslationmaysharemost,oronlyafew,oftheexplicaturesandimplicaturesoftheoriginaltext,notallofthem,asthecommunicationsituationis
alwaysdifferentforSTreceiversandTTreceivers.TosummariseGutt(1990:157):
Whatthetranslatorhastodoinordertocommunicatesuccessfullyistoarriveattheintendedinterpretationoftheoriginal,andthendetermineinwhatrespectshistranslation
shouldinterpretivelyresembletheoriginalinordertobeconsistentwiththeprincipleofrelevanceforhistargetaudiencewithitsparticularcognitiveenvironment.Nothingelseis
needed.

Gutt'scommentthatitisamistaketothinkthatthetotalmeaningoftheSTcanbecommunicatedtoanytargetaudience,nomatterhowdifferentthecognitive
environment,isparticularlyrelevantforthetranslationofallusions.Thetranslatorhastoselect:communication'cruciallyinvolvesdeterminingwhatonecan
communicatetoaparticularaudience,giventheirparticularbackgroundknowledge'(p.146emphasisintheoriginal).

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(Seealsothesectiononreceiverslaterinthischapter.)
Delisleseestranslationasareexpressionofconceptsorideas.Heurgesthatthecontextualandreferentialparametersofatextshouldbeexaminedasanecessary
steptowardsinterpretation,asthemeaningofatextdoesnotsimplyequalthesumofthesignificationsofitswords.Fortwoexcellentbriefillustrationsofthis,
considerHewsonandMartin's(1991)commentsonthetextsCettesemaineontuelecochon1 (pp.114121)andWejustcan'tsaycheese2 (pp.105110),
where,obviously,wordforwordtranslationswouldleadtoTTsthatwouldbeimpenetrableforreadersinothercultures.Amessagehasitslanguagecomponentbut
ithasmanynonlinguisticcomponentsaswell,suchasbeinglinkedtoatimeandplaceandrequiringacertaindegreeofextralinguisticknowledge,usuallyintuitively
accessedbySTreceivers.Comprehensionthusrequiresacloseintraandinterlinguisticanalysisasaprerequisiteforinterlingualoperations.Thisanalysisisthe
responsibilityofthetranslator.
SendersandReceivers
Anycommunicativesituationpresumesasenderandreceivers.3 Nord(1991:4247)makesadistinctionbetweensenderandtextproducer.Theserolesareoften
fused(typicallywithsignedtexts),butcanbedifferentiated,forexample,whenthetextisanadvertisement,sentbyacompanyandproducedbyacopywriter.
Translationcomplicatesthecommunicativesituationinthatthetranslator,areceiveroftheST,becomesthetextproduceroftheTTnotitssender,though,foras
Nordpointsout,the'instructions'ofthesender/authorlimitthetranslator'sfreechoiceoftextualstrategies,atleastundercertaincircumstances.Translationsof
EuropeanUnion(EU)administrativeprosemetwithviolentcriticisminFinlandinthemid1990sbecausetheEU'sinstructionswereobjectedtoamongthose
concernedwiththedevelopmentoftheFinnishlanguage.TheEUisthoughttohavemadeitclearthatthesyntaxoftheEnglishorFrenchEUregulationsanddirectives
hadtoberetainedthisledtoTTsthatdepartedinobviouswaysfromthenormsofcomparableFinnishtexts.4 Concernswereexpressedthattheclumsyand
unnaturalsyntaxusedinEUtranslationswouldeventuallybeharmfultoNordicconceptionsofdemocracyandequality(Kallio,1993:11,Karvonen,1995:3)and
increasethedistancebetweenadministratorsandcitizens(Ylikangas&Koivusalo1994:2).Itwasfeltthatthesituationthreatenedtherightsofcitizensaswellas
downgradedtheprofessionalskillsoftranslators:'Translatorshavebeenblindfoldedandgaggedbeforebeingsettowork'(Lyytikinen1995:130,mytranslation).

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AdistinctioncanfurtherbemadebetweenprimaryorSTreceiversandsecondaryorTTreceivers.Forthesender/author,STreadersaredoubtlesstheprimarytarget
groupinmindduringthewritingprocess,andtheeventualityofaTTreadershipisasecondaryconsideration.Eventhepossibilityofasectionofprimaryreaders
belongingtoanotherlanguageculturethanthemajoritymaynotoftenbetakenintoaccountbysenderseventhoughWesternsocietiesarebecomingincreasingly
multicultural.Oneexampleofbelatedrecognitionofsuchculturalvarietyinreaders(ofuntranslatedtexts)occursinanarticle(Maddox,1992)inthescientificjournal
Nature,commentingonarecentexperienceofcommunicativefailureinthatjournal.TheplayfulcaptionPridesandprejudiceonthefrontcoverreferringtoastory
onlionshadledaJapanesereaderofthejournaltoinquirewhatthesignificanceofthecaptionmightbe.Grantingthatthecaptionmightperhapshavemeantverylittle
tosomeBritishreadersaswell,5 Maddoxconcludedthatforajournal'whosereadersincludeperhaps40percentforwhomEnglishisnottheirfirstlanguage,allusive
writingisadisserviceandshouldusuallybeavoided'.Suchconsiderationsmayturnintoeconomiconesaswellwhenaninternationaljournalisattemptingtoincrease
itsattractionforaudiencesinnonBritishlanguagecultures.
Differencesincognitiveenvironmentthusleadtocommunicativeproblems.OneattemptatanexplanationofhowthishappensisthechannelmodelinNidaandTaber
(1969).Inthismodel,amessageis'designedtofitthechannelcapacity'ofitsreceivers(p.164).Anintralingualmessageisassumedtopassthroughthechannel
withouttroublethoughacriticmightobservethattherearealsointralingualmisunderstandings,nottomentionthepluralitiesofmeaningreferredtoearlier.In
interlingualcommunication,accordingtothemodel,themessagecannotalwayspassthroughbecausethechannelcapacityofthereceiversistoonarrowandthe
messagehasnotbeenadjustedaccordingly.Ifitissoadjusted(byreformulation),themessagecanagainflowthroughsmoothlyenough.DiJin(1989),whohas
workedwithNida,grantsthatthismodelissimplisticheargues,however,thatthereceiver'schannelcapacityis'conditionedbyhisownlanguageandcultural
background'andthatthecontentmustnecessarilychangetosomedegree'willneverremainidentical'throughthetranslationprocess(p.157).Theextentofthe
adjustmentshasalwaysbeenapracticalproblem,withsomescholarsdemanding'fidelity',thatis,'faithfully'rendering'alltherelevantfeaturesofthesource
text'(Nord,1991:22emphasisadded).Itis,nevertheless,hardlypossibletofollowsuchinstructionstotheletter.Thereisusuallyaneedtoestablishahierarchyof
features/messagesinthetext,reflectingthehierarchyofthevaluesthetranslatorwishestopreserve,whichinturnisbasedonatranslationally

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relevanttextanalysis(Koller,1989:104).Thesefeaturesarethenincludedinthetranslationbyworkingfromthetopdown,thatis,startingwiththosethathavebeen
deemedthemostimportant.6 Atsomepointorotheritisusuallyrecognisedthatallthefeaturescannotbeincludedinthetranslation.Theimportanceofindividual
itemsinthetextshouldbe'decidedbytheirrelevanceinthelargercontextoftext,situationandculture'(SnellHornby,1988:36).
ThisisbroughtoutclearlyinHolmes(1988),wherevarioustranslationsofa15thcenturyFrenchpoemareexaminedtoseetowhatextenttheyareeitherretentive
(retainingaspectsoftheST)orrecreative(seeking'equivalents').Aspectsorfeaturesunderstudyinthearticleincludelexicalitems,metreandsocioculturalimagery.
(Otherscouldbeadded.)Onlyoneofthetranslations,ahistoricisingonewritteninmockMiddleEnglish,isretentivewithregardtomostofthese,andeventhatone
hassubstitutedaTLversepatternfortheFrenchone,andchosenpartiallytoignoretherhymescheme.
Idonotwanttogofurtherintotheageoldargumentbetweenproponentsoffaithfulandfreetranslation,butIaminsympathywithNord'sethicalandmoralconcept
ofthetranslator'sloyalty,tobothSTsenderandTTreceiver(Nord,1991:2829).Indeed,itmaybeclaimedthat'loyaltytotheauthorismeaninglessifitdoesnot
coexistwithaloyaltytothereceptors'(DiJin,1989:163).Chesterman's(1993:8)accountabilitynormaddsthecommissioner(thatis,thepersononwhoseinitiative
thetranslatorcarriesoutatranslatingtask)tothelistofthosetowhomatranslatormustbeloyal.
AnalternativetoadjustingthemessagetofitthechannelcapacityofTLreceiversisthewideningoftheirchannelthroughexposuretoSLcultureandthrough
educationingeneral.Itisanapproachthathasbeenusedandisdoubtlessstillbeingusedundercertaincircumstances:forinstanceHrala(1989:30)speaksofthe
importantroleplayedbytranslatedliterature'asameansofdemocratisationofeducation'intheearlydaysoftheCzechnationalrevival(thelate18thandtheearly
19thcentury),andsimilartrendscouldbeobservedinFinlandabouthalfacenturylater(cf.Chapter5).Historiansoftranslationhavealsonotedchangesinfamiliarity
withdistantculturesoverrelativelyshortperiodsoftime.ForinstanceBdeker(1991)notesthattheincreasingfamiliaritywithAmericansocietyandculturein
Germanyduringthe20thcenturyisreflectedintranslationsofJackLondondatingfromdifferentdecades.Massmediaplayanimportantroleinthisinaworldwhere
thesmallestvillageinPapuaNewGuineaisnotwithoutaTVsettoenablevillagerstowatchDallas(Kulick,1992:145).The

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aimofenrichingtheTLbytranslationfromlanguagesconsideredsuperiormodelsisacommonstageofhistoricaldevelopmentEnglishwentthroughthisstageinthe
16thand17thcenturies.Blake(1992)linksthisdevelopmentwiththestatusofthetranslator:itishighaslongastheTListhoughttobeinneedofsuchenrichment
andexpansion,andfallswhenthisisnolongerthecase.
TheTranslatorasCompetentReaderandResponsibleTextProducer
Theroleofthetranslatorneedsspecialemphasisinaproblemrestrictedstudyoftranslationbecausewhatevertranslationscholarsmaywrite,itisultimatelythe
translatorwhomustdecidehowtosolveeachindividualproblemoccurringintheprocessoftranslatingatext.Withoutatranslator,therewouldbenotranslation.7
Theextentoftheemphasisonthetranslatorintheliteratureisdependentonthenatureofeachscholar'sgeneralapproachtotranslation.Iftranslationisseenmostlyas
transcoding,thereislittleinterestinthetranslator,whoseworkisseenassemiautomatic:Sorvali(1990:145)hasnotedthatthereispracticallynomentionofthe
translatorinCatford(1965).HewsonandMartin(1991:116)makethemoregeneralstatementthatintheories,thetranslator'simplydisappears'.StronglyST
orientedviewsoftranslationtendtoimplythatwhateverthetranslatordoes,s/hecanneverhopetoproduceanythingquiteasgoodastheST.Thetranslator's
autonomyisquestionedbythosewhothinkofhim/herasamonkey,'withnochoicesavetomakethesamegrimacesashismaster'(Briere1988:36,citingCoindreau,
1974:22).
Otherstakeissuewithwhattheyseeasthetraditionalroleassignedtothetranslator,describingitintermsofhumilityandinvisibility,ashidingbehindtheST.Venuti
(1995a:117)seestranslatorsasculturallymarginalisedandeconomicallyexploitedandunderpaid.Theirworkisseldomgivenduerecognition,eclipsedasitis
eventosomeextentinlawbyaconceptionoftheauthor'stextasoriginalandauthentic,andthetranslator'sasamerecopy:'derivative,fake'(p.7).Afterall,itis
undeniablethattheauthor'stextowesitsveryexistenceintheTLtothetranslatorandthetranslation.Recognitionofthishasledtoradicalreappraisalsofthe
translator'srole(fromvariousperspectives,suchasthefeministone)andcritiquesoftheculturalassumptionsthatrestricthis/herautonomyindecisionmaking.
Thevastneedfortranslationintoday'sworldhasmadeiteasiertoseethetranslatorinasocialcontext,respondingtoasocialneedassomeone

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particularlyqualifiedtodealwithlanguageandcommunication.ThefrequentlycitedworkofHolzMnttri(1984)hasemphasisedtheroleofthetranslatorasa
qualifiedprofessional.
Basically,thetranslationprocessconsistsofthreestageswherethetranslatoristheoperator.Theyare:(1)analysisoftheSTandofthetranslationtaskinquestion
(2)problemsolving(onvariouslevels)and(3)reverbalisation.Whatactuallyhappensinthetranslationprocessisacentralareaofresearchwhichcanandwill
fruitfullybefurtherexploredbothbytranslationscholarsandresearchersinotherdisciplines(includingneurophysiology)aswellasbytranslatorsthemselveswhoset
downtheirreflections.ThetranslatorscholarJamesS.Holmes(1988)isapreeminentexampleofbothasregardsthepractitioner,therehavebeenseveralvolumes
representingthecraftsmanapproach(forinstanceArrowsmith&Shattuck,1971).Professionaljournals,too,affordexamplesofinsightssharedinthisway.Bassnett
(1991:xiiixvi)remarksthattranslators'prefacesandotherstatementsontheirworkreflecttheviewsontranslationheldbytheircommunities,andofferssome
intriguingexamplesofhowmetaphorsfortranslationhavechangedinthecourseoftime.
Lrscher(1991),however,hasquestionedwhethertranslatorscanreallydescribewhathasbecometothemanautomatisedprocess.Empiricalresearchintothe
aspectreferredtoas'whatgoesonintheheadsoftranslators'(Krings1986)usesthethinkaloudprotocolmethodcombinedwithobservationoftranslatorsatwork
andperformanceanalysis(forexampleLrscher,1991),andithas,forinstance,founddifferencesinthewayprofessionalandnonprofessionaltranslatorsoperate
(Jskelinen&TirkkonenCondit,1991seealsoFraser,1996).
Insteadoftryingtoilluminatethenatureofthetranslationprocessitself,thisstudyfocusesonproblemsolvinganddecisionmakingwithregardtotheintercultural
problemoftranslatingallusions.Thetranslatorisseeninanactiveroleasaculturalmediator8 anddecisionmaker.S/heisthoughttobeanindependentand
competentprofessional,alanguageandcommunicationexpertservingbothauthorandreader,whoareequallyinneedofhis/herspecialskills.Thenotionofserving
doesnotimplyasubservientrole.
Thekeywordsinmyconceptionofthetranslatorasculturalmediatoranddecisionmakerare'competent'and'responsible'.Theserolesareofcrucialimportancein
thetranslationofallusions.Awriter(mostly)writesforpeoplewhoshareacertainamountofculturalbackgroundinformationwithhim/her.Itisthereforenot
necessary,andwouldinfactbecounterproductive,tomakeallsuchinformationexplicitinthetextconsider

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newspapercommentariesontopicalissues,andhowtheytakeitforgrantedthatreadersalreadypossessaconsiderableamountofbackgroundknowledge.TT
readers,however,haveadifferentcognitiveenvironmentfromSTreaders,whichmeansthatthetranslatorwillneedtoconsideralsotheimplicitpartofthemessage
thecontextualandreferentialpartandtodecidewhetheritneedstobeexplicatedintheTT.Allmeaningis,afterall,culturallyconditioned(Larson,1984:441).
Inthetranslationprocess,aswehaveseen,thetranslatorfunctionsbothasreceiverandinterpreteroftheSTandproduceroftheTT.His/her'jobdescription',thelist
ofskillsneededtocarryoutthesefunctionsinacompetentandresponsiblemanner,9 mighttakethefollowingform:
InordertobeacompetentSTreader(oneofalargenumberofsuchreaders),thetranslatorneedsnotonlylanguageskillstocomprehendthelinguisticpartofthe
message,butalsoextralinguisticknowledgeofthesourcelanguageculture.Inotherwords(withregardtoallusions),s/heneedstobesensitivetowhatisimpliedby
theuseofsocioculturalandintertextualelements.However,hypersensitivitytothisaspectmaybedetrimentaltointerpretationwitnessDelisle's(1988:58)example
andhiscommentonovertranslationcausedbyseeingallusionswherenoneexists,oratleastwhereallusiveinterpretationobscuresthemainmessage.Aholistic
approachcombinedwithintelligenceandreadingexperienceisrequiredinorderthatthetranslatormayarriveataninterpretationthatisbasedonaconsiderationofa
maximumnumberofcluesgiven,notjustthosethatareexplicit.10Thetranslation,inturn,isbasedonthatinterpretation.
Thetranslator'scommunicativecompetenceincludesbothinterculturalawarenessandstrategicorproblemsolvingcompetence(Wilss,1990:26).Thefirstisneeded
foranticipatingTTreaderresponses.Translators,asexpertsininterculturalcommunication,wouldneedtobeawareofTTreaders'needsandtotakeintoaccountthe
expectationsandbackgroundknowledgeofpotentialTTreadersinordertomakedecisionsonappropriatetranslationstrategies.(Sadly,inpracticethereisoftennot
enoughdatatoallowthis.)Knowingthesourceandtargetlanguagesandculturesisnotenough,thetranslatormustalsoworkoutthecorrespondencesand
equivalencesbetweenthem(Straight,1981:41).Ametaculturalcapacityhelpstoanalysesimilaritiesanddifferencesbetweencultures.Infact,whatisrequiredisa
kindofcontrastiveculturalanalysis,howeverintuitive.Strategiccompetenceenablesatranslatortomakeappropriatedecisionsonwhichstrategytoadoptwithregard
toaparticularproblem.Associativeskillsandcreativitywillalsobeneededbythetranslatorascompetent

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produceroftheTT.11
Inviewofallthis,itisnotsurprisingthattheFinnishtermforatranslator,especiallyoneworkinginadministrationorindustry,kielenkntj('translator',literally
'turneroflanguage'),shouldoccasionallyhavecomeundersomecriticism.Thetermforegroundslinguisticskills,bypassingculturalandmetaculturalcompetence,and
evensuggeststhatthe'turning'isafairlyautomaticprocess.12
Myviewofresponsibility,thesecondkeyword,isinagreementwithChesterman's(1993)ethicalnormofaccountability,whichrequiresthatatranslatorshouldfollow
'professionalstandardsofintegrityandthoroughness'(p.8)andacceptresponsibilityforhis/hertranslation.Tome,thisbehaviourismotivatedbyrespectforboththe
STanditsauthorandtheTTanditsreaders,andleadstoawillingnesstotaketrouble(bothasreader/interpreterandastextproducer)inordertoservethemwell.
TheInvisibleTargetTextAudience
Wecannotproceedwithouthavingaquicklookattheremainingparticipantin(almost)anytranslationevent:theTTaudience.Inthecommunicativeprocess,therole
ofthereceiverisequallynecessaryasthatofthesender.ButwhiletheTTreader'scommunicativeimportanceisgenerallygrantedintheory,inpracticehis/herroleis
nebulous.Insubjectindexestoanumberoftranslationstudies,receiverseitherdonotoccur,13orreferenceistoonepageonly,whereperhapsaschematic
representationofthetranslationprocessisgiven.
Asregardstheactualproductionoftranslations,too,theneglectofreaders'requirementsandexpectationshasbeencalledoneof'themostglaringdefectsofmany
translations'(DejeanLeFal,1987:210).TheethicallylaudablefidelitytotheSTmayinadvertentlyleadtoadisregardoftheexpectations,andonemaybetempted
tosay,therightsoftheTTreadership.
Inliterarystudiestherehasbeena'returnofthereader'(cf.Freund,1987),whichseesthereader(eventhereaderoftranslations)notjustasapassivereceiverof
instructionandeducationbutasaparticipator,acoauthoralmost,oreventhe'realauthor'(Genette,1980:262)withoutwhoseinterpretationatextdoesnotexist.
Linkedwiththecommunicativemodeloftranslation,thishasledtomorereceiverorientedtranslationstudies,wheretheSTisnotthoughtsuperordinate,norTTsonly
paleimitations,necessarilypoorerthantheoriginal.Rather,theSTisseenasacommunicationwhichalsoneedstoreachitssecondaryaddressees,thereadersofthe
TT,whosesocioculturalsituationisdifferent.

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Analludingauthor(aswesawwithPridesandprejudice)isunlikelytoconsiderTTreadersinthecourseoftheliteraryprocess,butwillalludemostlytowhats/he
assumesarewellknowntexts(deBeaugrande&Dressler,1988:186),withnativespeaker(NS)readersinmind.YetitisclearthatTTreaders,whohavegrownup
inadifferentculture,willoftenbequiteunabletorecognisethenamesorphrasesusedandtomakethenecessaryconnectionsinordertomakesenseofTTpassages
inwhichsourceculturalallusionsoccur.Allusivenamesandphrasesmaycarrymeaningwhichisinstantlyperceivedbymembersofthesourceculture14butwhich
mayconveynothingtoTTreadersinwhosecultureallusionsareprovidedbydifferenttextsaltogether.15
Itmaybehelpfultodistinguishbetweendifferentlevelsofunderstandingatthispoint.Enkvist(1991:78)explainsthatamessageis'intelligible'ifitisunderstoodon
thephonological,lexicalandsyntacticlevel'comprehensible'onthesemanticleveland'interpretable'onthepragmaticlevel.Anextractlikethefollowing:
Therewasalotmoredustinhere.Pluscobwebsandwoodworm.Pennylookedround.'Who'syourdecorator?'shesaid.'MissHavisham?'(Moody,1985:129)

isbothintelligibleandcomprehensible16toanyonewithabasiccommandofEnglish,butinterpretableonlyifthereceivercanrecogniseelementsinthedescription
whichlinkwiththenameofacharacterinDickens,andamounttoawittycommentonthestateoftheroom.
AccordingtoEnkvist(1991:1),readerswillgenerallytrytheirutmosttomakesenseevenofinexplicablemessages:'humanbeingsareprogrammedtolookfor
information,evendesperately,inanythingtheysuspectmightbeamessage'.Thisleadsdirectlytothequestionofreceiverparticipationraisedearlier.Itisacrucial
pointthatinaninterculturalsituation(translation),theneededreceiverrecognitionofconnotativeandcontextualmeaningisnecessarilyoftenlacking.Thisinturnmeans
thatreaderswillsearchformeaningwithouttheabilitytorecognisetheclues.Aninformedreaderofthesentence:
UnlikeSaireyGamp,thisnursedidnottipplegin(Peters,1977:190)

isexpectedtoreactbymakingtheconnectiontothedrunkenmidwifeinDickens'sMartinChuzzlewit.AlesswellinformedSTreader,butalsomostreadersofthe
TT,ifthetextistranslated,willbeunabletomakethisconnection,andarelikelytoshrugoffthereferenceaspuzzlingorirrelevant.
Itmaybethoughtbysomethatsuchlossesarenegligible.Iwouldargue,

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however,thattexts(ofthetypeandfunctionconsideredinthisstudy)tendtobeimpoverishedifallusionsareneglected.Itisunlikelythatwriters(ofthegenres
consideredinthisstudy)wishtosendinexplicablemessages.Theymaychooseto'keepsomereadersout,letothersin'(Weldon,1985:131),buttheyarealsolikely
tofeelthat'writingmustbeinsomewayasharedexperiencebetweenreaderandwriter'(p.97).Theconceptionofareasonablywellinformedorcompetent
readershipwhoaretobe'letin'tosharetheexperiencemaywellfailtoapplyinaninterculturalsituation,withsecondaryreceivers.AmonoculturalTLreader,who
cannotbefamiliarwiththesamesourceculturalbackgroundknowledgeasSLreaders,willattimesneedtheinterventionofacompetentandresponsibletranslator.
Whileacknowledgingthatthereisamultiplicityofpossibleindividualinterpretationsfortexts,Ineverthelessbelievethatwiththeparticularproblemofallusionsinthe
genresoftheSTsconsideredhere,experiencedandcompetentSTreaderswilltendtoarriveatsomekindofconsensusmeaning.Weacceptthatapoeticmetaphor,
forexampleawinterlandscape,maysignifysicknessordeathtoonereader,thelossofthecreativevisiontoanother,wartoathird,despairtoafourth,etc.(Nikula,
1991).Withallusions,however,thereisamorecollectiveandculturespecifictypeofunderstanding.Inthissense,areferenceinanEnglishtexttoacapitalisedWhite
RabbitisanallusiontoCarroll'sAliceitcandoubtlessbeassumedtohavebeenintendedassuchbytheSTauthorandreceivedassuchbythecollectiveST
audience,eventhoughindividualSTreaderscanbefoundwhodonotmaketheconnection,eitherbecauseoflackofgeneralreadingexperienceorbecausethey
happenednottomeetAliceinprintorasafilmorTVversionintheirformativeyears.Suchanallusionhasamoreorlessdefinable,culturespecificmeaninginthe
Englishspeakingworld,butnotnecessarilyinothercultures.Thetranslator,inhis/herroleasculturalmediator,needsthenecessarydegreeofbiculturalismto
recognisesuchmeanings,andtheawarenesstoseewithwhichallusionsandinwhichcontextsthechoiceoftranslationstrategywillneedspecialattention,either
becauseoftheimportanceoftheallusioninthecontext,orbecauseofthedifferenceincognitiveenvironments.
Inhisconcernforloyaltytoreaders,DiJin(1989)warnsagainstthedangerofopaquetranslation,thatis,theinclinationnottoconsidertheaveragereader's'channel
capacity'whentranslationdecisionsaremade.Theconceptof'averagereader'isofcourseextremelyvague,andtheuseofthesingularform'reader'inmany
translationstudiesmaymisleadinglysuggestagenericuniformityamongreaders.Foratranslator,theproblemisthatintheabsenceoffeedbackfromreaders,s/hecan
onlymake

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assumptionsregardingthecommunicativebackgroundofreadersandtheirlikelyreactionstovariousfeaturesofthetext,neitheroverstretchingnorunderstretching
(Nord,1991:53)theircapacity.Oftensuchassumptionsarelittlemorethanguesswork.Studiesofreaderresponse(forinstanceJauss,1982)haveforegroundedthe
importanceofreaderexpectations,butforthesetobetakenintoaccountintranslation,muchworkremainstobedonenotonlyondifferencesbetweenthe
expectationsandcognitiveenvironmentofSTandTTaudiences,butalsoonsubgroupswithinthem.Theadmittedlymodestattemptsatmeasuringtheresponsesof
actualreadersinthisstudy(Chapter5)mustbereadagainstthisbackground,thatis,assmallstepstowardsastillelusivebutpotentiallyusefulgoal.
TheConceptofTranslationStrategy
Theworkofthecompetentandresponsibletranslatorinvolvestheapplicationoftranslationstrategiestotranslationproblems.Beforewecanexaminetranslatorsat
workanddiscusstranslationstrategiesforallusions,theconceptoftranslationstrategyitselfmayneedsomeclarification.
ProblemSolvingTranslating
Wilss(1983:145)callstranslationstrategya'ratherdiffuseconcept'hedealswithitquitebriefly,seeingthetermasreferringto'thegeneraltransferperspectiveor
transferconceptforaparticulartext'likeCicero'soratoricallyorientedstrategy.Lrscher(1991:6781)examinesthenotionofstrategyfromitsmilitaryorigins
onwards,notesthatitisoftenusedwithoutprecisedefinitioninmanydifferentsenses,anddistinguishesitfromsuchrelatednotionsasmethod,plan,ruleandtactics,
definingitas'apotentiallyconsciousprocedureforthesolutionofaproblemwhichanindividualisfacedwithwhentranslatingatextsegmentfromonelanguageto
another'(p.76).Hisanalysisoftheconstituentsoftheconceptclarifiesthatinnontechnicaluse,strategyimplies(1)procedurescarriedoutbyanindividual(as
opposedtosupraindividualmethods)17(2)planning(3)goalsand(4)asequenceofactionsforreachingagoal.Hisfocusbeingontranslationasamentalprocess,
Lrscherusestheterm'translationstrategy'descriptively,toindicatewhatconsiderationsatranslator'doesinfactmake'(p.72)whiletranslating.
Ifwetrytovisualiseatranslatoratwork,wecanperhapsseehis/heruseofstrategiesalittlemoreclearlyasfollows:Atranslationproblemoccursandisidentifiedas
aproblem('WhatdoIdoaboutthis?').Thereisaneedandawishtosolvetheproblem.Thereisagoal:atranslationwhichworks.

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Tospecifythegoalandtomakeaplan,thetranslatorhastoconsideranumberofextraandintratextualfactorsandmakeanumberofdecisionsonbothmacro
andmicrolevels.('Whowrotethisandwhy?'Whoisaddressed?''WhatisthefunctionoftheTT?''Whydidtheauthorputthesewordshere?''Whatdoesthismean
initssituationalandtextualcontext?'etc.)(SeeNord[1991]foracomprehensiveaccountoftranslationorientedtextanalysis.)Nextthetranslatorconsidersdifferent
waysofsolvingtheproblem.S/hemayeitherconsiderstrategiesinabstractterms(askinghim/herselfforinstance:'Literaltranslation?Replacementbytargetcultural
material?Footnote?')ortryoutdifferentpossiblesolutionsfortheproblemathand.S/hethenmakesadecision:determinesonastrategyandevaluatestheresult,
tryingtoseewhetherornotthegoalhasbeenreached.Later,theresultmayperhapsbeevaluatedbyapublisher'sreader,aneditor,ateacherorgeneralreadersof
theTT.
Thetranslatormaynotalwaysbeconsciousofusingstrategies.18Lrscher(1991)makesadistinctionbetweenstrategicorproblemsolvingtranslating,andnon
strategictranslating,aimingat'accomplishingtasks'(p.119).Ihesitate,however,toacceptthisideaofnonstrategic(phasesof)translation.Iwouldprefertoseethe
smooth,noproblemtranslatingofprofessionalsasaprocesswheretheuseofstrategieshasbeenautomatisedtosuchanextentthatthereislessfrequentneedtostop
tothinkconsciouslyaboutproblemsolvingalso,duetotheautomatisation,thetranslatormaynotfinditeasytocommentonwhathappensduringtheprocess.A
nonprofessionaltranslator,ontheotherhand,maybeunawareofwhats/heisdoingforotherreasons.S/hemayhaveaverylimitednumberofstrategiesathis/her
(individual)disposal,ormaymakeuseofalimitednumberofthemonly.Thisisseenoftenenoughintheworkofinexperiencedtranslatorsintheclassroom.Sucha
translatormay,forinstance,makeaminimumchangeonpurelylinguisticconsiderations,makingtheobligatorylinguisticchanges19butnotconsideringforexample
contextualaspects.
Aparticularstrategy,then,canbechoseneitherconsciously,withthetranslatorcarryingoutaseriesofoperationsjudgingvariouslinguistic,contextualandcultural
factors,orintuitivelythelatteralternativeagainmayeitherrepresentablueprintdevelopedbyanexperiencedtranslatorforuseinacertaintypeofsituation,orresult
fromaninexperiencedtranslator'slackofalternatives.Reasonsforadoptingaparticularstrategyalsovary.Atranslatormay,forexample,chooseomission
responsibly,afterrejectingallalternativestrategies,orirresponsibly,tosavehim/herselfthetroubleoflookingupsomethings/hedoesnotknow.Theapplicationof
strategiesdoesnotthereforenecessarilyresultinoptimalsolutions:

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translatorschoosingfromarangeofstrategiessometimeschoosewell,atothertimesunwisely.
Asatranslatoroftenworksundertimepressure,s/heneedstodevelop'minimaxstrategies'(Lev,1967),usingaminimumofefforttoarriveatamaximumofeffect.
Theautomationdevelopedbyexperiencedprofessionaltranslatorscanbethoughtofasaquick,oftenunconsciouswayofreviewingexistingstrategiesandcomingto
adecision.
Intranslatortraining,wheresuchautomationhasnotyetdeveloped,itoftenmakessensetoconsiderandevaluatealternativestrategiesinclassinthehopeofraising
students'awarenessoftherangeofexistingstrategiesandhelpingthemdevelopproblemsolvinganddecisionmakingfaculties.Theexamplesinlaterchaptersofthis
bookmayprovidematerialforexercisesonthis.
ADescriptiveorPrescriptiveConcept?
Translatorsshouldnotonlyhavelatitudetomakeinnovationsandalterationswheresucharerequiredbutalsotoestimatesuchnecessitythemselves.Evaluationboth
ofpotentialstrategiesandoftheirrealisationsinspecificinstanceseasilyslidesintowhatisoftenperceivedasundueprescriptiveness:adesiretodictatewhatstrategies
shouldormustbeused.(Thesemodalsaresaidtorepresentthe'WeKnowBetter'approachwhichToury[1992:67]arguesshouldberejectedintranslator
training.)
Lrscher's(1991)maincriticismofearlierusesoftheterm'strategy'intranslationstudies(suchasHnig&Kussmaul,1982andWilss,1983)isthattheyhavebeen
prescriptive,aformofgivinginstructionstothetranslator.Itseemstomethatthisfocusislinkedtotheinterestofresearchersintheteachingoftranslationandneed
notbealtogetheravoided.Fromapedagogicalperspectiveespecially,translatinginvolvesproblemsolvinganddecisionmaking(Wilss,1990),andtheterm
'translationstrategy'isausefultooltoapplydescriptivelybothinanarrowsense(forwhatanindividualtranslatordoesordecidestodo)andinabroadersense(for
whatproceduresorchoicesareinprincipleavailabletotranslators).Butadescriptivelookatstrategiesdevelopsintoimplicitprescriptivenesswhenstrategiesare
evaluatedaseffectiveorineffective:forexampleSguinot(1991)isinterestedinwhetherstudentscanbetaughttousebetter(moreeffective)strategiesandthusto
becomebettertranslators.Sheassumesthatgoodtranslatorsandpoortranslatorsmaywellusedifferentstrategiesandspeaksforinstanceofstrategies'associated
onlywithineffectivetranslators'(Sguinot,1992:40).NeubertandShreve(1992:53)suggestthatstrategiesshouldbeoffered'asheuristics,evenprescriptions,for
good

Page27

translationpractice'.Lrscher(1991:230)himself,despitehiscriticismoftheprescriptiveattitude,speaksof'successfulandunsuccessfultranslationstrategies'.
Useofthetermstrategybothinadescriptiveandamoreorlessimplicitlyprescriptivesenseseemsappropriateinthekindoftranslationresearchwhichhopestohave
practicalandpedagogicalimplications.Anapproachwithsuchaimsrequiresofnecessitysomedegreeofgeneralisationandsystematisation.Insteadofthetranslator
dealingwitheachallusion(orothertranslationproblem)onacasebycasebasis,useoftheconceptofstrategiesmeansthatthevariouspotentialwaysofsolvingsuch
problemscanbegroupedunderamanageablenumberofheadings(suchasexplanation,substitution,omission,etc.).Inteachingtranslation,discussionofsuchgeneral
strategiesismoreusefulthanconsiderationofspecificexamplesonly,inthatthismayhelpstudentslearnsomethingthatcanbeappliedtoothercasesaswell.AsWilss
(1990:28)putsit,'translatorsmustlearntodevelopproblemsolvingprocedures[and]producecompetentdecisions'.
Ishallthusallowmyselftowriteforexampleofthestrategyofomission,descriptively,thatitisrarelyusedforallusionsintheTTsexaminedinthisstudyandfurther
(stilldescriptively)thatthereseemstobeanorminFinnishtranslationpractice,recognisedbythetranslatorsthemselves(cf.Chapter4),thatomissionshouldbeused
onlyasalastresort.AsChesterman(1993:14)observes:'[I]fagivenstrategyturnsouttoberegularlyusedbycompetentprofessionaltranslators,itwilldefactotake
onthestatusof...anormativelaw'(emphasisintheoriginal)thisagainhas'prescriptiveforceformembersofagiventranslatingcommunity'.
Itwouldalsobelegitimateforateacheroftranslationtonote,forinstance,thattheomissionofanallusionisseldomtheoptimalalternative,asitnecessarilyresultsin
lossofthemessageconveyedbytheallusiontheseriousnessofthelosscouldthenbegaugedwithregardtootherfactorsinthetranslationsituation.Ananalysisof
strategieswhichtakesintoaccountanumberoffactorsforagiventypeofproblem,prioritisingcertainofthem,andperhapsevenleadingtothedevelopmentofa
possiblemethodofdealingwithsuchproblems,canbedefendedagainstaccusationsofundueprescriptiveness.Afterall,itmakessensetoencouragestudentsto
developanawarenessoftherangeofexistingstrategiesandoftranslationinvolvingproblemsolvinganddecisionmaking.Atnoplaceinthisstudyisitimplied,
though,thatitsproposalsshouldbetakenasgeneralisabletoallallusionsorallgenresonthecontrary,itisemphasisedthatsuchfactorsascontextandfunctionality
arealwayspreeminent.Thereisthusnodesire

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todevelop'rules'whichcouldbeappliedmechanicallytoindividualproblems.Rather,itisrecognisedthatinthepresentstateoftheartitisthetranslatorwhoneedsto
decide,ineachindividualcase,whetherastrategyisapplicabletotheproblemathandornot.
A'necessarysubjectiveelement'(House,1989:160)ispartoftheindividualtranslator'sevaluationofthebeststrategy.Indeed,theconceptofstrategycentrally
involves'subjectiveoptimality...:translationstrategiesarethemeanswhichthetranslator,withintheconfinesofhisorherexistingknowledge,considerstobebestin
ordertoreachthegoalssetbythetranslationtask'Jskelinen,1993:111emphasesaltered).Jskelinenclarifiesthatthisdoesnotmeanprescriptivenessinthe
rigidsenseof'determininginadvancewhichstrategiesatranslatorshoulduse'(emphasisintheoriginal).Rather,sheresolvestheconflictbypostulatingacumulative
qualitativeanalysisofindividualexampleseventuallyleadingtomoreobjectiveandgeneralisableevaluation:'Byanalysingthe(subjectivelyoptimal)strategiesusedin
translationprocessesinrelationtothequalityoftheproductsoftheseprocesses,itwillbepossibletoidentifystrategiesthatarelikelytobeoptimalobjectively,too,
andcanberecommendedforuseinsimilarsituations'(Jskelinen,1993:112emphasisadded).Hence,knowledgeoftranslatorialnormswhicharebasedon
descriptiveanalysesoftranslationshelpstranslatorstofindthemosteffectivewaytoact.Chesterman(1993:15)furtheracceptsthatthe'conditionsunderwhicheach
methodwouldbethemostappropriateone'canbespecified.Inthisbook,thediscussionofpotentialandactualtranslationstrategiesforallusions(Chapter4)andof
thereaderresponsesrecordedtobothminimumchangeandotherstrategies(Chapter5)maytakeussomewayinthedirectionofidentifyingsuchconditionswith
regardtothetranslationofallusions.
Butinchronologicalterms,problemsolvingisprecededbyananalysisoftheSTanditsproblems.Thisinvolvesanumberofissues,andtoclarifythem,alookata
numberofexamplesintheircontextsisindicated.Weneed,therefore,firsttostudyallusionsastheyoccurinSTs.
ThesourcesoftheallusionsinChapter2
Pridesandprejudices:anallusiontoJaneAusten'snovelPrideandPrejudice,modifiedbypluraluseofprideforagroupoflions.
MissHavisham:acharacterinDickens'sGreatExpectationsthearchetypaljiltedbride.Shewearsbridalclothesandhaskeptherrottingweddingfeastintactfor
decades.
SaireyGamp:acharacterinDickens'sMartinChuzzlewitadrunkenmidwife.
TheWhiteRabbit:acharacterinLewisCarroll'sAlice'sAdventuresinWonderland.

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Notes
1.'Thisweekonekillsthepig'anannualnoticeinFrenchbutcher'sshopsinvitingcustomerstopurchasefreshporkatspecialofferprices.2.ThistextofaLufthansa
advertisementshowingaphotographofahalfsmilingcabinattendantalludestophotographers'habitofinvitingcustomerstomimicsmilingbyaskingthemtosay
'Cheese'.
2.ThistextofaLufthansaadevrtisementshowingaphotographofahalfsmilingcabinattendantalludestophotographers'habitofinvitingcustomerstomimicsmiling
byaskingthemtosay'Cheese'.
3.Receiver,receptorandrecipientareallusedsynonymouslyintheliterature.
4.Infact,thereisagovernmentresolution(of1August1982)inFinlandwhichrequiresthatcivilservantsproducingtextsaddressedtothepublicprovisionsand
documentsofvarioussortsmustensurethattheyarewritteninintelligiblelanguagesothatcitizenscanunderstandwhatisrequiredofthemandonwhatgrounds
decisionsthatconcernthemaremade.Towhatdegreethisobjectiveismetisamatterofopinionbutgenerallyspeaking,thesyntaxofFinnishadministrativeprose
doesresemblethatofordinarylanguagemorethandocorrespondingEUtexts.
5.Maddox'scommentthatmanyofthosepuzzledbythecaption'mayshamefullyhavebeen'Britons(p.475emphasisadded)revealsthathehasnotrealisedthatno
monolithicnationalculturecanbeassumedinstead,thereisalargenumberofsubcultures.
6.HnigandKussmaul(1984:40)statethatdecidingwhatthefunctionoftheTTis,isatthetopofhierarchicaldecisionmaking,andthechoiceofindividualwords
comeslast,asaconsequenceofhigherrankingdecisions.Thefunctionsofallusionsonmacroandmicrolevelvary(seeChapter3).
7.Disregardingmachinetranslationbuteventhere,theproductionofatranslationisonlypossibleafteragreatdealofhumantimeandefforthasbeenputinto
developingthenecessarysoftware.
8.HewsonandMartin(1991)alsostressthisroleofthetranslator,butIdevelopedmyemphasisindependentlyoftheirs(Leppihalme,1990).(Theymentionallusions
onlyinpassing.)
9.Itisafactoflifethatnoteverybodywhotranslatesmeetsthehighrequirementssetforsuccessfulperformanceatleastnotatalltimesandinallsituations.Thelist
ofrequirements,then,mustbethoughtidealisedinthesamewayas,forinstance,advertisementsforvacantpositions:'Exceptionalinterpersonalskills,driveand
enthusiasmareessentialinordertosucceedinthisprogressiveworldwideorganisation','[f]luentcommunicationandanalyticalskillswillenableyoutorepresentthe
Agencyatthehighestlevels,negotiatingwithconfidencebothathomeandabroad...Thecapacityforclearandconcisepresentationoftechnicallycomplexissuesis
thereforeessential'(advertisementsforexecutiveopportunitiesinTheSundayTimes,3Jan.1993,2:1011).Theskillslistedarethoughtnecessaryforsuperlative
performanceinpractice,formosttranslatorsandexecutivesalike,thesearegoalstoaimforratherthandescriptionsofastatealreadyachievedandinpermanent
possession.Meetingsuchgoalsismorefruitfullyseenasalifelongprocess.
10.WhileIacceptthatatranslator'sreadingis(frequently)oneofmanypossibleones(cf.Hatim&Mason[1990:11],whoaremoredefiniteonthispoint),Ibelieve
thatthisismoreoftentrueoftextsofcertainmorechallenginggenres(likepoetry)thanthetextsofmycorpus.Evenso,therehasbeensomevariationininterpretation
ofsomeofmyexampleswhenthesehavebeendiscussedintheclassroomorwithcolleagues.Lackofsufficientcontext(therespondentsusu

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allynothavingreadthebooksprovidingtheexamples)mayhavebeenonereasonforthisvariation,preventingconsiderationofamaximumnumberofclues.
11.Thisdiscussionofthecompetencerequiredofthetranslatorismeanttohighlighttheskillsandqualitiesneededinthetranslationofallusions.Adifferentemphasis
mighthaveledtotheforegroundingofdifferentskills.
12.Thetermkntj'translator'isneutralandwidelyused.Literarytranslatorsoftenpreferthetermsuomentaja,whichcouldberenderedas'Finnisher'thismay
havehigherstatusandsuggestinbornskillsandcreativity.
13.Thismay,ofcourse,onoccasionbeaconsciousdecisiontoavoidburdeningtheindexwithtermsthat'constantlyoccur'(Wilss,1992:245mytranslation).
14.Or,quiteoften,aparticularsubculture.Withinafamily,forinstance,aparentmaybesensitivetoliteraryallusionswhosesourcesarepartoftheacademiccanon,
andasonordaughtertoallusionstorocklyricsorcultmovies.
15.'Text'mustbeunderstoodthroughoutthisstudyquitewidely,toincludeTVprogrammes,politicalandcommercialslogans,stripcartoonsandthelike.
16.Thedistinctionbetweenthetwoisbestseeninnonsensicaltexts,whereintelligibilityinvolvesunderstandingofsyntacticstructures,forinstancethatinmybeamish
boy(Carroll,'Jabberwocky'),beamishisapremodifierbutcomprehensibilitywouldrequireabilitytoassignameaningtothewordbeamish.
17.Hedoesnot,however,describethedistinctionbetweenindividual'strategies'andsupraindividual'methods'inabsoluteterms,butseesstrategiesas'more
individual'(Lrscher,1991:68).
18.Theterm'hasbeenusedtorefertobothconsciousandunconsciousprocedures'(Sguinot,1991:82)seealsoLrscher's(1991)definitioncitedearlier
('potentiallyconscious').
19.Forinstancechangesinwordorder,orrenderingprepositionsbysuffixesindicatinggrammaticalcase:'Whereisthebook?'(inversion)'Thebookisonthe
table'(preposition)=Finn.Misskirjaon?(directwordorder)Kirjaonpydll(adessivecase).Minimumchangetranslationsareoftenunobjectionable,but
exampleswherethestrategyleadstotranslationese,thatis,toclumsyorunnaturaltranslations,arefrequentenough.

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3
Analysis:
HideandSeek
Atranslatorwhoexaminesatextwithaviewtotranslatingitwillhaveanumberofconcerns.Amongthemallusionsarelikelytoplayasubsidiarybutnotnegligible
role:wheneverthetranslator(asacompetentreader)noticesanallusion,adecisionwillneedtobemadeonhowitwillbedealtwith.Thesectionsofthischapterare
necessarilyinterlinked:recognisabilitydependsatleastpartlyonfamiliaritywithsources,modificationsofformmayhinderrecognitionbutaboveall,atranslatorneeds
toconsiderthefunctionofallusionsintheircontexts.Identifyingthefunctionisanimportantsteptowardsdecidingwhattranslationstrategywillbeappropriateforthe
allusioninquestion.
FunctionsofAllusions
FunctionandEffect
Toestablishanexhaustivelistofmutuallyexclusivecategoriesoffunctionsthatallusionsmayhavewouldbedifficult,evenimpossible.Thereisboundtobesome
leakagebetweenthem.Forinstancehumourhasmanyfunctionsdescriptionsmaybeofthematicimportance(illuminatingthethemeofthetextasaguideto
interpretation)useofstereotypedallusionsmaybeadeviceincharacterisation,etc.Thedifferentfunctionsaremoreusefullyseenasacontinuum,orevenbetter,asa
numberofpartiallyoverlapping,nonconcentriccircles.Elaboratesystemsofclassificationseeminadvisableandevenmisleadingwhenstudyingaphenomenonwhich
is'aninternalprocess.Eachexampleexistsonlyasitoccurswithinaparticularwork'(Pasco,1973:467).Itisthereforeessentialnottolosesightofthecontextin
whicheachallusionoccurs.
However,ausefuldistinctionmightbedrawnbetweenallusionsoperatingmainlyonthemicrolevelofthetextandthoseoperatingonthemacrolevel.Simplyput,the
macrolevelinvolvestheinternalstructureoftheentiretextanditsinterpretation:itsnarrativeandpoeticstructure,dramaticintrigueandauthorialcomment(Lambert
&vanGorp,1985:52)we

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mightspeakofstructuralandthematicuseofallusion.Themicrolevel,ontheotherhand,isthelexicosemanticandstylisticlevel(pp.5253).Intheirquestfora
comprehensivescheme,Lambert&vanGorp(1985)alsodistinguish'thebroadersystemiccontext'ofintertextualandintersystemicrelationsasaseparatelevel
(p.53),butinmymoremodest,appliedscopeIwouldprefertolimitmyfocusto'authortranslatorreaderstextsmicroandmacrolevels'(p.50).
Asregardstheauthor,Makkonen(1991:16)statescategoricallythatresearchersofintertextualityarenotinterestedintheauthor'sintention,thatattemptsarenot
madetodiscoverwhetherborrowedmaterialisusedonpurposeornot,orwhatthatpurposemightbe'courtoflawterminology(theft,apology,evidence)isnot
needed'(mytranslation).BothSTreadersandtranslatorsareusuallyunawareofthemotivesandintentionsoftheauthorexcepttotheextentthattheycanbeinferred
fromthetext.Oninfrequentoccasions,indeed,anauthormaydirectlyaddressthequestionofwhyallusionsareused.FayWeldon(1985:1718)explainsheruseof
anallusion1 asfollows:
WhenIreferto'therichesoftheyears'Ihopetoconveythewholefeelingtone(asFreudianssayofdreams)ofthepoem,boththepowerandtheslightabsurdityallthepoemin
fact,inthefivewordsofhisthatIchoose,forthebenefitofmysentence.Callitplagiarism,callitfellowshipbetweenwriters,orresonance(sinceyou'reinaDepartmentofEnglish
Literature).Idon'tsupposeitmattersmuch...Wordsarenotsimplethings,theytakeuntothemselves,astheyhavethroughtime,powerandmeaning:theydidsothen,theydo
sonow.

Awholerangeoffactors,includingsocialclass,gender,education,personalreadinghistory,situationalandculturalcontext,etc.arenodoubtinvolvedinanindividual
sender'schoosingtocommunicateviaallusion.Asendermustjudgeeachcommunicativesituationsubjectivelytodecidewhetherornotanallusionistheoptimal
strategyforachievingthedesiredeffectinthatsituation(Wilss,1989:58).Therearenorulestellingasenderhowtoalludecreativealludingisindividualandnon
predictable.Therearealsofashionsinalluding,butfollowingofsetformulaesoondestroystheindividualityandcreativitywhichischaracteristicoftrueallusions.
Theinteractionbetweenauthorandreadercanbedescribedashideandseek(Meyer,1968:79,Wilss,1989:49)orasthesettingandsolvingofapuzzle
(Weisgerber,1970:43).Areaderwhorecognisesacreativeallusionachievesadeeperunderstandingofapassageortext,whichmeansthatheorsheissomehow
participatinginthecreationofthetextandmayconsequentlyberewardedbyasenseofachievementandselfcongratulation.In

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essence,s/hemayfeelthats/hehaspassedatestwithflyingcolours,showingthats/heispartofaningroupofreaders,onthesamewavelengthastheauthor.
Redfern(1984:30)quotesacorrespondentassayingthathelikespunspartlybecauseofthe'intellectualsnobbery'thatshowsan'abilitytothinklaterally'andpartly
becauseunderstandingsomeoneelse'spun'impliesarapport'.Iftrueofpuns,thismustbeevenmoresoofmanyallusions:
Kateshivered.Shepulledhergauzygreywrapcloserroundhershoulders.Underitsheworeablackdress.ShelookedlikethesortofthingWhistlerhadflunginthepublic'sface
in1877.(Moody,1985:176)

Thisisaclearexampleofthepuzzleaspectofalluding:thereceiverisgivenaclue,bothintheformofthenameWhistlerandinthephraseflunginthepublic'sface
butthereaderswhodonotknowtheirarthistory(andmanynonnativereaderswillfallinthatcategory,beingmorefamiliarwiththeirnationalart)willhavedifficulty
withthecomparison.TheywillwonderwhoWhistlerwas,whatitwasthatheflunginthepublic'sface,whetheritwasflungliterallyormetaphorically,andifthedateis
ofanysignificance?Thosewhosolvethepuzzlearelikelytofeelsomesortofkinshipwiththewriter,havingfilledinthegapinthemessage.Toresolvetheproblem
thereadermustidentifyWhistlerastheAmericanartistJamesMcNeillWhistler(18341903)andrememberoneofhisbestknownworks,variouslyknownas
'PortraitofthePainter'sMother'or'Artist'sMother:ArrangementinGreyandBlackNo.1'(1871).Theidentificationofthatwidelyknownpaintingasthesourceof
theallusionisstronglysuggestedbytheadjectivesgreyandblackintheimmediatecontext,andbythedescriptionofKate'sclothingwhichresemblesthatofthefigure
intheportrait.WhensomeofWhistler'sportraitsandlandscapeswereshowninLondonin1877,they'weresofiercelyassailedbyRuskin...thatWhistlerretaliated,
suinghiscriticforlibel...'(Everyman'sEncyclopedia,1978:475).Thewordingflunginthepublic'sfaceisclearlyanallusiontoRuskin'sattack:'[Ihave]never
expectedtohearacoxcombasktwohundredguineasforflingingapotofpaintinthepublic'sface'(quotedinCDQ255)2 Ifsolved,thepuzzlefunctionsasa
descriptionofKate,butthatisinpassingonly,onthemicrolevel,andaddslittletowhatissaidovertlyaboutherinthecontextthepaintingreferredtohasno
specificconnotations.Themainfunctionoftheallusionistochallengethereadertosolvethepuzzle.
Inasense,ofcourse,anyallusionisapuzzleforreaderswhonoticeitwithoutrecognisingit.Moregenerally,allusionsbecomepuzzleswhentheycrossacultural
divide.Thismayoccurwithinalanguageasnationalbordersarecrossed(forinstanceallusionstomanyBritishtelevision

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programmeswouldbeunfamiliartoAmericanaudiences)orwithinacountry,inthecaseofnationalsubcultures,eachdemographicgroupalludingtoitsowntextsor
equallywhentranslationtakesplace.However,itwouldseem,onthebasisoftheexamplesIhavestudied,thattobeapuzzleisseldomthemainfunctionofan
allusion.
Nord(1991:478)seesfunctionandeffectastwosidesofacoin,withthedifferencethatfunctioncanbedefinedbeforereception,whileeffectcanonlybejudged
afterreception.Lackofempiricaldataonreceptionmeansthatanydiscussionofeffectisboundtobelargelyspeculative.Schaar(1991)speaksofmentaland
physicalresponsestotexts(associations,emotions,shivers,tearsetc.)usingtheterm'energy'fortheforcethatcausessuchresponses.Hemakesadistinction
between'freesemanticenergy',whichisexperiencedbythemajorityofreceivers(oftenhearers,asthistypeofresponsehasconnectionswithorality)andis
'spontaneouslyinduced,unaidedbycontext'(p.175)andthereforeoftenvagueinmeaningand'latentsemanticenergy',whichinvolvesreflection,hasconnections
aboveallwithliteracy,andisexperiencedbytheminoritywhohavethespecialknowledgerequired.Withoutsuchknowledge,theresponseis'puzzlementandnon
understanding'(p.175).Areceivermaythusenjoycertainhighsoundingfragmentsofatext,butreflectionandknowledge(forexampleofthesourcesofallusions)will
leadtoadeeperunderstandingandconveymeaningthatisnotimmediatelyapparent.Thisdevelopmentisfamiliartoallwhohavebeenguidedbymoreexperienced
receiverstoseedeepermeaninginatextorfilm.Schaarseesno'rigidpolarity'(p.175)betweenthetwotypesofenergybutbelievesthatlatentenergycanalsobe
transformedtofreeenergyasanindividualreceivernolongerneedsreflectionbeforeaparticulartextcancauseanemotionalresponse.
Ingeneral,itmaybesaidthatallusionsareusedbecauseoftheextraeffectormeaningtheybringtothetextbytheirassociationsorconnotations.HatimandMason
(1990:129)rightlymakeadistinctionbetweenthetwo,seeingassociationsassubjectiveandarbitrary,connotationsasrequiringsocial(collective)knowledge.The
differencecanbeillustratedbythefollowingexample,wherealovelyeveninginthecountryisdisruptedbythediscoveryofagrislyscene(emphasesadded):
Underfoottherewereleaveswhichcrackledlikecornflakesastheywalked.Theairwaswarmwithresidualheat.Beneaththetreeswereshadows.Lovely,darkanddeep.'Country
living,'saidEmerald.'IneverknewIwasadeprivedchilduntilKendalbroughtmehere.'Shescuffedupleaves.Shebreatheddeeply.

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'Goodgrief,'saidPenny.Asquareofgroundhadbeenfencedoff.Thinwhiteposts.Barbedwire.Itwasgrotesquelyupholsteredwiththecorpsesofsmallcreatures.Greysquirrels
weretiedinrowsbytheirtails,pawscurledagainsttheirchests.Crowshungupsidedown,wingsspread,beaksopen.Therewasaweasel,itssharpwhiteteethbaredasthough
suckingbackascream.Ratsandvolesandrabbitslaycrucifiedonthewire.Morecrowsswungfromthebranchesofnearbytreeslikebrokenumbrellas.'Fun,isn'tit?'Emerald
soundedapologetic.'Onlymanisvile,'saidPenny.Shetriednottolookatavixenspreadlikeajumblesaletippetalongthebarbs,tailthreadedbetweenthewirestrands.There
wasalongdrieddripofbloodatthecornerofthehalfopenmouth.Hereandthere,whiteboneshowedthroughrottingflesh.
(Moody,1985:37)

Aspartoftheempiricaltestscarriedoutforthisstudy,halfadozenteachersofliteratureinuniversitydepartmentsofEnglishinFinland(allnativespeakersofEnglish)
wereaskedtoreadasomewhatlongertextincludingthispassageandtomarktheallusionstheynoticed.Thosethatwereverifiable(lovely,darkanddeeponly
manisvile)receivedanumberofrecognitions,butoneinformantalsounderlinedthebrokenumbrellasimage,explainingthatwhilenotanallusion,itwasobviouslya
reminiscenceofD.H.Lawrence'spoem'Bat'.3 Thepoemcertainlycontainsthesameimage:'wingslikebitsofumbrella'butwhetherbrokenumbrellascouldbe
saidtogenerallyconnoteLawrence'sbatintheEnglishlanguagecommunitywouldbehighlydebatable.Whatisclearisthattheimageevokedanassociationwith'Bat'
forthatonereaderanddidnotdosoforhiscolleagues.Thepresenceofallusionsmaybeacontributoryfactorforassociations:inatextteemingwithallusions,a
readermaybetemporarilysensitisedtointertextualmaterialandpreparedtolookformore.Itisalsopossiblethattheauthor'suseoftheimagewas,infact,an
unconsciousallusiontoLawrence'spoem.
Asagainstsuchpersonalandsubjectiveassociations,theotheritalicisedphrasesintheexamplearegenerallyacceptedintheEnglishlanguagecommunity(witness
dictionariesofquotations)aspreformedlinguisticmaterial.Ifdoubted,thiscanbeverifiedbycomparisonwiththeevokedtexts.Theeffectofsuchphrasesis
reinforcedbythiscommunalawarenessoftheirpreformednaturewearethusspeakingofconnotationscollectivelyassociatedwithaparticularnameorphrase.Itis
clear,however,thattherearedegreesofculturalliteracyandreadingcompetenceamong

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nativespeaker(NS)readers.Somewouldreceivelittlemorethanthesurfacemeaningofonlymanisvile,thatis,'(some,orall)men/peoplearevile',whileothers
wouldlinkthephrasewithitsreligioussource,andperhapsrememberthelineprecedingitthere(Thougheveryprospectpleases),andhencebemorestronglyaware
ofthecontrastbetweenMoody'sidyllicwoodandtheinstanceofhumancrueltyrevealedthere.
Fromthepointofviewoftranslation,whatisimportantisthattheanalysisoftheSTrequiresrecognitionofconnotativemeaningbythetranslator.Ofcourseitisnot
possibletoputsubjectiveassociationsandcollectiveconnotationsintototallyseparatecompartments.Nevertheless,itcannodoubtbeacceptedthatwhilethe
translatorcannotcontrol,andshouldnotevenattempttocontrol,thesubjectiveassociationsandinterpretationsofindividualreaders,s/heneedstobeawareofand
sensitivetothemorecollectiveconnotationsthe'sociallyconstantmeaning'(Turk,1991:123)ofallusivenamesandphrases.
Tospeakofalanguagecommunity,languagecultureorsourceculturemayfalselysuggestauniformityofcultureamongnativespeakersofalanguage.Theterm
'sourceculture'anditssynonymsarethereforeusedinthisstudy,asintranslationstudiesgenerally,asaconvenientconstructtohighlightinterculturaldifferenceslinked
toSLandTL,withoutadesiretoimplyuniformitywithinalanguageculture.Thesameprovisonaturallyappliestotheuseoftheterm'targetculture'aswell.
Aseachsubculturewillbefamiliarwithdifferentsourcesofallusions,itfollowsthatsomeSTallusionsareknowntoafarlargerproportionofNSsthanothers.For
instancemanybiblicalandproverbialallusionsinEnglisharesaidbyNSinformantstobebetterknownthancertainliteraryones.Manyofthelatterwouldonlybe
recognisablebyasmallelite.AlaterdiscussionofthefunctionoftheallusionsbelowisthereforenotintendedtosuggestthatallNSreaderswouldrecogniseeach
allusionandinterpretitinanidenticalway.Still,forthepurposesofthisstudyitisassumedthateachallusionispartofthetextinwhichitoccurs,andoffers
possibilitiesofinterpretationforalargerorsmallersectionoftheNSaudience.Sometimesthiswouldbefairlyautomaticinterpretation,asinthecaseofcommonly
usedallusionsinothercasesaccesstosuchhalfhiddeninformationwouldbeopentoaminorityofreadersonly.Noristhesituationconstantwithregardtoanygiven
allusion.Sometopicalallusionsareshortlivedandneverevenmakeittoworksofreference,whilesocialchangeandthepassageoftimewilleventuallydeprivemany
ifnotmostallusionsoftheirevocativepower.Atanygiventimetheallusionswithwhichanindividualorademographicgroupwillbefamiliarwilldifferfromthose
familiarto

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others.TheTTreceiverorientednatureofthisstudymeansthatlittleattentionispaidheretosuchdifferencesamongSTaudiences.Itisacceptedthatsomeallusions
willbebetterrecognisedbyacademics,othersbypeoplewhofollowpoliticsorparentswhoreadaloudtotheirchildren,oryoungmoviegoersbutatranslatoris
oftenexpectedtoserveallofthese,andcannotthereforesimplybypasstheimplicitinformationthatallusionsmayconveytoNSreceivers.
Thefollowingsectionspresentsome(partlyoverlapping)creativefunctionsofallusions:asuggestionofthematicimportanceonthemacrolevelparodyandirony,and
otherhumour(mainlyonthemicrolevel)theuseofallusionsforcharacterisationandallusionsasindicatorsofinterpersonalrelationshipsinfiction.Thediscussionis
illustratedbyauthenticexamples.
'Creative'iscontrastedwithmorestereotypeduse,thatis,clichsandproverbsaswellasdeadanddyingallusions.Aswillbeseenfromsomeoftheexamples,the
sameallusioncanbefoundattimesinstereotypeduse,andatothertimesreanimated.
Fortheconvenienceofreaderswhoarenotathomeinthesourcelanguageculture,thesourcesoftheallusionsusedasexamplesaregivenattheendofeachchapter,
intheorderinwhichtheyoccurinthetext,unlesssuchinformationisgiveninthetextitselforrequiresanendnote.Informationonalludingtexts(thatis,thetextsthat
suppliedtheexamples)ismostlygiveninthetextaftereachexampleexceptwherethiswouldhamperreadability.Insuchcasesdetailsareomittediftheyarenot
thoughttomeritanendnotetheinformationcan,inanycase,befoundinthedissertationversionofthisstudy(Leppihalme,1994).
ThematicAllusions
Onthemacroleveltheuseofcreativeallusionsoftenbringsinasuggestionofuniversality,aheighteningofemotion,adesiretoimplythatthereissomethingabouta
situationorcharacterinthealludingcontextthatismoreimportantthanthereaderwouldotherwiseassume,andwhichmaybeofthematicimportanceforthe
interpretationofthetextasawhole.Thisfunctionofreinforcingthemeshasbeenthefocusofmuchattentioninliterarycriticismandtherearecountlessexcellent
examplesintheliterarycanon.Thisfunctionisalsoreflectedinthechoiceofallusivetitlesforjournalisticpiecesaswellasforliteraryandscholarlyworks.Toname
justtwoexamplesofscholarlyuse,thereareforinstanceTheMadwomanintheAttic:TheWomanWriterandtheNineteenthCenturyImagination(Gilbert&
Gubar,1984)andAin'tIAWoman?BlackWomenandFeminism(hooks,1982).

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Foranillustrationofthematicuseofallusionsinlighterfictionthanisoftenconsideredinliteraryanalysesofallusion,letusconsideranextractfromacrimenovel.In
thetext,theallusionsareusedtogivesignificancetothestoryofthekillingofatruckdriverwithcriminaltendencies,toindicatethathisattitudetolifeandhissolid
friendshipwithachildhoodpalcouldbeseeninalesssordidlightthanthemerefactsofthecasewouldseemtopermit.Thatitistheauthor'sintentiontoinvitethis
kindofinterpretationismadeclear,forexample,inthefollowingallusivepassage(anditisperhapsthepresenceofsuchovertexplanationsthatmakestherealisation
oftheplansomewhatunsatisfactoryfromaliterarypointofview.Amoresubtleapproachmighthavebeenmoreeffectivebutthen,theauthor'svisualisationofher
readersisnotaccessibletous).Theman'stearfulyoungwidow,anordinaryyoungwoman,speaksinclichs:
'Wealwayswentouttogether.Wewaslikelikeinseparable...Hewasahusbandinamillion,agoodkindman,awonderfulmantohisfriends.Youaskanyone,askJack....He
wasoneinamillion!'(Rendell,1981:89)

Thewellreadchiefinspectortowhomthisisaddressed,however,hearsechoesofagriefmoreeloquentlyexpressed,forthepassagecontinueswithaShakespearean
allusion(emphasishereandinotherexamplesbelowadded):
Oh!witheredisthegarlandofwar!Thesoldier'spollisfallen...Strange,Wexfordthought,thatwhenyouconsideredCharlieHattonyouthoughtofwarandsoldiersandbattles.
WasitbecauselifeitselfisabattleandHattonhadwageditwithunscrupulousweapons,winningrichspoilsandfallingashemarchedhomewithasongonhislips?(Rendell,
1981:89)

Thelastfewpagesofthenovelunderlinethesoldierimage:achessman(aknight),whichsymbolisesCharlie,issmashedtobits.Bywayofsummingupthefriendship
theme,thereisalsoanallusiontothestoryofDavidandJonathanonthepenultimatepage,wherethelossofthedeadmanisseenthroughtheeyesofhisfriend:
Had[Charlie]recognisedhimselfattheheadofthatscarletarmy[ofchessmen]?AndthePhilistinesslewJonathan...Howarethemightyfallenandtheweaponsofwar
perished!(Rendell,1981:184)

Onalexicallevel,therearesupportingreferencestosoldiersoffortune(pp.89,185)andcomradesinarms(p.185).Theallusionsandimagerythusguidethe
competentreadertowardsamacrolevelinterpretation.

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Still,evenasingleallusionmaybeofthematicimportance:
TherewasapoignancyinthewaytheyassaultedthepavementwiththeirlongleggedstridessomethingintheirattituderemindedmeofapaintingIhadseenofAdamandEve
beingejectedfromtheGarden,theurgencyoftheirsituationsweetenedbythesharingofit.(Godwin,1985:43)

ThiscomparisonofanelderlycoupletoAdamandEveinanexpulsionpaintingreinforcestherepeatedhintsinthetextthatthecouplearelivinginsomesortofexile,
possiblyselfinflicted.
Journalistictextsmaycontainveryseriousallusionsfortheheighteningofemotionwhichareperhapscomparabletothethematicuseofallusioninliterarytexts.Such
allusionstendtobefoundeitheratthebeginningortheendoftextsforaddedemphasis.Anarticlepraisingalynchedboy'smotherforcourageouslyseekingjustice
makessuchuseofallusions.Themotherherselfisintroducedfirstwithabiblicalallusionandthenaliteraryone,contrastingherheroismwiththeconventionalviewof
heroes:
SomeheroesarenotswiftorstrongandtheydonotlooklikeSirLancelot.Thisoneisoldandtiredandoverweight...(Ivins,1988)

Thecrimeitselfisdescribedwithanallusionwhichmakesitclearthatitwasanactofracism:
TheyfoundhisbodyhangingfromthetreelikeastrangefruitonacoldMobilemorninginMarchof1981.A19yearoldblackmanchildnamedMichaelDonald,shyoutsidehis
family,astudentatthestatetechnicalschoolwhoworkedparttimeatthelocalnewspaper.(Ivins,1988)

Withlessobviousemotion,ascientistwritingtothescientificcommunityontheplightofBosniaandCroatiaintheearly1990sconcludeswithahistoricalallusion
(thinlydisguisedasascientificsourcereference)thatputspartoftheblamefortheeventsontheWest:
Forthoseunfamiliarwiththetheoryofsymmetryofculpability,itwasoriginatedbyNevilleChamberlainandpublishedinMunichin1938.(Pravdic,1992)

Anallusionmaysumupthedriftofanarticle:aftercriticisingmeninhighpositionsforurgingworkerstoshowrestraintintheirdemandsforpayraiseswhiletheyraise
theirownsalaries,aneditorialconcludeswithtwoallusions:

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Andthemoretheyget,themoretheyseemtowant.Smallwondertheirpleasforrestraintarefallingonbarrenground.Ifgoldrusts,whatshallirondo?(TheGuardian,1989)

Thereisevenanecdotalevidenceofallusionsbeingusedinreallifeasfinal'exitlines'akindofreinforcementofthethemeofone'slife,perhaps:
[PeterPan's]firstproducer,theAmericanshowmanCharlesFrohman,whowaskilledinthesinkingoftheLusitania,isreportedtohavecriedastheshipwentdown,'Todiewill
beanawfullybigadventure!'Peter'scurtainlineinact3.(Lurie,1990:1312)

HumourinAllusions
Conversely,allusionmayalsobeusedparodicallyorironically,todetractfromtheimportanceofasituationorcharacter.Bakhtin(1988:147)convincinglyarguesthat
parodyhaslostgroundinmodernliteraturebecausewenolongerhavemuchsacredwriting.Thissuggeststomethatsomeallusionsmaybeparodicoftheliterature
taughtatschoolthe'complexandmultileveledhierarchyofdiscourses,forms,images,styles'(Bakhtin,1988:147)ofsetbooksandrequiredreading.Such
literatureisdifferentfromtheusers'ownidiolects,anditmaythereforebetemptingformanytomakefunofmemoriesoftheschoolroomanditisusuallyinthe
schoolroomthatageneralreaderfirstmeetscomplexliterature.
Macrolevelparodyoccurswhereatextasawholeisaparodyofanothertext.Whenthereareparodicelementsonthemicrolevel,thesetendtomakeuseof
frequentlyanthologisedpoetry('canonised'worksofliterature):
Theyclimbedupasteepbank.Atthetopwasthechurchyard,fulloftheusualchurchyardstuff.Birdlime.Plasticflowers.Longgrasswithtotteringheadstones.Rudeforefathers
laybeneathepitaphsofthesortthatmakethecomicversecollections.TrsStokePoges.(Moody,1985:40)
Shethoughtofgoingforhelp.ButthatwouldendangerEmeraldevenmore.Itwasuptoher.Shehadn'tsavedKendal.Butshe'dsaveEmerald.Somehow.Nocowardsoulismine,
shetoldherself.Sheturnedbackupthedarkdrive.(Moody,1985:216)

Butthereisacertainambiguitybetweenhumourandseriousnessinthesecondexample,asthecharacteristrulyindangerofherlifeandstillmakesthedecisionnotto
flee.
Nash(1985:456)discussessomeexamplesofparodicallusionin

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advertisements(agenrenotincludedinmycorpus),andnotesthat'theadvertisingsloganisthenewwitobject,tobetasted,twisted,turned,muchastheElizabethans
manipulatedcommonplacepuns'.Mostgeneralreadersaredoubtlessmorefamiliarwithadvertisementsthanwiththeliterarycanon,whichmakesadsattractiveraw
materialforwordplay.
Politicalattacksinnewspapersareoftenspicedwithironicallusions,sometimesinvolvinglexicalsubstitutionandsimilarmodifications.Wilss(1989:639)evensees
aggressivenessasaspecialdimensionbesideemphasisandirony.4
ThereisabitoftheRichardNixonin[Quayle].Heturnslegitimatequestionsabouthisnationalguardserviceintoanattackonthepressandtalksofhisreservedutybehinda
typewriterasifithadbeenwinteratValleyForge...HisdefenseofnationalguardservicehasbeenonelongCheckersspeech.Willhesoonproduceadog?(Cohen,1988)

Politiciansmayalsofindtheirownslogansturnedagainstthem.GeorgeBushwasnotallowedtoforgettheinvitationtoReadmylips:
ThemarketsgavetheUSbudgetauniversalsneer,mainlybecauseMr.Bushhadreadhisownlipsalltoowell.Nonewtaxes,afreezeonmilitaryexpenditureandmodestly
increasedspendingoneducation,homelessnessanddrugabuse.(TheGuardianWeekly,1989)
DreadMyLips(Time,1989)
Hislipssayno.Hiseyesandhisaidessaymaybe.(Gleckman,1989)

buttheallusionwasextendedtoothersituationsandotherpoliticiansaswell:
'America'spoliticallandscapewillneveragainbethesame...Topoliticianswhoopposechoice,wesay,Readourlips.Takeourrights.Loseyourjobs.'(Carlson,1989)

VisualisationsofBushasakinder,gentlerGeorge(alludingtoacampaignspeechin1988)arealsounlikelytohavebeentakenatfacevalue:theywerevery
probablyreadasironicalbythemajorityofreaders.
Inthisconnectionitmaybeworthwhiletohavealookinpassingatthetechniquesofhumorousallusion.Nash(1985:164ff.)andWilss(1989:49)bothnotetheuse
of'frames'inwordplay.Aframeisacombinationofwordsthatisacceptedinthelanguagecommunityasanexampleofpreformedlinguisticmaterial.Modificationof
aframecanbeeithersituationalorlexical.Ifaframehasundergonelittleornolinguisticmodification,itseffect(laughter,surprise,shocketc.)maybeduetothe
incongruityofthe

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borrowedwordsandtheirconnotationsinthealludingcontext,asinthefollowingexamples.Inthefirstone,afictionalburglardefendshimselfwiththewordsof
RichardNixonduringtheWatergateaffair:
Theysentmeouttoshakedownthisplace.It'smyjob.I'mnotacrook.Thisismyjob.Youdon'thavetoshootme.(Cunningham,1987:122)

Inthesecond,ahusbandandwifeareinbedafterareconciliation,whenthehusband'smothercomes'stampingupthestairs':
'Alexander,whereareyou?Didn'tyouhearmecalling?''Thevoiceoftheturtleisheardintheland,'Sarahmurmured.'Let'shideunderthecovers.'(MacLeod,1980:108)

WhilethecouplemaybedisposedtothinkoftheSongofSongswithreferencetothemselves,themotherinlaw'svoiceisunlikelytosoundtothemlikethatofa
turtledove.Inasituationalmodification,whatwaspoeticorseriouslymeantintheevokedcontextmaywellbecomeaparodyorbetrivialisedinthealludingcontext.
Lexicalmodificationoftheframecantaketheformofsubstitution,whereinsteadoftheexpectedkeyword,anotherlexicalitemisintroduced.Inthefollowing,the
frameisgivenfirst,withthekeywordinsquarebrackets,followedbyanauthenticexampleofmodification,usedinajournalistictext(publishedin198889).The
substitutionisusuallycontextlinked,sothatawellknownframecangiverisetoanynumberofvariations.Thesyntaxoftheframe,ontheotherhand,canvaryonly
slightlyiftheframeistoretainitsrecognisability:
Bytheir[fruits]yeshallknowthem.(Matt.7:22)
Bytheiradsshallyeknowthem.
theyshallbeattheir[swords]into[ploughshares].(Isa.2:4)
Collectingplastic:theyshallbeattheircafeteriatraysintoflowerpots.
Thosethatlivebythe[sword]shalldiebythe[sword].(Matt.26:52)5
Iliketolivebythesword.ButIdidn'tsayIwanttodiebyit.
Hewhohaslivedbythewordwilldiebythesword.
Thosewholivebythepunchlinediebythepunchline.
Thosewholivebytheproceduraldevicemustbepreparedtodiebyit...

Recognitionoftheframeallowsthereceivertorecalltheoriginalwordingandtonotethecontrastachieved.Butalterationswithinframesareperhapstoomechanical
toalwaysproducethesortofassociativedelightwhichmayensueinsituationaltwists.Thewellknownframe:

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thereissomecornerofa[foreign]fieldthatisforever[England]

canbealteredthroughlexicalsubstitutionforexampleto:
ThereissomepartofaRomanfieldthatforevershallbeMussolini's

butthefollowing,wherethewordsareunalteredbutthesituationisvastlydifferent,issurelyfunnierbecauseoftheincongruity(andthescatologicalelements)ofthe
situation:
DuetohithertoundetectedEECapricotmountain,babyhasrunsi.e.,babysits,Irun.Result:thispostcardwrittenunderlowcloudformedbyfalloutfromnappiesincinerating
insomeforeignfieldthatisforeverEngland.(Tweedie,1983:92)

Allallusivehumourdoesnotmakeuseofframes.Connectionsbetweenevokedtextandalludingtextcanbespelledout.InKing(1991),oneofacavalcadeofbit
playersispresentedaslivinginthefictionalworldcreatedbyanotherwriter,EdMcBain.ThecharacterisintroducedasacolleagueofMcBain'sSteveCarellaofthe
87thprecinct:
TheNewYorkerwasEdwardM.Norris,lieutenantofpolice,detectivesquad,intheBigApple's87thPrecinct.Thiswashisfirstrealvacationinfiveyears.He...plannedtotell
thatsoursonofabitchSteveCarellathatitwaspossibletotakeyourwifeandkidssomeplacebycarandhaveagoodtime.(King,1991:68)

Theeffectisthenduetoareadernoticingtheunusuallinkingoftwofictionalworlds.
Sometimesahumorousallusionisofferedincode,asitwere,forreaderstodecodethereisneitheraframenorexplicitlinkingoftexts:
Shesetoffupasidestreettowardsthebeach.Yeomanwalkedbesideher,swinginghisbag.Theslightriseoftheroadwayhidtheseaahead,butsheknewitwasthere,allright.
Shecouldhearitcrunchingandslobberingasitgnawedawayattheshingle.Readytosockittoanysmartasswhoshowedupwithacrownandanarmchair,lookingforaspotof
directconfrontation.(Moody,1984:9)

Thepersonalisingofthesea,andtheidentificationofthesmartasswithacrownandanarmchairasakingonathronemayactivatememoriesofthestorytoldofthe
11thcenturyDanishkingofEngland,Canute,orderingthewavestorecede.ThestoryiswellknowninBritain('anyBritishprimaryschoolchildwouldrecogniseit',
accordingtoaBritishinformant),butforreadersnotraisedinBritainitwouldbemuchmoredifficulttounravel.6

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(TheideaofaconfrontationwiththeseadoesnotfullyconveythelessonCanuteissaidtohavewantedtoteach:'Confesshowfrivolousandvainisthemightofan
earthlykingcomparedtothatgreatPowerwhorulestheelements'[StoryofBritishPeoples.a.:38seealsotheillustrationonthatpage].)
Allusivehumourisonlyoneareaofwordplay,awidesubjectworthseparateattention(seeforinstanceNash[1985]andRedfern[1984]aswellasDelabastita
[1996]).Here,Ihavelimitedmyselftobriefremarksandillustrationsonlyfurtherexamplesofallusivehumourarediscussedinthesectionsbelow(forexamplep.46
andthemodifiedallusionsonpp.602).
UseofAllusionsforCharacterisation
Allusionsareoftenafastandeconomicalaidtocharacterisation.Characterswhoalludeareshowntobewelleducated,literateandquickwitted,andtheirallusions
reflecttheirinterests,aswhenacentralcharacter,whoisaprofessorwith'awellestablishedreputationintheexpandingfieldofchildren'sliterature'(Lurie,1986:1)
frequentlyalludestoLewisCarrollandotherchildren'sclassics.Naiveorignorantcharacters,ontheotherhand,failtocatchallusionsasaddressees,andiftheyuse
allusionsthemselves,thesearetriteandhackneyed.Characterisationwiththehelpofallusionscanoccuronboththemacroandthemicrolevel,dependingfor
instanceonwhetheranallusion(oraseriesofthem)isusedtoshedlightonacentralcharacter,orwhethertheallusionoccursinconnectionwiththesoleappearance
ofaminorcharacter.Onthemacrolevel,theuseofaseriesofallusionsforcharacterisationisnotmuchdifferentfromtheiruseforconveyingthemes:
'SomehowwheneverIfantasisedbeingrescued,itwasneverthepolice,itwasalwaysyou...AndyoudiditthewayIexpectedyouwould.Youbashedinthedoorandshottwo
peopleandpickedmeupandtookmeaway.TarzanoftheApes,'shesaid.(Parker,1987a:219)

Theellipticalcomparisonoftheaddressedprivateeye,Spenser,withTarzanmayevokesimplybruteforce,andifthereaderismainlyawareofthestrugglefor
dominancediscernibleintherelationshipbetweenSpenserandthespeaker,Rachel,thekidnappedfeministwhomhehasjustrescued,thisinterpretationoftheremark
makessense.ItcouldbeconstruedasexpressingeitherRachel'sfrequentlystateddisapprovalofstrongarmtactics,oraveiledapologyforthisdisapproval,nowthat
ithasbeenprovedthatRachelherselfwashelplessandneededtoberescuedbyviolentmeansoritcouldalsobeseenasRachel'swayoftryingtogainher

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equilibriumandindependenceafterashockingexperiencebyreturningtoherformerhabitofputtingdownSpenserandallmenwhouseviolence.Butwhenother
allusionsinthetextconnectedtoSpenserareconsidered,apossiblealternativereadingemerges.TheconnotationsofTarzanmightbesummedupnaivelyasphysical
action,courage,strength,directness,beingonthesideofjustice.Andinfact,thesecharacteristicsarepartoftheconnotationsoftheotherallusionsusedwhen
SpenserisdescribedbyhisloverSusanorbyRachel,bothofwhomclaimthatheseeshimselfasaknightonawhitecharger(Parker,1987a):
'Whathewon'tsay,'Susansaid,'andwhathemaynotevenadmittohimselfisthathe'dliketobeSirGawain.Hewasbornfivehundredyearstoolate...'
'Sixhundredyears,'[Spenser]said.(p.29)
'IassumeyouthinkyouweresomekindofSirGalahadprotectingmygoodnamewhenyoupunchedthatpoorsexistfoolatthelibrary.Well,youwerenot.Youwereastupid
thug...'(p.49)
'You'reemployedtokeepmealive,nottoexerciseyourArthurianfantasies.'(p.85)
Susansaid,'Ifyouwanttogivemeyouroldclothes,Icanputthemthroughthewashforyou.Lancelotherehasallthemodernconveniences.'(p.212)7

Spenserhimselfneitheragreesnordisagreeswiththeimputations.Whenheusesallusivecomparisonsforhimself,hisconcernisonajokinglevelwithhowwellhe
measuresuptomoremodernrolemodels:
'[Myfather'sname]wasassignedme.Spenser.Ihadnochoice.Icouldn'tsayI'dratherbenamedSpade.SamuelSpade.Thatwouldbeaterrificname,butno.Ihadtogetaname
likeanEnglishpoet.YouknowwhatSpenserwrote?'(p.32)
Atfiveo'clockIhadsevenpagesofnotes,andmyeyeswerestartingtocross.IfIweren'tsotough,Iwouldhavethoughtaboutreadingglasses.IwonderhowBogiewouldhave
lookedwithspecs.Here'slookingatyou,foureyes.(p.128)

HenceitisuptothereadertodecidehowmuchimportancetogivetotheimputationsofArthurianfantasies.Thetextcanbereadpurelyforitsactionbythosewho
likeagoodguybashingupbadguysoritcanbeseen(andthisisperhapsclearerifseveralSpenserbooksarereadasaseries)asanepisodeinaquestfora
resolutionofthecontradictionsinSpenser'slife,

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causedbyhishighmedievalidealsforhimselfandhisdailystruggleagainstcriminalsinamodernAmericansetting,aswellashisproblemswithloveandtrusttowards
Susan,anindependentprofessionalwoman.Thisratherromanticreadingdependstoagreatextentonthepresenceoftheallusionsbutitissupportedbyovert
commentsinthedialogueintheSpenserseries,asforexample:
'Itmakesyoubetterthanothermen,'Paulsaid.'...Butitalsotrapsyou.Machismo'scaptive.Honor,commitment,absolutefidelity,thewholemyth.'(Parker,1987b:160)
Susansmiledatmeslowly.'That'swhatitreallyis,isn'tit?'shesaid.'Youareoneofthethreeorfourmostromanticdiddlesintheworld...'(Parker,1990:68)

Notalluseofallusions,however,involvesthiskindofconsiderationoflengthycontext.Therearebriefsceneswherecharacterssuddenlycomeintofocusthroughthe
useofanallusioninnarrativeordialogue:
'Mother,lunchisready,'saidMonica,appearinginthedoorway,lookingratherharassed.
'Ah,ourgoodMartha,'saidFatherBenger.
HeandMrsBeltanemovedslowlyintothehouse,asifconsciousofbeingtheoneswhohadchosenthebetterpart.(Pym,1979:144)

Foraclergymantoaddressagirlwhohastoiledtoprovidehimwithameal,asMartha,withbiblicalreference,couldbethoughtofasasincereexpressionof
gratitude,wereitnotforthenarrator'sallusiveremarkthatfollows,whichpresentstheclergyman'spatronisingattitudeinanironiclight.
AllusionsasIndicatorsofInterpersonalRelationships
Relationshipsbetweencharacterscanbefurtherilluminatedthroughtheuseofallusionsindialogue.Thisfunctionwillbedealtwithinsomedetailhere,asitisa
recurrentoneinfictionaltexts,andonethatatranslatorignoresattheperilofobscuringcrucialrelationships.Thecoherenceofadialoguebetweenafictionalsender
andafictionalreceiverinvolvesawarenessonthepartofthereaderofwhatmaybeaformofabidforpowerordominancebetweencharacters.Nash(1985:74)has
commentedonallusionsas'adeviceofpower',linkingthistothefolklorebeliefthattoknowasecretnameistohavepower(p.146).Inthetextsexamined,the
alluderisoftenforegrounded.His/herdominancemayderivefromsuperiorintelligenceoreducation,oroccasionally,betterselfcontrol(thatis,notbeing

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emotionallyinvolved,unlikethe'alludee').8
Inthefollowingexampleonespeakerusesanallusionasaclich,andherinterlocutor,Kate(aprofessorofEnglish),takesitupanddiscussesthemeaningofthe
phraseinitshistoricalcontext,thuspuzzlingthefirstspeaker:
'Well,'GladysGeddessaid,sippinghersherry(shedidnot,shehadexplained,drinkthehardstuff),'IthoughtTedwasfartootolerantofallthatantiyouthstuff.Ofcoursetobe
youngisveryheavendidn'tsomeonesaythat?'
SinceGladyshadpaused,apparentlyforananswer,Katesaid,'Yes,butwhenyouwereyoungseemedtohavesomethingtodowithit,andthenitwasrememberedheaven,our
oldfriendnostalgia.WhenByronactuallyfoughtinarevolution,hewasthirtyfour,whichheconsideredtheverybrinkofdesiccation,andhishairwasgoinggray.Hedidn'tlive
tobeareallyoldmantotalkaboutit,unlikeWordsworth.'
Gladyslookedpuzzled.'Idon'tactuallyfollowyou,'shesaid.'WhathaveWordsworthandByrontodowithit?It'sjustbettertobeyoungthanoldI'dhavesaidthatwas
obvious.'
Katetriedveryhardnottoblamemenfortheirwives,butsherarelysucceeded.(Cross,1985:113emphasisonwhenoriginal.)

Here,powerisverymuchinthehandsofKate,whofeelsintellectuallysuperiortoGladysbecause,unlikeGladys,sheisawareofthecontextinwhichWordsworth
originallyusedthewords.9 Kate'sintellectualsnobberymaywellforfeitherthesympathiesofmanyreaders,however.
Someofthealludeesinthecorpusareshowntobeawareofthepowerplayaspectandtointerprettheuseofanallusionindialogueasanattemptonthepartofthe
speakertoimpresshis/herinterlocutor.Thealludeehastenstocaptheallusionortonamethesource:
'SimplyleavethehemlockbesidemybedandI'llknowwhattodowithit.'HespokebrieflyinGreek.
'What?'
'IsaidweoweacocktoAesculapius.'
'YouandSocrates,huh?'(Moody,1985:171)
'YesI'dalmostgottothinkingofEagleHouseasourownprivateplace.'
'Likethegrave,'saidViola.
'Ah,yes,wherenoneembrace,'saidDulcie,catchingtheallusion.(Pym,1979:199)

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Onoccasiontheresponsemaybeminimal:agruntorlaugh,perhapsafterafewseconds'reflectionwhichisneededtomaketheconnection:
'Iwasjustlookingforataxi.'
MrMumpsonstaresoutacrosstheempty,rainsloshed,lightstreakedpavement.'Don'tseemtobeanyhere.'
'No.'Shemanagesabriefdefensivesmile.'Apparentlytheyallturnintopumpkinsatmidnight.'
'Huh?Oh,haha.Listen,Iknowwhat.Youcancomeonthebuswithus...'(Lurie,1986:22)

Thealludee'snotcatchingtheallusionisoftenpresentedasasignofsocioculturalinferiority.His/herignorancecanberevealedeitherbyacarefullyneutralreply,which
doesnotfoolthealluder:
'AsI'vealwayssaid,you'retheperfecthusband.'
EvenPenelopeoughttohavechokedonthatpieceofhypocrisy,hethought.'Soundstomeasifwe'dstartfavouritesfortheDunmowflitch.'
'I'msureyouwould.'
Hewasconvincedshehadn'tunderstoodthereference.(Ashford,1986:53)

oraninappropriatereply:
'Ayearortwoagowedidhavealoafinchurch,quiteabeautifulthing[but]itwasmadeofplaster.Ithoughtthatverywrong.Youcouldn'tsendaplasterloaftothehospital,
couldyou?'
'Isupposenotitwouldindeedbeacaseofaskingforbreadandbeinggivenastone.'
'Well,MissMainwaring,itwouldbebeinggivenplaster,wouldn'tit...'(Pym,1979:34)

Askingforanexplanation,ontheotherhand,mayalsolabelacharacterasnaive:
'...Ifyou'renotgettingaheadeverygoddamminuteyoufeelasifyou'reslidingback.'
'LiketheRedQueen.'
'Yeh?'Chuckblinksather.'Whatqueenwasthat?'
'InThroughtheLookingGlass.'
'Oh,yeh?Ineverreadthat.YouthinkIshould?'(Lurie,1986:168)

Eventheabsenceofareplymaybepartofthecharacterisation,indicatingeitherthatthealludeeisnotcleverenoughtoregisterthecontemptuoususeofanallusion
buttakesitatfacevalue,orthats/heisstruckdumbbyit,

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registeringtheinsultbutbeingunabletorespondinkind.
Intermsdevisedfortheanalysisofreallifeinteractions,itcouldbesaidthatthealluder'sallegedclaimtosocioculturalsuperiorityisoftenseenasafacethreatening
act(Brown&Levinson,1987)bythealludee,whomayoverreactinselfdefenceandchallengethealluder.Someoftheensuingpacificationsbyalludersseemto
suggestthattheauthorhasbeencarriedawaybyhis/herownlinguisticusageandmustprovidethecharacterwithafeeblyplausibleexcuseforbeingsoliterate:one
policemandeclaiming:'Eternalvigilanceisthepriceofliberty'explains:'Mykid'stakingU.S.history'(Parker,1987a:152)another,afteralludingtoAlice,says'My
wifeteachesEnglishatColumbia.Itrubsoff'(Cunningham,1987:159).Insceneswhereresponsestoallusionsareinappropriateoraggressive,theauthorappearsto
beinvitingthereadertobeamemberofaningroupofeducatedpersonschucklingoverthecomiclackofeducationorsophisticationofothers,astheeffectofthe
inappropriateresponseishumorous:
Nancycouldhardlybelievealetterwouldmakehersohappy.'...Sheisnothingtous.Weeachpossessoneworld.Eachhathoneandisone.'Hath,shedecided,mustbeatyping
error,butthethoughtwasthere.(Rendell,1970:85)

Moregenerallyanalludingauthorandanappreciativereadercanbesaidtoformaningroup,withthereaderflatteredatbeingincluded.Suchingroupscanbebased
onfamiliaritywithagenre,forinstancereadersofcrimefictionwillappreciateallusionswhicharegenrespecific,asitwere,asintheearlierKingexample.
Sharedrecognitionofallusions,especiallyoflesscommonones,verybriefones,orcreativelymodifiedallusions(allmorechallengingthantheiropposites),seemsto
beapleasurableexperienceinfictionalinteractions,stressing'ingroupknowledgeandcommonalityofattitudes'(Brown&Levinson,1987:28,speakingofonrecord
irony).Thiswillleadtolaughterandexpressionsoffriendliness:
'Whiteorblack,they'reallthesametome,theyallstink.That'sbigoted?'
'That'snotevenequalbutseparate,'Carellasaid,andOllieburstoutlaughing...'Ilikeyouguys,'hesaid,'youknowthat?Ireallyenjoyworkingwithyouguys.'(McBain,1984:
190)10

Theunrequestedexplanationofanallusioncanberesentedascondescending,withthealludeemovingquicklytointerruptit:

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'It'sfromTheMikado.PittiSingwasthe
'We'requiteconversantwiththeworksofGilbertandSullivan,thankyou,'Isaidcrisply.(Babson,1988:99)

Inthefollowingexamples,thelackofcertainaspectsofculturalliteracyoftwofictionalcharacters(bothofthemmedicaldoctors)iscommentedonbutnotillustrated
indialogue,andexplainedinamoresympatheticway,asresultingfromadeprivedchildhood:
ButLionelhadnotreadAlicehehadneverreadmostofthechildren'sandsemiadults'booksthatformedthebackgroundtoherownmentallandscape.Thereadingmatter
availableinhisownchildhoodhomehadbeenlargelypolemical...(Tindall,1983:127)
Whatmovedandastonishedmemostwasthatheknewnonurseryrhymesandfairystories.HehadreadDostoevsky,Proust,hereadAristotleandSophoclesinGreek.Hehad
readChaucerandSpenser...Buthedidn'tknowHumptyDumpty,LittleMissMuffet,theThreeBears,RedRidingHood.HeknewthestoryofCinderellaonlythroughRossini's
opera.AndallthatsweetlyricismofourAngloSaxonchildhood,awholeculturewithringsonitsfingersandbellsonitstoes,hadbeenlosttohiminthatinfancyofslumsand
smellydrains,ratsandpawnshops,streetprostitutes,curses,ragsandhackingcoughs,freezingbarefeetandnoPrinceCharmings,whichhadstillbeenthelotofthereallypoor
intheyearsbetweenthefirstandsecondworldwars.Ihadneverbeforerealisedhowtheverypoorpeopleofthecitieshadinevitablybeendeprivedoftheirownsimplefolklore
ofchildhood.(Spark,1988:178)

Ineachofthesecasesthepowerplayaspectislostsightofasthecharacterwiththemorefortunatebackgroundistheman'slover:
Atnight,IusedtosingnurseryrhymestoWilliam.Itoldhimfairystories...Theywerepartofourloveaffair.(Spark,1988:178)

CreativeversusStereotypeduseofAllusions
Ahistoricalstudymightshowadevelopmentwhereacommonlyusedallusionislessandlessoftenusedwiththepurposeofreactivatingparticularcontexts.By
frequentrepetition,suchallusionsmayslowlycometolosemuchoftheirallusivepowerandfadeintostereotypedexpressionsoridioms,intheendlosingpractically
alloftheircontactwiththeoriginalcontextandbecominglexicalised.
Theuseofsuchallusionstodayseemstoindicatemostlythataparticular

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wordortopicisassociatedinthemindofthewriterwithanoftenheardphrase,whichisrepeatedwithlittlethoughtofthemeaningithadintheoriginalsource
context.InnewspaperheadlinesforinstanceanynewsaboutIrelandorevenapersonwithanIrishnamemaywellbetitledwithsomevariationofthephraseIrish
EyesAreSmiling11astoryonanagingactressandanimalloverandhermanypetsiscalledBeautyandHerManyBeastswithoutanyimplication(onetrusts)ofa
lovestorydevelopingbetweenthemandastoryontheinadequacyofBritishbutchers'shopswhencomparedtoContinentalonesiscalledUnkindcutscomeclose
tothebonesurelywithnothoughtofthecontextofthephrasethemostunkindestcutofallinJuliusCaesar.AspointedoutbyBenPorat(1976:1156),the
activationoftheevokedtextinjournalismandadvertisingwouldoftenleadtogrotesqueinterpretations.
Stereotypedallusionscouldperhapsbecalled'deadallusions'byanalogywithdeadmetaphors.Thedeathofanallusioncanbeassumedwhenaphraseisusedina
contextdiametricallyoppositetotheoriginalsourcecontext.Asanexample,consideratonefellswoop,whichinitsoriginalsourcecontextreferstoafather'sanguish
atthenewsthathiswifeandchildrenaredeadatthehandsofhisenemy.Thisoftenquotedphraseisfoundinafictionaltext(Marlow,1986)whereawomanwhois
dyingaftergivingbirthtotwinscommentsonthebirthoftwobabiesinonefellswoop.Itmaypossiblybearguedthatherownimminentdeathdarkensthesceneand
thusmakestheallusionslightlymoreappropriatethanitwouldotherwisebeinsuchacontext.When,however,acharacterinanothertextspeaksofhavingtobuya
wholewardrobeatonefellswoop(Cross,1985:99),thismaybetakenasconclusiveevidenceofthedeathoftheallusionexceptthatthingsareseldom
conclusiveinanalysesofthiskind,anditisjustpossiblethatthephraseisintendedtosuggestsuperficialityorlackoffacilitywithwordsintheminorcharacterusing
theexpression.Note,too,anexamplewherethecontext(butnotthetone,whichisquitelighthearted)isequivalentenoughtothesourcecontextinMacbeth.
Interestingly,thespeakerinthattext(anewspapercolumn,writteninparodyofadiary),visualisingthereactionsofherhusbandtothepotentialdeathofhiswifeand
childreninapotentialairdisaster,doesnotusethephraseatonefellswoopbutchoosestoreactivate(andparody)thefather'sgriefinMacbethbyalludingtothe
lineimmediatelyprecedingthatphraseintheplay:
FeelsorryforSpouse,abouttoreceivedevastatingblow.WhatallhisprettychickensandtheirDam.(Domum,1989)

Reanimationofanormallystereotypedallusionsometimesoccurs.Thephraserisefromtheashesaffordsanexample.Asusedinanewspaperarticle

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wherethepredictionismadethatLabourwillneverrisefromtheelectoralashesuntil...,itistoallintentsandpurposesanidiom.However,theideaofthe
mythicalphoenixfirstburningitselftoashesandthenrisingagainisreanimatedinanemotionallychargedsceneinafictionaltext:
Hewasn'tsurewhatwouldhappen.Hewasn'tsurethatitwastherightthingtodo.Hewasworkingoninstinct,ablindinstinctwhichinsistedthatsomethinggoodhadtorise,
likeaphoenixtriumphant,fromtheashesoftheday.
...Heunderstoodthatnow,andashelookedathertrusting,resoluteface,hesawthatHaversreadinghisintentionintheirdestinationhadbuiltthefuneralpyreherselfand
wasperfectlydeterminedtostrikethematchthatwouldputtothetestthepromiseofthephoenix.(George,1989:31920)

Admittingsuchpossibilityofreanimation,Istillventuretogiveasexamplessomefrequentlydeadordyingallusionsencounteredmostlyinheadlines:Searchandye
shallfind(usedinmymaterialinconnectionwiththeemploymentofclergymen)Forgiveusourdebts(onthefinancialpages)Out,damnspot(introducinganew
householdcleaner)Ataleoftwocities(onAngloIrishrelationsinonecaseinanotheronthecontrastbetweenofficialWashington,DCandtheblackDistrictof
Columbia).Inmycorpusdeadordyingallusionsareusedmoreofteninnonfictionthaninfiction,perhapsreflectingthepaceofjournalisticwork,wherethesearch
foranovelturnofphraseissometimesofsecondaryimportancewhatmattersisthatstoriesgetwrittenfast.Nodoubttheuseofallusiveand/orpunningheadlinesis
alsothoughttoserveasanattentiongettingdevice,thatis,toevokeinterestandencouragereaderstoreadtheitem.
Infiction,therareusesencounteredofallusionsnormallydeadareironical:
'...Thismachinehereisdoingtheworkthatwasdonelastyearbytwelvemen.'
'Ohbravenewworld,'saidRobyn,'whereonlythemanagingdirectorshavejobs.'(Lodge,1988:85)

Theironyisnotsosubtleastogounnoticedbythedirectorinthecontext(whoselackofliteraryknowledgeisanimportantpartofthethemeofthenovel).Butthen,
theexclamation,originallyalludingtoShakespeare'sTheTempest,hasmostlybeenusedironicallysinceAldousHuxleygaveitthissenseinhisnovel(Lassetal.
1987:32).
Indeed,itislikelythatanydeadordyingallusioncanbereanimated,whichshowsthattheirallusiverootsarealive.Dead,dyingandlive

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(creative)allusionsformacontinuum.Atranslatorneedstobealerttothefunctionofeventhemostinertseemingallusion.
ClichsandProverbs
AtthetimeoftheRenaissance,commonplacebooksconstituted'animportantliterarygenre'wherepeoplecouldfind'grainsofwisdomandglimmersof
hope'(Schaar,1991:166).Increasingnumbersofdictionariesofquotationscontinuethistraditionproverbs,maxims,aphorisms,someofthemanonymous,many
quotesfromwhatarepopularlyknownasgreatwriters,pithilyexpressoldtruthsinconcentratedform,andguidereadersbysuggestinghowtheirproblemsandjoys
shouldmostprofitablybeseen:Theonlysurethingaboutluckisthatitwillchangenothingsucceedslikesuccessfearofdeathisworsethandeathitself.
Oneperiodmayprefermorallyelevatedsayingsforanother,cynicismisclosertotruth:Awomanhastobetwiceasgoodasamantogohalfasfarevery
decisionyoumakeisamistake.Whatwasprofoundinonecenturymaybeaplatitudeinanother:Unitedwestand,dividedwefallbloodisthickerthanwater.
ForthisreasonPartridge's(1962:3)radicaldistinctionbetweenproverbsandclichs('Proverbsareinstancesofracialwisdom,whereasclichsareinstancesofracial
inanition')seemstoholdonlysynchronicallyatmost.
Whilesomemaydeploretheunoriginalityofthoughtofthosewhoneedtoborrow,othersproposethat'[i]tisagoodthingforanuneducatedmantoreadbooksof
quotations[.Theywill]whenengraveduponthememorygiveyougoodthoughts'(Churchill,1958:114).Thecompilersofsuchbooksassurethatweall'lovetouse
anaptquotationtoenlivenconversationorscoreapointinanargument'(PocketTreasury1988:5).Proverbsareusedto'giveawordofadviceorofwarning,ora
wisegeneralcommentonasituation'(Seidl&McMordie,1978:241).Infact,Gutt(1991:151)believesthatproverbshaveaneffectpreciselybecausethey'express
popularinsights'andthatiftheyarenotrecognisedasproverbs,theywilloftenbeimperfectlyunderstood(forinstancebychildrenorforeigners,whodonotseethat
theyhaveametaphoricalmeaning).TouseSchaar's(1991)terms,the'freesemanticenergy'ofmaximsisexperiencedbythemajorityofreceivers,whohavecometo
knowthemastheyarerepeated(asopposedtothe'latent'energyofmoreliteraryfragmentswhicharetransparentonlytotheminoritywhoareawareofthesource
context).
Clichsandproverbsarethusonemorecategoryofpreformedlinguisticmaterial,withthe'unwritten'literatureofproverbscorrespondingtothestoreofquotations
fromwrittenliterature.ThispointismadebyMeyer(1968:6970)who,whendiscussingtheuseofcitationinDonQuixote,observes

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thatSanchoPanza's'brilliantuseofpopularexpressionsandproverbs'correspondsinanantitheticalwaytoDonQuixote'suseofhighstylequotations,though
occasionallythetwomenchangestyles.
Therepeatingofstereotypedsayingsisalsocriticisedas'analarmingsymptomofculturalwearinessanddebility'(Meyer,1968:19).Proverbialexpressionsbecome
stereotypednotbylosingtouchwiththeirsources(provenanceisusuallyimmaterialwiththistypeofsaying,cf.Schaar,1991:165)ashappenswiththedeathof
allusions,butbyhavingtheireffectworndownbyconstantrepetition.Theunexpectednessthatisaqualityofalludingatitsmostsuccessfulislost.Thereisafeelingof
staleness,andhenceitisnotsurprisingthatthisuseofallusionsisnotcommoninprint.Authorsareunderstandablynoteagertousestereotypedexpressionsfortheir
ownthoughts.Atruecrimewriter,describingthespeechhabitsofanactualperson,showshowsuchuseofclichscanbeinterpreted:
Dianedidn'treadmuch.Hewassurprisedtofindthatsheoftenspokeinplatitudesandhomilies,soundinglikeaschoolgirl'sCtheme.('Youcanleadahorsetowater,butyou
can'tmakehimdrink','Everythingalwaysturnsoutforthebest.')Atfirst,hethoughtshewasjoking,andhelaughedaloud.Butshewasserious.ItwasasifDianedidn'treally
understandthewayhumansweresupposedtofeelandusedhertritequotationstoguideherself.(Rule,1988:3323)

Whenthistypeofallusionisfoundinfiction,itusuallyhasthefunctionofindicatingthatacharacterisunintelligentorconventional:
'SheknewI'dneverwrite,MrsFielding.Wewerehatd'youcallit?shipsthatpassinthenight.Sheneverevensaidapropergoodbye,butI'mnotbreakingmyheartover
it.'(Rendell,1984:38)
'Itwasn'tveryniceoftheoldgentlemantoaskitbuteverything'sfairinloveandwar,isn'tit?Youtwohavegottostandupforyourselves...'(Allingham,1986:94)

Thereare'uncultured,littlereading'personsinreallifewhoseestockphrasesandthinkthem'aptandsmart'(Partridge,1962:2).Suchuseinfictionisthusnottruly
stereotypical,butacharacterisingdevice.Whencharacterswhoarepicturedasquickwittedandsharpontheuptakeusethe'oldtruths',theytendtodosoironically
orinunexpectedcontexts,withlexicalorsituationalmodifications:
'Really,Jeff,whenIconsiderwhatMotherhasintroducedyouto.Youcanleadahorsetochampagnebuthe'dratherdrinkwarmbeer.'(Piercy,1987:184)

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Hecollectedhisownglassandhelpedhimselfequallyliberally.Whenhesat,hedidsomuchmoreheavilythanhe'dintendedandalittlecognacsloppedovertheedgeofthe
glass.Helickedhishand.'Asmymotheralwaystaughtme,wastenot,wantnot.'(Ashford,1986:11)

Wilss(1989:69)hasnotedinstancesinhisGermanmaterialwherethetruthofproverbsisquestionedthroughcynicaladditions.12
Asregardsnonfiction,HewsonandMartin(1991:224),intheircriticismofthetranslationofanarticleinLeMondefortheGuardianWeekly,notethatarticlesinthe
Britishpressdonotusuallystartwithaproverb.Inthattranslation,theFrenchl'adagehadbeentranslatedas'theoldsaw'(p.223),whichhasnegativeconnotations.
IfproverbshavenegativeconnotationsasstereotypedmaterialforjournalistsintheEnglishlanguageculturegenerally,thismayexplainthedearthofproverbsinthe
nonfictionaltextsexamined.13Reanimatedproverbsareanothermatterasreanimationiscreative:onearticlemadethematicuseofareanimationoftheproverba
man'shouseishiscastle(ODP,21),contrastingaman'shousewithawoman'sbody,saidtobe'rarelyherown'(Steinem,1989:41,speakingofabortion).
Asstressedmanytimesearlier,thekindofdelineationofthefunctionsofallusionsgiveninthisstudycanonlyeverbeanapproximation.Lackofinterestintaxonomy
assuchandadesiretoseeeachallusionaboveallinitscontextledtothedecisionnottoprioritisecategorisation.Whatthepresentationofthefunctionsofallusions
eveninthisfluidshapehasshown,Ihope,isthatSTallusionsarenotirrelevantelementsfromthepointofviewofthetextasawholebuthavesignificanceofvarious
sorts,dependingontheirfunctioninthecontext.Intranslation,theremaywellbelossesifthissignificance(aswellasthatofotherimplicitmessages)isnotgaugedand
takenintoaccountaspartoftheanalysisoftheST.Appropriatetranslationstrategiesareneededsothatwhateverthefunctionofanallusion,eitheronthemacrolevel
oronthemicrolevel,itisnotlostunnecessarily.
FormsofAllusions
Theformallusionstakeismuchlesscrucialthantheirfunctionforthetranslator.AtleastwithregardtoEnglishandFinnish,itappearsthatwhilesimilarformsexistin
bothlanguages,thefunctionandmeaningoftheSTallusionmayoftennotbeconveyedbycorrespondingTLwords.Thesimpleclassificationofallusionsgivenin
Chapter1madeuseofsuchformalcriteriaasthepresenceorabsenceofapropername(PNversusKPallusions)andthedegreeoffidelitytothepreformedwording
(regularversusmodifiedallusions).Onthelinesofmetaphorstudies(BrookeRose,1958),14otherpossiblecriteriacouldbe,forexample,thewordclassor

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phrasetypeoftheallusion,leadingtosuchcategoriesasnounphraseallusions(theselatterdaySamSpades)verbphraseallusions(you'veporlockedme)15
adjectivephraseallusions(searandyellow),etc.Orclassificationcouldbebasedonsyntacticfunction,withsuchcategoriesaspremodifyingallusions(herCheshire
grin)subjectcomplementallusions(youwereaveryparfitgentilknight),etc.Anotherpossibilitywouldbetodivideallusionsintophrasesversusclauses(our
sceptredisletherearestrangerthingsinthisworldthaninallyourphilosophies,Horatio).Rhetoricalterminologymightalsoprovideelementsofatypology
(cf.thatconstructedbyHeibert[1993:98104]forwordplay).CategoriescouldalsotakeintoaccountthedifferencebetweenasingleKPembeddedinthealluding
text:
Stabledoors,hethought.Regrets,apologies,buttheboyisgoneandIamheretoolate,withtoolittle.Icansaynothingthatwillprovideeithercomfortorhope...(Gosling,1992:
208)

andparagraphsofwhatmightbetermedmatchingtext,withlittlerepetitionoflexicalwordsbutsimilarrhetoricalstructure:
Alludingtext
Itwasthebestofcrimes,itwastheworstofcrimesitwasbornoflove,itwasspawnedbygreeditwascompletelyunplanned,itwascoldlypremeditateditwasanopenand
shutcase,itwasalockedroommysteryitwastheactofaguilelessgirl,itwastheworkofaschemingscoundrel...amanwiththefaceofalaughingboyreignedinWashington,
amanwiththefeaturesofalugubrioushoundruledinWestminster...
ItwastheYearofOurLordnineteenhundredandsixtythree...(Hill,1993:9)16

Evokedtext
Itwasthebestoftimes,itwastheworstoftimes,itwastheageofwisdom,itwastheageoffoolishness,itwastheepochofbelief,itwastheepochofincredulity,itwasthe
seasonofLight,itwastheseasonofDarkness,itwasthespringofhope,itwasthewinterofdespair...
Therewereakingwithalargejawandaqueenwithaplainface,onthethroneofEnglandtherewereakingwithalargejawandaqueenwithafairface,onthethroneof
France...
ItwastheyearofOurLordonethousandsevenhundredandseventyfive.(Dickens,1906:5)

However,theconstructionofatypologybasedonisolatedformalaspectsishardlyuseful,asthealmostlimitlessvarietyofactualexamplescouldhardlybeexhausted
byanykindofformalanalysis.Thefunctionof

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allusionsortheirconnotationsarenotdependentonsyntax.AsLefevere(1992:567)observes:
allusionspointto...therealuntranslatable,whichdoesnotresideinsyntactictransfersorsemanticconstructions,butratherinthepeculiarwayinwhichculturesalldeveloptheir
own'shorthand,'whichiswhatallusionsreallyare.Awordorphrasecanevokeasituationthatissymbolicforanemotionorastateofaffairs.Thetranslatorcanrendertheword
orphraseandthecorrespondingstateofaffairswithoutmuchtrouble.Thelinkbetweenthetwo,whichissointricatelyboundupwiththeforeigncultureitself,ismuchharderto
translate.

Thetranslationofallusionsbeingthemainfocusofthisstudy,Ishallillustratethestrikingvarietyinform,whichmaybeofsomerelevanceasfarastherecognisability
ofallusionsisconcerned,bytakinguptwoparticularaspectsonly.Thesearetherangeofsyntacticvarietyinallusiveexpressionsofcomparison(chieflyinvolving
propernames),anddifferentwaysofmodifyingallusions(mostlykeyphrases).
ExpressionsofComparison
Whenallusionscompare'aspectsorqualitiesofcounterpartsinhistory...,literature,popularorcontemporaryculture'(Lassetal.,1987:vvi),astheyfrequentlydo,
suchcomparisonisexpressedbyavarietyoflinguisticmeans.Thereisatleastthesimile,withitsvariations:'thatmanislikeOnassis','heremindsmeofOnassis',the
metaphor'heisanOnassis',theappositiveexpression'myneighbour,thatOnassis',thepremodifyingallusion,'anOnassistype'andthevocativeallusion,'It'seasyfor
youtosay,Onassis!'allattested(withdifferentnames,ofcourse)inmycorpus.Wemaylookatsomeexamplesofsimilestoseewhetheritistruethattheforman
allusiontakeshaslittlebearingonitsfunction.Manysimilescanbecategorisedassemiallusivecomparisons(SACs,seeChapter1)amarginalcategorybutit
needstobenotedthatothersmaywellbetrulyallusive,evenonthemacrolevel.Contrasttheuseofallusivesimilesintwocrimenovels,Moody(1985)andHaymon
(1984).Moody,whospreadshersalloverdifferentcharactersandsituationsinthetext,usesthemasSACs,creatinganeventuallytiresomefireworkdisplayof
humorouscomparisons,whileinHaymonthesimilestendtoconcentrateononeperson,thecentralcharacterofhernovel,thedeceasedAppleyardofHungary.This
factgivesmanyofhersimilesathematicimportance:byfrequentlycomparingAppleyardtoheroiccharactersofthepast,Haymonbothsetshimupasaheroand
preparesthereaderfortheshockstocome,whichmotivatethecrimesinthebook.Itcanthereforewellbearguedthatthecomparisons

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ofAppleyardtoNelson,LawrenceofArabia,KingSolomonetc.(allsimiles)arecomparabletothecomparisonsintheformofmetaphorofParker's(1987a)
detectiveSpensertoArthurianknightsandhaveasimilarthematicorcharacterisingfunction.(Itmayberelevantthatthethreetextsareallcrimenovels.Crimefiction
maywellmakemoreuseofallusionsthansomeothertypesoftextbecausethegenrerequiresthatthereadershouldactivelysearchforcluesandthismaymake
readersmorepreparedtoworkatuncoveringothertypesofimplicitmessages.)17
TheslightlogicalproblemcausedbythemetaphoricuseofPNsisoftencircumventedbyanindefinitearticleoralimitingpreorpostmodifier.'HeisOnassis'is
seldomtrueintheliteralsense,but'heisanOnassis'onlymeansthatheisoneofaclassofmenlikeOnassis.Anegative,interrogativeorexclamatorysentence
structurelikewisecircumventsthelogicalproblem:
WhoamI,MrsRockefeller,Ihavetimetositwithmyearstucktotheradio?(Piercy,1987:55)
'I'mnotMarshalDillonoutthereinDodgeCity,shootingitoutwithsomelunatic...That'snotwhatI'mpaidfor.'(Cunningham,1987:177)

Thespeakersthusdenycomparisonwithrichwomen,orfearlesssheriffsonthescreen.
Inappositiveallusion,oneofthephrasesinappositionnotuncommonlyactsasakeytotheother,clarifyingtheallusiveimage:
ThiswashisRubicon,themomentwhenhebetrayedhisprinciples.(Ashford,1986:148)

oranallusiveimagemaybethesecondappositive,suggestingwhatattitudeorfeelingsarelinkedtothefirst:
Then,atnineteen,shetransferredfromSmithtoBarnardandfinallymadeittoManhattan,theglitteringOzofherchildhoodwhereshehadalwaysknownshereallybelonged.
(Piercy,1987:23)

Premodifyingallusionsmaybeeponymousadjectives(derivedfromnames),withorwithoutadjectivalsuffixes:Cassandrianspeeches,Nelsonianindifference,
MauriceChevalieresqueEnglish,theirAnneFrankhaircuts(referringtochildren'weintuitivelyrecogniseasconcentrationcampinmates'[Clemons,1988]).
Comparisonisthencompressedandthereforeoftenperhapsmoreeffective:insteadofastatement,forexampleIntheirfullantiriotgear,thepolicemenlooked
likeDarthVaderinStarWars,18thepremodifyingallusionDarthVaderriotpolicemen(Iyer,1988)ismoreunexpected,engages

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thereader'simagination,andhashim/herparticipatinginthecreationoftheimage.
Invocativeallusions,wherecharacterAisaddressedorreferredtoasB,thecomparisonisimplicit.ThewellknownnameBismostlyseenasarolemodelforAA
isthusbeingcomparedtoBintheworldofthetext(usuallybyaninterlocutor),and,inmostcases,thoughttofallshortofthemodel.Themodeofaddressisusually
ironicoraggressiveintone:
'Ah,thereyouare,Maigret!...Payattention,Sherlock!....Don'tsayIdidn'twarnyou,Poirot!'(Haymon1984:49)
Socially,theambiguitybetweenattackandcomplimentcanbeuseful:
'Whatdoyouproposedoing,NancyDrew?'(Paretsky,1987:275)
'IhopeNancyDrewWarshawskihereknowswhatshe'sdoing'(Paretsky,1987:281)

Tocompareanadultprivatedetectivetotheteenageheroineofmysterystoriesforgirlsisasubtleputdown,butifchallenged,thespeakercouldclaimtobespeaking
admiringly.Cf.BrownandLevinson(1987:211)whopointout:'Ifaspeakerwantstodoa[facethreateningact],butwantstoavoidtheresponsibilityfordoingit,he
candoitoffrecordandleaveituptotheaddresseetodecidehowtointerpretit.'
InafurtherformofallusivecomparisontheallusionconsistsofaverbanditsPNobject,asin:todoaSarahBernhardt,toplayPollyanna.
WaysofModifyingAllusions
Thissectionwillnotprovideafulltypology.Eventhosewhoseattemptstodosoaremoreambitiousadmitthat'languageinitsrealityofuseisricherthanallattempts
topresentitexhaustivelyonthebasisofabstractcriteria'(Heibert,1993:98mytranslation).(Hedistinguishes27techniquesofwordplay.)Thewaysofmodification
notedhereareperhapsofmoreinteresttotranslatorsthantolinguistsafterall,modificationcomplicatesthetranslator'staskasitmay,forexample,removefromthe
allusionpreciselythewordsthatwouldhelplocatetheallusioninareferencework.
Itwasnotedintheearlierdiscussionofallusivehumourthatmodificationofallusionscanbeeithersituationalorlexical.Basically,insituationaltwists,familiarwords
belongingtoaparticularsphereorcontextareappliedtoadramaticallydifferentone,withthedesiredeffectof,forexample,surprise,laughterorshock.Thereislittle
ornochangeinthewordingitself.(Withoutsuchdifferenceincontexts,theallusionwouldnotbemodifiedat

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all.)Thesituationallymodifiedallusionoftenusestheborrowedwordsparodically,inotherwordssubvertsthem.Theeffectofshock,bycontrast,isachievedwhenan
utterlyseriousormoreliteralinterpretationofwhatwasearlierthoughtofmainlyasametaphoricclichismadeclearbythenewcontext.TheheadlineEyelessin
GazainitselfevokesMilton,butwhenitisusedforanarticleontheworkofasurgeontryingtohelpthewoundedintherefugeecampsintheGazastrip,itachievesa
graphicreality(Ang,1989).
Acommontechniqueinlexicalmodificationistheuseofframes,wheretheoperativewordisreplacedbyanother.Frameswerediscussedasillustrationstothecomic
functionofallusions,butitcanbeaddedthattheyworknotonlywithKPsasintheearlierexamples,butalsowithPNs:
tooutHerodHerodtooutTrumanTrumanCapote
OLiberty,whatcrimesarecommittedinthyname!Ah,Hemingway,whatnonsenseiscommittedinthyname(Piercy,1987:240)

Whilecontextlinkedsubstitutionsinoroutofframesareinasenseunpredictable(daysofwineandrosesdaysofswineandPorsches[Hill,1995:8]),
substitutionsareusuallymotivatedbythecontext:forexampletheframeastorminateacupcanbecomeatempestinasodabottlewhenthesubjectisthePepsi
Corporation(Newsweek,20March1989).Someregularitiescanalsofrequentlybenotedinthechoiceofasubstitution.Wordsmaybereplacedbytheirantonyms:
It'sasmallstep(agianttumbleformankind)fromprivatehealth,education,andNeighbourhoodWatchschemes,tovigilantism.(Ellmann,1989)

Twokeywordsmaybetransposed:
Ifperfectfearcastethoutlove,perfectshamecancastoutevenagony.(Fussell,TheGuardian,1989)

Changesfrommaletofemale,orviceversa,illustratebothofthesetechniques:
'Wehaven'tseenasmuchofyoulatelyasweshouldlike.'Itwastheveryphraseheusedtochurchbacksliders.
IhavemarriedahusbandandthereforeIcannotcome,Alicenearlysaid.(Rendell,1984:35)
(awomanworksfromsuntosun,butaman'sworkisneverdone)(McBain,1984:97)

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Transpositionsmayalsoinvolvechangingaffirmativesentencesintonegativeonesorviceversa:
Pennysighed.'Ialwaysmakepassesatmenwhowearglasses.'(Moody,1985:68)

Anauthormaymoveveryquicklyfromoneframetoanother,makinglexicalmodifications:
Wherearetheynow,theHillmanImpsofyesteryear?Inthescrapyards,everyone,ornearly.(Lodge,1988:11)

oruseapunningmodificationwhereperhapsonlyoneletterchanges:
...now,standingamidthealienpornofSoho,sixthousandmilesfromhome...hethinks,'Whynot?'andducksintotheveryfirststripjointhecomesto...(Lodge,1979:112)
[Sir]Kendalputahandonthebackof[Emerald's]neck.ItwasoneofthemoreovertlydesirousgesturesPennyhadeverseen.Tenderistheknight.(Moody,1985:66)

Punsareespeciallycommoninnewspaperheadlines.Oftentheyaredroppedafterservingthepurposeofcatchingthereader'seyebutapuncanalsobereinforcedin
thebodyofthetext:LifeintheFaustlane(headlinetoastoryontheathleteBenJohnson'sdopingscandalin1988Dyer,1988)wasfollowedupbyamentionof
Mephistophelianchemists.Notallpunsgetsuchreinforcement:astoryontheEnglishSchoolsChampionshipsatWiganwasheadlined:
MerryhasnoWiganpeerforsprinttitle(TheDailyTelegraph,7July1989)

buttherewasnofurtherallusiontoOrwell'ssocialcritiqueinthe1930s.ThisexampleagainservesasareminderofBenPorat's(1976)assumptionthatjournalistic
useofallusionsinheadlinesisseldomintendedtoevoketheoriginalcontextatanydepth.
Amongtheunpredictablebutcontextlinkedalterationsinwording,therearebothadditions:
Buthestillhadenoughofasingingheadtofailtonoticethat...thechangewasnotonlyinthebloodshoteyeofthebeholder.(Dickinson,1985:99)

andsubstitutions:
[Thesurgeonsaid:]'Itwon'tbenoticeable...Yourboyfriendmayseeafaintlinewhenhekissesyou,butifhe'sthatcloseheprobablywon'tbe

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looking.'
Sexistasshole,Isaid,buttomyself.Nopointinbitingthehandthatsewsyou.(Paretsky,1987:85)

Syntacticmodification,ontheotherhand,tendstobeslight,usuallyinvolvingonlythechangesmadenecessarybyembeddingtheallusioninanewsentence.Too
muchsyntacticchangeinadditiontolexicalmodificationwouldsoonendangertherecognisabilityoftheallusion.
Notonlydomodifiedallusionsmakedemandsonthetranslator,whoisunabletoidentifythemunlesss/herecognisestheirpreformednatureevenintheirveiledstate
ofmodification,buttheyalsopresupposeahighdegreeofinteractionbetweentheauthorandthereader,sothatthereadertrulyparticipatesintheliterarycreation
insteadofpassivelyreceivingwhattheauthorhasseenfittooffer.Perri(1978:299)speaksofthereader'activelyandcomprehensively'completingtheallusion's
unstatedsignificance.InWeisgerber's(1970:44)aptimage,'theauthordesignsthejigsawpuzzle,thereaderfitsitspiecestogether'.19Forthisreason,modified
allusionspresentaparticularchallengetotranslators,who,iftheyaretobeloyalalsototheTTreadership,mustensurethatTTreadershavesomethingtoworkwith.
SomeoftheempiricalresultsinChapter5willshowthatthisdoesnotalwayshappenautomatically,withoutgivingsomethoughttoappropriatestrategies.
TheRecognisabilityofAllusions
Anamemaysignalallusionbyitself(forexampleinthecaseofvocativeallusion,whereaddressingapersonasSherlockorFlorence20insteadofhis/herrealname
invitescomparisonwiththesource).Evenifthenameisunfamiliar,thereceiverislikelytoseetheallusiveintention,thoughs/hemaymissitspoint.Therecognitionofa
KPallusionasanallusion(thatis,registeringthepresenceofanallusionbutnotnecessarilyknowingitssource)maybemorestronglydependentonfamiliarity.The
preformedphrase'ringsabell'.Themusicalmetaphorisappropriateasmusic,too,maymakeuseofborrowedmaterialtoevokeechoesofanearliercomposition.
Psychologically,familiaritywithparticularphrasesisreinforcedbothbyrepetitionandbyexposureatanearlyage.Thusphrasesareaderhasheardrepeatedlysince
childhoodoughttobeamongthemosteasilyrecognisableonestothatindividualnationwide,thesamegoesforphrasesthataregenerallyrepeatedinthepresenceof
childrenandyoungpeople:instoriesreadtothem,inbookstheyreadathomeandatschool,inchurch(ifregularattendanceisthenorm),andinthesongstheylisten
toandthefilms

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andtelevisionprogrammestheywatch(thoughtheallusiongenerativepotentialofsuchmaterialmaynotalwaysbelonglived).Themorehomogeneousasocietyis,
themoreagreementtherewillbeonwhattextseverychildshouldbeexposedto,partlyinordertobuildupastoreofpreformedlinguisticmaterials/hecanexpectto
needtobefamiliarwiththroughouthis/herlife.ThegrowingdiversityofAmericancultureispartlythecauseofthedebateonculturalliteracyintheUnitedStates
(Armstrong,1988:29)oneofitsinitiators(Hirsch,1988),whileagreeingthatliterateculturemust'keepupwithhistoricalandtechnicalchange'andpressfor'greater
representationofwomenandminoritiesandofnonWesterncultures',neverthelessarguesthatculturalconservatismisvaluablebecauseitenablespeopleto
communicatewitheachotheroverbarriersofage,race,geography,politicalleaningsandclass(Hirsch,1988:xiixiii).Thesourcesthatprovedtobemostfruitfulof
allusionsinmymaterial(theBibleandShakespeare)notsurprisinglyreflectthisculturalconservatismandtheconsequencesofexposuretothesesourcesovermany
generationsintheEnglishspeakingworld.Absenceoffamiliaritywithtraditionalculturehasevenbeenseenaspartlyresponsiblefornationaleconomicdeclinedueto
lackofcommunicationskills(Hirsch,1988:5)hence'sharedliterateinformationisdeliberatelysustainedbynationalsystemsofeducationinmanycountriesbecause
theyrecognisetheimportanceofgivingtheirchildrenacommonbasisforcommunication'(p.14).
Thus,therecognitionofallusions,atleastatasuperficiallevel,isreinforcedbytheexposureofsectionsofthepopulation,inonewayoranother,toacommonstoreof
namesandphrasesrecallingsharedexperiences.Insomecountries(suchasBritain),muchofthepopulationhasbeenexposedatschooltoasolidcoreofliterature,
'whichevencomicsoftheBennyHillgenreexpecttobewellenoughknowntouseintheirshows'(Hatakka,1990:1).Nevertheless:
theremust...bemillionsofliterate,intelligentpeople...whohadneverreadJaneEyreorWutheringHeights,thoughitwasdifficulttoimaginesuchastateofculturaldeprivation.
(Lodge,1988:141)

Anindividualreadercanexpectfromtimetotimetomeetanechoevokingphraseinreadingorconversation.Thefamiliarityofsuchaphrasemaybeenhancedor,
ifthereisnofamiliarity,thephrasemaybesignalledbydeviationsinspelling,lexis,grammarorstyle(suchdeviationsservingtodistinguishtheallusionfromits
context).Additionally,attimes,theremaybeanintroductoryphrase,quotationmarksorsomeothersuch'extraallusive'device.
Thelengthofanallusionmaysometimesalsobeafactorhere:alineor

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twoof(perhapsevenrhyming)poetry,oranentiresentencewhichdepartsfromthecontextinanoticeablewaywillringabellmoreloudlythanaphrasereducedto
oneortwowordsthough,ascanbeseeninsomeoftheexamplesused,eventhebriefestKPcanfunctionadequatelyasanallusion.Thefollowingexamples
illustratethesetechniques.
AllusionsreferringtooldersourcesoftencontainlinguisticfeaturesthatarenolongercurrentincontemporaryEnglish.Orthographicalvariationinwrittenallusionsmaypreserve
14thcenturyspellings:Whathesaidwas,thatyouwereaveryparfitgentilknight(Haymon,1984:215)

andpoeticelision:
HehadthefurrowedlookofsomeonewhomtheAlmightyPowerhadjusthurledflamingfromth'etherealsky.(Moody,1985:116)

Lexicalsurprisesinvolvetheuseofrareandarchaicordialectalwords:
'Achiel'samongye,takingnotes,'saidWexford(Rendell,1981:178)

orwordswhichthereader'sknowledgeoftheworldrevealstohaveanonliteralsense:
'Idon'tknowthatwe'vegotanyfattedcalvesinthecupboard,butyoulookasifyououghttoeatsomething.Andyoucoulddowithabath.'(Bawden,1987:175)

Utteredbyacontemporaryfathertohisson,thementionoffattedcalvesonlymakessenseasabiblicalallusiontothestoryoftheprodigalson.
Differencesinwordorderandverbalinflexionstampthefollowingexamplewiththeunmistakableflavourofthe17thcentury:
'IsaidtoKathleenonlyyesterday,Blessedishethatsittethnotintheseatofthescornful.'(Rendell,1984:113)

ThedisappearanceofthesecondpersonsingularfromamongcontemporarystandardEnglishpronounsmakestheborrowedphraseinthefollowingexamplestand
outasanallusion:
'Ah,'Reedsaid.'Andheradvicetomewouldbe,gothouanddolikewise...'(Cross,1985:16)

Deviationsinstylemaybeevident,forinstance,intheuseofimagery.InthefollowingexampletheDonneallusiondepartsfromtheotherwiseunpoeticassurancesof
thehappinessofayoungcoupleandliftstheirlovetoahigherplane:

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[Emerald]stoodwithKendal,hisarmabouther.Theydidn'tmatch.Notatall.Yetyoucouldtelltheywouldn'tneedaremindercardaboutthetilldeathdou spartbit.
'Twincompasses,'Pennysaid.'Likegoldtoairythinnessbeat.'
'Huh?'
'Emeraldseemsveryhappy.'(Moody,1985:60)

Inthefollowing,thereisnostrikinggrammaticalorlexicaloddity,21yettherhythmrevealsthatthecharacterisspeakingpoetry:
'Perhapshejustparkedhereforabit,'Burdensaid.'Walkedupthiswayforwell,anaturalpurposeorjustbecauseheneededair...'
ButWexfordlookedattheviewandsaidpresently,'Whereeveryprospectpleases,andonlymanisvile.'(Rendell,1981:150)

Occasionally,too,anallusionmaybesignalledbyrhyme(inthisexamplealsobywordorder):
Thethreecopsinvestigatingthecaseknewverylittleabouthighlevelbusinesstransactionsinvolvingastronomicalfigures.Theyknewonlythattangledarethewebsweweave
whenfirstwepractisetodeceive,andtheyfurtherknewthatnobodyinvestsamillionbuckshopingmerelytobreakeven.(McBain,1984:1756)

Thelengthofanallusionhaslessimportanceasasignalthanmightbethought,mathematically.Anallusioncanbereducedtothebriefestphraseandstillevokethe
necessaryecho.TospeakoftiltingatwindmillsalwaysevokesDonQuixoteforthecompetentreaderanynonornithologicalmentionofanalbatrossislikelytobe
anallusiontoColeridge's'AncientMariner'.Butinbothoftheseinstances(aswithfattedcalvesabove),thelowfrequencyofthekeywordorcollocationhelps
reservethephrase,asitwere,forallusiveuse:albatrossesandpeopletiltingatwindmillsarenotpartofmostEnglishspeakers'experienceintheliteralsense(contrast
albatrosswithrobinorduck).OnlyNoaheverbuiltanark.
Thetendencyforallusionstosignaltheirallusivitybysomesortofcontrastexplainswhythoseallusionswhichareunremarkableinthewaysdiscussedinthissection
areeasilyoverlooked(Chapter6):
Shespokeseriously,withoutcontempt,hervoicegentleandlowanexcellentthinginwoman.But...(Dickinson,1985:147)

Allusionscanalsobesignalled,notbycontrastalonebutovertly,withtheuseofquotationmarksoranintroductoryphrasesuchas'theysay',tounderlinethe
preformednatureofthewords:

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Howdidthatbitgoabouttherebeingmorejoyinheavenoveronerepentantsinnerthanforninetyninelawabidingcitizens.(Haymon,1984:210)
Theysaythathellhathnofurylikeawomanscorned...(Cunningham,1987:122)

Thisrarelyoccurredinthecorpus,howevernodoubtbecauseallusionismoreeffectivewhenitisnotunderlinedinsuchways.
Thisdiscussionoftheformandtherecognisabilityofallusionsconcernsthetranslationproblemcentralinthisstudy,asawarenessofwhatformsanallusioncantake
andhowallusivenessissignalledispartofatranslator'ssourceculturalandreadingcompetence.Ifatranslatordoesnotrecogniseanallusion,s/hewillnotpauseto
considerwhichtranslationstrategieswouldbeappropriateforthatallusion.Thetranslatorsinterviewedforthisstudyallknewthatallusions'ringabell'insomeway
butfounditdifficulttobemorespecific.Theyalsothoughtthatnovicetranslatorsmighthavedifficultyspottingallusions.Thisassumptionwasconfirmedinmy
experimentswithstudentsofEnglish(Chapter6).
SourcesofAllusions
Thissectionwillgivesomeideaofwhattypesofsources(referents)atranslatorofcontemporaryEnglishSTscanexpecttomeetandhenceneedtobefamiliarwith.
Anoverviewofcommonsourcesofallusionswillindicatetherangeoftheculturalcompetencerequiredofatranslator.Whilesomeallusionsaretranscultural(shared
bybothsourceandtargetculture),manyothersareculturespecific,andcanonlybeunderstoodbypeoplesufficientlyfamiliarwiththecultureinquestion.Whilethe
broadcategoriesofsourcesareunlikelytodiffermuchfromoneselectionoftexts(ofthesamedateandgenre)toanother,adifferentselectionoftextswouldno
doubthaveproducedadifferentgroupofindividualallusionsfromthosesources.Thegeneralisationsofthissectionshouldbeseeninthislight.
ProperNameAllusions
Bothreallifeandfictionalfiguresmaybealludedtobyname.TheinternationalnamesofentertainersorpoliticianswhoarefamiliarontargetcultureTVscreensas
wellpresentnotranslationproblem.Thefamousnamesofpastgenerationstendtobethoseofleadersofmen,orofwritersandpainters:bothgeneralsandartists
havehadabetterthanaveragechancetomaketheirnamesmemorable.Therarewomanwholeadsmentowarisparticularlywellremembered:Fraser,inherstudy
ofWarrior

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Queens(1989),callsBoadicea,thefirstcenturyADQueenoftheIceniinBritain,'oneofthemostpowerfulfiguresinourhistoryintermsofpopular
imagination'(p.3),andstatesthat'itwouldbeararedaywhichdidnotproduceatleastone[allusion]toherintheBritishpress'(p.4)aclaimborneoutbyher
libraryresearch(p.337),andofcoursepartlyexplainedbytheassociationofBoadiceawithMargaretThatcher.Allusivereferencesinthecorpustorealplacesand
eventsaremostlyreferencestowarandpolitics:Hastings(1066),ValleyForge(177778),ElAlamein(1942).
BiblicalPNallusionstendtobenamesassociatedwithdramaticscenesandconfrontations,wherememorymaybeaidednotonlybywrittenpopularisationsbutalso
byvisualrepresentationsseenatanearlyageinbookillustrations,paintingsinmuseumsorfilms:forexampleDavidandGoliath,SamsonandDelilah.
Allusionstofiguresofmythandantiquityarelessnumeroustodaythansomecenturiesago,reflectingchangesinfashionsandeducation.Rissanen(1971:116ff)lists
classicalsourcesofShakespeare'simageryinMacbethandarguesthatShakespearewouldhardlyhaveusedsomanyhadhenotthoughtthatthemeaningofsuch
imageswouldbeunderstoodbymostofhisaudience.ThisnodoubtmeansmostofthelearnedpartoftheaudiencebutitispossibletolinkShakespeare'slanguage
withSchaar's(1991)ideaoffreeandlatentsemanticenergyandtospeculatethatonlythelearnedsectionsoftheaudiencereceivedtheclassicalimagesas
recognisableitemsworthreflection,whiletheenjoymentof'themixedandnoisycrowds'(Harrison1954:73)wasnotdependentonunderstandingthemeaningofthe
allusions.Rissanen(1971:116note2)listsninetypicalexamples,andpointsoutthat'mostoftheimagesderivedfromclassicalsourcesoccurinpassagesofdeep
emotion,oftenwithreferencetohorridandunnaturaldeeds'.
FewpresentdayspeakersofEnglishalludetofiguresofantiquityattimesofemotionalstress.FashionsinEnglishliteraturehavechanged:witnessColeridge's(1906)
recollectionthathisschoolmaster,JamesBowyer,rebukedhimasaboyformakingtoomuchuseoftheclassicalimagestheninfashion22advicewhichdidnot
preventthepoetfromusingsomeoftheseforbiddentermsinhismaturewriting.23AccordingtoHazlitt(1991:187),theFrenchrevolutionof1789hada
revolutionaryeffectonEnglishliterature:amongotherthings,aclassicalallusioncametobeconsideredasa'pieceofantiquatedfoppery'.Withthefurtherdecreasein
attentioninschoolstoclassicalmythsandliteratureinthiscenturytherehasalsobeenadecreaseintherelativesizeoftheaudiencewhoiscapableofreadily
understandingsuchallusions.Manyofthosethatarestillusedareused

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lessasallusionsthanasstandarditemsofvocabulary,thusreferencesforinstancetoHerculesorSisyphus.Again,itisthedramaticscenesthatarerememberedbest:
Midas,whosetouchturnedeverythingtogold,NerofiddlingwhileRomeburned,andsailorstryingtochoosewhethertosailclosertoScyllaorCharybdis.
ThelistofliterarycharactersalludedtointhecorpusmostlycontainscharactersintextsthatarewidelyreadandstudiedatschoolanduniversityinEnglishspeaking
countriesthereisobservablevariationbetweenBritishandAmericantextsinthattheallusionstoAmericanliteraturemostlyoccurinAmericantexts,nodoubt
becauseofdifferencesinschoolcurricula.NamesofcharactersinShakespeare(Ariel,Horatio,Ophelia)andDickens(Gradgrind,MissHavisham,LittleNell)are
frequent,buttherearealsoallusionstopopularculture:filmandtelevision(DixonofDockGreen,EducatingRitaandSheWhoMustBeObeyed).Children's
classicslikeAliceinWonderlandandthestoriesofPerraultandtheBrothersGrimmaretraditionalsourcesofallusions.Theyarecomplementedbymoremodem
material,suchascharactersincomicstrips(DennistheMenace,Popeye).Sometimes,again,itischildren'sfilmsratherthanbooksthatarebeingalludedtothisis
evident,forexample,fromthereferencetoaparticularsonginWaltDisney'sSnowWhiteandtheSevenDwarfs(1937)ortothechangefromblackandwhiteto
colourinthemiddleofthe1939filmversionofTheWizardofOz.
Titlesofbooks,songs,filmsandthelikeareusedincomparisons,sometimesmodified.
KeyPhraseAllusions
ItiscommonplacetosaythattheBibleisthesourceofcountlessallusionsinEnglish.Bradley(1957:219)statesthattheBiblehas'forcenturiesbeenthemostwidely
readandmostfrequentlyquotedofbooks'forspeakersofEnglish.TheBibleisofcoursecentraltotheculturesofmostWesternsocieties,butaccordingtoBradley,
'phrasesusedwithconsciousallusiontoScripturalincidents'aremuchmorecommoninEnglishthaninthelanguagesofpredominantlyCatholiccountries,'wherethe
Bibleisdirectlyfamiliaronlytothelearned'(p.223).InLutheranFinland,thelanguageoftheBibleiswellknownonlytotheminoritywhoarewhatiscalled'religious',
andwhilesomebiblicalphrasesareusedallusivelyinFinnish,thenumberofthoseinfrequentuseisnotparticularlyhigh.Bycontrast,
biblicalphraseslieembeddedinmanypagesofEnglishprosefromtheseventeenthcenturytothepresentday.Buttheyremainalwaysathingapartfromthemovementofthe
writer'sownprose.Heknows,andhis

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audienceknows,thatheiscitingScripture.Tobothreaderandwriterthewordsaresofamiliarthatquotationmarksareunnecessary.(Gordon,1966:101)

ItisthereforenosurprisethattheBibleisthemostcommonsinglesourceofkeyphraseallusionsinthecorpus.AllusionsweremoreoftentotheNewTestamentthan
theOld.Psalms(thepathsofrighteousness)andEcclesiastes(theraceisnottotheswift,northebattletothestrong)weretheOldTestamentbooksmostoften
quotedintheNew,Matthew(themeekshallinherittheearth)wasthemostcommonsource(butwherethesamewordingoccursinmorethanonebookofthe
Bible,Ihaveonlynotedthesourcegiveninstandardworksofreference).TheBookofCommonPrayer(inthemidstoflifeweareindeath)andvarioushymns
andreligioussongs(sheepmaysafelygraze)alsoprovidedsourcesforallusions.
KPallusionstofiguresofclassicalmythandliteratureseldomoccur.Inthiscorpusthereisonlytheoccasionalmentionofaknifehanging,orahuntressandthemoon.
OtherliterarysourcesofKPallusionsinthecorpuswouldformasmalldictionaryofquotations.Shakespeareofcourseheadsthelist(aftertheBible)intermsof
frequency(oh,mypropheticsoulthatwaymadnessliesthissceptredisleandmanymore).MostoftheallusionsaretothetextsofauthorswhowroteinEnglish
(exceptionsincludetranslationsofVillonandH.C.Andersen,andProust,untranslated).Nineteenthand20thcenturysourcesaremorecommonthanearlierones
(withtheexceptionofShakespeare).Allusionsto20thcenturymaterialaremoreoftentoprose(onlyconnect)thantopoetry(milestogobeforeIsleep).Few
allusionslaterthanShakespearewererepeatedinthecorpus,however,whichmakesgeneralisationdifficult.Nurseryrhymesandchildren'stalesarealsoalludedto
(threeblindmice,pumpkinsatmidnight).Thereareallusionstosongs,bothpopularsongs(Ineverpromisedyouarosegarden)andprestigiousandpatriotic
songs('Rule,Britannia','TheStarSpangledBanner').TheinfrequenthistoricalallusionsgobacktotheMiddleAges(todieofasurfeitoflampreys),takinginthe
secondworldwar(neverwassomuchowedbysomanytosofew),andspaceageexploration(onesmallstepforaman,agiantleapformankind).
Allusionstowellknownfilmsandtopicaltelevisionprogrammeswerenotnumerous,butsomemaywellhavebeenmissedinthecompilationofthecorpus.Among
slogans,somepoliticaloneswereinvogueatthetimethejournalistictextsofthecorpuswerewritten,thustherewererepeatedoccurrencesofreadmylipsand
kinder,gentleraswellasvariationsofLloydBentsen's1988remarktoDanQuayle:'Senator,youarenoJackKennedy.'Notallslogansweretopical,though
earlieroneswererememberedfrom

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the18thcentury(allmenarecreatedequal),thefirstandsecondworldwars(theyshallnotpasslooselipssinkships),the1950s(thefamilythatprays
togetherstaystogether)andsoon.
Commercialproductslogansareanothergroupofallusionseasilymissedbyacompilerwholivesabroad.Onlyafewwereperceivedinthecorpus(forexamplegoto
workonanegganacecaffwithquiteanicemuseumattached)butnoteNash's(1985:45)remarkonadvertisingslogansasthe'newwitobject',playingon
andrespondingtoothertextsofthesamegenre.
Variouscatchphrases,clichsandproverbs(oftenauthenticatedassuchbyinclusioninanthologies)arerecognisedaspreformedlinguisticmaterialinthepublic
domain,asitwere.Somecanbetracedbacktoaliterarysource:forinstancePartridge(1977:107)remarksonIwasn'tbornyesterday'I'mnotafool'thatitisto
befoundinthefirsthalfofthe19thcentury,inMarriott.Still,aprintedrecordneednotmeanthataphrasewascoinedbythatwriter,whomaywellhaveuseda
phrasealreadyincurrency.Manyphrasesenjoyalonglife:There'sgoldinthemtharhillsdatesbacktothe19thcenturygoldrushesintheUnitedStates,but
becamepopularinthe1930sand1940sthroughitsuseinfilmsabouttheWest(Rees,1989:93).AccordingtoPartridge(1977:219),itonlybecamefairlygeneralin
BritainaftertheSecondWorldWarandinthe1950s.OliverCromwell's(15991658)instructionstohisportraitisthavecomedowntousintheformofwartsand
all,foundasanidiomincontemporarydictionaries.
Variouspopularbeliefs,assumptionsandstoriesmaybealludedtoinmoreorlessspecificwording.Deathbyathousandcutsusedtobepopularlylinkedto
adventurestoriesfeaturingsinisterOrientalsitmaynowhaveafinancialapplication.Coathangersarelinkedtoabortionasa'grislysymbolofbackstreet
butchery'(Carlson,1989:32)prochoiceactivistsintheabortiondebatehavebroughtstacksofthemtodemonstrationsintheUnitedStates.Beadsforthenatives
referstothepracticeofearlyWesterntradersinAfricaandotherfarawayplacesoftradingworthlessgoodsforvaluablesintransactionswithlocalpeople.Itmaynow
haveanironicapplicationinlessmaterialcontexts.
Awriter'sownexperiencesmayfunctionassourcesofprivateallusions.Lodge(1985:280)hasaminorcharacterremarkinhissinglescene:'Peoplearesurprisingly
ignorantabouttwins.Why,Angelicagavemeanoveltoreadonce,thathadidenticaltwinsofdifferentsexes.Ididn'thavethepatiencetogoonwithit.'Thisreads
likeanallusiontoapassageinLodge's(1979:171)earlierworkwhereasisterandbrotherareindeeddescribedasidenticaltwins.Suchaprivateallusiontoaprinted
textisrecognisablebya

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readerwhohappenstoreadthetextsinquicksuccession,buttherearealsoallusionstoexperiencesthatdonotgetintoprint.Areferenceto'apolicemanbehind
everybush'(Weldon,1988:239)issuchaprivateallusiontoFayWeldon'sbeingstoppedbyatrafficpolicemaninthemiddleofadesert.24
ThischapterhasfocusedonallusionsinSTs,wheretheirfunctiononthemacroormicrolevelcannotbedeterminedwithoutafairlyclearideaoftheconnotationsof
thenameorphraseused.Optimally,aculturallycompetenttranslatorwillrecogniseallusions,inwhicheverformtheyoccur,andbefamiliarbothwiththeirsourcesand
withtheconnotationstheyhaveforthosecontemporarynativespeakerswhoarecompetentreaders(ofthattypeoftext)inordertoanalysethetextinwhichthe
allusionoccurs.Recognitionandanalysisareaprerequisiteforaconsciousconsiderationoftranslationstrategiesforallusions.Thischapterhaspresentedthechallenge
tothetranslatoratsomelengthChapter4willaddressthechoiceoftranslationstrategies.
ThesourcesoftheallusionsinChapter3
lovely,darkanddeep:RobertFrost,'StoppingbyWoodsonaSnowyEvening'.
Thougheveryprospectpleases,/Andonlymanisvile:ReginaldHeber,ahymn.
themadwomanintheattic:CharlotteBront,JaneEyre(thefirstMrsRochester).
Ain'tIawoman?askedbySojournerTruth,anearlyAmericanfeminist,atawomen'srightsconventionin1851(Tanner,1971).
Oh!witheredisthegarlandofwar!/Thesoldier'spoleisfallen:AntonyandCleopatra,ActIV,Scene15.
andthePhilistinesslewJonathan:1Samuel31:2.
Howarethemightyfallenandtheweaponsofwarperished!2Samuel1:27.
AdamandEvebeingejectedfromtheGarden:Gen.3:23.
swiftorstrong:Eccl.9:11.
SirLancelot:oneoftheknightsoftheRoundTableofArthurianromance.
(SouthernTreesBear)StrangeFruit:sungbyBillieHolliday(1939andlaterrecordings).
NevilleChamberlain:formerprimeministerofBritain(18691940).
Munich1938:Chamberlain'smeetingwithHitlerinMunichisrememberedasanexampleofmisguidedappeasement('Peaceinourtime').
fallingonbarrenground:Matt.13:56.
Ifgoldrusts,whatshallirondo?Chaucer,TheCanterburyTales,'Prologue',line500.
Rudeforefathers:ThomasGray,'ElegyWritteninaCountryChurchYard'(1751).
StokePoges:whereGray'scountrychurchyardwas.
Nocowardsoulismine:EmilyBront,'LastLines'.

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RichardNixon/Checkers/adog:Nixon'sdefensivesocalledCheckersspeechontelevisionendedwiththeappearanceoftheNixons'dog,Checkers.
ValleyForge:GeorgeWashingtonandhisarmyspentalong,hardwinteratValleyForgein177778.
Readmylips.Nonewtaxes:oneofGeorgeBush'ssoundbitesduringthe1988presidentialcampaign.
kinder,gentler:Bushcalledforakinder,gentlerAmericainoneofhisspeechesin1988.
I'mnotacrook:fromatelevisedspeechbyRichardNixonduringtheWatergateaffair.
Thevoiceoftheturtleisheardintheland:SongofSol2:12.
Thatthere'ssomecornerofaforeignfield/ThatisforeverEngland:RupertBrooke,'TheSoldier'.
SteveCarella:adetectiveinEdMcBain'scrimenovelsaboutpoliceworkinafictionalprecinct.
TarzanoftheApes:themaincharacterofaseriesofadventurestoriesbyEdgarRiceBurroughs.
SirGawain,SirGalahad,SirLancelot:knightsoftheRoundTableinArthurianromance.
SamSpade:DashielHammett'sfictionaldetective(in,forexample,TheMalteseFalcon).
TheFairyQueen:EdmundSpenser,TheFaerieQueene.Notetheslangmeaningsoffairyandqueen'homosexual'.
Here'slookingatyou,kid:alinespokenbyHumphreyBogart('Bogie')inthefilmCasablanca(1942).
Martha/chosenthebetterpart:Cf.MaryhathchosenthatgoodpartLuke10:42.
Buttobeyoungwasveryheaven:Wordsworth,'ThePrelude'.
weoweacocktoAesculapius:saidtohavebeenSocrates'lastwords.
Thegrave'safineandprivateplace,/Butnone,Ithink,dothereembrace:AndrewMarvell,'ToHisCoyMistress'.
turnintopumpkinsatmidnight:anallusiontothefairytaleCinderella.
theDunmowflitch:asideofhoggiventraditionallyinDunmowtoanycouplewhohadlivedinconjugalharmonyforayearandaday(CODs.v.flitch).
askingforbreadandbeinggivenastone:Matt.7:9.
theRedQueen:acharacterinLewisCarroll'sThroughtheLookingGlass.
Eternalvigilanceisthepriceofliberty:EiselandReddig(1981:49)attributethistoBarryGoldwater.Boller&George(1989:56)notethatitisoftenfalsely
attributedtoThomasJefferson,butdonotgiveanalternativesource.Cf.'TheconditionuponwhichGodhathgivenlibertytomaniseternalvigilance'(JohnPhilpott
Curranin1790)(PDQ129).
Letuspossessoneworld,eachhathone,andisone:JohnDonne,'TheGoodMorrow'.
Separatebutequal:arulingdatingbacktothethecasePlessyv.FergusonintheUnitedStatesSupremeCourt,whichdecidedtoupholdsegregationinpublic
transportprovidedthattheseparateaccommodationwasequal.Thesameprinciplewas

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approvedforAmericanpublicschoolsaswell,andwasnotdeclaredunconstitutionaluntilthefederalrightsactof1964(EncyclopediaAmericana20:70,247
24:52327:745g).
PittiSing:acharacterinGilbertandSullivan'smusicalcomedyTheMikado.
IrishEyesareSmiling:asong.
BeautyandtheBeast:afairytale.
themostunkindestcutofall:Shakespeare,JuliusCaesar,ActIII,Scene2.
atonefellswoop:Macbeth,ActIV,Scene3.
What!Allmyprettychickensandtheirdam:Macbeth,ActIV,Scene3.
risefromtheashes:themythicalcreaturethephoenixisthoughttoburnandrisefromitsownashes.
seek,andyeshallfind:Matt.7:7.
forgiveusourdebts:Matt.6:12.
out,damnspot:Macbeth,ActV,Scene1.
ATaleofTwoCities:anovelbyCharlesDickens.
Oh,bravenewworld:originallyTheTempest,SceneV,Act1,butusuallynowevokesAldousHuxley'snovel(1932).
Theonlysurethingaboutluckisthatitwillchange:attributedtoBretHarteinPocketTreasury(1988:35).
Nothingsucceedslikesuccess:proverb(PDP228).
Fearofdeathisworsethandeathitself:proverb(PDP39).
Awomanhastobetwiceasgoodasamantogohalfasfar:attributedtoFannieHurstinSpiegelmanandSchneider(1973:72).
Everydecisionyoumakeisamistake:attributedtoEdwardDahlberginSpiegelmanandSchneider(1973:93).
Unitedwestand,dividedwefall:proverb(PDP198).
Bloodisthickerthanwater:proverb(PDP200).
shipsthatpassinthenight:Longfellow,TalesofaWaysideInn,'TheTheologian'sTale'.
everything'sfairinloveandwar:proverb(ODP36).
youcanleadahorsetothewater,butyoucan'tmakehimdrink:proverb(PDP258)
wastenot,wantnot:proverb(PDP237).
SamSpade:DashielHammett'sfictionaldetective(in,forexample,TheMalteseFalcon).
porlock:apersonfromPorlockissaidtohaveinterruptedColeridgeashewaswriting'KublaKhan'.
thesear,theyellowleaf:Macbeth,ActV,Scene3.
Cheshire:theCheshireCatinLewisCarroll'sAliceinWonderland.
averyparfitgentilknight:Chaucer,TheCanterburyTales,Prologue.
thisscepter'disle:Shakespeare,RichardII,ActII,Scene1.
therearemorethingsinheavenandearth,Horatio,thanaredreamtofinyourphilosophy:

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Hamlet,ActI,Scene5.
Stabledoors:theproverb'It'stoolatetoshutthestabledoorafterthehorsehasbolted'(PDP198).
Itwasthebestoftimes,itwastheworstoftimes:Dickens,ATaleofTwoCities.
Onassis:aGreekshipbuilderandmillionaire(1906?1975)(PCE).
Rockefeller:aAmericanfamilyofmillionaires.
MarshalDillon:themaincharacterofthefilmDodgeCity(1939).
theRubicon:therivercrossedbyJuliusCaesarindefianceoftheordersoftheSenate('Aleaiactaest').
Oz:seep.11.
Cassandra:daughterofKingPriamofTroy.Shehadthegiftofprophecy,butnoonewouldbelieveherprophecies.
Nelson:HoratioNelsonwasfamousforhisindifferencetodanger.
MauriceChevalier:Frenchsinger(18881972).
AnneFrank:youngJewishgirlwhodiedinaconcentrationcampandleftadiary.
DarthVader:anominouscharacterinthefilmStarWars.
Maigret,SherlockHolmes,Poirot:fictionaldetectives.
NancyDrew:maincharacterinaseriesofmysterystoriesforgirlsbyCarolynKeene.
SarahBernhardt:famousFrenchactress(18441923).
Pollyanna:themaincharacterinaseriesofbooksforgirlsbyEleanorH.Portershealwaystriestolookonthebrightside.
eyelessinGaza:Milton,SamsonAgonistes.
tooutHerodHerod:Hamlet,ActIII,Scene2.
OLiberty,whatcrimesarecommittedinthyname:cryofMadameRolandatthetimeoftheFrenchRevolution.
daysofwineandroses:ErnestDowson,'VitaeSummaBrevis'.
astorminateacup:'greatexcitementoversmallmatter'(COD).
onesmallstepforaman,onegiantleapformankind:saidbyNeilArmstrongwhensteppingontothemoonin1969.
perfectlovecastethoutfear:1John4:18.
IhavemarriedawifeandthereforeIcannotcome:Luke14:20.
amanworksfromsuntosun,awoman'sworkisneverdone:proverb(ODP32).
menseldommakepassesatgirlswhowearglasses:attributedtoDorothyParker(TDQ21).
wherearethesnowsofyesteryear?AtranslationofVillon'slineOsontlesneigesd'antan?byDanteGabrielRossetti.
inthegraveyards,everyone:alinefromPeteSeeger'ssong'WhereHaveAlltheFlowersGone?'
standingamidthealiencorn:InKeats'poem'OdetoaNightingale',[Ruth]'stoodintearsamidthealiencorn'.

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tenderistheknight:Cf.F.ScottFitzgerald,TenderistheNight.
Faust/Mephistopheles:cf.thefastlane(intraffic,ormetaphorically).Faust(us)soldhissoultothedevil(Mephistopheles)inexchangefor'youth,knowledge,and
magicalpower'(PCE284).
Wiganpeer:peer'equal'.Cf.Orwell,TheRoadtoWiganPier(1937).
beautyisintheeyeofthebeholder:attributedtobothMargaretWolfeHungerford,c.185597,andLewWallace,18271905(TDQ31).
bitingthehandthatfeedsyou:EdmundBurke,inThoughtsandDetailsofScarcity,wrote:'...theywillturnandbitethehandthatfedthem'(PDQ81).
flamingfromth'etherealsky:Milton,ParadiseLost,BookI.
achiel'samongye,takingnotes:RobertBurns,'OnCaptainGrose'sPeregrinations'.
fattedcalves:Luke15:1132.
blessedishethatsittethnotintheseatofthescornful:Psalms1:1.
gothouanddolikewise:Luke10:37.
twincompasses/likegoldtoairythinnessbeat:JohnDonne,'AValediction:forbiddingmourning'.
Thougheveryprospectpleases/Andonlymanisvile:seep.71.
tangledarethewebsweweave/Whenfirstwepractisetodeceive:SirWalterScott,Marmion.('Ohwhatatangledwebweweave/Whenfirstwepractiseto
deceive')
hervoicewaseversoft,/Gentleandlow,anexcellentthinginwoman:KingLear,ActV,Scene3.
morejoyinheaven:cf.Mark15:7.
hellhathnofurylikeawomanscorned:Cf.Congreve,TheMourningBride.
Hastings,ElAlamein:greatbattles.
DixonofDockGreen:BBCtelevisionserial,19551976.
EducatingRita:filmbydirectorLewisGilbert,1983.
SheWhoMustBeObeyed:BestknownthroughtheRumpoleoftheBaileyseriesbyJohnMortimer.ThephrasewasoriginallyanallusiontoH.RiderHaggard's
novelShethecharacterRumpoleuseditofhis'formidablewife',anditwasalsoappliedtoMargaretThatcher(Rees,1989:185).
aknifehanging:theswordofDamocles.
ahuntressandthemoon:Artemis/Diana.
Oh,mypropheticsoul:Hamlet,ActI,Scene5.
Thatwaymadnesslies:KingLear,ActIII,Scene5.
thisscepter'disle:RichardII,ActII,Scene1.
onlyconnect:E.M.Forster,HowardsEnd.
milestogobeforeIsleep:RobertFrost,'StoppingByWoodsonaSnowyEvening'.
todieofasurfeitoflampreys:HenryI(10681135)issaidtohavediedofthis(Williamson,1991:48).
neverwassomuchowedbysomanytosofew:WinstonChurchillabouttheBattleofBritain(1940).

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allmenarecreatedequal:ThomasJeffersonintheAmericanDeclarationofIndependence.
theyshallnotpass:probablyGeneralR.G.Nivelle'sorderofthedayinJune1916(TDQ92:13).ItisoftenalsoattributedtoMarshalPtain(18561951)andto
DoloresIbarruri,knownas'LaPasionaria'(18951989)thelatterbecauseinitsSpanishformnopasarnitbecameaRepublicansloganoftheSpanishcivilwar
(193639).
looselipssinkships:awarningagainstcarelessspeechinthepossiblepresenceofspies.
thefamilythatpraystogetherstaystogether:thissloganofthecampaignofMcCallsmagazineforfamilytogetherness(1954)hasgivenrisetomodificationsfor
severaldecades.
gotoworkonanegg:asloganinventedbyFayWeldonfortheBritishEggMarketingBoard'scampaigntosellmoreeggs(DMQ10Davison,1989:46).
anacecaffwithquiteanicemuseumattached:televisioncommercialandposteradvertisementfortheVictoriaandAlbertMuseuminLondon(Simon,1989:36).
Notes
1.Ontheprecedingpageinhertext,Weldonhasusedthewords'therichesoftheyears',thusalludingtoFrancisThompson,'TheHoundofHeaven'.
2.Ruskin,however,inrealitydirectedhisattackatanotherofWhistler'spaintings,'NocturneinBlackandGold:TheFallingRocket'(1877)(Encyclopaedia
Britannica19:815).
3.'Wingslikebitsofumbrella./Bats!/Creaturesthathangthemselvesuplikeanoldrag,tosleep...'(Lawrence,1957).
4.ExamplesofWilss'saggressiveallusions(1989:68):JohannesderTuscher,usedofaGermanpoliticianwiththefirstnameofJohann(cf.JohannesderTufer
'JohntheBaptist'Tuscher'traitor')Doping,Dopingiiberalles(titleofanarticleonsports).Arecent(1995)BritishexampleisRapidReactionFarce(for'Force')
inconnectionwiththewarinBosnia.
5.ThewordinginMatthew(theKingJamesversion)asgivenintheBibleeditionusedinthisstudyisactuallytheythattaketheswordshallperishwiththesword.
6.ThoughsomestudentshavetoldmeofamusicvideocontainingimagesofakingandtheseawhichisapparentlybasedonthestoryofCanute.
7.ThesereferencesappeartopaynoattentiontothedifferencesbetweenthecharactersofthevariousArthurianknights.ItislikelythatParker'sAmericangeneral
readerstodayarenotaucourantwiththedistinctions.
8.AtermsuggestedtomebyAndrewChesterman.
9.Wordsworth(17701850)usedthephrasewithreferencetotheearlyyearsoftheFrenchRevolution.
10.Inthisparticularcontext,however,therespondingcharacterhasnotbeenacceptedasamemberoftheingroup,thoughhewouldliketobe.Emphasisonall
original.
11.Forexample:'USfirmputsasmileinIrishworkers'eyes'(Fernand,1988)and'SmilingIrishEyes:Mulroney...winsaresoundingvictory'(Russell,1988).
12.ForexamplePiinklichkeitistdieHflichkeitderKnige,aberauchdieDiebekommenseltenzuspt.'Punctualityisthepolitenessofkings,butthievesdo
notoftencomelate,either.'

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13.Cf.aFinnishexample:theNewYear'sspeechgivenbytheprimeminister(notthepresident,thusbreakinga60yearoldtradition)ofFinlandin1993endedwith
aproverbcorrespondingtotheEnglishonewhichsays'Thedarkesthourcomesbeforethedawn'.Suchuseofaproverbwascommentedonunfavourablyinthe
Finnishpress,whereitwasseenasatoopredictableandnonindividualwayofendingaspeech.
14.SomeofNewmark's'culturalmetaphors'(1988:10612)wouldfitamongtheexamplesdiscussed.
15.Asin:'Doyoumind?''No,nowthatyou'veporlockedmealready...'(Seth,1993:1099)(ThepoetColeridgewasinterruptedby'apersonfromPorlock'when
writinghis'KublaKhan'.)
16.Thecitedlinesoccuratthebeginningofthenovel.Therearefurtherlinksbetweenthealludingtextandtheevokedtext,forexampletheepigraphonthetitlepage
andthechapterheadingscomefromATaleofTwoCities,aswellasotherallusionsandreferences.
17.IowethisremarktoSusanBassnett(personalcommunication,1993).
18.ThisexampleisinventedIyer's(whichfollows)isauthentic.
19.Bothofthesewritersdiscussliteraryallusiongenerally,butwhattheysayisparticularlytrueofmodifiedallusions.
20.ForFlorenceNightingale,asinMoody(1985:187).
21.True,thewordprospectintheallusiondoesnothaveitscommoncontemporarymeaningof'visionofthefuture,expectation',butmeans'viewoflandscape'.
22.'Lute,harp,andlyre,Muse,Muses,andinspirations,Pegasus,Parnassus,andHippocremewereallanabominationtohim.InfancyIcanalmosthearhim
now,exclaiming''Harp?Harp?Lyre?Penandink,boy,youmean!Muse,boy,muse?Yournurse'sdaughter,youmean!Pierianspring?Ohaye,thecloisterpump,I
suppose!"'(Coleridge,1906:4emphasisintheoriginal)
23.Cf.forexample'...these"paintedmists"thatoccasionallyrisefromthemarshesatthefootofParnassus'(Coleridge,1906:9)'ourlanguagemightbecompared
tothewildernessofvocalreeds,fromwhichthefavouritesonlyofPanorApollocouldconstructeventherudesyrinx'(p.20)'hewhoservesatthealtarofthe
Muses'(p.24).
24.Weldon,personalinterview,Espoo,Finland,17March1989.

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4
ProblemSolving:
TheoryandPractice
Eventually,acompetentandresponsibletranslator,afternoticinganallusioninapassageoftheSTandafteranalysingitsfunctioninthemicroandmacrocontext,must
decidehowtodealwithit.Whetherornottheallusionisperceivedasanactualproblem,oneofanumberofpossiblestrategiesisgoingtobeapplied.Inthischapter
attentionisfocusedontheproblemsolvingaspectoftranslatorialbehaviour.
Tobeginwith,wewillconsidertherangeofpotentialstrategiesfortranslatingallusions.Then,questionsoftranslationpracticewillbeaddressed:firstassixFinnish
translatorsareinvitedtodiscusstheirworkandtheirprinciplesandthenassomeoftheirworkisexaminedtoseewhatstrategiestheyactuallychoseforallusions.
Thisleadstoadiscussionofpossiblereasonsforthedecisionstaken.Aseparatesectionillustratesproblemsolvinginpracticetheexamplesusedmayalsoprovide
materialforateacheroftranslationwishingtodiscussthetranslationofallusionsintheclassroom.Allinall,theargumentinthischapteristhatconsideringawiderange
ofstrategiesismorelikelytoleadtosuccessfultranslationsthanroutineuseofonestrategyonly.
PotentialStrategiesforAllusions
Adistinctionhasbeenmadeearlier(Chapter1)betweenpropername(PN)allusionsandkeyphrase(KP)allusions.Potentialtranslationstrategiesforthesetwo
groupsaresomewhatdifferent.ThisisbecauseitisoftenpossibletoretainaPNunchanged,whileaKPasarulerequiresachangeinwording:Pollyannagoesin
bothEnglishandFinnish,butvanityofvanities(Eccl.1:2)needstobechanged,forexample,toturhuuksienturhuus.Also,inthecaseofunfamiliarKPallusions,
thereiscommonlynosinglestandardtranslation1 foraKP.
ThetranslationstrategiesforPNsarebasically:
tokeepthenameunaltered,

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tochangeit,
toomitit.
ThesebasicstrategiesforthetranslationofallusivePNshavethefollowingvariations:
(1)Retentionofname(eitherunchangedorinitsconventionalTLform,seelater)withthreesubcategories:
(1a)usethenameassuch
(1b)usethename,addingsomeguidance(seelater)
(1c)usethename,addingadetailedexplanation,forexampleafootnote.
(2)Replacementofnamebyanother(beyondthechangesrequiredbyconvention)withtwosubcategories:
(2a)replacethenamebyanotherSLname
(2b)replacethenamebyaTLname.
(3)Omissionofnamewithtwosubcategories:
(3a)omitthenamebuttransferthesensebyothermeans,forexamplebyacommonnoun
(3b)omitthenameandtheallusionaltogether.
RegardingtheconventionalTLformsorrequiredchangesofPNs(asinstrategies1and2),Newmark(1988:214)remarksthatwhilepersonalnamesarenormally
retainedunalteredthereareanumberofwellknowntypesofexceptionstothisrule.Changesarerequired,forinstance,forthenamesofrulers,manybiblical,
classicalandliterarypersons,etc.ThechangesfromCharlesIItoFinnishKaarleII,fromJohnPaultoJohannesPaavali,fromAdamandEvetoAatamija
Eeva,fromPlatotoPlaton,fromCinderellatoTuhkimoandsoonarerequiredchangeswhereacompetenttranslatorusuallyhasnoalternative.Thesamegoesfor
certainplacenames(Newmark,1988:35),likeFlorence/Firenze,andmanynamesofbooks,filmsetc.whichhavetheir'official',sometimesverydifferenttranslated
forms.ForinstanceJaneEyreisknowninFinnishasKotiopettajattarenromaani'TheGoverness'sNovel'andHowardsEndasTalojalavanvarjossa'The
HouseintheShadowoftheElm'.
Tothequestionwhystrategiesotherthan(la)shouldevenneedtobeconsidered,wemayanswerthatwhileinintraculturalcommunication(1a)wouldnodoubt
suffice,thedemandsofinterculturaltransferaresuchthatitisoftennotanoptimalstrategyforeveryname.Thetranslationofallusionsinvolvesnotjustnamesassuch,
butmostimportantly,theproblemoftransferringconnotationsevokedbyanameinonelanguagecultureinto

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another,wheretheseconnotationsaremuchweakerornonexistent.Thefamiliarityorlackofitofanameforreceiversinthetargetcultureisthereforeafactorofvital
importanceindecisionmaking.TheempiricaldatainChapter5willbepresentedinsupportofmyargumentthatresponsibletranslatorsneedtobeawareofand
preparedtousethewholerangeofstrategieswhereappropriatebutsomeobservationsonthequestionoffamiliarityarefirstinorderhere.
AsthisstudyinvolvestranslationbetweentwoWesternlanguagecultureswithonlyrelativelyrecentbilateralcontactsofanygreatfrequency,thefamiliarityofallusive
namescouldberoughlyillustratedasinFigure1:

Figure1
TheoverlapofallusivenamesinEnglishandFinnish

ThisfigureisintendedtoshowthatbothEnglishandFinnishhaveanumberoffamiliarnameswhichhaveallusivepotentialinthatlanguagecultureFinnish,withamuch
shorterhistoryofwrittendocumentsandliterature,nodoubthasacomparativelysmallernumber.Tosomeextentthesenamesoverlap.Thelargertrianglecontains
mostlyEnglishspecificnames(forexampleJohnDonne,BenedictArnold,MrRochester,theWhiteRabbit)thesmalleroneFinnishspecificnames(forexample
KoskelanAkseli,SeunalanAnna,KallePtalo,PertsaandKilu).2 Thetinytrianglewherethetwolargeronesoverlapcontainsnamesthatareknowninany
Westernculture(thoughfrequentlyinsomewhatdifferingforms,with'required'changesortranslations).Suchnamesmaybebiblical(JohntheBaptist/Johannes
Kastaja)orclassicalnames(HelenofTroy/TroijanHelena),ornamesknownthroughotherliterature,themedia,andvariousphenomenaofpopularculture:Romeo
andJuliet/RomeojaJulia,UncleTom/Tuomoset,

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WinniethePooh/NallePuh,theBeatles/Beatlesit,StarWars/Thtiensota,Madonna.
Thereis,tomyknowledge,nodataavailableonhowfamiliarthenamesinEnglishlanguagetextsareforreadersinothercultures.Asmallscaleexperimentconducted
forthisstudyin1991testedthefamiliarityofafewnamesforagroupof51Finnishuniversitystudentsandteachers.Asfamiliarityappearstobeanimportantcriterion
forthechoiceofanappropriatestrategy,theresultsoftheexperimentarepresentedhere.3
Thenames,allusedallusivelyinthecorpus,werechosentoprovidevarietyinsources,butofcourseverydifferentselectionscouldhavebeenmade:Agag(biblical
name),Boadicea(Boudicca)(Britishhistoricalname),DaisyBuchanan(Americanliteraryname),ThomasGradgrind(Britishliteraryname),CarryNation
(Americanhistoricalname),Pollyanna(children'sliterature),NeroWolfe(crimefiction),thegeeseoftheCapitol(classicalphrasecontaininganame).Itwas
assumedthatonlyPollyannaandNeroWolfewouldbefamiliartoasizablesectionoftherespondentstranslationsofthefirsthavingbeenpopularreadingamong
youngFinns,especiallygirls,fordecades,andthesecondsupportedbyaserialseenonFinnishtelevision.Thisassumptionwasverified.
Scoreswerecalculatedasfollows:
Threepointsforafullrecognition(forexample:Pollyanna='alwaystriedtobehappy,lookedforthebrightsideagainstallodds(children'sbook)'.4 (Eachexample
ofanswersgivenismytranslationofanidentificationgiveninFinnishbyarespondentinthetest.)
Twopointsforananswershowingsomerecognitionbutlackingsomeessentialingredient(forinstance:Pollyanna='littlegirlinthecareofastrictaunt').5
Onepointforanevenvaguerormoreincompleteanswer(forinstance:Pollyanna='girlinchildren'sbook').
Nopointsforanincorrectidentification(forinstance:Pollyanna='parrot').
Forthescoresforeachname,seeTable1.TheoveralldistributionofscoresispresentedinTable2.
ThehigherscoreswereasaruleachievedbythosestudentsorteacherswhoworkedwiththeEnglishlanguage.6 Incontrast,allbutoneofthezeroswerescoredby
thosewhodidnotworkwithEnglish.ThisindicatesthatgeneralFinnishreaderswouldprobablyscoreonthelowside.Theaveragescoreinthetestwas3.6points
forthoseworkingwithEnglishand2.6pointsforthosewhodidnot.Thiswouldroughlytranslateasageneral

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Table1FamiliarityofEnglishlanguagenamesfor51Finnishrespondents.(Sumsofpoints
scoredbyeachname.)
Name

Totalnumberofpoints

Agag

Boadicea(Boudicca)

16

DaisyBuchanan

ThomasGradgrind

CarryNation

Pollyanna

45

NeroWolfe

55

thegeeseoftheCapitol

Table2Distributionofscoresamongtherespondents
Scores(Sumsof

Numberofrespondents

pointsscoredbyeach

withthatscore

respondent)

16

10

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readerrecognisingoneofthenames,andthetranslators(tobe)withEnglishasoneoftheirworkinglanguagesbeingfairlyfamiliarwithtwo.(ButseeChapter5fora
discussionofproblemswithreaderresponsetests.)
Thetest,smallasitis,wouldseemtosupportmyviewthattranslatorsneedtoassumethatEnglishspecificnamesinSTsmaywellbeunfamiliartoTTreaders.This
hasobviousimplicationsforthechoiceoftranslationstrategies.Despitethelackofstatisticaldataonthematter,thedegreeoffamiliarityisonecriterioninassessing
theusefulnessofalternativestrategiesforallusions,anditwillbemadeuseoflater.ItisalsoofimportanceforthetranslationofKPallusions.
ThereisnocriterioncomparabletothetreatmentofaPNforthetranslationofKPs.The'retention'(literally)ofaKPmakesnosenseasacriterionasKPsare
extremelyseldomretaineduntranslated.Noristhereinmostcasesasinglestandardtranslation(seeNote1)available,theuseofwhichcouldbelabelledaretentive
strategyrather,KPscanmostlybetranslatedinavarietyofwaysduetosynonyms,variationsofwordorder,etc.StandardtranslationsforKPsexistonlyinthecase
oftransculturalallusions:bravenewworld/uljasuusimaailma.Theseare,however,inaminority.
ThereforethelistofstrategiesforthetranslationofKPallusionscannotbeidenticalwiththePNstrategieslistthoughthegeneralapproachissimilar.Aretentive
strategywithregardtoKPscanmeaneitherastandardtranslationoraminimumchange(seethedefinitionlater)thefirstconcernstransculturalallusions,whileinthe
secondtheallusivenessdisappears,sothatwhatisretainedisthesurfacemeaningonly.Theeffectofthelatterissodifferentfromthatofastandardtranslationthatthe
twocannotproperlybeseenasonestrategy.Forthesakeofclarity,then,adistinctionismadeherebetweenuseofastandardtranslation,whererecognitioncanbe
expectedofacompetentreader(gothouanddolikewise/menejateesinsamoin)(Luke10:37)andminimumchange,whererecognitionisunlikely,andpossible
onlythroughbacktranslationintotheSL(thatnotimpossibleshe/tuoeimahdotonhn).7 InthelattercaserecognitioncanbeachievedonlybythoseTTreaders
whoarebothbilingualandbicultural,whiletheeffectformanygeneralreadersmaywellbeaculturebump.
AsthePNandKPlistsofstrategiesdonotquitematcheachotherbecauseofthisintrinsicdifference,theyarelabelleddifferentlybelow,evenwheresomeofthe
strategiesareidentical.However,inmoregeneraldiscussionofstrategiesinthisandthenextchapter,wherenodistinctionismadebetweenPNsandKPs,theterm
minimumchangeissometimesusedasasynonymforliteraltranslation,torefertobothminimumchangeofKP

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andretentionofPNassuch.
ThepotentialstrategiesforKPallusions,then,areasfollows.
A

useofastandardtranslation

minimumchange,thatis,aliteraltranslation,withoutregardtoconnotativeorcontextualmeaningthere
isthusnochangethatwouldaimspecificallyatthetransferofconnotations

extraallusiveguidanceaddedinthetext,wherethetranslatorfollowshis/herassessmentoftheneedsof
TTreadersbyaddinginformation(onsourcesetc.)whichtheauthor,withhis/herSLviewpoint,didnot
thinknecessaryincludingtheuseoftypographicalmeanstosignalthatthematerialispreformed

theuseoffootnotes,endnotes,translator'sprefacesandotherexplicitexplanationsnotslippedintothe
textbutovertlygivenasadditionalinformation

simulatedfamiliarityorinternalmarking,thatis,theadditionofintraallusiveallusionsignallingfeatures
(markedwordingorsyntax)thatdepartfromthestyleofthecontext,thussignallingthepresenceof
borrowedwords

replacementbyapreformedTLitem8

reductionoftheallusiontosensebyrephrasal,inotherwords,makingitsmeaningovertanddispensing
withtheallusiveKPitself

recreation,usingafusionoftechniques:creativeconstructionofapassagewhichhintsatthe
connotationsoftheallusionorotherspecialeffectscreatedbyit

omissionoftheallusion.

Additionally,therearetwoseldomusedpossibilities:oneisthethrowingupofone'shandsindesperation,statingthatthereareallusivemeaningsinvolvedwhichare
beyondtranslation(withnoattempttoexplainwhattheyare).ThishasoccasionallybeenseeninFinnishtelevisionsubtitles,forinstancewhenthecomedyshow
BennyHill,whichreliesonmanytypesofwordplayandplayonallusions,defeatsthetranslator,whocannot,however,resorttosimplesilenceastheactorsgoon
talking.Thisstrategyisomittedfromthelistbecauseitcanhardlybeusedinthetranslationsofbooksornewspaperarticles.Thesecondisleavingtheallusion
untranslated,thatis,leavingSLwordsintheTT.ThereisanexampleofthisrarestrategyinoneofthepublishedTTsonp.101.
Afurthercommentmaybeinorderhere.IclaimthatthetranslatorfromEnglishintoFinnishmostlycannotcountonKPallusionsbeingfamiliarbutintheabsenceof
statisticallyreliabledataonwhatpercentageofFinnishreadersarefamiliarwithparticularallusions,allfurtherdiscussionon

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familiarityisboundtobeimpressionisticratherthanexact.However,myexperimentsintheclassroom(seeChapter6)indicatethatallusionsofthetypediscussedin
thisstudyoftencannotevenberecognisedasallusionsletaloneidentifiedasregardstheirsourcebyFinnishuniversitystudentsofEnglish,who,afterall,shouldbe
morefamiliarwiththesourcesprovidingallusionsfortheEnglishlanguagethanotherFinns.HenceIarguethatthegeneralpublicinFinlandwouldbeevenless
competenttoidentifythem.(MostoftheallusionsinFinnishtextsthatareknowntoFinnishreadersthroughtranslationotherthanbiblicalareprobablyallusionsto
textsbyFinnishwriterswhowroteinSwedish,forexampleJ.L.Runeberg.)Widelyfamiliar(i.e.transcultural)translatedKPallusionsofEnglishoriginarerarein
Finnish:occasionalquizzingoffriendssuggeststhatthebestknownShakespeareanallusioninFinnishisollakovaieikolla('tobeornottobe')itproveddifficultto
elicitevenoneotherexamplefromtheseFinnishreaders.SomeempiricaldataonFinnishgeneralreaderresponsesarepresentedinChapter5.
TranslatorAttitudesandCommentsonStrategies
Thetextcorpuswhichprovidedthematerialforthisstudy(seeChapter1)containsbothfictionandjournalism.SevenoftheworksoffictionexistalsoinFinnish
translations.Whiletranslationassessmentisnotthepurposeofthisstudy,itisneverthelessusefultoexaminehowthetranslatorsofthosetextshadchosentodealwith
allusions,andhowtheythemselvesseetheroleofthetranslator.
Thetranslatorsoftheseventextswereapproachedinwriting.Theprojectwasoutlinedandtheirassistancerequested.10Thesixtranslatorswhowerereachedall
kindlyagreedtobeinterviewed,KaleviNyytj(KN),EilaSalminen(ES)andAnnaLauraTalvio'Elone(ALT)inpersonandElsaCarroll(EC),LiisaHakola(LH)
andErkkiJukarainen(EJ),owingtoworkpressuresorgeographicaldistance,inwriting.Theoralinterviewslastedforfromanhourtoanhourandahalfeachthe
writtenanswersvariedinlengthbetween1and24pages.TheinterviewswereconductedbetweenJanuaryandMay1992.Aquestionnaire(seeAppendix1)was
usedtogivetheframeworkfortheoralinterviews,whichweretaperecorded.Forthewritteninterviews,thequestionnairewasmailedtothetranslators.Adefinition
ofthetermallusionwasincludedintheintroductorylettertoenablethetranslatorstothinkabouttheprobleminadvance.Thefollowingisasynthesisofthetranslators'
opinionsandobservations.
Noneofthetranslatorswasrepresentedinthisstudybytheirfirstpublishedtranslation.Onthecontrary,theywereallexperiencedtranslators,

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somewithdozensofpublishedtranslationsoffictiontotheircredit.Threehadstartedtranslatinginthelate1950sortheearlyormid1960s,twointhelate1970s,and
theyoungest(withtenbookstranslatedsofar)in1988.Allhadacademicdegreesinlanguages,literatureorlinguistics(incl.onePhD)somehadalsoworkedin
journalism,publishingoratranslationbureau.Twomentionedthattheyhadtaughtcoursesinlanguagesortranslation.
Thetranslatorsmostlyemphasisedthattheywerenotveryfamiliarwithtranslationtheoryandhadlittleinterestinthetheoreticalaspectoftranslationstudies.11
However,nonethoughtthatacademictranslationstudieswereworthless,onlythattheyseemedtobeoflittlepracticalrelevance.Onedidexpressawishforamore
linguisticapproachtotranslationstudiesintranslatortraining.LivingoutsideFinlandasshewas,though,sheadmittedshewasoutoftouchwithpresentcurricula.She
alsothoughtthatinherowncaseatleast,theorywasalwayspresenttosomeextentwhilesheworked.Anotherlookedwithfavouronrecentdevelopments,familiar
tohimthroughtheprofessionaljournalKntj.Severalhadfoundthatproblemsweremostfruitfullyaddressedindiscussionsamongcolleagues.
Thetranslators(withoneexception)thoughtitimportanttokeepthepotentialTTreadershipinmindwhiletranslating.Theneedforclaritycamethroughstronglyfrom
theiropinions:'translatorsdonottranslateforthemselves'(LH.AllanswersweregiveninFinnishmytranslations).Considerationofthereaderwasseentoleadto
betterresultsandmorebookstotranslate.Itwasthoughtimpossibletocommunicatewithafacelessmass,withoutconsideringthereceiver.Thedissenter(ALT)
pointedoutthatasallreadersreceivetextsdifferently,dependingontheirownlifeexperiences,shepreferredtoconcentrateonthetextratherthanonthereaders.
ThetranslatorsgenerallythoughtofTTreadersasreadersoftheSTauthor,oroftheSTitself(insomeoftheoralinterviews,therewasconfusedlaughterandsurprise
whenitwaspointedouttothetranslatorsthatinfact,everywordofthetextthereadersreadiswritten,notbytheSTauthorsbutbythetranslatorsthemselves).They
thoughtofthemselvesmainlyasinterpretersormediatorsoftheST.One(EJ)citedKurtVonnegut'sviewthatthetranslatorshouldbeamoregiftedwriterthantheST
author.12Opinionsvariedastowhethertheytranslatedforaparticulartypeofreader.Somesaidtheydefinitelydidnot,orthatitdependedonthegenreinquestion.
Twodidhaveavisualisationofareaderinmind,whichvariedfromtexttotextandcouldbequitespecific(anauthorityfigure,likeacriticalfriend,orarelativeor
neighbour)ormoregeneric(welleducatedwomenforES,thetranslatorofLodge).
Themajorityhadfirsthandexperienceofculturebounddifferencesin

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lifethroughlivingabroad.TheyallsaidtheyoftenoroccasionallyrealisedinthecourseoftheirworkthatFinnishreaderswouldnotunderstandaparticularconcept,
wordornameintheST.Everydaylifewasonesourceofsuchproblems,andtrademarkswerefrequentlymentionedinthisconnection.Inprinciple,theywere
preparedtoresorttoanumberofactivestrategiestoovercomesuchproblemswherepossible.KNnotedthatcultureboundproblemsarefewernowthansome
decadesago,astheAngloAmericanculturehasbecomemorefamiliartoFinns,andwarnedagainst'writingdowntothereader',thatis,unnecessaryexplainingof
socioculturaldifferences.Nevertheless,hethoughtitimportantthatTTsshouldnotcontain'questionmarks',passageswhichwouldpuzzlethereader.Someofthe
translatorsconsideredtheproblemofsocioculturaldifferencesunavoidableandthoughtitbesttoacceptadegreeoflossintranslation.
Themajorityrecognisedthemselvesinthedescription'culturalmediator',buttheiremphasesdiffered.Forone,itwasaquestionofthetranslatorlearningmoreand
moreaboutthesourceculture(KN)foranother,offindingawayofconveyingadifferentwayofthinking(ALT)forathird,ofexposingreaderstowhatmaybe
strangeandexciting(ES).Adissentersawthetranslatorasatechnicianwhoservestheneedsofthereader,workingcreativelyalongtheboundariesoftwocultures
(EC).Othertranslatorsalsostressedthecreativewritingaspectoftranslationasopposedtothemoremechanicalworkofascribe(LH,ALT).
Thesetranslatorshadnotspecificallyrecognisedallusionsasaproblemarea.Rather,theyconcededthatsomeallusionsweredifficultanddealingwiththemtookboth
timeandtrouble.Thetranslatorsmostlydealtwithallusionsonacasebycasebasis.Twopointedoutthatdecisionsondetailsalwayshadtobesubordinatetothe
whole,andthatallusionswereaproblemofsecondaryimportancefromthatpointofview.
Whenaskedwhatmadethemspotanallusion,theanswersvaried.Onespokeofaneedtobealerttothepossibility,andthoughtitwasoftenbeingpuzzledbycertain
passagesthatmadehersuspectallusion(ES).Theneedtobewellreadwasstressed(ALT)itisthefamiliarphrasesthatarerecognised(EJ).Itwasbelievedthat
thereisalearningprocess,similartothatofanartloverwholearnstorecognisethestyleofparticularartists(KN).Clues('invisiblequotationmarks',Lurie1986:
158)hadbeennoticedinSTs(EC),takingtheformof,forinstance,commentsonfacialexpressions,butinternalclueslikerhymeandrhythmwerealsofoundto
occur.Allacceptedthattheymayoccasionallymissallusions,onetranslatorpointingoutthatitwouldbeusefultoverifythemwiththeSTauthor(EC).13

Page88

Generallythetrackingdownofallusionswasseenastimeconsumingbutnecessarythehighertheliteraryqualityofthetextorthethematicimportanceoftheallusion,
themorenecessaryitwastomakesureofthesource.Everyeffortwasmadetoaccomplishthis,thoughatleastone(ES)suspectedthattheresultswerenotalways
evidenttocasualreaders.Bothwrittensourcesandhumaninformantswerecited,andoccasionalexamplesweregivenoffieldtripsundertakentomakesureof
culturebounddetails(toFortnumandMasontofindoutwhatexactlytheirtrifle[Lurie,1988:913]waslike[EC]toashoestoretodiscoverindetailwhattypeof
shoeHushPuppiesare[ES]).OnetranslatorspokeofhoursspentwithaShakespeareconcordancetoascertainthataShakespeareanallusioninChandlerwas
correctlyattributedbytheauthor,anddiscoveringthatitwas,infact,constructedoftwoseparatephrasesinRichardIII(KN).
AstotheirreactionstoallusionsinSTsasarule,someanswerswerepractical,notingtheneedtotracethesourceandtodecidewhytheallusionisusedintheST
(ALT).Thefinaldecisiononwhattokeeporomitcouldbemadequitelateintheprocess(EC).Onanemotionallevel,translatorsrecognisedbothdismaywhen
facedwithanunfamiliarallusionandsatisfactionwhentheyrecognisedoneorwereabletotraceittoitssource.Theseemotionalreactionstheydoubtlesssharewith
otherSTreaders,butthepracticalaspectispartofthespecifictaskofthetranslator.
Intheirinterviews,thesixtranslatorswerealsoaskedabouttheirviewsontranslationstrategies,notwithregardtospecificexamplesbuttoshedlightontheirgeneral
principlesandattitudesconcerningthetranslationofallusions.Theviewsexpressedcanbesummarisedasfollows.
Questionsfocusedonalternativestoliteraltranslation.Whenaskedaboutaddingguidance,thetranslatorsallagreedthattheywouldaddexplanationswhere
necessaryaslongasthiscouldbedoneunobtrusively.Additionsshouldnotbepedanticorsoundlikeexplanations.Explanationsarefeasible'whentheyarenecessary
fortheunderstandingofthewholetext,andtheexplanationitselfisshort,canbeslippedintothetextforexampleasanappositionorintheformofadependentclause
whichisbothlogicallyandrhythmicallyappropriate'(EJ).Therewas,however,somefearexpressedthatexplanationsmightdetractfromthepleasureacompetent
readerfeelswhenmakingconnectionsonhis/herown.Theuseofovertexplanationsinfootnoteswasruledoutcompletelyforfiction'thesedays'(thoughsometimes
thereisnoalternativeandonehastousethem[LH]).14
Omissionwasseenasalastresortintheexperienceofone,itismoredifficulttodecidetoomitthantoretain(ALT).CurrentpracticeinFinlandwas

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saidtorequirethatthetranslatorshouldmakeeveryefforttoretain'everything'comparingtranslations,atranslatorhadfoundthattranslatorialpracticeinSweden
differsinthatomissionsaremorecommonthere(KN).15Thistranslatorfoundomissionoflanguagebound(homonymic)wordplayoftenjustified.Anothercriterion
foromissionwasutterunfamiliarityrequiringlongexplanations(LH).Therelatedpointwasmadethatitislikewiseanethicalproblemwhetheratranslatorshouldor
shouldnotincludeintheTTpassagess/hehasnotunderstood(ES).ForEC,thereweremanypossiblereasonsforomission:'Lackofresources?Lackoftime?Lack
ofknowledge?Lackofspace...Desiretomakethetextmorefluent,moreFinnish.Laziness?[Perceived]insignificance[oftheallusion]?Boldness.Cowardice.During
theshamanphase,16anarrogantfeelingthathaditbeenaFinnishwriterwritingforFinnsshewouldnothaveusedanallusionhere/atthistime/inthisplace.'
Thetranslatorsdidnotspeakofdifferenteditorsorpublishershavingdifferentviewsonomissionorfootnotes,perhapsbecausetheTTsinthecorpuswereall
intendedforalargelysimilargeneralaudience(seealsoChapter5onFinnishreaders).
ReplacementbyTLculturespecificmaterialwasthoughtamorepossiblestrategyingeneral,thoughsometranslatorswerecarefulhere,suggestingthatitshouldbe
usedmainlywithsuchthingsas'standardphrases,clichs,nurseryrhymes'(EJ).Whenaskedwhethersourcelanguagepoetrycouldbereplacedbylinesofatarget
culturepoet,atranslatorrejectedtheidea,preferringtomakeuseofevenobscureexistingtranslationsofthepoetalludedto,ortowriteatranslationofhisown
(KN).Replacementswerethoughtfeasible'iftheyarenotinimicaltothespiritofthetext'(EC)thistranslatorfeltfreertousereplacementsnowthanwhenshewasa
beginner.
Onlyonespecificallyaddressedthequestionoftheminimumchangestrategy,wherethetranslatorsimplytranslatesthelinguisticcomponentwithoutregardto
connotativeandcontextualmeaning.Hakolastated:'Mostlyitispossibletomakesenseofallusionsbothtooneselfandthentothereader,ifonewillpayattention,
takesometrouble,andnotmakedowiththewordforwordmethodoftranslationsocommoninFinland.'Thegenerallyexpressedconcernwiththeneedsofthe
reader,however,showsthatthetranslatorswereawarethatsomerenderingsarelessthansatisfactoryfromthepointofviewofTTreaders.
Thetranslatorswerenotaskedtocommentonanyparticularexamplesoftheirownworkortoexplainwhyaparticularstrategyhadbeenchoseninagivenexample.
Askingatranslatortoexplainorjustifyaparticular

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translationdecisionmadeseveralyearsearlierappearedunlikelytoprovideusefulinformation.Itseemedobviousthatafinishedtranslationhadinevitablybeen
supersededinthetranslator'smemorybysubsequentwork,andsoinquiriesastowhathadpossiblygoneonintheirheadsyearsearliercouldhardlyelicitreliable
data.17Still,someofthetranslatorsspontaneouslyofferedcommentsonparticularproblemsencountered,andthesearesometimesincludedinthefollowingsections
inthediscussionofparticularexamples.
Reverbalisation:RealisationsofStrategies
SevenpublishedtranslationsofnovelswritteninEnglishwerestudiedforindicationsofwhatactualtranslatorialpracticeinFinlandiscurrentlylikewithregardto
allusions.Thissectiondescribesthefindings.
Tosummarisethefindings,therewerealtogetherapproximately160perceivedallusions(includinganumberofSACs)inthesevenSTs:c.70PNsandc.90KPs.18
Twothirdsoftheallusionsweretranslatedbytheloweffort,timesavingstrategiesofretentionofPNassuch(la),standardtranslation(A)(rarely)andminimum
change(B)ofKPshenceallotherpotentialstrategieswererepresentedbytheremainingonethirdofexamples.Theproportionofleastchangestrategiesandthose
involvingmoretranslatorialinterventionmaynotbesurprising,butitwillbeworthseeing,first,whatkindofexamplesthetwotypesofstrategieswereusedfor,and
later(Chapter5),theresponsesofFinnishreaderstosomeverbalisationsinwhichthestrategiesresulted.
StrategiesusedforProperNameAllusions
ForPNs,thequicksolutionofretentionofthenameassuch(la)wasadoptedincloseto70%oftheinstances(N=47).Mostofthenameswerenaturallyunchanged
(forexampleJosephE.McCarthy,BruceLee)butwhereappropriate,bothlexical(forexampleSwanLake/JoutsenlampithePiedPiper/Hamelninpillipiipari)
andorthographicalrequiredchangeshadbeenmade:19thelatterinvolvingGreeknameswhoseLatinisedformsusedinEnglishwerereplacedbyformscloserto
Greek,accordingtoFinnishpractice(forexampleScyllaandCharybdis/SkyllajaKharybdisOedipus/Oidipus).
Itwasarguedearlierinthechapterthattheappropriatenessofastrategyinagiveninstancedependsatleastpartlyonthefamiliarityorotherwiseofthename.
However,intheTTs,theretentionofthePNwasappliednotjusttotransculturalnamesbutalsotonamesverylikelytobeunfamiliar.ThistendstoreduceaTT
reader'schancesoffullycomprehendingsuchpassagesindeed,itwillbeseenlaterthatgeneralreaderrespondentshad

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difficultyunderstandingpassageswherenamestheydidnotknowhadbeentranslatedwordforword,asifthesewerefamiliarnameswithstandardtranslations(the
WalrusandtheCarpenter/MursujakirvesmiestheWhiteRabbit/Valkoinenjnis).ResponsestominimumchangetranslationsofKPsweresimilar.
Itisimpossibletoassigntheallusivenameswhichoccurredinthetextsstudiedintothecategoriesoffamiliarandunfamiliarnames,aseachindividualreader's
performanceinrecognisingthemwoulddiffer.Itmakesmoresensetothinkofasupraindividuallevel,andofacontinuumofnames,wheretheexistenceofaFinnish
formofanameoutsidetheTTisevidenceofoverlapping(forexampleCinderella/Tuhkimo)wherepeoplewhoselivesarediscussedorwhosenamesare
mentionedinFinnishschoolbooksorthemassmediaarefamiliartovaryingdegrees(MarieAntoinette,BruceLee)wherethefamiliarityofliteraryandotherfictional
charactersdependspartlyontranslationdecisionsmadeatdifferenttimesinFinnishpublishinghousesandpartlyontheappearanceofsuchcharactersinthetheatre,
ontelevisionandinfilms,cartoonsetc.(oftenwithinternationaldistribution:PhilipMarlowe,BartSimpson)andwherecontemporaryBritishorAmericanfigures
whoseactivitieshavewonthemnationalratherthaninternationalfamemaybeunfamiliartothemajorityofFinnishreaders(asindeedtheymaybeontheothersideof
theAtlantic:AnitaBryant,PhyllisSchlafly).Itisreasonabletoretainthemorefamiliarnamesunchangedandtomakechangeswhererequiredbyconvention.Still,
theretentionofanunfamiliarnameassuchmaybeavalidchoiceifthecontextcanbethoughttooffersufficientclues,orifthelosscausedbytheunfamiliarityis
deemednotserious(aswhentheallusionworksmainlyonthemicrolevel).MostoftheexampleswherePNslikelytobeunfamiliarwereretainedassuchcouldbe
thoughttobelongtosuchcategories.
Whilerecreationalreadersmaynotstoptopondereveryunfamiliarname,lossesareinevitable.Descriptionsbecomelessvividhumorousasidesdisappear:
'...I'vegotwonderfulnews.PandoraBoxhasinvitedustohertowerinWalesforthelastweekofJune...'(Lurie,1986:180)

RetentionofthisnameunchangeddoesnotallowanonEnglishspeakingreadertoenjoythehumouroftheallusion.20
Useofguidance(1b),thatis,smalladditionsoralterationsintendedtosupplysomeoftheimplicitbackgroundknowledgeintheallusionunobtrusively,occurredin
under10%ofthecasesconsidered(N=6).Clarifyingadditionsweremostlyofaminimalnature:MrAgnew/SpiroAgnew

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Lancelot/sirLancelot.InoneexampleanappositionwasaddedtoenableFinnishreaderstounderstandtheconnotationsofanameandthereforegraspthepointof
aconversation:
'IassumeyouthinkyouweresomekindofSirGalahadprotectingmygoodnamewhenyoupunchedthatpoorsexistfoolatthelibrary...(Parker,1987a:49)
'jakunsinmottasitsitonnettomantyperseksistisiellkirjastolla,taisitluullaolevasijonkinmoinensirGalahad,ritareistapuhtain,jonkavelvollisuutenaonvarjella
mainettani...'(Parker,1988:64)'SirGalahad,thepurestofknights'(emphasisadded,alsoontheapposition)

Asarule,thetranslatorsofthesetextsappeartohavefoundlittleuseforguidanceinthetextsstudied,thoughtheirinterviewsshowedthatnonethoughtthatitshould
be,inprinciple,undesirablefortranslatorstoexplainunfamiliarthingstoTTreadersaslongassuchexplanationswereunobtrusive.
Therewerenoexamplesoffootnotes,givingextrainformationonPNsovertly(1c).
Replacementbyanothername(2),whileveryrare(N=2),showedconcernwiththebackgroundknowledgeofthereader.Thepretendedrequirementthata
bodyguardshould:
'...looklikeWinniethePoohandactlikeRebeccaofSunnybrookFarm...'(Parker,1987a:11)

requiresknowledgeofanAmericanseriesofadolescentgirls'bookswithasunnyandwellmeaningheroine.Thetranslatorchosetoreplacethisnamebythatof
Pollyanna(2a):
'...ollaNallePuhinnkinenjakyttytykuinPollyanna...'(Parker,1988:15)'tolooklikeWinniethePoohandactlikePollyanna'

whichconveysthedesiredtone.BothRebeccaandPollyannaarefictionalheroineswhoshareanoptimisticattitudetolife,andbothareequallyincongruousmodels
forguntotingbodyguards.Wemayrecallthatapproximately50%oftherespondentsinthetestonthefamiliarityofnameshadsomeideaofPollyannainaquizof
nameswithoutcontext,eventhoughwhatpreciselyshestoodforwasvagueformany.Inatestofgeneralreaders(Chapter5),mostoftherespondentswhoreada
pageoftheParkerTTincludingthisextractofferedatleastapartlycoherentinterpretationforthepassage.
EventhoughrecognitionofPollyanna,then,maybeincompleteand

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misssomenuances,thereplacementofthenamehassavedmuchofwhatmighthavebeenlostintranslation.ToretainRebecca'sEnglishnamewouldmeanoffering
TTreadersanunrecognisableallusion,andeventhenamegiventoherintheFinnishtranslation,HopeapuronRebekka('RebeccaofSilverBrook')wouldpuzzle
mostTTreadersofParker.21
Theexamplesofreplacementofapropernounbyacommonnoun(3a)(N=6)mostlyinvolvednameswhichcouldindeedbedeemedunfamiliartoFinnishreaders.
ThecommonnounreplacementsalmostinevitablylacksomeofthenuancesofthePNs,buttheirdenotativemeaninggetstransferred,whichitmightnotdoif(a)
werethestrategychosen.Thus,theMissesEumenidesisrenderedaskaikkihornanhenget'allspiritsofhell'(Allingham,1986:1921990:200)theimplicationsof
thespeaker'sclassicaleducation(andofthefactthattheEumenidesarereferredtointhisirreverentway)arelost,butatleastthereisnochanceoftheallusionbeing
takenatfacevalue(asreferringtosomeoldladiesintheneighbourhood,say)byTTreaders.
Compare,however:
ShedidnotlooklikeCarryNation(Parker,1987a:12)
hneinyttnyt20luvunsuffragetilta(Parker,1988:17)'shedidnotlooklikea1920ssuffragette'

wheretheaim(presumably,andverifiablytheeffectseeChapter5)ofthetranslationistotransferconnotations:contrarytothenarrator'sexpectations,theradical
feministwriterhemeetsisclean,welldressedandwearsmakeup.CarryNation(18461911),anunfamiliarfiguretoFinnishreaders(asshownbythetestearlierin
thisChapter,whereonlyoneoutof51recognisedhername),foughtagainstdrinkandisknowntohavebeenaformidablewoman,tallandheavy,anddressedin
'starkblackandwhiteclothingofvaguelyreligiousappearance'(EncyclopediaBritannicaVII:207).Retentionofthisunfamiliarnamewouldhavedeprivedthe
descriptionofallcontent,whilethereplacementleadstoanunderstandingofthesurprisefeltbythenarratorwhenencounteringthecharacterinperson.General
readers(seeChapter5,Example12)describedtheirimageof'asuffragetteofthe1920s'withreferencestounattractivedressand/orhair,andaggressivebehaviour.
TheconnotationsoftheSTallusionanditscommonnounreplacementintheTTthusmatchquitewell.
Amongthefewomissions(3b)noted,onlyoneoccurredoutsideCross.TheCrosstranslationwasanabridgedversionforawomen'smagazine,andthetranslatorin
herinterview(ALT)confirmedmyassumptionthattheunfamiliarityofanallusionwouldbeonecriterionforthedecisiontodeleteapassage.Suchdecisionsledtothe
lossofallusivereferencestoe.e.

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cummings,HumptyDumpty(twice)andPhyllisSchlaflyallofthemusedonthemicrolevelinCross.InLodge(1988:241),anallusiontoVeronica'snapkin
wasomittedbecausethetranslatorcouldnotdiscoveritsmeaning(thisinformationwasvolunteeredinherinterview).Theallusion(acomparison)occurredinthe
descriptionofapictureofBobDylanonaTshirtwornbyaminorcharacterasfarasIcansee,thereligiousconnotationshavenothematicimportance(though,on
somelevel,thelinkingofChristandBobDylanmayperhapsberegardedasanunspokencommentonayoungergenerationofstudentsinLodge).
FullcomprehensionofanallusivepassagecontainingaPNisinevitablylimitedtothosewhorecognisethenameanditsconnotations.Inthefollowingexample,if
DaisyBuchananistakentobethenameofanextortionist(apossiblemisreadingbasedonthecombinationofmoneyandimplicitthreatsofviolence),thehumorous
natureofthedescription(andtheglimpsethisgivesofthecharacterthroughwhoseeyesthesituationisseen)ismissed.(ThoughTheGreatGatsbyhasbeen
translatedintoFinnishandthe1974filmhadalengthyruninFinlandatonetime,thenameDaisyBuchananwasunknown,outofcontext,toallbutoneofthe
respondentsinthetestonp.82).
'IthoughtIwouldknockthismatineeidolonhiskiester,andwecouldwalkinoverhim.'
'Itmightbeamistaketotry,fellow,'hesaid.Hisvoicewasfullofmoney,likeDaisyBuchanan.(Parker,1987a:41)
'Ajattelinettpudotanensintmnompeluseuraidolinkannikatkanveesiin,minkjlkeenmeylikymmehnenmatoisanmajansa.'
'Kaverimuutenerehdyt,josyritt'Kanttileukasanoi.Hnennenshelisirahaa,kuinDaisyBuchananin.(Parker,1988:55)'Hisvoicerangwithmoney,likeD.B.'s'

However,bywayofcompensation,thetranslatorhasaddedcolour(intheformofalliterationandludicrouslyarchaicreligiousvocabulary)tothelinesprecedingthe
allusion(kannikatkanveesiin'drophisbuttonthegroundinthering',ylikymmehnenmatoisanmajansa'weshallwalkoverhisworminfestedbody').Though
theunfamiliarnameisretainedunchanged,thepassagethereforeactuallyshowssignsofrecreation,whichwillbediscussedfurtherinconnectionwithKPs.
StrategiesusedforKeyPhraseAllusions
TransculturalKPallusionshavestandardtranslations,thatis,preformedTLwordings.Theuseofastandardtranslationcanbeseenasa

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minimaxstrategyinLev's(1967)terms,asitrequiresnonewverbalisationfromthetranslatorand,beingtranscultural,helpstoconveythefullrangeofmeaning,
includingconnotations.Useofastandardtranslation(StrategyA)canthereforebethoughtasignoftranslatorialcompetence.
Inthetextsstudied,however,therewerefewexamplesofstandardtranslationsusedforKPs(N=4threewerebiblical,oneliterary).22Thissupportsmyargument
thatthereis,infact,littleoverlapbetweenallusiveKPsinEnglishandFinnish.Itisthereforesurprisingthatintwootherinstances,existingstandardtranslationshadnot
beenmadeuseof.ThisisunlikelytohavehappenedforlackofrecognitionofthebiblicalnatureofthoseallusionsasthereareclearenoughcluesprovidedintheSTs:
'...Andheradvicetomewouldbe,gothouanddolikewise.'(Cross,1985:16)
Butnow,likeatardybluebirdofpeacereturninglatetoadesertedarkafterthreetimesfortydaysandnights,thisblueairletterhasflappedacrosstheoceantohim.Initsbeakit
holds,noquestionaboutthat,afresholivebranch.(Lurie,1986:133)

Nevertheless,thetranslatorsdidnotusethecorrespondingbiblicalexpressionsbuttranslatedalongthelinesofminimumchange:
'...Patricenneuvominulleolisisiis,menejatoimisamoin.'(Cross,1991:30/45)'goandactlikewise'

Thestandardtranslationwouldbemenejateesinsamoin(Luke10:37).Intheotherexample,thebiblicalphraseolivebranch(Gen.8:11)isnotrenderedwith
thecorrespondingFinnishbiblicalphraseljypuunlehti'leafofanolivetree',23butliterallyasoliivinoksa'olivebranch'.
Inviewoftheobviouscluestobiblicallanguage,itislikelythatthetranslatorsdidinfact,recognisetheallusionsbutthoughttheywereusingthecorrespondingbiblical
phraseswhentheywerenot.Timeandagain,inteachingandinexperimentsconductedforthisstudy(seeChapters5and6),itwasseenthatFinnishrespondents
wereunsureofprecisebiblicalphraseology.Itshouldbenoted,too,thatnoneofthe57respondentswhoreadapageoftheLurieTTcontainingtheolivebranch
example(Chapter5,Example4)commentedonoliivinoksa,thoughmostofthemrecognisedthebiblicalsourceoftheallusion.Thiswasthusacceptabletothemas
theappropriatephrasetobeusedwithreferencetothestoryofNoahandthedove.
Thepaucityofperceivedexamplesofstandardtranslationsusedsuggeststhatthisminimaxstrategyis,inpractice,seldomavailabletothe

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translatorfromEnglishintoFinnish.24
Minimumchange(B)wasbyfarthemostcommonstrategyforKPsinthetextsstudied.Withover60examples,itaccountsfortwothirdsoftheKPallusionsinthe
sevenTTs.
Insteadofminimumchange,theterm'literal'translationcouldbeused,butwiththeuseoftheterm'minimumchange'theemphasisisnotonwhetherparticularwords,
phrasesetc.aresemanticequivalents,butontheadoptionofastrategy:whetherornotthepassageistranslatedwithregardtomorethanthelexicalmeaning,thatis,
whetherconnotationsorcontextualandpragmaticconsiderationsaretakenintoaccountornot.
Aliteral/minimumchangetranslationcanofcourseonoccasionbeastandardtranslation:
ST
TT

bravenewworld

Literal/minimumchange:

uljasuusimaailma

Standardtranslation:

uljasuusimaailma

butmoreofteninthisstudy,thetwoaredifferent:
ST
TT

Literal/minimumchange:

aman'shouseishiscastle
miehentaloonhnenlinnansa

Standardtranslation:

'aman'shouseishiscastle'
kotinionlinnani

'myhomeismycastle

orthereisnostandardtranslationatall:
ST
TT
Standardtranslation:

Literal/minimumchange:

awomanscorned
hyltty/torjuttunainen
none

Asevidenceofthelackofastandardtranslationofthislastexample,seeAaltonen(1989),whofoundthattwopublishedFinnishtranslationsofoneofDorothyL.
Sayers'snovelsbothmistranslatethisCongrevephraseinasimilarwaybutwithdifferentwordsforscorned,thinkingitactiveratherthanpassive('ascornfulwoman').
Aminimumchangetranslationcanworkwellif(1)theallusionistranscultural,sothattheliteraltranslationisalsothestandardtranslation,withthesameconnotations
(tobeornottobe=ollakovaieikolla)or(2)aliteralrenderingistransparentenoughonametaphoricallevel(thereisnosuchthingasafreelunch=
ilmaisialounaitaeioleevenareaderwhomeetsthisforthefirsttimemaywellguessthatitinvolvesmorethanjustthe

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questionofwhopaysforlunches).Themeaningcanthenbeperceivedwithoutrecoursetotheoriginalsource.Ifneitheroftheseconditionsismet,aminimumchange
translationwilloftenmeanalossofculturespecificconnotationssothatthetranslationfallsflatifcomparedtotheST.Evenifnotcompared,itmaybeimpenetrableor
inadequate,aculturebump.Monoculturalreaderscannotgraspitsfullmeaningonthebasisofthetranslationoffered,thoughasnotedearlier,readerswhoareboth
bilingualandbiculturalcanuncoverthemeaningbybacktranslation.
Inthefollowingexample,aminimumchangetranslationwouldmakethepassagedifficulttounderstand:
'...he'sbroughtuptobelievequitefalselythathe'sinheritedtheblessedearth.Money,position,background,servants,prospects...'(Allingham,1986:127)

Ifthewordsinitalicsweretranslatedasperinytsiunatunmaan'inheritedtheblessedearth',withouttakingintoaccountthatblessedisusedinthecontextasamild
expletivewhilesiunattudoesnotnormallyhavethissense(asapremodifier),theliteraltranslationwouldobscuretheSermonontheMount(Matt.5:5)connotations
oftherestofthephrase,makingtheFinnishreaderwonderinwhatsensethelandthecharacterissaidtohaveinheritedisblessed.ThetranslatorsoftheTT,however,
chosetoavoidthis,preferringtorephrasewithacommonlyusedTLmetaphortodescribetheyoungman'ssituationandomittingthebiblicalallusion:
'...Hnetonsaatuvrinperusteinuskomaan,etthnellonkaikkihyvvalmiinakuintarjottimella:rahaa,asema,vanhasukupuu,palvelijoitajaloistavatulevaisuus...
'(Allingham,1990:134)'hehasbeenledtobelieveonfalsegroundsthathehaseverythinggoodsetasifonatrayforhim:money,position,anoldfamilytree,servantsanda
brilliantfuture'

Moreoften,however,thetranslatorsoftheTTsstudiedwerecontentwithminimumchangetranslations:
'Sowhereareallthepeopleinthistownwhousedtostandaroundchantingneverandthrowingrocksatchildren?'
Cosgrovesaid,'Mostofthemaresaying,''Well,hardlyever"...'(Parker,1987a:109firstitalicsoriginal)

FewTTreaderswouldrealisethatthisisahumorousallusionfromareceiverorientedpointofview,theFinnishphraseused(tuskinpakoskaan)isunmotivated.
Inthefollowing,thethematicimportanceofanallusionislessclearin

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thetranslationthanintheST:
ThereisaknockonthedoorandMarionRussellappearsonthethreshold,wearinganoversizedteeshirtwithONLYCONNECTprintedonitinbigletters.(Lodge,1988:275)

Thishappensjustasthetwomaincharacters,auniversitylecturerandanindustrialmanager,havereconciledtheirdifferences,whicharethecentralthemeofthetext.
Ifonlyacademiaandindustrywouldconnect,Lodgeseemstobesaying,itwouldbebeneficentforsociety.TheliteraryallusionhelpstoreinforcethispointtheTT
versionOTAVAINYHTEYTTA(Lodge,1990:383)'Justgetintouch'mayevendistractfromit,asforFinnishreadersitisnotarecognisableliteraryallusion.
Oftheotherpossiblestrategies,extraallusiveguidance(C)wasveryrarelyaddedinthetranslationsexamined(N=4).Inoneinstancethesourceofaphrasewas
addedtothetextwhatArnott(1971:93)callswritingthefootnoteintothetranslation.25Inanotherinstance,borrowingwasindicated,notbynamingthesourcebut
byslippinginaclue:
'InthiscountrythelandofthefreeandallthatshitIneedamanwithaguntoprotectme...'(Parker,1987a:35)
'Ettts smaassavapaidenmaassa,vaimitensepaskaviisutaasmenimintarvitsensuojakseniaseistautuneenmiehen...'(Parker,1988:47)'Thatinthiscountrythelandof
thefree,orhoweverthatshittysongwentIneedanarmedmantoprotectme'

Athirdexamplehadaproverbprefacedwithniinhnsitsanotaan'itissaid'.Suchadditions,questiontagsandvariouspragmaticparticles(Ostman,1982)serveto
indicatethatasayingisnotcreatedfortheoccasionbutispreformed.Theuseoftypographicalmeans(quotationmarks,italics)canbeseenasareducedversionof
pragmaticparticles(cf.Lakoff,1982:2457)therewasoneexamplewherequotationmarksaroundwhatwouldotherwisehavebeenaminimumchangetranslation
ofalineofpoetryservedtosignalanallusion.
Noexampleswerefoundofstrategy(D),thatis,theuseoffootnotes,endnotesorthelike.
Thereweresomeexamplesofinternalmarking(E)ormoresubtleattemptsthan(C)or(D)tosuggestborrowing.Theexamplesaretoofew(N=6)toallowformuch
categorisation,buttherewereoneortwoexampleseachofdeliberatelypoeticvocabulary,wordorder,metaphororsoundeffects,whichsettheexpressionapart
fromthecontextthiswasnotedinChapter3tobeafactorinrecognisingthepresenceofallusions.

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Forinstance,thetranslatorfacedwithtwolinesofrhymingpoetryembeddedintheST:
Thethreecopsinvestigatingthecaseknewverylittleabouthighlevelbusinesstransactionsinvolvingastronomicalfigures.Theyknewonlythattangledarethewebsweweave
whenfirstwepractisetodeceive...(McBain,1984:175)

compressedtheimageoftangledwebs,kepttheinverted,'poetic'wordorder,butdeletedtherhyme:
...Hetiesivtvain,ettsotkuisiaovatpetoksenverkot...(McBain,1981:198)'Theyknewonlythattangledarethewebsofdeceit'

Inanotherexample,thetranslator,realisingthattheslingsandarrowsofoutrageousfortuneisnotatransculturalallusionandthusnotrecognisableinFinnishasa
literaryborrowing,achievesacomiceffectcomparabletothatofthepilingupofslingsandarrowsandscrewsandnailsandneedleswiththecombinationofthree
TLwordsphoneticallyalike.Shedispenseswithruuvit'screws'whichdoesnotfitinphonetically:
Shebelievesthattalkingaboutwhat'sgonewronginone'slifeisdangerous:thatitsetsupamagneticforcefieldwhichrepelsgoodluckandattractsbad.Ifshepersistsinher
complaints,alltheslingsandarrowsandscrewsandnailsandneedlesofoutrageousfortunethatarelurkingaboutwillhomeinonher.(Lurie,1986:237)
...Joshnitsepintaisestijatkaavalittelujaan,kaikkihnenymprillnvijyskelevnviheliisenonnenstritsatjanuoletjanaulatjaneulatsuuntaavathntkohti.(Lurie,1988:
306)'alltheslingsandarrowsandnailsandneedlesofthemiserablybadlucklurkingaroundherwillhomeinonher'

ReplacementbypreformedTLitem(F)occurredonlyonceortwiceIprefertociteanexamplewhichcouldbeplacedinthiscategoryasanexampleof(H),whichit
canalsoillustrate(seelater).
Therewereuptoadozenexamplesofreductiontosense,thatis,allusionsrephrasedtoclarifytheirmeaning(G).Thisstrategyprioritisestheinformativefunctionof
theallusion,inawayseeingtheallusionasanidiomwhosemeaningcanbetransferredwithoutnecessarilyusinganyofitscompositepartsintranslation.Rephrasal
thusfocusesonandtriestoconveythemeaning,buttheactualwordsformingtheallusionaredispensedwith:
Hehadseenthewritingonthewall...(Lodge,1988:25)

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Hnnkijoselvstituhonenteet.(Lodge,1990:43)'hesawclearlytheintimationsofdisaster'

Aminimumchangetranslation,bycontrast,wouldbeuninformative('whatwritingonwhichwall?')andmightevenmisleadinglysuggestgraffiti!
ExamplesofthisstrategyaremostlyfoundintheLodgeandAllinghamtranslations.TheAllinghamtranslatorscouldnotbereached(Note10),butthetranslatorof
Lodge(ES)statedthatthetextsshetranslatesaremostlynonfiction.Emphasisontheinformativefunctionischaracteristicofsuchtranslation,andexperiencewith
suchtextsmayhaveencouragedhertomakeuseofthisstrategywhentranslatingfictionaswell,therebydecreasingtheriskofculturebumps.
Recreation(H)isnotadefinablestrategyinthesamesenseasforinstancereplacementbypreformedTLitem(F)oromission(I).Rather,itempowersthetranslator
tobecreative,freeinghim/herfromthelimitationsoftheST,andemphasisesthenecessityofconsideringtheTTreader'sneeds.Anystrategywhichleadstothe
crossingofaculturalbarrieris,inasense,recreation.Norulesorguidelinesonhowtoachievethiscanbegiven,andrecreationcanperhapsbestbethoughtofasa
fusionofstrategieswhichisrealisedincontext.Creativityrequiresfreedomtoact,butitisnoteworthythatonetranslator(Levine,1975)whowritesaboutthe
translationofallusionsasrecreationworkedcloselywiththeauthorofherSTs,therebysecuringherselfthemandatetomakeconsiderablechanges.Technically,re
creationisoftenlikelytoinvolveinternalmarkingandvariousreplacements.Someexamplesofcreativesolutionshavealreadybeendiscussedunderotherstrategies,
butthebestillustrationof(H)intheTTsstudiedisprobablythefollowing,whichistechnicallyamodified(F).Intheexamplethereisaneedforassociationsofbliss
andthankfulnessafterthebirthofachild.Thechild'smother,whoquotesStJulianofNorwich(thoughitissuggestedthatshedoesnotknowthesource)intheST,is
madetoexpressherfeelingsinreligiousphrasesmorefamiliartoFinnsintheTT:
'Allbewell,'sheshuthereyesandsaid,quotingsomethingshehadread,butnotquitesurewhat'andallwillbewell,andallmannerofthingwillbewell,'andClifforddidnot
evensnubherbyaskingforthesourceofthequotation.(Weldon,1988:72)
'Jakaikkionhyvin',Helensanoisulkiensilmn sjasiteeratenjotakin,jonkahnolilukenut,olemattaaivanvarma,'niintaivaassakuinmaanpll',eikCliffordedesnolannut
hntkysymll,mistsitaattioli.(Weldon,1989:103)'alliswell,inheavenasitisonearth'

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Thisdoesawaywiththerepetitionofall...well,whichmightproveawkwardintranslationintheabsenceofrecognitionofitspreformednature.Niintaivaassakuin
maanpllechoestheLord'sPrayer(Matt.6:10)(mysmaanpllniinkuintaivaassa'inearth,asitisinheaven').Inaclassroomdiscussionitwassuggested
thatthismakesitlessplausibleforHelentobeuncertainofthesource,butthisishardlyaseriousproblem,particularlybecauseofthemodificationinwordorder.
Generalreaderstested(seeChapter5)asaruleperceivedthedesiredreligiousassociationsandthefeelingofforgivenessandhappinessafterstrain.Respondents
commonlysaidtheyhalfrecognisedtheallusion,withoutbeingabletopinpointitssource.26
Omission(I)ofKPswashardlyeverusedintheTTs(cf.translatorattitudestoitreferredtoearlier).Oneexampleofanomittedwisecrackshows,however,that
omissionhadaplaceamongstrategiesforatleastoneofthetranslators,evenifitwasusedsparingly:
Thebreechblock.That'sthewhatchamacallitontopofthegun,wherethecartridgesitsjustbeforeyoupullthetriggertosendthebulletzoomingonitsway.Thebreechblockhas
littleridgesandscratchesleftbytoolsatthefactory(tools,tools,capitalisttools!)andtheseinturnleaveimpressionsonthecartridge.(McBain,1984:96)

Thetranslatoromittedthereferencetotoolsofcapitalismevokedbythewordtoolsinthedescriptionofthebreechblockofagun.CertainlytheFinnishtechnical
termused,tystkone,isnotassociatedwithpoliticalabuse,sotheinclusionofcapitalisttoolswouldbeunmotivated.27
SLphrasesaresometimesretainedintheirforeignlanguageformtogivelocalcolourorforreasonsofdelicacy(aswithexpletives).Inthetextsstudied,onlyacouple
ofinstanceswerefoundofthisstrategy(whichisnotpartoftheearlierlist).Inone,theprivateeyeSpenseriscomparinghisselfimagetoHumphreyBogartin
Casablanca:
IfIweren'tsotough,Iwouldhavethoughtaboutreadingglasses.IwonderhowBogiewouldhavelookedwithspecs.Here'slookingatyou,foureyes.(Parker,1987a:128)

ThetranslatorretainstheEnglishtextbutnormalisestheallusion:
Ellenolisikovakundi,olisinalkanutharkitalukulasienhankintaa.YritinkuvitellaBogiennarisemaankakkulatps s:Here'slookingatyou,kid.(Parker,1988:169)

Laterinthetext(175)SpenserrepeatshisBogartimpersonation,thistimewiththelineunmodified(kid).Thetranslatorfollowssuit.

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TheexaminationoftheTTsshowsthatthemostcommonstrategiesforthetranslationofallusionsinthesetextsarethosethatinvolvetheleastamountofchange:
retentionofthenameassuchforPNsandminimumchangeforKPs.Thepredominanceofthisleadstoquestionsoftranslatorialprinciples,whichthetranslator
interviewsweredesignedtoclarify.28TheTTsweretranslatedbyexperiencedtranslators,whowereawareofallusionssometimesbeingdifficulttotranslateand
requiringagreatdealoftimeandeffort.Thetranslatorsexpresslysaidthattheyhadnotdevelopedasystematisedwayofdealingwithallusionsbutpreferredtodeal
withthemonacasebycasebasistheirmaininterestwashowsolutionswouldfitinwiththetextasawhole.Inprincipletheyrecognisedthatvarioussociocultural
itemscouldbeinadequatelytranslatedifTTreaders'lackoffamiliaritywiththesourceculturewasnotconsidered,andwerewillingtomakeeffortstoovercomethis
difficultybuttheyalsofeltthatitwasnotrealistictoaimatconveyingalltheelementsintheST.Theywerewillingtoprovidesubtleexplanationsratherthanfootnotes
tousereplacementsifsuitableonescouldbefoundthoughtofomissionasalastresort.Ontheotherhand,inpracticethetranslatorsdidnotattempttoserveas
culturalmediatorsbetweenauthorandreaderinthesenseofclarifyingSLspecificallusionstoTLreaders,buttendedtoleaveunfamiliarnamesandKPsinthetextfor
readerstoskiporpuzzleover.Therewerefewsignsofattemptstocreatesolutions'thatwouldhaveafamiliarassociationforthereader'(Levine,1975:271).This
meansthatTTreadersweregivenlesschanceofparticipatingintheliteraryprocessandderivingpleasureoutofit.
Theobservedpreponderanceofleastchangestrategiesdeservessomereflectioninthenextsection.
PossibleReasonsforthePredominantStrategy
Theproductionofminimumchangetranslationsinpreferencetorealisationsofotherstrategiescanbegivenvarioustheoreticalexplanationsitisnotpossibletoprove
whichisthereasonforagivenexampleinthecorpus:
(1)
Thetranslatorconsideredminimumchangefirst,asaloweffortstrategy(requiringminimumeffortbutperhapsnotalwaysleadingtomaximumeffect,hence'mini'but
notalways'max'[Lev,1967]),anddecideditwoulddo(wouldnotbeimpenetrable)becauses/hethoughttheallusionfamiliarenoughforpotentialTTreaders.
(2)
ThetranslatorsearchedforotherwaystotranslatetheallusionbutfoundnothingsatisfactoryanddecidedtooffertheallusiontobiculturalTTreadersandacceptthat
otherswouldmissit.

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Bothoftheseexplanationsarelegitimate.Thefamiliarityorotherwiseofanallusion,whileofvitalimportanceforthechoiceoftranslationstrategy,isdifficultto
determineandlossintranslationisknowntobeinevitableattimes.
Afurtherpossibleexplanationsuggestsgapsinatranslator'sculturalorreadingcompetence.Aminimumchangetranslationmaybetheresult(inthiscaseobviously
notaconsciouschoiceinthesamesenseasearlier)if
(3)
Thetranslatormissedtheallusion,thinkingthewordsnotpreformedbuttheSTauthor'sown,inotherwords,notnoticingtheintertextuality.
Thetranslatorswhowereinterviewedacceptedthatthiscanhappen,thoughitwasthoughttobemoreoftenaninexperiencedtranslator'sproblem.Experimentswith
students(Chapter6)suggestthattheskillofrecognisingallusionsandparticularlyofunderstandingtheirmeaningdevelopsquitelateintheprocessoflearning
advancedEnglish.
DejeanLeFal(1987:210)suggeststhatiftranslatorsdonotunderstandwhattheauthoris'tryingtogetat'itmaybethattheyhavemissedwhatisimplicitintheST.
Shealsoremarksthatreaderstendtoskipoverproblems,mayperhapsnotevenalwaysbeawarethattheyhavenotfullygraspedtheauthor'smeaning,andthatthis
maybeareasonwhytranslators(asreadersoftheST)aresometimessatisfiedwithlessthancrystalclearcomprehension.(Thismayalsobethoughtbysometo
excusethepresenceofculturebumpsintranslation.)Atranslatorwillnotbemotivatedtoconsiderdifferentstrategiesifs/heiscontenttoleaveobscuritiesinthetext,
thinkingthatreaderswilleithernotnoticeornotcare.Lackoftimeand/oroffinancialincentivecouldperhapsalsosometimesbeafactor.
Itisalsopossiblethatminimumchangeisaresultoftranslatingwithacertainviewofthetranslator'staskinmind.Atranslatordoesnotstoptoconsiderculturebound
differencesinreaders'backgroundknowledgenortherangeofavailablestrategiesif
(4)
S/heisconvincedthatatranslatorisdoinghis/herworkproperlyifs/hedoesnotmakechanges,omitorexplainbecauseinhis/herviewitistheSTauthorwhois
responsibleforthewordsin'thetext',whichthetranslatorsimplyrendersintotheTL.
(Cf.the163FinnishliterarytranslatorspolledbyRatinen[1992],halfofwhomsaidtheyaimedatprovidingan'accurate'or'correct'translation.)Thislosscould
perhapsbeavoidedbyrethinkingthetranslator'sroleandmandate.Onemoreexplanationisthat

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(5)
Thetranslatorhasnotrecognisedthatmanyallusionsarenotsuperfluouselementsinthetextbutinterwoveninitstextureandstructuretosuchanextentthattheirloss,
throughundertranslation,maybeasevereone.Thislosscouldperhapsbeavoidedbyrethinkingthetranslator'sroleandmandate.
Theextenttowhichatranslatorisconsciouslyawareofanyofthesereasonsforhis/herownbehaviournodoubtvaries(cf.Jskelinen,1993:110).
AllofthesereasonsarelikelytohaveplayedapartinthechoiceofstrategiesfortheTTsstudied.Acompetent,responsibletranslatormaybesensitivetoallusions,
noticethem,tracetheirsources(notgrudgingthetimeandeffortthistakes)andconsiderhowbesttorendereachoneincontext.Thiswastheviewthetranslatorshad
ofthemselves.Itisthereforeinterestingthatthetranslatorssaidtheyhadnotrecognisedallusionsasaspecifictranslationproblem.Inonesense,then,itcanbesaid
thattheirbehaviourfollowsthatoutlinedforinstancebyHnigandKussmaul(1984:40):ifallusionsarethoughtofasofslightimportanceforthetextasawhole,they
donotneedspecialstrategicconsideration.Solutionscanbearrivedat'locally',casebycase.
Incertaincases,however,suchbehaviourcanbecriticisedif(1)theimportanceofanallusioninthelargercontextwasmissedbecausethetranslatorwasunawareof
itsconnotations,thustheanalysisoftheSTwasincomplete(=insufficientculturalorreadingcompetence)or(2)thetranslatordidnotconsiderthelikelihoodofthe
minimumchangetranslationnotcommunicatingitsmeaningtoTTreaders(theriskofitsbeingaculturebump)(=insufficientmetaculturalorstrategiccompetence).
Apartfromthiscriticismthefrequencyofminimumchangetranslationsalsosuggeststhatthereisperhapsinpracticeafearofintruding,of'writingdowntothe
reader'(Nyytjinterview,1992),whichexplainstheapparentunwillingnesstouseotherstrategies.Commentsontheselines,phrasedforinstanceasoppositionto
'patronisingthereader'(Loponen,1993:6mytranslation)areevidentwhentranslatorsdiscusstheirwork,especiallyinresponsetocriticism.Itisindeedverydifficult
inpracticetodrawalinebetweenunnecessarypatronisingontheonehand,andnecessarymediatingactivityontheother.
Still,itappearsthatthepresentgeneralattitudetothetranslationofallusionsmayneedrethinkinginthelightofthecurrentemphasisonthereader'spartinthecreative
process.Theproblemwithminimumchangetranslationssometimesavoidable,sometimesnotisnotjustthattheydonotalwaysdojusticetotheSTauthor'sskill.
Thisaspectissomewhatoutof

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fashionatpresent,asworkintranslationstudieshaspassedbeyondmerecomparisonofSTandTT.Thetrueproblem,frommypointofview,isthatminimumchange
doesnotalwaysenabletheTTreadertoparticipateinthecreativeprocess,pickingupassociationsandinterpretinginhis/herownwaywhatwasonlyhalfsaidinthe
textathand.ThechancetodothisisdeniedtheTTreaderbecauses/heisnotgiventhematerialsforsuchparticipation.
Foranillustration,consider
Whenwasthelasttimeweweresupposedtohaveaworldbeatingaluminiumengine?TheHillmanImp,right?Wherearetheynow,theHillmanImpsofyesteryear?Inthe
scrapyards,everyone,ornearly.AndtheLinwoodplantagraveyard,grassgrowingbetweentheassemblylines,corrugatedironroofsflappinginthewind.(Lodge,1988:11
emphasisadded.)

Aminimumchangetranslationwillconveyonlythedenotation.Conversely,atranslatorwhorecognisesthesourcesandwantstoallowreaderstoparticipatecouldre
createthepassagewithallusiveovertonesrecognisabletoTTreaders.S/hecouldplayonthetranslationofthepopularsongWhereHaveAlltheFlowersGone?/
Minnekukatkadonneet?Aproposedrecreativetranslationwouldthenbe,MinneImpitkadonneet?'WherehavealltheImpsgone?'.Thiswouldevokethesong,
withtheaddedadvantagethatthenameImpresemblesanarchaicFinnishword,impi'virgin'(thoughthepluralformisdifferent).Thedoublewordplay,reminiscentof
thethemeofWherearethesnowsofyesteryear,wouldbelikelytomakemanyFinnishreaderssmileinrecognitionandtonoteinpassingthetouchofironic
nostalgia.TheeffectwouldbesimilartothatregisteredbytheNSinformantswhoreadthepassage(Chapter5seealsotheresponsesofFinnishgeneralreaders
reportedinChapter5,Example10).
ProblemSolvinginPractice:ChoosingfromaWideRangeofStrategies
Ifnotminimumchange,thenwhat?Thissectionoutlinesapossiblemethodofdealingwithallusions,withtheemphasisonusingthefullrangeofstrategiesinsteadof
routinelyoptingforminimumchange/retentionofPNassuch.ThemethodisbasedonLev's(1967)minimaxidea:minimumofeffort,maximumofeffect.Still,no
quantificationofincreasingeffortordiminishingreturnswasattemptedtojustifytheorderingofthestrategiesthestrategiesareorderedinthewaypresentedinflow
chartform(Figures2and3)onthegeneral(selfevident)principlethataquickwayof

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Figure2
A'minimax'orderingofstrategiesforPNallusions

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Figure3
A'minimax'orderingofstrategiesforKPallusions

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achievingasatisfyingsolutionisbetterthanatimeconsumingwayandagoodresultbetterthanapoorone.Howtocombinethetwoaimsisoftenaproblem.The
flowchartsstartwiththestrategiespresumedtobethemosteffortless,29butencouragethetranslatortoconsiderotherpossibilitiesifthosehighuponthechartsdo
notleadtosatisfactorysolutions.(See,however,thecautionsattheendofthissection.)30
Thefunctionoftheallusionineachexampleistakenintoaccount,asitoftenshowswhyminimumchangewouldnotprovideaneffectivetranslationforthatexample.
Forlackofspace,however,itisnotpossibletoshowthecontextatlength.(Cf.alsoactualreaderresponsestopublishedtranslationsinChapter5.)
ThissectionmayoffermaterialsforlanguageandtranslationclassesfocusingattentiononallusionsasonetypeofSTfeatureworthseparatescrutiny.Where
translationsareproposedtheTLisFinnish,butteachersandstudentsworkingintootherlanguagescouldnodoubtsuggesttheirowntranslationsintootherlanguages.
Theexamplesaremostlytakenfromtheuntranslatedfictioninthecorpus,andthetranslationsaremine(thoughintwoinstances,dulymarked,linesfrompublished
translationsofShakespearebyPaavoCajanderandYrjJylhhavebeenincorporatedinthetranslations).'Proposedtranslation'meansatranslationconstructedto
illustrateastrategywhichmightworkfortheexampleinquestion.'Rejectedtranslation'meansanillustrationofastrategyleadingtoatranslationthoughtinappropriate
forthatexampleforareasonstatedinthediscussion.
RetentionofPNassuch(la)orwithguidance(lb)
Inthefirstexample(previouslycitedinChapter3),thebiblicalname,beingtranscultural,caneasilyberetained.Atranslatorof:
'Mother,lunchisready,'saidMonica...
'Ah,ourgoodMartha,'saidFatherBenger(Pym,1979:144emphasisaddedhereandinthefollowingexamplesandtranslations)

onlyneedstocheckthespellingofthebiblicalnameintheTL.Wherearequiredchangeisneeded(MarthaMarthaforFinnishreaders),failuretomakethe
changewouldobscurethebiblicalallusionandmakeFatherBenger'sremarkpuzzling.ThefunctionoftheallusivePNistosubtlycharacterisethealluder,aclergyman
consciousof'havingchosenthebetterpart'(seealsothecontinuationofthispassageamongthefollowingKPexamples).
Retentionofalessfamiliarname,however,wouldnotworkaswell.The

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functionofthefollowingallusionisagaintocharacterisethealluder,byindicatingsomedegreeofsexisminhisattitudetotheaddressee,anadultfemaleinvestigator:
'Oh,allright...Whatdoyouproposedoing,NancyDrew?'(Paretsky,1987:275)

Thecharacteralludedto('NancyDrew,GirlDetective')isknownasPaulaDrewinFinnishtranslations,butbothnameswouldbelikelytoleavethereferenceopaque
formostadultreaders.Recognisingthisdifficulty,atranslatorcandecidetostepinandguidethereader.Awayofofferingguidanceistousethe'title'giventothis
characterinTLtranslations,forinstanceinFinnishNeitiEtsiv('MissDetective').ThiswillconveytheputdownandisalsolikelytoenablemanyTLreadersto
identifythesourceoftheallusiveremark.31
Addedguidancemayalsobehelpfulwithunknownnames:
'...I'mtellingyounow,it'sapowderkeg.Whateveryoudo,rememberAgag.'(Ashford,1986:147)

ThisisanotherbiblicalnamelikeMartha,butratherlesswellknown(itprovedtobetotallyunfamiliarintheKLAtestonnames,seeChapter4).IntheAuthorised
Version,thecapturedkingAgagcomesdelicatelyintothepresenceofSamuelandisputtodeath(1Sam.15:1833).TheOEDglossestheadverbas'softly,
lightly,...gently...Opposedtoroughly'.InallusionstothisstoryinEnglishtexts,themeaningoftheadverbappearstoshadeinto'cautiously,awareofdanger':
...hearingonlythediscreettippetytipofAgagfeetalongthepaddedfloor...(Sayers,1987:213)
...asIwouldhavehadthepress,thepolice,andpublicopinionallbalefullyagainstmeifI'deverbeencaught,Agagoneggswouldhavebeenclumsyincomparison.(Francis,
1971:172)
'[Agag]wastheonewhohadtostepwarily,wasn'the?'saidDungey.(Aird,1990:90)

Inthe1933FinnishtranslationoftheBible,thekingentersiloisesti('gaily,lightheartedly'),32henceunsuspectingly,andiscruellycuttopieces.Theunfamiliarityofthe
nameinFinnish,though(itdoesnot,forinstance,occurintheFinnishdictionariesofquotationsconsulted),meansthatthenamewouldnotconveytheclearwarning
requiredinthecontext.(Thequestionofthetranslationofthemetaphorpowderkegisbypassedhere.)Aliteraltranslation,therefore,wouldbeincomprehensible.
Thetranslators

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interviewedstressedtheneedfortranslatorialadditionstobeasunobtrusiveaspossibleguidance,therefore,needstobeminimal,abriefremarktoaddsome
essentialinformation.Acovertclue:
'...MuistamitenAgaginkvi'.[proposedtranslation]'RememberwhathappenedtoAgag'

wouldconveyawarningwhetherornotthenameitselfisrecognised.Itmustbeadmitted,though,thatthedegreeoffamiliaritywithobscurepassagesintheOld
Testamentsuggestedbythewarningis,initself,implausibleinFinnish.
Notethatsuperfluousexplanatoryadditionscanbereceivedascondescendingastheycanbethoughttosuggestthattheinformationistooesotericfortheaudienceto
have.Anexampleofthiseffectwasthereactiontoanunnecessary,clumsyexplanationgivennotbyatranslatorbutbyanauthor,which,whenreadoutata
conference(Leppihalme,1989),causedspontaneousgroansintheaudience:
'Lordy,'Katesaid.'I'mwithArcher.HowIhatesaints.'
'That,'Herbertsaid,'isbecauseyouimaginethemlikeMotherTeresa,sheofthechildcareprojectinIndiaandtheNobelprize.'(Cross,1985:13)

Replacementbyanothername(2a,2b)
ReplacementbyamorefamiliarSLorTLnamemayseemanattractivesolutioninprincipleastheysettheTTreaderasimilartaskofworkingoutconnectionsasthat
setbytheSTauthorfortheSTreader.Inpractice,though,replacementswithappropriateassociationsmaybedifficulttofind.Asearchforexamplesinthecorpus
thatmightillustrateproblemsresolvablebyrealisationsofthesestrategiesinFinnishunearthedonlyafew(inadditiontotheRebecca/Pollyannaexamplediscussed
earlierinthischapterandinChapter5,Example11),andeventhesearetentative:
Dukakisdepictedhisopponentasa'SantaClaustotherichandEbenezerScroogetotherestofus.'(Barrett,1988)

EbenezerScroogeinDickens'sChristmasCarolhasnotbecomeafamiliarcharacterinFinland,sothatneitherhisnamenorasourcereferenceaddedasguidance,
forinstanceDickensinJoulukertomuksenEbenezerScrooge'E.S.inDickens'sAChristmasCarol',willconveythemeaning.YetUncleScroogeintheDisney
comics,whosenamealludestoDickens'sScrooge,isfamiliarenoughtobeusedasareplacement.Thereisaproblemwithconnotations,though,asRoopeAnkka
('UncleScrooge')connotesaboveallwealth.Atranslatormightthereforeconstructatranslationaroundthe

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nameofDisney'sScrooge,butironicallyemphasisetheaspectoftightfistedness,onthelinesof:
DukakisinmukaanBushonrikkaillejoulupukkija'meillemuilleyhtavoktinenkuinRoopeAnkka'.[proposedtranslation]'...andasgenerousasUncleScroogetotherestofus'

ThistranslationisneverthelessweakerthantheSTastheChristmaslinkbetweenthetwoSTnamesislost.
Thereisaneedforcautionwhenassessingwhethertargetculturalreplacements33canbeusedfornamesinfiction,assuchnamesareimplausibleifutteredby
characterswhoarepresentedaslivinginthesourceculture.EvensubstitutingaTLnamethathaswonsomefameinternationallyforanunfamiliarSLnameusedbythe
authorneedstobeweighedwithgreatcare:
Shesetoffrunning.Thetractorrumbledafterher.Notfast.Fangiomighthavechafedabit.Butcertainlyfastenough...(Moody,1985:153)

Atthistensemomentinthenarrative,thecomparisonofthespeedofthepursuertothatofaracingcardriverbothmakesthemenacemoreconcreteandallowsthe
readertoseethepresenceofmindindicatedbytheironicdetachmentofthepursuedwoman.Ifthesourceofthecomparisonisunknown,thereadermayflounder.
Ontheotherhand,thefollowingreplacement,whileinstantlyrecognisabletoaFinnishtargetaudience,mightwelldestroytheillusionbasictothetranslationoffiction:
thatthelanguagebarrierisinvisible:34
Hanlhtijuoksemaan.Traktoritulijyristenpers s.Eikovinnopeasti.KekeRosbergolisivarmaanpitnytvauhtiahiljaisena.Muttaaikanopeastikyll...[?rejectedtranslation]

Replacementbycommonnoun(3a)
Aninterpretiveversionoftheprecedingexamplemaydispensewiththenameitselfbuttransfertheconnotativemeaningbyacommonnounphrase.Thus'Fangio',if
thoughtunfamiliar,couldbereplacedby'aracingcardriver'or'Formuladriver'.Alongtheselines:
Wedon'twantteacherstoturnintoGradgrinds(Hadfield,1988)

couldberendered,usingthereductiontosensestrategy,as
eiopettajienpidknmuuttuaopetuskoneiksi[proposedtranslation]

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'teachersarenotsupposedtoturnintoteachingmachines'

or,atgreaterlength,
eiopettajienpidknmuuttuavainfaktatietoasuoltaviksiopetuskoneiksi[proposedtranslation]'teachersarenotsupposedtoturnintoteachingmachineswhichjustspout
facts'

Thesewouldbemoreinformativethanretentionofnameassuchandlessintrusivethanretentionofnamewithguidance:
muuttuaDickensinromaanihenkilnherraGradgrindinkaltaisiksi[rejectedtranslation]'turnintopeoplelikeMrG.inDickens'snovel'

Thereductiontosensetranslationstrytoconveywhatkindofteacherisnotdesired,withoutactualreferencetothelittleknown(toTTreceivers)MrGradgrind,'the
founderofaschoolwhereonlyscientificfactistaughtandwherethewarmthandimaginationofhumancharacterarestifled'(Lassetal.,1987:89).35
Inanotherexamplefromfiction,reductiontosenseisproposedforanotherDickensianPN:
'Idaresayyou'renotpickingupmorethantwentyfiveaweek,areyou,atDotheboysHallorwhateveritcallsitself?'(Rendell,1984:142)

TLreadersmaywellnotrecognisethenameoftheschoolinDickens'sNicholasNickleby,butthecoherenceoftheinterpersonalrelationshipofthetwocharactersin
thescenerequiresrecognitionoftheattitudeofthespeaker.Awealthybutunculturedindustrialist,hedespiseshiseducatedsoninlaw'sillpaidworkasateacher.If
thenamewereretaineditwouldinalllikelihoodbetakenbyTTreadersastheactualnameoftheschoolwhereheworks.Reductiontosensecouldberealisedfor
instanceby:
'vaimitenpaljonsiellkoulurhjsssinullemaksetaan?'[proposedtranslation]'howmuchdotheypayyouatthatlousyschool?'

wherethealluderisovertlyshowntodespisetheschool,or:
'vaimitsinulleoikeinmaksetaansiitluokanedessseisomisesta?'[proposedtranslation]'howmuchareyouactuallypaidforstandinginfrontofaclass'

wherethefocusoftheputdownisthespeaker'sconceptionoftheworkofateacher.

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Footnotes(1c)
Theremainingstrategiesareappropriatealternativesonlyrarely.Overtexplanationintheformofforexampleafootnotemaybecontrarytoreaderexpectationsand
oftentopresentpracticeintranslationsoffiction:inFinland,explanatoryfootnotesarecurrentlysaidtosuggestacademicwritingtoreadersandpublishers.Asan
example,wemightconsiderthefollowingrejectedtranslationofthepreviousAgagexample:
'MuistamitenAgaginkvi.'*
*Ks.ISamuelinkirja15:1833.[rejectedtranslation]'See1Sam.15:1833'

Thisstrategyemphasisestheallusionlikeasearchlight,ineffectruiningit.Inacrimenovel,abiblicalsourcereferenceattachedtoawarningutteredbyashady
charactermightberegardedasasingularlyinappropriatedeviationfromthenormsofthegenre.
Inothergenres,footnoteshavetheirdefenders.Oksala(1990:94),atranslatorofclassicalpoetry,arguesthatthepresentfashionofnofootnotesis'against
democracyofknowledge'(mytranslation).Thinkingofscholarlytranslation,heseesitasthedutyofscholarshiptoprovidereaderswith'weapons'(histerm)which
theycanuseifsoinclined,withoutalesseningoftheirpleasureinreading.AdifferentviewisheldbyDagut(1987:80),whofearsthatheavyannotationwill'turna
workofliteratureintoanethnographicsourcebook'.Ibelievethatthevalueoffootnotesisstronglydependentonglobalstrategiesandsuchconsiderationsasthe
genreandfunctionoftheTT.
AttitudestonotesdependatleastpartlyonthefunctionofthetranslationintheculturalcontextoftheTL.Masnerov(1989)describesachangingapproachamong
translatorsandpublisherstotheuseofexplanatorynotesintranslationsoffictionintoCzechinthepostSecondWorldWarera:atfirstcommentarieswerethought'a
democraticmeanstoassistreadersinbecomingacquaintedwithvastculturaltreasuresofworldliterature'(p.72),butthissometimesledtoextremes,andwas
followedbyaradicaldecreaseinnotes.Shelinksthiswiththechangingculturalstandardsofthereadingpublicandanincreaseininternationalculturalcontacts.In
Finland,too,therehasbeenadevelopmentonsimilarlines:theprewardesiretoeducatealargelyunculturedreadershipdeclinedassecondaryleveleducational
servicesbegantobeprovidedforalargersectionofeachageclass.Acomplementaryreasonisthatmostreaderstodayaredoubtlesslookingforentertainment
ratherthaninstructionwhenreadinggeneralfiction.

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Omissionofname(3b)
WehaveseenthatomissionofthePNallusionwithnoattempttoconveyitsmeaningappearstobecontrarytopresentethicalnormsamongtranslators.Somesemi
allusivedescriptionsinvolvingnamesgenerallyunfamiliartoTTreaderscouldperhapsbeomittedwithlittlelosshowever,evensuchdescriptionsmaypartlywork.A
TTreadermaybeunawareoftheconnotationsofthename,butthedescriptionmaystillconveyabasicpoint:forinstancethatacharacterlookedlikesomebody
famous(oftenanactororactress).Theremaybeinitialproblemsofinferenceifanewcharacterisintroducedwithsuchadescription,butinthetextsofthecorpus,
suchdescriptionsusuallyincludefairlydetailedauthorialclarification,asinthefollowing(wherethename,though,cannotbethoughtunfamiliar):
Betweenthecigarettesthatdanglefromhislipslikeasecondtongue,hislongdourBusterKeatonlikeface,andthethatchofgreasyblackhaironthetopofhishead,hedoes
notmakeagoodfirstimpression.(Valin,1987:19)

TherestofthissectionillustrateshowthesuggestedmethodwouldworkwithKPallusions.
Deadanddyingallusions:likeidioms
Iftheallusiondoesnotappeartohavemuchconnectionwithitssource,itmaybewisertotreatitlikeanidiom.Itisnotappropriate(asarule)totrytoevokethe
connotationsunkindestcuthasinJuliusCaesarifthealludingcontextconcernslambchops.AspreviouslynotedinChapter3,agivenallusionmayquiteoftenoccur
incontextswhereitmustbedeemeddead,butmaybereanimatedinaparticularinstance.Whetheranexampleisusedasanidiomornotcanthereforeonlybe
establishedwithregardtoeachcontextandeventhen,notalwaysconclusively.Inthefollowing,wecannodoubtassumethattheKPisnotmeanttoevokethe
sceneinMacbeth:
Butitisnotamatterofimposingthewholeapparatustomentalconceptsinonefellswoop,thenjudgingtheresult,asawhole,onthebasisofhowcharitableitisoverall.
(Wallace,1988:214)

Generallyspeaking,thesamemightbesaidof:
'havetobuyawholewardrobeatonefellswoop...'(Cross,1985:99)

Itispossible,though,thatifaSLreaderisparticularlysensitivetoallusiveconnotations,s/hemightreadthisexampleassuggestingthatthecharacterwhousesthe
phrasedoesnotquiteappreciateitsconnotations.In

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otherwords,theallusionwouldnotbedeadforthatreader.ThiskindofinterpretationwouldnotbeopentoaTTreaderifthephrasewererenderedbyaTLidiom
likekertaheitolla,whichwouldotherwiseseemappropriateenough.
Somedeadordyingallusions(forinstancethosethatarebiblical)maybetransculturalandhencehavestandardtranslations.
Standardtranslation(A)andminimumchange(B)
TheminimaxstrategyfortransculturalKPallusionsisstandardtranslation.Thetransculturalallusionhasconnotationsinthetargetcultureaswell,sothatevenin
translationtheallusionofferscompetentreadersthepleasureofrecognitionandthechancetoparticipateintheliteraryprocess,comparabletoaSTreader's
participation.Theremaybeslightchangesrequiredwhichareduetofactorsoutsidethetranslator'scontrol.ThePymexamplequotedabove(Ah,ourgoodMartha)
continues:
HeandMrsBeltanemovedslowlyintothehouse,asifconsciousofbeingtheoneswhohadchosenthebetterpart.(Pym,1979:144)

Toconveytheironyandtoevokethebiblicalsource(Luke10:42),thetranslatorneedstousethewordingofthegospel.Similarly,loavesandfishes36mayneed
theappropriatenumeralsadded:Finn.viisileipjakaksikalaa'fiveloavesandtwofishes'(Matt.14:1331).
Astandardtranslationmayfusewithminimumchange:
Fewhaveeveninvestigatedthegreatchildabusehoax.However,someonehasgottostandupandsaytheemperorhasnoclothes.Itisjustplaincommonsensethatchildabuse
isnotasfrequentas1in10,assomezealotssuggest.(TheSundayTimes,1988)37
Jonkuntytyysanoaneen,ettkeisarillaeiolevaatteita.[proposedtranslation]'Someonehastosayaloudthattheemperorhasnoclothes'

Itwasfoundearlier,however,thatstandardtranslationswerefarfromcommonintheTTsstudied(fourinstancesoutofc.90KPallusions),undoubtedlybecause
eachlanguageculturetendstoalludetoitsownsources.WhileIhavenotlookedintoalludingbyFinnishauthors,itappearslikelythatalluding,especiallytoliterary
sources,meetswithdifficultiesinFinlandbecauseofalackofsharedsources.ThewriterJoukoTyyri(citedinKahila,1990:59)comments:'Itisnolongerpossible
simplytoalludetoapassageintheBible...Itnolongerraisesanykindofresponseinthereader.IfthereaderdoesnotknowtheBible,itisnousealludingtoit.We
nolongerhaveenoughsharedtextstoalludeto'(59mytranslation).

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HecitesalsoTheKalevalaandKivi'sSevenBrothers(oncemajorworksforFinnishnationalconsciousness)asnolongerwellenoughknownforallusivepurposes.
ApresentdayBritishwriterwholikewisefeelsthathis/herreadersdonotknowtheBiblecanperhapsstillexpectthatthebiblicalphrasess/hewantstousewill
neverthelesshaveaneffectthroughtheir'freesemanticenergy'(Schaar,1991)andthecenturieslonginfluencetheyhavehadontheEnglishlanguage.Thispossible
interculturaldifferenceinfrequencyofalludingcouldbeinvestigatedinfutureresearch.IftranslatorsfeelthatalludingislesscommoninFinnish,itmaywellmakethem
optforreductiontosenseasastrategy.
Ifaminimumchangeorliteraltranslationisnotarecognisedstandardtranslation,muchofthemeaningisinevitablylost:
'Thepresentcomputerissoslowthatitcantakeuptotendaystogothroughitsdatabaseofthreehundredandfiftythousandprints.Butsomegeniusisworkingonanew
computerthat'llcutthetimedowntooneday.'
'Alwaysjamtomorrow,'saidMcMahon.(Ashford,1986:90)

ItisclearenoughthataliteraltranslationofMcMahon'slinewouldbeincomprehensibletoreadersunfamiliarwiththeWhiteQueen'srule'jamtomorrowandjam
yesterdaybutneverjamtoday'(Carroll,ThroughtheLookingGlass,Chapter5).Atranslatorwouldneedtolookforalternativestoavoidtheculturebump.
Guidance,externalmarking(C)
ExtraallusiveadditionsresemblethewaysSTauthorssometimessignalallusiontocallattentiontothefactthataphraseisborrowedratherthanoriginal.Thiscan
take,forinstance,thetypographicalformofinvertedcommasoritalics.Thefollowingisanexamplewhereitalicswereusedbytheauthor.Toanewlywidowed
character,afriend'smentionof'tomorrow'callsupthebleaknonfutureofMacbeth:
'Notnow...'Shesighedwithexasperation.'Imean,tomorrow,nextweek,fromnowon....?'
Tomorrowandtomorrowandtomorrow...Ihadn'tthoughtthatfaraheadyet.(Babson,1988:10emphasisintheoriginal)

Theitalicsemphasisethatthewordshavebeenusedbeforewithspecialmeaning,incasepotentialreadersofthepassagemightthinkthattherepetitionoftheword
indicatedforexamplethecharacter'sannoyanceatbeingaskedtomakedecisions.Italicsorinvertedcommascouldbeusedin

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translation,too,forthisexampleandformanyotherKPsthatTTreadersareunabletorecogniseasallusionswithoutsomesuchtranslatorialassistance.
ThesignalmayalsotaketheformofanintroductoryphraseinthiswayaTTreadercouldinferthatapuzzlingexpressioninthetextwaspreformedinformationthat
competentSTreaderswouldpossessaspartoftheirculturalliteracy.Asourcereferencecanalsobeslippedintothedialogue:
'Idon'tthinkI'veevermetabodyguardbefore.'
'We'rejustregularfolks,'Isaid.'Ifyoucutus,dowenotbleed?'
'Literary,too,'LindaSmithsaid.(Parker,1987a:38)
'Enoletainnutkaanennentavatahenkivartijaa.'
'Ihantavallistavke,'vakuutin.'Josmeitpisttte,emmekvuodaverta?'
'JaShakespearetluettu,'totesiLindaSmith.[proposedtranslationincorporatesthetranslationoftheShakespeareanlinebyYrjJylh]'Ifyoucutus,dowenotbleed?'You've
readyourShakespeare'

ThisproposedtranslationdealswiththeallusionbycitingthelineintheformusedinJylh'stranslationofTheMerchantofVenice(ActIII,Scene1),butadds
guidance,intheformofatranslatorialalterationinLindaSmith'scomment,whichservestoidentifythelineasaquotation.
Inthefollowing,ifthenameofthesourceofcomparisonisadded,ithelpstoidentifyhim:
HehadthefurrowedlookofsomeonewhomtheAlmightyPowerhadjusthurledflamingfromth'etherealsky.Pennylikedthemlikethat.(Moody,1985:116)
HnelloliLuciferinuurteisetkasvot,iknkuinKaikkivaltiasolisijuurisingonnuthnetliekeissalaskorkeuksista.[proposedtranslation]'HehadthefurrowedfaceofLucifer,
asiftheAlmightyhadjusthurledhimdowninflamesfromtheheavens'

ThereisnowayofevokingMiltonforgeneralFinnishreadersbyanytranslationofth'etherealsky,butalaskorkeuksistahasareligiousflavour.Thetranslation
suggestsnotthedetailsbutsomeoftheessentialelementsofthestoryofParadiseLost.
Internalmarking(E)
Internalmarkingorwhatmightbecalledsimulatedfamiliarity(signallinganallusionbyusingstylisticcontrast,foundtobeanelementinthe

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recognisabilityofallusions,cf.Chapter3)cansometimesbeachievedbyusinglinesfromanexistingtranslationofaclassictotranslateanallusion(intheShylock
exampleabove,though,theJylhtranslationshowslittlestylisticcontrastandcouldbethoughtsimplytostateabiologicalfact).Themetaphorsinthefollowing,
however:
'Hewasahusbandinamillion,agoodkindman,awonderfulmantohisfriends.Youaskanyone,askJack...Hewasoneinamillion!'
Oh!witheredisthegarlandofwar!Thesoldier'spollisfallen...Strange,Wexfordthought,thatwhenyouconsideredCharlieHattonyouthoughtofwarandsoldiersandbattles.
(Rendell,1981:89)

areclearlypoetry.TheallusiontoAntonyandCleopatra(ActIV,Scene15)(discussedinChapter3)isthematic:itisofferedasasignificantaidtointerpretation.Ifa
translatormakesuseoftheCajandertranslation:
'...Hnoliniinharvinainenmies!'
Oi,kuihtunutonsodanvoittoseppel,senlippupuunytkaatui...Aikaoutoa,Wexfordtuumi,ettCharlieHattonistatuliainamieleensotajasotilaatjataistelut.(Myproposed
translationcontainsPaavoCajander'stranslationoftheShakespeareanlineinitalics.)

thesentencewillbemarkedasanallusionbythemetaphors,thepoeticvocabulary(voittoseppel'garlandofvictory',lippupuu'flagpole,standard'38not
lipputanko,theeverydayterm)andinvertedwordorder.ThewordsthemselvesareunlikelytosuggestanyparticulartexttoFinnishreaders,sothattheexample,
becauseofitsunrecognisability,isnotcomparabletostandardtranslationsofthetobeornottobe/ollakovaieikollavarietybutthelineofpoetrywouldheighten
theatmosphereinbothSTandTT,bringinginacomparisonwithamoreliterarywayofexpressingone'slossthanthatusedbytheyoungwidowspeaking,aswellas
echoesofadifferentwayofviewing'soldiersandbattles'.Theallusioncanalsobemademorevisiblebyusingitalics.39
ReplacementbypreformedTLitem(F)
ThereplacementofaSLallusionbyaTLspecificallusionisseldomaneffectivealternative.Aspointedoutearlier,TLspecificallusionsdisturbthedesiredillusionin
translationthatTLreadersareabletoexperienceaforeignworlddespitethelanguagebarrierinmostcases,renderinghaggisaskalakukko(anEastFinnish
specialitymadeofryeflourandfish)willshattertheillusion,norwillaFinnishpoet'sversebeplausibleinsteadofaquotedpassageofEnglishpoetry.Also,textswith
matchingassociationsarenotreadilyavailable.ItwouldseemthatTLmaterialusableforthis

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strategyispreferablyanonymousthatthiswillworkbestwithproverbsandsimilarinstancesoffolkwisdom:
'Sticksandstones,'shesaidlightly.'Youknowhowitgoeson.'(Rendell,1984:32)
'Eihaukkuhaavaatee,'hnhymhti.[proposedtranslation]'[Adog's]barkdoesnotcauseawound'(Finnishproverb)

Thisisnotastandardtranslation,whichtermimpliesagreaterdegreeoflexicalsimilaritybetweenSLandTLversions(asinforinstanceaman'shouseishis
castle/kotinionlinnani'myhomeismycastle')rather,hereanideaacknowledgedinbothcultures(thataverbalattackwillnotcausephysicalharm)iscouchedin
differentimagesinthetwolanguages.
AsubtleuseofTLspecificmaterialistomodifyit,inthiswayallowingreaderstowonderwhetherornotanallusionisintended:
Underfoottherewereleaveswhichcrackledlikecornflakesastheywalked.Theairwaswarmwithresidualheat.Beneaththetreeswereshadows.Lovely,darkanddeep.(Moody,
1985:36)

InsteadoflookinguptranslationsofFrost'sline,aFinnishtranslatormightperhapsmodifyalineofaFinnishpopularsong.ThusMetssseiliikahdalehtikn'Not
aleafisstirringinthewoods'couldturnintoLehtikneiliikahtanut'Notaleafstirred'.Thiscanbetakenasanonallusivedetailinthedescriptionofthewood,but
asensitivereadermightalsoberemindedoftheatmosphereofthesong.AsTTreaderswillnotbecomparingTTandSTtheywillnotconsiderwhetherthelineof
Frostisrenderedappropriately,butthemodifiedTLallusioncouldadddepthtothedescriptionofthewoodlandscene.Theuseofpoetryidentifiableastheworkof
anindividualTLwriter,evenifmodified,mightdisturbtheillusion:thusKaukanakavalamaailma(AleksisKivi)'Farawaythewickedworld'modifiedasKavala
maailmatuntuiolevankaukana'Thewickedworldseemedfaraway',whileinmanywaysapt,mightdistractsomereadersandsetthemtowonderifandwhythe
Finnishpoetwasbeingcited.
ModifiedallusionswhosefunctionishumorousmayprofitfromreplacementbyTLspecificmaterialthebriefer,thebetter:
'Andyouheardnothing?'
'Isaid.Besides,who'dhangaroundwhenthey'djustkilledsomeone?'
'Someoneoutforsportmight.Whohadn'trealisedthere'dbeenafatalaccident.'
Mulberrybushtimeagain.'Itwasn'tanaccident.'(Moody,1985:76)

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Astheauthorhasmadealterationstothefamiliarintheexpectationthattheprimaryaudiencewillbeabletofollow,thetranslatorcantrytofirstdevisesomething
familiarandthenmodifythat,ifnecessary,forhumorouseffect.Thereferenceinthisexampletoachildren'srhymehasthemeaningof'herewegoagain',andcouldbe
renderedforinstancewithalinefromaTLnurseryrhyme:piiripienipyrii.(Thistranslationneedsnoverbalmodificationbecauseitismodifiedsituationally.)Reader
responses(Chapter5)suggestthatthehumourofmodifiedallusionsisnoteasilyconveyediftheallusionistoanunfamiliarsource.40
Reductiontosensebyrephrasal(G)
Thereductionoftheallusiontosenselendsitselfparticularlytooftenrepeatedandhencenotespeciallycreativeallusions.Thisstrategycouldbeconsideredfor
instanceforbriefallusionstoslogansindomesticpolitics,localadvertisingcampaignsandthelike,whichwouldmeanlittleornothingtotheTLaudience:
BettyandRaymondHeitgerinvitedaboutadozenoftheirfriendsandneighboursovertowatchtheheartbeatawaysweepstakes.(Shapiro,1988)

Thecolourfulimage,whichsuggeststhatthedebatecouldgoeitherwayandisareminderofthesayingthatavicepresidentisonlyaheartbeatawayfromthe
presidency,cannotberenderedaseconomicallyinalanguagewherethepoliticalclichisunfamiliar.Atranslatormightthereforedecidetousethepurelydenotational:
'towatchthevicepresidentialdebateontelevision'.Furtheremphasiscanbeaddedwiththehelpofanadjectivalattribute(forexample'exciting','crucial'orthelike).
Theansweralwaysjamtomorrow(seetheexampleunderstandardtranslation)canbeeffectivelytranslatedusingthisstrategy,thatis,findinganinformalTL
expressioncorrespondingtothespeaker'smeaning,suchastheFinnishnkisvaanorpaljonhansitpuhutaan.
Aliteraltranslationofsomeunfamiliarallusionsinawayreducesthemtosense,butwithouttherephrasal:
Kirk'sturntoscream.Itwasanicenoise.'IknowIhavethebodyofaweakandfeeblewoman',shesaidhumbly.Shecaughthimunderthechinwithbothfists.Hisheadsnapped
backwithanoiseloudenoughtostartafiftyyardsprint.'ButIhavetheheartandstomachofaking.'Shebroughttheedgeofherhanddownonhisnose.Bloodspurted.Hefell
tohisknees.(Moody,1985:183)

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TLreadersingeneralareunlikelytothinkthefirsthalfoftheallusionpreformed:Penny'swordssoundlikeamodestdisclaimerevenassheisprovingthatsheisnot
physicallyweak.Thecomparisontoakinginthesecondhalf,ontheotherhand,maywellsetbellsringingbecauseoftheunlikelihoodofsuchacomparisonintoday's
world.Butasitssourcecannotberecognisedinthetargetlanguageculture,andasaliteraltranslationofthesecondsentencewouldbeaclearculturebumpinsome
languages(Finn.Minullaonkuninkaansydnjamaha),rephrasalisneeded:
'Tiedn,ettminullaonheikonnaisenruumis,'Pennysanoinyrsti...'Muttaminullaonkuninkaansydnjarohkeus.'[proposedtranslation]'IknowIhavethebodyofaweak
woman.ButIhavetheheartandcourageofaking.'

ToElizabethI,whomPennyisquoting,41heartandstomachmeantcourage.Alternatively,someallusivewordplaycouldbeusedbyhavingPennysay:minullaon
leijonanmieli[proposedtranslation]'Ihavetheheartofalion'.Thishasassociationswiththenameofaking,RichardLionHeartbeingknownasRikhard
LeijonamieliinFinnishhistorybooks.
Omission(I)
Omission,asnotedearlierunderPNallusions,isnotoneofthestrategiesFinnishtranslatorsareeagertouse.Intheirinterviews,theythoughtofitasalastresort,but
acknowledgedthatthereareinstances,forinstancehomonymicwordplay,wherenootherstrategymaybeappropriate.Still,ifthelosscausedbyanomissionis
considerednegligibleinthecontextandifthealternativeisaculturebump,therewouldseemtobenorealreasontogotoextremestoavoidomission.Asanexample,
consider:
'I'veasmuchrightinthishouseasyouhave.Probablymore.'
'Howcome?'
'Foronething,I'veknownthefamilyallmylife.'
'Ain'tknownmyfamilyallyourlife,'Oliversaid.Hefoldedhisarms.Ifhe'dbeengreen,hecouldhavesoldalotofpeas.Excepthedidn'tlookparticularlyjolly.(Moody,1985:84)

IfthereisnorecognitionoftheJollyGreenGiantfoodproductsinthetargetculture,toforcethecomparisonwouldnotbeconsistentwiththetoneofthepassage.
Oliverhasalreadybeenestablishedasanimposingfigure,andhisrefusaltoallowtheothermanaccesswouldbedefiniteenoughevenifthelasttwosentencesofthe
passagewereomitted.

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Recreation(H)
Recreationis(usually)atimeconsumingstrategy.Inawidesense,ofcourse,alltranslationisrecreation:achangeoflanguagemeansrecreatingasituation.Ina
narrowersense,Holmes(1988:48),whendiscussingversetranslation,opposesrecreationtoretention,seeingtheseasthetwobasicalternatives.Myadoptionofthe
termrecreationwas,tosomeextent,influencedbyLevine(1975).Describingherownclosecollaborationastranslatorwiththeauthor,shereferstoinventionsand
changeswhentranslatingintoEnglishproblematicelementssuchasCubanSpanishpunsandinventedwords:'[W]etookthelibertyofcreatingtheminplaceswhere
thereweren'tany,orinplaceswheretheydidexistbutwherewecouldn'tfindnearequivalents'(Levine,1975:270).HerillustrationsofEnglishlanguagejokes
substitutedforSpanishonesinclude'famousbooks'suchas'UndertheLorrybyMalcolmVolcano'(p.271).42
Ourbasicaimwastorecreatethesystemoftheoriginaltext,andthereforewehadtoinventjokesthatwouldhaveafamiliarassociationforthereader...Butagain,thistranslation
isaversionorrecreation,notonlyinthemetaphoricalsensethatalltranslationsare,butalsointheconcretesensethatmanytextualchangesweremade.(Levine,1975:2712)

Recreationindeedseemsanappropriatedescriptionforthesearchforatranslationthatwouldconveyasmuchofthemeaningand'feelingtone'(torepeatWeldon's
quoteofFreud,seeChapter3)oftheallusionincontextaspossible.Itisalsoacreativeprocess,notjustrecreationbutcreation,resemblingtheworkofanauthor,
hardtodescribeandhardertoimplement.
(Re)creationmeansfreedomfromconstraints,freedomtoconsiderahierarchyoffactorsandtoconstructaTLversionthatmaydispensewiththeallusionitselfyet
notjustreduceittosensebutattempttogiveitsomeMehrwert(Dittgen,1989:19).Somethingnodoubtislostintheprocess,alotmaybechanged,something
(perhapsnothinglexical,butthemeaningoreffect)needstoberetained.Ithasbeensuggested(Frank,1988:146)thatonepossibleapproachtotranslatingwordplay,
whererecreationisoftenneeded,wouldbetogivemoreattentionto'theimitationofthewordplayasprocess'.Kussmaul(1991)quotestranslatorsengagedinthis
kindofimitation,withtheirdialogueleadingtounexpectedbutfunnyresults.(SeeKussmaul[1991]alsoforanoverviewofworkdoneoncreativityintranslation.)
Thefollowingtwoexampleswhererecreationisattemptedarenothumorousbutemotionallychargedsomeofthatemotion,conveyedthroughallusions,needstobe
transferredtoTTreceiversdirectly,without

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intellectualanalysis,sothatithitsthemasitdoes(receptive)readersoftheSTs.
Inthefirstexample,theallusionsareunderstatedbuthaveastrongeffectifspotted.Anelderlypolicemanaddressesayoungwomanterrorist,whomhehasmetoff
dutyasitwere,andgrownfondof:
'Ilikeyou.ButIcan'timagineasituationinwhichyourkindofrandomviolenceismorallyjustified.I'msorry.I'llhavetoletthemknowyou'recoming...'
'Youwould,too.I'lltellyousomethingaboutyourkindyouthinkyou'vegotamonopolyofduty.Whenwedie,whenwearetortured,whenwestickoutlifesentencesinthe
penthat'snotduty.'
Shespokeseriously,withoutcontempt,hervoicegentleandlowanexcellentthinginwoman.ButPibblefeltasthoughhehadbeenscytheddownbyherbladedwheels.
(Dickinson,1985:1467emphasisonweintheoriginal)

Thetwocontradictoryallusions,toCordeliaandtoBoadicea,describingPibble'sfeelingsforTony,theyoungwoman,indicatetheturmoilinhismind:asanolder
man,hefeelstenderness(notwhollypaternal)forTonyasapolicemanresponsibleforlawenforcement,hemustcondemntheterrorist.ThelineofLearechoinginhis
mindoccursinthescenewhereLearisgrievingforthedeathofhisdaughtertheimageofawarriorqueen'scythingdown'peopleassociateswiththedestruction
causedbyterroristacts.Still,BoadicealostherwarTonyisindangerofdeathoralifesentenceandPibblewillgrieveforthelossandthewastelikeLear.
Itisclearthatnotranslationcanmakeallofthisevidentinaculturewherethesourcesoftheallusionsarelittleknownorunfamiliar.Ontheotherhand,thisisperhaps
aparticularlysophisticatedexampleoftheuseofallusion(inthiscorpus),withtheallusiontoCordeliaeasilymissedbySTreadersaswell.Compromiseis
unavoidable,butsomeoftheelementsmaybetransferred.Mytentativeproposalbringsina'deardaughter','achariotofwar',addsBoadicea'snameasasource
referencetobelookedupifdesired,andspecifiesbywayofcompensationthatwhatPibblefeltwas'asharppaininhischest':43
...Hnpuhuivakavasti,halveksimatta,jahnennensolilempejahiljainen,kuinrakkaantyttrenni.KuitenkinPibblenrintaavihlaisi,iknkuinhnolisijnyt
Boadiceansotavaunujenalle.[proposedtranslation]
'Shespokeseriously,withoutcontempt,andhervoicewasgentleandlowlikethevoiceofadeardaughter.AndyetPibblefeltasharppaininhischest,asifhehadbeenrunover
byBoadicea'schariotofwar.'

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Lossesincludetheaspectofthedeathofthedaughter,andBoadicea'seventualdefeat.TheJylhtranslationofLearrendersthelinesas:nesolivieno,/Svyis,
hell:naisess'oivamerkki'Yourvoicewassoft,gentleandtender:afinesigninawoman'(ActV,Scene3).Noneoftheadjectivesusedwouldbythemselvesorin
combinationevokethissceneforFinnishreaders.Norwouldthemetaphorofbladedwheelsevokeanythingspecific,unlikeinEnglish.Still,theproposedtranslation
doescontaintheelementsofwar,ancienttimesandawomanwarrior.44
Inanotherexample,recreationisusedforapicturecaptiononthecoveroftheChristmas1988issueofTheNewStatesmanandSociety:TheGhostsof
ChristmasPresent,whichwasattachedtoapictureofstarvingchildrenintheSudan.ThiswasaseasonalallusiontoDickens'sAChristmasCarol(atextlargely
unknowninFinland).TheFinnishwordsforghostshavenolinktoChristmas,butasthepurposeofthecaptionwastoshockthereaderbylinkingaffluentWestern
waysofcelebratingChristmastothestarvationofchildreninAfrica,aphraseassociatedwithChristmaswasneeded.Recreationcouldforinstanceresultinturninga
lineofawellknownFinnishChristmascarol(Koskameillonjoulu'Becauseit'sChristmas')intoapoignantquestion:
Koskameillonjoulu?[proposedtranslation]'WhenwillwehaveaChristmas?'

askoskaisbothasubordinator('because')andaninterrogative('when').
Tosumup,ifthetranslationofallusionsisseenasadecisionmakingprocesswherethetranslatormakesaseriesof'moves,asinagame'(Lev,1967:1171),45this
suggeststhatthemovescanbechartedandputintoapriorityorder.Suchapriorityorderingcouldbebasedsimplyonobservationsonhowtranslatorsdealwith
allusions.However,asreaderresponsetestssuggest(seeChapter5)thatinsomeindividualcasesatleastcurrentpracticewasnotentirelysuccessful(generalisations
onthebasisofasmallnumberofexamplesonlyarealwaysproblematic),amorebalanceduseofthedifferentstrategiesthanthatfounddescribedearlierinthis
Chaptermightmakeforbetterreadersatisfaction.
Assumingthataresponsibletranslatorwillnotwantunnecessarilytoimpoverishorobscuretheauthor'stextnortoleavethereaderpuzzledorunabletofollowit,itis
clearthatreceiversmustbetakenintoaccount.IfTTreaders(oftextsofthetypeandfunctionunderconsiderationinthisstudy)areentitledtoTTswhichare
coherent,offeringelementsneededforresponsesandinterpretations,justasSTreaderscanrespondtoandinterpretimplicitmessagesintextsintheirown
languageabasicassumptionin

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thisstudytranslatorsneedtoconsiderwhatstrategieswillleadtosuchaTT,astheirgoal.Iftheysuspectthatagivenstrategyisineffectiveinatranslationsituation
characterisedbyacertaincombinationoffactors,theywouldbewelladvisedtolookformoreeffectivealternatives.
Willtheapplicationofagivenstrategyresultinatranslationwhichconveysthefunctionandmeaningoftheallusion,meetsreaderexpectationsandallowsforreader
participation?Suchqualititativecriteriaare,tosomedegree,inevitablyspeculative,butitwouldservelittlepurposetotrytoconstructaquantifiablesetofparameters
instead.IfatranslationistoconformtoLev'sideaofa'minimax'strategy,criteriawouldneedtobebothtranslatororiented('mini')andproductoriented('max').
Atranslatorwillthenchoose'thatoneofthepossiblesolutionswhichpromisesamaximumofeffectwithaminimumofeffort'(Lev,1967:1179).S/hewillnotbe
contentwithatranslationthatisnotgoingtowork,butneitherwills/hewishtospendtimetryingtoconstructeverbettertranslationsifones/heiscontentwithhas
alreadybeenfound.Inteachingtranslation,accordingly,apriorityorderingofstrategiescangiveusapossiblemethodofdealingwithallusions,asoutlinedearlier.
Startingwitheasyandeffortlessstrategies(cf.theflowcharts,Figures2and3)willsavetranslatorstime,butconsiderationoflesscommonstrategieswherethemore
commononesarenotdeemedeffectivewillhelpensurethatthefullrangeofpotentialalternativesisnotedinindividualcases.
Severalcautionsareinorderhere,toclarifythepositiontaken.Perhapsmostimportantly,itneedstoberememberedthatalldecisionsultimatelydependonfactors
(includinggenre,texttype,functionofTT,intendedaudience,contextetc.)whichareconsideredearlierinthetranslationprocessthanareSTallusions.Thusitis
recognisedthatthe'globalstrategies'(Sguinot,1989)whichthetranslatormakesinitially,regardingthetranslationtaskasawhole,willclearlyaffect'localstrategies'
too:forexamplereductiontosensemaybemoreoftenacceptableininformativethaninliterarytexts,andtargetculturalreplacementsinfilmandtelevisionthanin
print.Thepresentdiscussionconcernslocalstrategiesonly,orwaysofdealingwithaSTallusiononceithasbeenspotted.(Clearly,theidentificationofanallusive
problem,whichsparksofftheproblemsolvinganddecisionmaking,isbynomeansautomatic:ifatranslator'sSLskillsand/orculturalcompetenceareinsufficient
s/hemaywellnotdiagnosetheproblemwhenitoccurs.)
Itshouldbenoted,too,thatthispresentationofapriorityorderingofstrategiesisnotofferedasafoolproofmethodofarrivingatanoptimalsolution(acriticism
madebyToury[1992:67]oftheseriesofsteps

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technique).Forinstance,anoverlyeyecatchingtranslationofanallusion,howeverapt,maybedetrimentaltothecoherenceofthetranslation.Omissionwithno
compensationwillavoidaculturebumpbutmostlyresultinsomedegreeofloss.46Theacceptanceofeachstrategyalsodependsontargetculturalnorms,whichare
notimmutable.
TheremaybeaneedforbettermetaculturalawarenessofcrucialdifferencesbetweenSTandTTaudiences.Theneglectofreaders'requirementsandexpectations
aredoubtlesspartlyduetoalackofavailabledata.Hlebec(1989)seesaneedforresearchonreaders'expectationstobeundertakeninordertoguidefuture
translatorsworkingonsimilartextsthereaderresponsetestsreportedinChapter5mayshedsomelightonFinnishreaderexpectationsandreactionswithregardto
thetranslationofallusions.
ThesourcesoftheallusionsinChapter4
bravenewworld:Shakespeare,TheTempest,ActV,Scene1.AldousHuxley'snovel(1932).'Currentusageisgenerallyironic'(Lassetal.,1987:32).
thatnotimpossibleshe:RichardCrashaw,'WishestohisSupposedMistress'(1646).
Joseph(Joe)McCarthy:UnitedStatessenator(190857),knownforhisantiCommuniststance.
BruceLee:filmactorandmartialartsperformer.
SwanLake:balletmusiccomposedbyTchaikovsky(1876).
thePiedPiperofHamelin:medievallegend:afigurewhoridatownofitsratsby'charmingthemawaywithhisfluteplaying'(PCE667).RetoldinversebyRobert
Browning.
ScyllaandCharybdis:Greekmyth:twoseamonsterspreyingonshipsandsailorsintheStraitofMessina.
Oedipus:Greekmyth.
theWalrusandtheCarpenter:charactersinapoeminLewisCarroll'sThroughtheLookingGlass(Chapter4).
theWhiteRabbit:seep.29.
MarieAntoinette:queenofFranceatthetimeoftherevolutionof1789.
PhilipMarlowe:RaymondChandler'sfictionaldetective.
BartSimpson:boycharacterintheanimatedcartoonTheSimpsons.
AnitaBryant:Americanformerbeautyqueenknownforherantihomosexualstance.
PhyllisSchlafly:Americanantifeminist.
Pandora'sbox:Greekmyth:Pandora,againstalladvice,openedherboxandallowedallkindsoftroublestoescapetoplaguehumankind.
SpiroAgnew:RichardNixon'svicepresident196973.
SirLancelot,SirGalahad:knightsoftheRoundTable.

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WinniethePooh:eponymousheroofA.A.Milne'schildren'sclassic.
RebeccaofSunnybrookFarm:maincharacterinKateDouglasWiggin'sstoriesforyoungreaders.
theEumenides:Greekmyth:thefuries.SeeforinstanceAeschylus'Oresteia.
e.e.cummings:Americanpoet(18941962).
HumptyDumpty:eggshapedcharacterinnurseryrhyme.
DaisyBuchanan:heroineofF.ScottFitzgerald'snovelTheGreatGatsby.
there'snosuchthingasafreelunch:attributedbyAlistairCooketoanItalianimmigrantwhowasaskedwhat40yearsoflivinginAmericahadtaughthim(DMQ
18).
What,never?Hardlyever:W.S.Gilbert,H.M.S.Pinafore.
onlyconnect:E.M.Forster,HowardsEnd.
thelandofthefree:FrancisScottKey,'TheStarSpangledBanner'.
tangledarethewebsweweave:seep.75.
theslingsandarrowsofoutrageousfortune:Hamlet,ActIII,Scene1.
thewritingonthewall:Dan.5:25.
toolsofcapitalism:socialistorcommunistphraseofderision.
thesnowsofyesteryear:DanteGabrielRossetti'stranslationofFrancoisVillon'sphraselesneigesd'antan.
inthegraveyards,everyone:seep.74.
Martha:sisterofMaryandLazarus(John11:144).
NancyDrew:maincharacterinCarolynKeene'sadventurestoriesforyoungreaders.
Fangio:JuanManuelFangio,Argentinanracingcardriver(activeinthe1950s).
KekeRosberg:Finnishracingcardriver(activeinthe1980s).
Gradgrind:familyinDickens'sHardTimes.
DotheboysHall:schoolinDickens'sNicholasNickleby.
BusterKeaton:Americanfilmactor.
theemperorhasnoclothes:seep.11.
tomorrowandtomorrowandtomorrow:Macbeth,ActV,Scene5.
lovely,darkanddeep:seep.71.
mulberrybush:nurseryrhyme('Herewegoroundamulberrybush').
Notes
1.BystandardtranslationImeanapreformedTLversion.EnglishandFinnishbiblicalphrasesareatypicalexample.Theyareoriginallytranslationsfromacommon
ST.
2.ThefirsttwooftheFinnishnamesarethoseoffictionalcharactersinnovelsbyVinLinnaandAleksisKivirespectivelyKallePtaloisaprolificwritermuch
readinFinlandthelasttwonamesarethoseofthemaincharactersofaseriesofadventurestoriesforyoungreadersbyVinRiikkil.

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3.Inthistest(conductedaspartofthetestdesignatedasKLAinChapter5),therespondentswere47studentsand4teachersattheKouvoladepartmentof
translation(UniversityofHelsinki).Theywereaskedtounderlineanyfamiliarnamesamongeightnameslisted(withoutcontext),andtogiveabriefnoteof
identification.(Forthesecondpart,seeChapter5fordetailsontherespondents,seeAppendix2.)
4.Cf.Lassetal.(1987:178):'ThechildheroineofaseriesofnovelsbyEleanorH.Portershealwayslooksonthebrightersideofthings.A''Pollyannaattitude"
nowdenotesaratherfoolish,saccharineoptimism.'Therespondentsdidnotexpressawarenessofthe'degeneration'ofthenameLassetal.alludeto,butpresented
Pollyanna'sattitudeatfacevalue.
5.Thiscouldapplytoothercharactersintextsofthesamegenre,suchasEmilyinEmilyofNewMoonbyL.M.Montgomery.
6.Threeofthefiverespondentswithfivepointstwoofthefourwithsixpointstheonewithsevenpointsoneofthetwowitheightpointsandtheonewithninepoints
wereallpeoplewhoworkedwithEnglish.
7.AnallusiontoRichardCrashaw,'WishestohisSupposedMistress',asintheexample:'...tellyouifournotimpossiblesheisseriousaboutkillingherself?...'(Hill,
1991:129,myemphasis)
8.Replacementoftheallusionbybetterknownsourceculturespecificmaterial(strategy2aonthePNlist)isnotnotedontheKPlistasitseemstobeofnopractical
valuewithKPs.
9.Interestingly,students'reactionstosuchastrategyhavebeenquitepositive:'Itwasjusttoomuchforthemtocopewithandtheysaidso'astudent'scommentin
mytranslationclass,1990.Ihavenoinformationonthereactionsofmonolingualviewers.
10.Thetwotranslatorsofoneofthetexts(Allingham)couldnotbereached.AlthoughthepaperbackeditionusedgavetheTTthepublicationdateof1990,itturned
outthatthetextwasareprint,andhadactuallybeentranslatedin19601(letterfromthepublisher,WSOY,1992).Becauseofthetimelag,thepublishernolonger
hadthetranslators'addressesonfileandcouldnotputmeintouchwiththem.
11.ThetranslatorwiththePhD(Hakola)didnotanswerthisquestion.
12.'AllIrequireofatranslatoristhatheorshebeamoregiftedwriterthanIam,andinatleasttwolanguages,oneofthemmine.'(KurtVonnegut,FatesWorse
ThanDeath,p.181,citedbyEJinhiswrittenanswerstothequestionnaire.)
13.InthecourseofthestudyIspoketooneoftheauthorsofthecorpus,whoverified,amongotherpoints,thatthedescriptionofthecharacterAnnabelLee(whose
name,ofcourse,isallusive)assomeonewhowas:'morethanalittlemad,andverybad,andhatedNell'(Weldon,1988:193)wasindeedintendedasanallusionto
thedescriptionofLordByronasmad,bad,anddangeroustoknow(Weldon,personalinterview,Espoo,Finland,17March1989).However,theusefulnessof
authorinterviewsislimitedassomeuseofallusionsmaybeunconscious,sothatanauthordoesnotnecessarilyalwaysknowwhethers/heisalluding,letalonewhat
s/heisalludingto.
14.ThetranslatorKerstiJuva(1993),whendiscussingherexperiencesintranslatingSayers'sGaudyNight,explainsthatafterconsiderablethoughtandconsultations
withtheFinnishpublishershecametotheconclusionthatanumberofculturespecificterms(forexampleBodleian,bursar,don)shouldbe

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leftuntranslatedwhileaglossaryexplainingthetermswastobeappendedatthebackofthebook.Thisdecisionisunusual.
15.AsimilarobservationwasmadebythetranslatorRistoRaitio(personalcommunication,April1992),whohadmadesomecomparisonsbetweenhisown
translationsoffictionandSwedishtranslationsofthesametexts.
16.EC'stermforthefirst,fastrenderingofthetranslation.
17.Explanationsmaybedifficultevenwithoutatimegap.ECcitedJeanCocteau:'Anartistcannotspeakabouthisartanymorethanaplantcandiscusshorticulture.'
18.Inafewinstances,itisdifficulttoassignallusionstooneortheothercategoryastheymaycontainelementsofbothPNsandKPs.
19.Whilesomecriticalremarkscouldbemadeonafewofthese,IshallsimplynotethattheFinnishrenderingsoftheWhiteRabbitasValkoinenjnisandthe
CheshireCatasVirnukissa(forinstanceinLurie,1988:77)arenotthoseusedinthetwofulllengthtranslationsofAlice(IrvikissainSwan[1906]andMrklli
inKunnasandManner[1972]).(ThereisnowathirdfulllengthFinnishtranslationofAlice,[Martin,1995],butthatwasnotavailabletothetranslatorsofthetexts
examined.)Inherinterview,thetranslatorofLurie(EC)saidthatshehadusedherchildrenasinformantsonchildren'sliterature,withoutspecifyinginwhichparticular
formtheyhadmetAlice.OthernamesthanthoseusedinthefulllengthliterarytranslationshavebeenusedintranslationsofpicturebookorfilmandTVversions.For
exampleavideocassetteofDisney'sfilmAliceinWonderland(1951)onsaletoFinnsintheearly1990sreferstotheCheshireCatasVeijarikissa,anothername
notusedbySwanorKunnasandManner.
20.ThephrasePandoranlipas'Pandora'sbox'itselfisusedinFinnishoftenenoughforajournalisttohavedrawnattentiontoamisunderstandingofitsmeaning
(Nortamo,1992).Hence,renderingthenameasPandoraLipasmightworkquitewell.
21.Pollyanna,byEleanorH.Porter,wasfirstpublishedinFinnishtranslationin1916,underthetitleIloinentytt,'TheHappyGirl'.RebeccaofSunnybrookFarm
byKateDouglasWigginwastranslatedasVilliruusu,'WildRose',andfirstpublishedin1919.Mystudents(inthe1990s)haveexpressednorecognitionofthe
latter.
22.MycommentsonbiblicalphrasesinFinnisharebasedontheBibletranslationsof1933(TheOldTestament)and1938(TheNewTestament),whichwerein
officialuseintheFinnishLutheranchurchwhentheTTswerepublished.Thesebiblicaltranslationshavesincebeenreplacedbyamoremodernversion(1992),which
hasnothadmuchtimeyettoaffecttheFinnishlanguage.
23.Literally,ljypuutranslatesas'oiltree'.Innonbiblicalconnections,thetreeisknownasoliivipuu'olivetree'.Oliivi'olive'ishardlyeverusedofthetree,it
usuallymeansthefruit,asinoliiviljy'oliveoil'.
24.Seealsothediscussionofdeadallusionsearlierinthechapter.
25.TheappropriatenessofArnott'sdescriptionwasmadeclearinanexperienceinclass:astudentspontaneouslybroughtupanexampleofafootnotesheclaimedto
havenotedinaTT.Whenshechecked,shefoundthatthetranslatorhadnotinfactusedanactualfootnotebutappearedtohaveslippedtheinformationneededby
theTTreaderintothetextitself.AcheckoftheST(Francis,1990:148)nextshowedthatthe'extra'information(ontheWarsoftheRosesconnotationsofYorkand
Lancaster)hadactuallybeengivenbytheSTauthorhimself,andtherewasnotranslatorialintervention.

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26.ThemostcommonsourcenamedwasindeedtheLord'sPrayer,butmostlythesourcewasgivenvaguelyas'biblical'.
27.Whethertheallusionshouldbeseenassomethingmorethanawisecrack(forinstanceasastraightorironicalreferencetopolicemenenforcinglawandorderina
capitalisticsociety)isdifficulttodetermine.
28.TheattitudesofalargernumberofliterarytranslatorstotheirrolewererecentlythesubjectofaninquirybyRatinen(1992),whoreports(aftermyinterviewshad
beenconducted)thatofthe163literarytranslatorswhoreturnedherquestionnaire,thefollowingpercentagessawasamajortaskoftheirs:
actingasmediator:53.4%
providinganaccurateinterpretation,agoodandcorrecttranslation:49.7%
makingagoodbookorwriterbetterknown:15.3%
maintaininganddevelopinglanguageandculture:9.8%
furtheringinternationalunderstanding:6.1%
other:6.1%(mytranslation).
29.Butomission,clearlyeffortless,comeslateontheflowchartbecauseitdoesnotmaximiseeffectandbecauseofthecurrenttranslatorialnormagainstit(in
Finland).
30.Theflowchartsdonotrepresentacompletemodelofatranslationprocessfrombeginningtoend.Suchmodelshavebeendevisedingreaterorlesserdetail,
rangingfromthesimplicityofNidaandTaber's(1969)tomorecomplexmodelsasinLrscher(1991:118).Holmes(1988)arguesconvincinglythatitissimplisticto
thinkoftranslationasaserialprocessonly(p.102)thereisalsoa'structuralplane,onwhichoneabstractsa"mentalconception"'oftheST,whichthenservesasa
'generalcriterionagainstwhichtotesteachsentenceduringtheformulation'oftheTT(pp.823).Holmesthendevelopsthisintoanotherquitecomplexmodel(pp.83
5).
31.PaulaiseasierforyoungFinnishreaderstopronouncethanNancy.ThepresenceofotherallusionstoNancyDrewinthecorpussuggestthatthenameand'title'
arewellknownamongAmericanreaders.Cf.'Well,youhadgoodreasontobefrightened,'shesaid.'Whileyou,KateDavis,girldetective,don't?'(Valin,1987:
170emphasisadded.)Inthisexampletherealnameofthecharacteraddressedisused,buttheappositiongirldetectivehasasimilareffectasNancyDrewinthe
Paretskyexample.TheNancyDrewmysterystoriesareknownasNeitiEtsivkirjat('MissDetectivebooks')toFinnishreaders.Manyofthemhavebeenavailable
inFinnishtranslationforthepast30yearsatleast.
32.Cf.theCoverdaletranslation'tenderly'andtheGenevaBible'pleasantly'.(QEDs.v.delicately)
33.ThisstrategyisusedmoreofteninfilmandTVtranslationdiscussionswithstudentssuggestthatitoftenworks,butthatsomereceivershavereservations
concerningthestrategy.AnexamplerecalledbyastudentwasanAmericanfilmwherementionwasmadeindialogueoftheOprahWinfreyShowthiswasreplaced
bymentionofacontroversialFinnishseriesofTVinterviews,Hermunen.Arelatedbutglobalstrategy,theuseofTLnamesfor'localising'thetextinthetargetculture
islittleusedtodayoutsideofchildren'sbooks.Itusedtobemorecommon:Masnerov(1989:68)notesthatCzechtranslatorswereinclined

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towardslocalisingthetextintheirowncountryinthelate18thandearly19thcenturies.InFinlandlikewise,therewasforexampleanearlyadaptationof
RobinsonCrusoe(1911),wheretheprotagonistwasmadeintoaFinnwiththeFinnishnameof'RistoRoopenpoika'(Hmlinen,1988:1323).Thiswasan
adaptationforchildren.
34.InadditiontoKekeRosbergnotbeingthenamechosenbytheauthor,thereisalsoadifferenceintimebetweenthenamesconsidered,asJuanManuelFangio
wasactiveasaracingcardriverinthe1950s,KekeRosberginthe1980s.
35.TheKLAtestindicatedthatthischaracterinDickens'sHardTimesisnotafamiliarnameinFinland.
36.Asin:Shewenttothebankandcashedthecheckhehadgivenher,boughtherpantyhoseandafreshsupplyofloavesandfishes,andwentbacktofeedthe
multitudes.(MacLeod,1980:160)Inthisexamplemultitudesreinforcesthebiblicalallusion.
37.TheoriginallyDanishAndersenianallusionistranscultural:itislistedalsoinaFinnishdictionaryofquotations(Sinnemki,1989).
38.Rendellusesthewordpoll'head',buttheTudoreditionofShakespeare'sCompleteWorksandtheNewSwanandArdeneditionsoftheplayhavepole
'standard'.
39.Aminimumchangetranslationwouldbeclosetotheproposedtranslationforthefirstpartoftheallusion,butwouldbeastylisticmismatchforthesecondpart:the
literalsotilaanponkaatunut'thesoldier'sheadhasfallen'resemblestheFinnishexpressionsittenkunminunpnikaatuu'aftermyheadfalls'inotherwords,
'whenI'mnolongeralive',whichisdatedandhasovertonesofoldage.
40.Transculturalallusionshaveconnotationsinbothlanguages,andmonoculturalTLreadersmaywellthinkofsomeofthemasTLspecific:forexampleJohn
Brown'sbodyliesamoulderinginthegrave/KalleKustaanmuorimakaahiljaahaudassaan(apopularsong)Gotoworkonanegg/Menemunallatihin
(anadvertisingslogan).
41.ThislineoccurredinthespeechthequeengaveatTilburyon9August,1588attheapproachoftheSpanishArmada(Fraser,1989:223).
42.Cf.MalcolmLowry,UndertheVolcano(1947).
43.Othertranslatorsarelikelytocomeupwithverydifferentversions.InKussmaul's(1991)empiricalinvestigationofcreativetranslation,'highlyoriginal'translations
wereproduced'quiteoften'(p.98).
44.ThestatueofBoadiceaandherdaughtersinLondonshowstheminascythewheeledchariot,'anditisinfactthosemurderouskniveswhichstampourperception
ofherindelibly'(Fraser,1989:3).Fraserpointsoutthathistoricallythisdepictionisfalse.
45.Lev'smetaphorimpliesaconsciousweighingofoptions,whilerecentresearchsuggeststhatexperiencedtranslatorshaveautomatisedtheirproblemsolving
behaviourtoagreaterorlesserdegree.
46.Hnig(1993:121)arguesthattermslikelossandcompensation'cannotsuccessfullybeintegratedintoanyfunctionalapproachtotranslation'.Itwouldseem,
however,thatifforinstanceahumorousallusionisomitted,therewillasaresult,mathematicallyspeaking,bealittlelesshumourintheTTthanifasuitablehumorous
translationwerefoundfortheallusion,orifthetranslatorcompensatedforthelossbyaddingatouchofhumourelsewhereinthetext.

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5
EmpiricalDataonReaderResponses
Translatorsseldomhaveaccesstothewaytheirreadersrespondtothesolutionschosenandthestrategiesadopted.Afterall,generalreadersrarelyapproach
translatorstooffercongratulationsorcriticism,andreviewersoftendisregardthetranslator'sworkentirelyunlesstheywanttocallattentiontosomelanguageerror.
TranslationstudiesgrantsTTreadersimportanceintheorybutcanofferlittlepracticalhelp(cf.Chapter2).Inliterarystudiesreceiverstendtobeseenintheabstract
andthesingularthe'implied','informed'or'ideal'readerisafictionalconstruct,'innowaytobeidentifiedwithanyrealreader'(Iser,1978:34).Arerealreadersthen
negligible?Shouldtherenotalsobesomeinterestintheresponsesofindividuals,actualreallifepeoplewhosereactionscanbetestedtoprovideempiricaldata?1 If
textsneedtoreachnotjusttheirprimaryaddressees,thereadersoftheST,butalso,whentranslated,theirsecondaryreaders,whatbothgroupsofreceiversmakeof
thetexthowtheyreaditisanessentialpartofthecommunicativeprocess.
Readerresponsecriticismarguesthatwhatgoesonbetweenthetextandthereaderisnotpassivereceptionbutcreativeinteraction.Iser(1974,1978)isonewho
seesthemeaningofatextastheresultofaprocessofinteractionbetweenauthorandreader,meaningemergingnotfromthetextalonebutalsofromthereader's
processingofthetext.Hespeaksofgapsleftinthetextforthereadertofillin.Thisideaofanimpliedreaderfillingingapsinthetexttoproducemeaningcannotbe
testedempirically.Ifinsteadwethinkofactualreadersengagedinthesamegapfillingactivityandallusionscanindeedbeseenasonesortofgaporblanktobe
filledinwecandoubtlessforeseethatbecauseoftheirindividuality,readersmaywellactualisearangeofdifferentmeaningsforagiventext.Arelativistembracing
theideaofamultiplicityofmeaningsmightacceptalltheresponsestoallusionsofferedbytherespondentsasequallylegitimatehowever,Iprefertoadoptthemore
controversialbutsurelycommonsensepositionthatsomeoftheTTreaderresponsesgivenhereshowthatthereaderinquestionhas

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eithermissedthepointorisexpressinganinterpretationthatclearlydiffersfromonesuggestedbyatextualanalysisofthecorrespondingSTpassage.Suchresponses
areduetothereaderfailingtonotethepresenceofintertextualelements,butitisthetranslator'schoiceofstrategythatlargelydetermineswhetherthemeaning
suggestedbytheintertextualitycanbereceivedbymonoculturalTTreaders.
Idonotsuggest,however,thatTTsshouldbevaluedonlytotheextentthattheycorrespondtoSTsinalldetailTTreadersareunlikelytocompareTTtoSTandto
judgetheirsatisfactionbytheresultsofsuchcomparison.Still,aTTreaderhim/herselfcanbeconsciousofnothavingbeengiventhenecessarymaterialstoworkwith,
whileadifferentsolutionmighthaveenabledhim/hertomakebettersenseofanallusivepassage.
Thischapterlooksintotheresponsesofrealreaderstoallusionsintargettextsinordertoverifytheassumptionthatminimumchange(literal)translationsofunfamiliar
allusionsmaywellbeculturebumpsforreceiverswhodonotsharetheculturalbackgroundoftheprimary(SL)audience,unlessthetranslatortakesstepstoprevent
this.Therearenaturallynumerousproblemsconnectedwiththiskindofinquiry,whichIdonottrytominimisebuttobypasstheviewpointofrealreadersaltogether
seemedtheweakeralternative.
NotesontheFinnishTargetCulture
Asthereis'adirectcorrelationbetweenaculture'sdistancefromourownandthenumberofreculturingsthetranslatormustmake'(Frank,1988:27),abrief
descriptionofsomeaspectsoftheFinnishtargetcultureisinorder,toputtheempiricaldatagivenhereintoasocialcontext.Finlandhaslonghadaveryhighliteracy
rateduetotheinfluenceoftheLutheranchurch,whichfromthe17thcenturyondesiredthatadultparishmembersshouldbeliterate,andenforcedthisbyrequiring
thatengagedcouplesshouldhavetoknowhowtoreadbeforetheycouldbemarried.Whatwasrequiredwasnot,ofcourse,functionalliteracythegoalwassimply
thatparishionersshouldbeabletodecipherwrittenreligiousinstruction.Theabilitytowritewasthoughtunnecessary,'nordidtheparishschoolmastersthemselves
alwayspossessthisskill'(Paloposki,1986:52mytranslation).Therewereanumberofearlytypesofreligiousandsecularschoolsinthe18thand19thcenturies,and
aftertheSchoolActof1866theschoolsystembegantoprovidebasicschoolingforanincreasingnumberofchildrenandsecondaryschoolsforasmalllite.
Compulsoryeducationwasestablishedin1921,butonlyaminorityofeachageclasswenttosecondaryschool,learninglanguagesotherthantheirown.Itwasonly
aftertheSecond

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WorldWarthatGermanwasoustedfromitspositionastheforeignlanguagemostwidelytaughtandreplacedbyEnglishthevisibilityofAngloAmericanculturehas
growninFinlandasinotherWesternEuropeancountriesineachsucceedingdecade.Foreignlanguagelearningdidnotbecomeavailabletoallschoolgoersuntilthe
1970swiththearrivalofcomprehensiveeducation.
Intheearly19thcenturymostreadersofliterarytextsinFinlandhadbeeneducatedinSwedish,andtherewaslittletranslationintoFinnishofotherthanreligiousor
legaltexts.2 AnincreaseintranslationintoFinnishwaslinkedtoariseofnationalconsciousnessfromthe1840sonandaconsequentdesiretobringthenativetongue
closertothestandardssetbymoreestablishedlanguagesandcultures.Thistrendstimulateddecadesoftranslationactivity,andFinnishtranslationsoffamousWestern
andRussianwritershaveasarulebeenavailablesincethelatterhalfofthe19thcentury.3 Translationshavebeeninfluentialintheeducationofmanyselftaughtwriters
andreaders,buttheculturaldiffusionhasbeenslow:forexamplefamiliarallusionstoShakespearearelimitedtoafewexamplesonly.Foralongtimetranslationsfrom
Englishwerequiterare:threebooksweretranslatedin1885,fivein1895,12in1905,25in1915,etc.Onlyinthe1920swasthereanexplosionofliterature
translatedfromEnglish,butnumbersfellagaininthe1930s.MostofthebookstranslatedfromEnglishwerelightentertainment,detectivestoriesandthelike(Kovala,
1989:26),andthesewerenotinfrequentlytranslatedviatheirSwedishorGermantranslations(p.28).AllthischangedaftertheSecondWorldWar,andcurrently
Englishistheforeignlanguagemostoftentranslatedfrom.Englishalsodominatesinfilmandtelevision:Jalonen(1985)hasexaminedtheperiod192378andfound
that57%ofimportedfilmsand58%oftranslatedfictioninthoseyearswereofBritishorAmericanorigin.Forimportedtelevisionprogrammesin196378,the
correspondingfigurewas61%(p.266).Englishlanguagebooks,filmsandtelevisionprogrammesarealsoimportedfromothercountriesthanBritainandtheUSAif
suchsourceswereincluded,theywouldfurtherincreasethefigures.Jalonensummariseshisfindingsforthetopsixcountriesasfollows:duringtheperiod192378
41%ofculturalimportstoFinlandcamefromtheUnitedStates,18%fromBritain,7%fromFrance,WestGermanyandSwedenrespectively,and3%fromthethen
SovietUnion(p.266).
Asarule,Finnsarekeenreaders:thereisawidespreadnetworkoffreelendinglibrariesprovidedbyeachmunicipalityandregularlyusedbynearly50%ofthe
population,andmostfamiliessubscribetoanewspaper.4 ThisisincontrasttotheUnitedStates,wherec.60%oftheadultpopulationapparentlyneverreadabook,
andmostoftheremaining40%onlyreadone

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bookayearontheaverage(Kernan1989:159)afactornodoubtpartlyresponsiblefortheperceivedneedformore'culturalliteracy'inthatsociety(forthedebate
onthisineducationalcirclesinthelate1980sseeforinstanceFranklin,1988therehasbeennocomparabledebateinFinland).Aninternationalreportin1992stating
thatFinnishchildrenandteenagerswerethemostaccomplishedreadersamongtheircontemporariesinmanyEuropeancountrieswasnotednotonlyinFinnish
educationalcirclesbutalsointhenationalpress.
Booksbynativelanguagewritersaregenerallymorepopularthantranslationsamongthemajorityofreaders.5 ParticularlypopularinFinlandhavebeenrealistic
novelsrecountingnationalexperiencesintimesofcrisis(thecivilwarof1918,thewaryears193944,thechangefromaruraltoanurbansocietyinthepostwar
years)andwrittenbywriterswhoknewthesefrompersonalexperience(forexampleVinLinna,KallePtalo).Writingprovidedapossiblewayforthewriterto
achieveupwardsocialmobilityandmanyFinnishwritershaveemergedfromtheruralorurbanworkingclass(inadditiontoLinnaandPtalothisgroupincludes,for
instance,PenttiHaanp,LauriViita,TimoK.Mukka,HeikkiTurunen,AlpoRuuthandmanyothers).Writerswhodepartfromtherealistictraditiontendtoberead
byasmallernumberofreaders.
Some60%offictionpublishedinFinlandsince1954hasbeen'offoreignorigin',thatis,translations(Eskola,1987:136).InthemajorEnglishspeakingcountries,in
contrast,thevastmajorityofpublishedtitlesaredomestic:only2or3%aretranslations(Venuti,1995b:26).ThefiguresarenotdirectlycomparableasVenuti'sdo
notseemtorefertofictiononly,buttheydoindicatethattheworkoftranslatorsisofconsiderableimportanceforFinnishreaders.
QuestionsofMethod
DesigningtheExperiments
Acomparativereadershipsurveywasnotthemethodadopted,asacontrolledexperimentwouldhavetotakeintoaccountthecountlessvariableswhichhavean
effectonaperson'sreadingcompetenceandskillatinterpretation.Corcoran(1990:1434)lists'aspectsoftheperspectiveandconstructionofthereader(sex,family
andclassbackground,race,age...)'whichmayhelporhinderreading,andarguesthatnotenoughisknownyetaboutthe'culturalframingofthereader'.Takingthis
intoaccount,acontrolledexperimentwouldnotonlynotcompare'FinnishfarmersandAmericanuniversityteachers'(Mkel,1990:49,mytranslation)but

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wouldalsorefrainfrommakingcomparisonsbetweenSTandTTreadersunlessprovisioncouldbemadeforthefactthatsomeofthemdoubtlessarekeenreadersof
fictionandothersreadonlyforinformationsomewereraisedonGreekmythologyandotherswatchedtelevisioninsteadofreadingsomereadandwrotepoetryin
theirteenswhileotherslistenedtopopmusic6 somehadteacherswhomadeliteraturecometolifeandstimulateselfdiscovery,whiletheteachersofothersthought
ofliteratureasacanonoftextstobeexamined.Individualreadersnecessarilyrespondtotextsdifferentlybecauseofnonquantifiabledifferencesintheirbackgrounds.
Whileobviousdemographicvariablescouldbematched,itwasimpossibletoensurethatagroupofFinnishreadersandacontrolgroupofnativelanguagereaders
wouldbesufficientlywellmatchedwithregardtotheirreadinghistories,personallifeexperiences,theinfluenceofrelativesandteachersatvariousages,etc.So,apart
fromthepracticalandfinancialproblemsofanattempttosetupsuchalargescaleexperiment,eventhemostlaboriousmatchingofsubjectswouldintheendhave
resultedonlyinanillusionofallnecessaryvariableshavingbeencontrolled.Itshouldbenoted,forinstance,thatxyearsofeducationwouldnotmeananequalamount
ofliteratureteachingreceivedforSTandTTreadersalike,asthenationalcurriculumintheFinnishschoolsystemprovideslittlegroundinginliteratureand(asfarasI
know)nospecialistliteraturecoursescorrespondingtothoseintheEnglishspeakingworld.
Insteadofanactualcontrolgroupofnativelanguagereaders,then,asmallgroupofexperiencednativelanguagereaders7 wereaskedtoprovidecommentsontheir
understandingoftheallusivepassagesusedintheexperimentswheretheirresponsescoincidedsufficiently,thiswasthoughttoindicatearesponsenorm,anaccepted
'meaning'fortheallusion.8 Thenativelanguagereadersthussuggesthowaparticularallusionisunderstoodinthe'interpretivecommunity'(Fish,1980),where
interpretationsare'conventionalandcommunal'and'existpriortotheactofreading'(Freund,1987:1078).DespitecriticismofFish'sposition,nodoubtjustifiable
when'themorerecalcitrantfeaturesoftexts'(Freund,1987:110)areconcerned,thisviewofmeaningbeing'determinateanddecidable'(p.109)hasdefinite
attractionswiththeparticularproblemunderdiscussioninthisstudy.Theexperimentsdescribedlaterfocusnotontheinterpretationofentiretextsbutonthe
understandingofcertain(allusive)phrasesandpassagesinthosetexts.Granted,suchpassagesmaywellfunctionnotjustintheirimmediatecontexts,butalsofor
instanceasaidstocharacterisationortheexpressionofatheme(cf.Chapter3).Theinterpretationofsuchmacroleveluseofallusionsprobablyrequiresexperiencein
readingandwouldshowmoreinterindividualvariation,comparablefor

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instancetotheinterpretationofmetaphor.(Exploringmacroleveleffectswouldhavepresupposedrespondentswillingtoreadandcontemplatenotjustextractsbut
fulllengthtextsandtorecordtheirresponsesindetailsuchrespondentswerenotavailable.)
Thischapter,however,addressesamorecollectiveandculturespecifictypeofunderstanding.Thismightberelatedtotheunderstandingofrealiaillustrated,for
instance,inKelletat(1991),wherehepondersthetranslationofsuchintraculturalinformationasTampereellaknsivtjunantoisinpin'inTamperetheyturned
thetraintheotherwayround'9 andrequiresbothamapofFinlandandastreetplanofTamperetoensureaproperunderstandingofthesentence.10Torepeatan
exampleusedearlierandsoontobeexaminedforitseffectsonFinnishreaders,inacollectiveorcommunalsenseareferencetothe'WhiteRabbit'isareferenceto
thewhiterabbitinAlice'sAdventuresinWonderland.Itcanbeassumedtobefamiliartotheprimaryreaders,thecollectivenativelanguageaudience,though
obviouslynottoeveryindividualnativelanguagereader.TheexistenceofreadersnotsufficientlyliteratetoidentifytheRabbitdoesnotinvalidatetheargumentthata
referencetotheWhiteRabbitisacommonlyrecognisedreferencetoAliceandtheinclusionofthenameindictionariesofquotationandallusion(asinLassetal.,
1987,Rees,1991,etc.)isfurtherevidenceofthecollectiveorcommunalnatureofthisallusion.Anallusioncontainingthisname:
BehindthemwasawarrenofcorridorsdownwhicheccentriclookingpersonshurriedwithWhiteRabbitexpressions(Lurie,1986:191)

thushasamoreorlessdefinable,culturespecificmeaningitwillbeseenlaterthatintranslationthismeaningwasaccessibleonlytoaminorityoftheFinnishTT
readerstested.
IwouldarguethatitiscommonsensetoacceptthatmanyphrasesusedallusivelyinEnglishhavecommunallyacceptedmeaningsgenerallyrecognisedbynative
languagereaders.Forinstance,thephrasesawomanscornedorhellhathnofuryrefertoawoman'sangeranddistressatbeingturneddownbythemanshe
desiresandauthors,whentheyusesuchphrases,expectthemtobelargelytransparenttotheinterpretivecommunityofcompetentSTreaders.Lesswidelyused
allusionsworkinthesameway,onlyamongasmalleraudienceofreaderswhobelongtoaparticularsubsectionbasedonsuchvariablesasage,nationalityor
educationalbackground.
Whiletheremaybeamultiplicityofmeaningsinatext,then,themeaningofparticulartextualelementslikemanyallusionsisculturally

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conditioned,atleastinpart.Thisclaimisnotrefutedbytheobviousfactthatnoteverynativelanguagereaderwouldreadagivenpassageinthesamewaythis
variationcanberelatedtonationalandotherdemographicdifferencesbutalsotopersonaldifferencesinreadingexperienceandreadingcompetenceandto
differencesinperformanceduetosuchfactorsasthedegreeofattentionpaid,nottomentiontheproblemcausedbyreadingextractsoftextsintheexperiments
insteadoffulllengthtexts.11EnkvistandLeppiniemi(1989:192)arguethatunderstandingresultsfrom:
aninterplaybetweenthetext,thesituationalcontext,andthereceptor(includinghislinguisticskills,hisknowledgeoftheworld,hispurposeandhisjudgementsofrelevance,as
wellashistextprocessingcapacityattherelevantmoment,whichmayvarywithhisalertness,sobrietyandanumberofothertransientinfluences).

Thetranslatorneedstoconsiderwhetherthecommunallyacceptedmeaningofanallusivephrasecanbeconveyedbyaminimumchange(literal)translation,inother
words,whetherthephrasehasbecometransculturalorpartoftheculturalmilieuoftheTLreaders.Intheabsenceofdataonreaders'responsesthegenerallackof
feedbackfromreadertowriterinprintmediaiscommentedoninWilss(1989:78)thetranslatorcanonlyrelyonintuition.Itisoneofthepurposesofthisstudyto
providesomedataontheextenttowhich(certain)allusionsinEnglishlanguagetextsare(currently)understoodbyFinnishreaders.Thisisrelevantforthechoiceof
translationstrategyachoicewhichhastobemadeforeveryallusionperceivedineverytexttobetranslated.
Tosumup,thisstudyisnotprimarilyconcernedwithresponsestotexts(novels,articles)asawhole,whereavarietyofindividualresponsesandinterpretationsis
inevitable,buttosegmentsoftextandunderstandingofparticularwordsandphrasesinthem.Tocontinuewithoneoftheexamplesmentionedabove,hellhathno
fury,itisdoubtlessinmostcasesdesirablethattherenderingofthoseparticularwords(originallyoccurringinoneofCongreve'splays)shouldmakeaTTreader
readingatranslatednovel,forinstance,realisethatwhenthewordsareusedinafictionalcontext,theymeanthatacharacter'sactsareseen(rightlyorwrongly)as
motivatedbyangeratbeingrejectedbya(potentialorformer)lover.ThedifferencebetweenthesuccessfulcommunicationoftheallusivemeaningintheSTanda
communicativebreakdownorculturebumpinthecaseoftheTTiftheallusionisinadequatelytranslated(asitmightbeifthetranslatordidnotrecognisetheallusionor
overlookedthecrossculturalnatureofthetranslationproblem),isshowninAaltonen(1989),whonotesthatthephraseawomanscornedusedinfictional
conversationinanovelbyDorothy

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L.SayerswasmistranslatedbytwoFinnishtranslatorsofdifferentgenerationswhoapparentlydidnotknowthemeaningofthephrase.Troupp(1987)mentions
errorscausedbymisunderstandingsofallusionsinolderFinnishtranslationsofWodehouse.Asweknow,'''makingsense"ofatextentailsbeingabletoplaceitwithin
theculturalframeworkofthereader'(O'Neill,1990:86).
PurposeoftheExperiments
TheempiricaldatapresentedlaterweregatheredinordertoexplorehowTTreadersrespondtoallusionsintranslatedtexts.Doculturebumpsinfactoccur?Are
therebaffledresponsesorresponsesdeviatingfromtheresponsenormofSTreaders?Ifso,thismaybeatleasttosomeextentduetotheinadequaciesofa
translationwhichdoesnotforwhatevermotivetakeculturaldifferencessufficientlyintoaccount.Itisnotalwaysnecessaryforthewords,orsometimeseventhe
sense,12oftheTTrenderingtocorrespondcloselytotheSTallusion,butthetranslationshouldmakesensetoTTreaders.Admittedly,theproblemispartlyinter
individualbutevencompetentTTreaderscanbebaffledifthetranslatorassumesthatreadersaremorebiculturalthantheyinfactare.Bycontrast,whereallusive
meaningsaretransferredtoTTreaders,eitheramoreeffectivetranslationstrategyhasbeenchosen,13ortheproblemhasnotarisenbecausetheallusionisfamiliar
andthereisthereforenoculturalbarriertocross.
Thequestionwhetherthereareparticulartranslationstrategieswhicharemoresuccessfulthanothersintranslatingallusionscouldnotbefullydealtwithinthe
experiments.Onlyalimitednumberoftextscouldbegiventotheinformantstoconsider.Themainaimwastotrytoverifywhetherliteraltranslationsofcertain
examplesdid,infact,resultindifficultiesofcomprehension,inotherwords,culturebumps.Afewexamplesofotherstrategieswereincludedbutacomparativestudy
ofstrategies(whichmighthaveusedpublishedtranslationsandotherstrategytranslationsofthesamepassagesconstructedforexperimentalpurposesorpairsof
examplesjudgedtobeofsimilardifficultybuttranslatedusingdifferentstrategies)couldnotbeundertaken.
Theempiricaldatapresentedmaywellnotbegeneralisabletoanystrikingdegree.Still,asthequestionofresponsestoallusionsintranslationhasnot,tomy
knowledge,beenthetopicofreaderresponseinquiriesbefore,thetestsconductedshouldshedsomeusefullightonthisparticulartranslationproblem,andperhaps
encouragemoreresearchonhowtheworkoftranslatorsisreceivedbyTTreaders.

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ArrangingtheExperiments
GeneralReaderTest
Allversionsofthegeneralreadertest(GRT)hadthesameformat.Theselectionsoftextschosenforthethreeversionsdiffer,asthereweretwoconflictingwishes,
oneforcomparativelylargenumbersofresponsestoindividualtexts,anotherforresponsestoafairnumberoftexts.Sometextswerethereforeusedinallversionsof
thegeneralreadertest,otherswithonlyoneortwogroupsofrespondents.
Theversionsofthetestsaredesignatedasfirstandsecondgeneralreadertests,GRT1andGRT2(thelatterwithversions2aand2b).Inallofthem,thegeneral
readersweregivenaselectionoftranslatedpassagesc.onepagelongfrompublishedTTstoread,andwereaskedwhattheyunderstoodacertain(underlined)
allusivewordorphrasetomeanineachextract.Thequestionshadtobeopenendedandrathervaguesothatthereaderswouldnotbefedanylinesbuthadto
considertheirownresponsesandanswerthequestionsintheirownwords.InGRT1,onlyallusionstranslatedbyminimumchange/retentionofnamewerechosen
thisturnedouttobeaprobleminthatmanyGRT1respondentsfeltawkwardaboutadmittingthattheydidnotknowthe'correct'answers,eventhoughitwas
emphasisedintheinstructionsthatthepurposeofthetestwastoevaluatethetranslationstrategiesused,nottherespondentsthemselves.Eventually23of36
questionnaireswerereturned.TheproblemwassolvedbyusingstudentassistantsforGRT2,whowereaskedtohandthreequestionnaireseachtogeneralreadersof
theiracquaintanceaspartofastudyassignment.Thequestionnairewasmodifiedtoincludetextswhichwereassumednottocontainculturebumps,togive
respondentsabetterchanceofexperiencingsomesuccess.Twoslightlydifferentselectionsoftextswereused(GRT2aandGRT2b).
ThegeneralreaderswereFinnishadultswithoutabackgroundofacademicstudiesinEnglish(whichmighthaveledtoahigherdegreeofbiculturalismthanisusual
amonggeneralreadersinFinlandtoday).ManyoftherespondentsdidknowEnglish(and/orotherforeignlanguages)andoccasionally(some,frequently)readtextsin
thoselanguages,butothersweremonolingual.Respondentsnumbered80inall(23inGRT1,22inGRT2aand35inGRT2b).Informationontheageandsexofthe
respondentsandtheirreadinghabitsinforeignlanguagesthelatterbeingundoubtedlyafactorinbiculturalisationwasrequested(theabilitytoreadaforeign
languagefairlyfluentlygenerallypresupposesatleast12yearsofeducationinFinland).14AsEskola(1987)notesthattranslatedfictionismostlyreadbyupperand
middleclassreadersinFinland,noattemptwas

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madetoreachonlymonolingualrespondents.(SeeAppendix2formoredetailedinformationontherespondents.)
Thenumberofrespondents(80inall)isquitehighexperimentalworkintranslationstudiesofteninvolvesfarsmallernumbers.Toury(1991:52)notesthat'samplesof
insufficientsizeseemtobeacommonweakness'intranslationexperiments.Krings(1986)usedonlyeightstudentsinhis.Anexplanationisthatthethinkaloud
protocolmethodproducessomuchmaterialthatitsanalysissoonbecomescumbersome(Toury,personalcommunication,Jan.1993).Sguinot(1992)specifiesthat
anhourlongvideotapeofonetranslatoratwork'takeswelloverayeartotranscribeandanalyse'(p.41).Myrespondents,ofcourse,werereaders,nottranslators.A
multiplechoicequestionnairewouldhavefacilitatedtheanalysisoftheirresponses,butwasnotadoptedasitmighthaveencouragedguessworkandobscuredwhat
thereadersthemselvesthought.
Therespondentswereinformedwhatthepurposeofthestudywas,inotherwordsthatIwasworkingonthetranslationofallusionsandwantedtofindouthow
translationsofallusionswereunderstood.Toclarifymyuseoftheconcept,theinstructionsalsoincludedsomeexamplesofallusionstoFinnishandforeignsources.
Acheckwasalsomadeoftheassociativeskillsoftherespondents:theyweregiventheadditionaltaskofunderlininganyunmarkedallusionstheyfoundintheextracts
andtonametheirsourcesiffamiliaranextracttakenfromaFinnishnovelwasincludedwhichcontainedalinewhichcanbetakenasamodificationoftobeornotto
beinaFinnishdialect:15
Elmpttyiainasamoin:setappoijokaisen.Ainoatosioneptoivojasiksivainparodiaonmahdollista.Oonksmievainenksmieoo...Johanonpulma.(Kilpi,1983:268)'Life
alwaysendedthesameway:itkilledeveryone.Despairistheonlytruth,andthereforenothingispossiblebutparody.AmIorain'tI?Someproblem.'(Mytranslationand
emphasesthetranslationfailstoshowthesocioculturalassociationsoftheFinnishdialect.)

MostoftherespondentsreactedtotheallusioneitherbynamingHamletorbywritingdownthestandardFinnishversionoftheline(ollakovaieikolla,siin
pulma),oratleastunderliningit.Thereadingcompetenceofindividualscannotbereliablyestimatedonthebasisononeexampleonly,buttheresultofthischeck(see
Appendix2)atleastsuggeststhattherespondentswerecapableofnotinganallusionfamiliartothem,evenifitoccurredinamodifiedformthiswouldbean
indicationofsomereadingcompetence.Withoutsomesuchcheck,theresultsofGRTcouldbethought

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tobeonamuchshakierbasis.
GRTrespondentsfilledinthequestionnairesathome.Therewasobviouslynowayofensuringthattheydidnotconsultreferenceworksorotherpeople,butthey
wererequestednottodoso.
TheFinnishtargettextsarenotreproducedinthisvolumeforreasonsofspacethesourcetextsarereproducedinAppendix6.
KouvolaTest
Moreinformantswereprovidedfortwoofthetextsusedbyatest(referredtoastheKouvolatestorKLA)wheretherespondentsweremostlystudentsof
translationworkingwithvariouslanguagesattheKouvoladepartmentoftranslation(UniversityofHelsinki).(Afewoftherespondentswereteachersofthese
students.)Thistest(Appendix4)wasquicklycarriedoutduringaguestlecturetoprovidedataonimmediatereactions,whichcouldthenbecontrastedwiththose
writtendownbyGRTrespondentsafterduereflection.Theaudiencereturned55questionnaireswithanswersc.tenquestionnaireswerereturneduntouchedornot
returned.FouroftheanswerswerefromnonnativespeakersofFinnishandwereeliminatedforthatreason.(OnepartoftheKLAtest,onrecognitionofnames,was
presentedinChapter4asevidenceoftheclaimthatnotallpropernamesusedallusivelyinEnglisharefamiliartoFinnishreaders.Theotherpart,discussedinthis
chapter,wassimilartotheGRTtestbutcontainedonlytwotexts.)
Thetestswereconductedin199192.
CultureBumps?ReaderResponsestoAllusionsinTargetTexts
ResponsestoLiteralTranslations
Thefavouritestrategyofthetranslatorsofthepublishedtextsexaminedwasfoundtobeliteraltranslationwhereanallusivenamewasretainedoraphrasewas
translatedbyminimumchange.Thehypothesisintheexperimentreportedherewasthatsuchtranslationswould,whentheallusionwasunfamiliar,causeproblemsfor
TTreadersbecomeculturebumps.Theirinterpretationswouldnotalwaysbethelegitimatelyalternativeinterpretationsofcompetentreadersbutwouldrevealreal
problemsofunderstanding,causedbyalackoffamiliaritywiththesourcesofallusionsinthesourceculture,andhencewiththeirmeaning.Thiswasborneoutbythe
results:unfamiliarallusionsdidprovetobedifficulttounderstandbythemajorityoftherespondents.Sucharesultisinitselfnotunexpected,but

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isapparentlynotalwaysconsideredintranslationpractice.
Thefollowingexamplesareshorterthantheextractsgiventotherespondents.TheSTsofthepassagesusedaretobefoundinAppendix6.
Example1.TheWhiteRabbit
RespondentsinGRT1andtheKLAtestweregivenapageofthepublishedtranslationofLurie(1988)toread(ST:TextA,Appendix6,)andwereaskedtoexplain
howtheyunderstoodthemeaningofthephraseValkoisenjaniksenilme'WhiteRabbitexpressions'andonwhattheybasedtheirinterpretations.
BehindthemwasawarrenofcorridorsdownwhicheccentriclookingpersonshurriedwithWhiteRabbitexpressions.Thesoundroomswerecosyburrowsfurnishedwithbattered
softleatherchairsandhistoricallookingmicrophonesandswitchboards...(Lurie,1986:191)
Hissientakanaolikanitarhamainenkytvienverkosto,missravasiomalaatuisiatyyppejkasvoillaanValkoisenjniksenilme.nityshuoneetolivatkodikkaitapeskoloja
kalusteinaanpehmoisianahkatuolejajahistoriallisennkisimikrofonejajakytkintauluja.(Lurie,1988:248)

InanarticlecitedinTheAnnotatedAlice(1970:37note2)LewisCarrolldescribestheRabbitas"'elderly","timid","feeble''and"nervouslyshillyshallying"'and
contrastshimwiththevigorousandpurposefulAlice.TheparagraphontheRabbitinLassetal.(1987)callshim'aselfimportantandvaguelyridiculouscharacter,
alwaysverybusydoingsomethingthatisnotclear'(p.236).ThefivenativespeakersconsultedonthisallusionmoreorlessagreedwithLass'sdescription,addingthe
dimensionofanxiety(alsomentionedinRees,1991),oneofthemdescribingherideaofWhiteRabbitexpressionsas'worried/anxious,even"important"'.16In
Lurie'spassagetheemployeesoftheBBCarethusrunningaround,lookingworriedandanxious,orvaguelyridiculousintheirselfimportance.Butareaderinwhose
childhoodreadingAlicehasnotfeaturedmaynotassociateWhiteRabbitexpressionswiththattext,butmaybeperplexedbytheallusionwhenitoccursinaTT.
HowdidtheFinnishreadersreadthetranslatedpassage,anddidtheybasetheirreadingsonthecontextaloneorarecollectionoftheWhiteRabbitinAlice?
FarfromclearlyrecognisingtheRabbitasworriedandanxiousorselfimportantandvaguelyridiculous,themajorityoftheFinnishreadersrespondeddifferently.
Somesaidthephrasecouldmeananythingatall,otherswentbythestandardcharacteristicsofthehareinFinnishfolktales,

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seeingatimidcreatureabouttofleeattheslightestdanger.Forone,whitemeantinnocenceanotherassociatedrabbitswithchildbirthathirdrememberedthatthe
harechangesthecolourofitscoatinwinter.Forone,'WhiteRabbit'wasapossiblenameforaRedIndian.Therewastheoccasionalcreativetouch:onereader
thoughttheexpressionwas'curious,expectant,unbiased,likealittlechild,butalsosuspiciousandhelpless'17thisreadercalledthephrase'aninteresting,curiosity
evokingimage'.Thislastresponseshowsthereaderparticipatingwithenjoymentinthecreationofthetexteventhoughtheresultdepartsfromtheresponsenormof
thenativespeakers.However,linkingthephrasewiththeunseeingeyesofadrugaddict('apalesortofpersonwithanunfocusedlookadrugaddictorthelike'),as
onereaderdid,whileacreativereadinginonesense,departssofarfromthemeaningofLurie'sdescriptionthatitcouldevenperhapsbecalledamisreading.
Theallusiondoesnotcarrythefullforceofthedescriptionofthescenebyitself.Manyreadersstatedthattheiranswerswerebasedsolelyoncontextorguesswork.
ThecontextintheLurieTTgivesthereaderomalaatuisia'eccentric'andravasi'trotted,hurried'inthevicinityoftheallusion,nottomentionthevariousrabbit
metaphors(kanitarha'rabbitfarm'for'warren',peskolo'burrow').Askanitarhasuggestsaplacewhererabbitsarekeptincaptivity,notwheretheyaboundina
naturalstate,thisledsomereaderstothinkofcagesandthusimprisonmentorfrustration.Eccentricappearstohavegivenrisetoidiosyncraticinterpretations
departingfromthenorm:readers'descriptionscontainedwordstranslatingas'stupid,weird,strange,lifeless,resigned,distant,empty,rigid,mechanical,robotlike,
indifferent,deadtotheworld'.Hurriedmayhavecontributedtothemoreappropriatedescriptionsof'busy,bustling,impatient,runningaround'.StereotypicalFinnish
views18ofrabbitsgaverisetofrequentdescriptionslike'frightened,scared,beingpursued,timid,worried,anxious,understress'.(Thisreasoningcameoutfromthe
remarksaddedbysomerespondents,forexample'thehareisusuallyatimidanimal','thehareisasymboloftimidity'.)Ontheotherhand,amongthereaderswho
namedthesource,descriptionswerefairlyuniform,withtheadjectiveskiireinen'hurried'andpelokas,htntynyt(andclosesynonyms)'frightened,anxious,
worried'predominating.OneGRT1respondent,awomaninherfortieswhosaidshereadforeignbooksandnewspapers,also+inEnglish,everyweek,produceda
descriptionconsistentinalldetailwithnativespeakerandreferenceworkdescriptions:'ThisofcourseremindsmeofAliceinWonderlandandthewhiterabbit[the
underlinedwordswerewritteninEnglishinanotherwiseFinnishtext]:worried,bustling,hurriedafeelingofimportanceandthefinalpurposelessnessofitall'.

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Table3GRT1readerresponsestoExample1:TheWhiteRabbit
ThosewhonamedAlice(N=3)
Hurried,
anxious

Thosewhodid
notnameAlice
(N=20)

Frightened,
timid

Expressionless

Curious

Other
responses

Noanswer

23

Table4KLAreaderresponsestoExample1:TheWhiteRabbit
ThosewhonamedAlice(N=16)
Hurried,anxious

13

Bustling,impatient

Nodescription,justsource

ThosewhodidnotnameAlice(N=35)
Frightened,timid

Blank,resigned,imprisoned

Rigid,mechanical

Hurried,bustling

Selfimportant

Otherresponses

10

Noanswer

51

aThisincludesonereaderwhodidnamethesource,butonlyamongotherpotentialsources,
asaguess.Herdescriptionwashuolehtiva'caring'thiswasthereaderwhospokeofchildbirth
associations.

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Allinall,onlyoneinfouroftherespondentsinthetwotestsnamedAliceasasource(seeTables3and4).TherewasanintergenerationaldifferenceintheKLAtest,
where15oftheyoungeragegroup(1930)(N=42)namedthechildren'sclassic,asopposedtoonlyoneoftheoldergroup(ofteachers,aged3553)(N=9).
ThismayreflectthepresenceofAliceamonguniversitysetbooksinrecentyears,thoughstudentsintheEnglishsectionofthedepartmentoftranslationdidnotname
thesourcemoreoftenthanstudentsinothersections.InthiscontextitmaybeworthnotingthatLurie(1990:4950)hasfoundthatmanyofherstudentsatCornell
University'knowtheclassicsofchildren'sliteratureonlyincheapcartoonversions,ifatall'aschildren,but'often,inlateadolescence'discoverthemandeagerly
embracethem.
Amongthegeneralreaders(GRT1),threeoutof23respondentsconfidentlynamedAlice.Thesethreewereallwomenintheirfortiesandfifties.
ThetranslatorofLuriemayhavecausedsomedifficultybynotusingeitheroftheversionsoftheWhiteRabbit'snamefoundinthetwofulllengthFinnishtranslationsof
Alice,whichareValkoinen/Valkeakani(ini).19Inherinterview,thetranslatorcommentedthatanidentifyingadditionwouldnothavebeenoutofplace,andhad
secondthoughtsaboutthetranslationofthename.However,therehavebeenmanyabridgementsofAlicepublishedinFinland,nottomentioncartoons,wherenames
mayhavebeendifferentlytranslated,andinfactnoneofthe19readerswhodidlinkthenametoAlicecommentedonthetranslationofthename.20
Itisinterestingthatthreeofthereaderswhodidnotrecognisethesourceaddedanotesayingtheydidnotmindnotunderstandingit:'itgivesscopetothereader's
imagination','ignorancedoesnotmatter'.Therewerenoneoftheannoyedremarkstowhichcertainotherimpenetrableallusionsgaverise.
TheresponsestothiscultureboundallusionwithadescriptivefunctionindicatethattranslatorscannotcountonAlice,atextfrequentlyalludedtoinEnglish,being
nearlyasfamiliartoFinnishreaders.Inthiscontext,however,itaffordedawiderangeofpossiblemeaningstoreaders(only10ofthe74respondentsdidnotofferan
interpretation):thatsomeofthemwerewideofthemarkdidnotseemtocausereaderdissatisfaction.
TheallusionsinExamples2and3aremainlyusedformicrolevelhumorouseffect,andtheyshowverywellhowresponsestoanunfamiliarallusiondifferfromthose
toatransculturalone.Theunfamiliarallusionisimpenetrabletomanyandeasilyleadsthereaderastray.

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Example2.TheWalrusandtheCarpenter
Theydon'tofferforksattherawbar.Theyjustserveoystersorclamsorshrimp,withbeerinpapercups.Therearebowlsofoystercrackersandsqueezebottlesofcocktailsauce.
TheynamedtheplacetheWalrusandtheCarpenter,butIlikeitanyway.(Parker,1987a:93)
yriisbaarissaeikytethaarukoita.Tarjollaonvainostereitajasimpukoitajakatkarapujasekoluttapahvimukeissa.Tiskillonkulhoissaosterikeksejjapursotepulloissa
dippikastiketta.JokulypoliristinytpaikanMursuksijaKirvesmieheksi,muttaminpidnsiitsiltikin.(Parker,1988:1234)

Apageincludingthisextract(ST:TextB,Appendix6)wasgiventogeneralreaders(GRT2,versionb).TheywereaskedwhytherawbarwasnamedtheWalrus
andtheCarpenter.Thephrasewasanobviousculturebump:onlytworeaderslinkedthiswithLewisCarroll,21andofthese,onlyonehadaclearunderstandingof
theconnection:'ThenameisareferencetoapassageinAliceinWonderland,wheretheWalrusandtheCarpenter22eattheoysterswhohadbeenlyingonthe
seashore.'23Athirdoftherespondentswereunabletoseealinkbetweentherawbaranditsname,sothattheyleftthequestionunanswered,oransweredwitha
questionmark(orseveral:'????'),orwrotedownversionsof'Idon'tunderstand'.Anotherthirdwentbythecontext:adescriptionoftheplaceasofferingnoforks
andservingbeerinpapercupscombinedwithimagesofthebruteforceofawalrusandthestrengthandbluecollarskillsofacarpenter.Allthissuggestedarough
placeforworkingclasscustomers('Walrusesarenotparticularlyneateaters').Akirvesmies(literally'axeman',hence'carpenter')meantmainlyaconstruction
workertotherespondents(inacountrywheremosthousesusedtobebuiltofwooduntilrecently),soamentionofthattrademademanyreadersimagine'arough
andreadyplace,'onethatis'dingy,workingclass'.Onerespondentwrote:'Thewalrusisabigstronganimal,andakirvesmies[thisrespondentunderlinedkirves
'axe']theworditselfisstrongisavaluedtrade(thesweatyandskilledworkofarealman).Theplacewasthereforeaplaceforrealmen.'Another,after
describingherideaofcarpenters,concluded:'AllIcanthinkofisthatthebarispopularamongcarpenters.Thewalrusmeansnothingtome.'Thewalrusasarulehad
noclearconnotations.Afewrespondentstentativelypointedtoitseatinghabits('Perhapswalruseseatoystersandotherseafood'),butonlytheonepreviously
mentionedlinkedthiswithCarroll'spoem.24(SeeTable5.)

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Table5GRT2breaderresponsestoExample2:TheWalrusandtheCarpenter
Roughplace,workingclasscustomers

13

Noansweror'meansnothingtome'

13

Seafood,fishing

ClearidentificationofAlice

Vaguesuspicionofliteraryallusion

Other

Total

36

aThetotalnumberofrespondentswas35.Oneanswerwaslistedtwiceasitreferredtotheseaandfishingand
alsosuspectedliteraryallusion(amongotherpossibleexplanations).

Withthistext,too,itwasfoundthatthetranslatordidnotmakeuseofanexistingstandardtranslation:theWalrusandtheCarpenterarerenderedasMursuja
NikkariinKunnasandManner's(1972)translationofThroughtheLookingGlass.Readerswereaskedifthisalternativetranslationwouldmakeanydifferenceto
theirinterpretation.Responses(N=15)showedthatbothpairsofnameswereequallyunfamiliartotherespondents,whocommentedatmostthatnikkari'joiner'
suggestedalessmachotypeworkeroronemoreadeptwithhistools(likeacabinetmaker)consequentlyanimpressionofasomewhathigherclassofplacewas
received('moremoney,thoughtandwarmthspentonthefurnishingofit').Preferencesforoneformoranotherwerethusbasedonpersonalassociations('Nikkariis
considerably"tamer",''Nikkarigivesmorescopeforvariousassociations,''Nikkariwouldimplymoreuseofdifferentimplementsandmoregracefulhabits,''Mursu
janikkarisoundsstupid').Therewasnorecognitionofthispairofnamesasaliteraryallusionotherthanbythesolerespondentwhoidentifiedthesourceinfact,one
respondentwhosuspectedliteraryallusionwrote:'Ifthisisaliteraryquote,itwouldnolongerbeoneifKirvesmieswerechangedtoNikkari.Atmostitcouldthen
beaparodyofitsoriginal.'
Thetranslatorhad,infact,addedguidance,butthiswasnotcommentedoninanywaybythereaders.HisadditionofJokulyp...('Somesmartass[hadnamed
theplace...]')wasnodoubtdesignedtosuggesttothediscerningreaderthattherewasasubtlereasonforthechoiceofname,butinabsenceofrecognitionofthe
sourceoftheallusion,thecluewasalmost

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useless.Onlythreerespondentsevenmentionedthepossibilitythatthenamemightbealiteraryallusiontheycouldnotplace.
OnereaderspontanouslysuggestedthatthenameshouldhavebeenretainedinitsSLform.
ThetestthusshowsthattheSTjokewasnotconveyedtomorethanoneofthe35readers,andeventhelinkbetweenaseamammalandaseafoodbarwas
obscuredbythestrongerconnotationsofthe'axeman'.Athirdoftherespondentsweresopuzzledthattheyhadnoanswertosuggest.
Example3.ALightBlueBodyStockingwithaBigRedSontheFront
Theexample(ST:TextC,Appendix6)occursinaconversationwherethemaleprivateeyeSpenserandhisputativewomanclientmeetforthefirsttimeandbothtry
togaintheupperhand:
'Yourappearanceisgood,'shesaid.'...Areyoudressedupfortheoccasionordoyoualwayslookgood?'
'I'mdressedupfortheoccasion.NormallyIwearalightbluebodystockingwithabigredSonthefront.'(Parker,1987a:156)
'Ulkomuotosionmoitteeton',Rachelsanoi.'...Pukeuduitkotapaamistammevarten,vaioletkoainanoinmoitteeton?'
'Ttvartenvaan.Normaalioloissakytnvaaleansinistvartalosukkaa,jossaonedesssuuripunainenSkirjain.'(Parker,1988:212)

TheallusionistothefictionalfigureSuperman.Thiswasrecognisedbyatleast2540ofthe57respondents(GRT2),whothushadnoproblemwiththeminimum
changetranslationgiventothistransculturalallusion.26AskedtoexplainSpenser'swords,manypointedout,inmoreorlessdepth,thattheclaimmadewasajoke
('anexampleofawrysenseofhumour'),withSpenser,whoisbeinginterviewedforajobasabodyguardforafeminist,27comparinghimselftoSuperman.Theword
'ironical'wasusedrepeatedly,asin'Anironicalcomparisonofhisownabilitiesandresourcesandthe"supernatural"survivalskillsofSuperman'.Afewreaders
analysedtherelationshipofthetwospeakers,onesayingtheanswershowsideologicaldifferencesbetweenSpenserandthefeministwriterRachel,andprovingher
competenceasareaderbyaccuratelyforecastingthedevelopmentoftherelationsbetweenthetwointherestofthenovel(whichshesaidshehadnotread).Several
sawthisasSpenser'swayofpayingRachelbackforatactlessquestionoroftestingRachel'ssenseofhumour.
Somedidthinkthatthestatementwastobetakenatfacevalue,asaliteraldescriptionofSpenser'sleisurewear(oneofthesethinkingthattheSstoodfor'sexy',as
didanother,whowaslessdefiniteaboutwhatSpenser

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usuallywore),orasanexampleofthesortofgarmenthewouldneveractuallywear.Acoupleofrespondentsconcentratedontheexpression'bodystocking'and
describedthat.OnewasremindedofBatman.Itwasperhapstobeexpectedthatsomeoftheoldestrespondentswereamongthosewhodidnotrecognisethe
allusion.Most,however,werecomfortablewithit,threeevenofferingsuchextrainformationasSuperman'srealname(ClarkKent=LauriKentt).Itisnoteworthy
thatonlyonerespondentrefrainedfromansweringthisquestion(oneof57asopposedto13of35forExample2).(SeeTable6.)
Table6GRT2readerresponsestoExample3:Alightbluebodystocking...
Supermannamed

40

Other

16

Noanswer

Total

57

Generallyspeakingthecommentsonthisallusionsuggestthatmostoftherespondentswerequitecompetentreceiversofimplicitmessageswhenthesourcesofsuch
messageswerefamiliartothem.
Otherextractsusedinthetestsincludedbothsourcesthatprovedtobefairlyfamiliarandthosethatwerequiteunfamiliar.Forfamiliarallusions,minimumchangewas
mostlyunproblematic,butunfamiliaronestranslatedbyminimumchangeasarulepuzzledthegeneralreaders.
Biblicalsourcescanbeexpectedtobetransculturaltoaconsiderabledegree.Inthefollowingexamplefullofbiblicalexpressions(ST:TextD,Appendix6),evena
translation'error'(seemycommentsonolivebranchinChapter4)didnotdisturbcommunication.(SeeTable7.)
Example4AnOliveBranch
Butnow,likeatardybluebirdofpeacereturninglatetoadesertedarkafterthreetimesfortydaysandnights,thisblueairletterhasflappedacrosstheoceantohim.Initsbeakit
holds,noquestionaboutthat,afresholivebranch.(Lurie,1986:133)
Muttakuinvitkaslentoinenrauhansinilintu,jokapalaamyhstyneentyhjksijtettyynarkkiinkolmekertaaneljnkymmenenpivnjaynjlkeen,tmsininenilmakirjeonnyt
lepattanuthnenluokseenmerenpoikki.Nokassasillon,aivanepilemtt,tuoreoliivinoksa.(Lurie,1988:174)

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Table7GRT2readerresponsestoExample4:Anolivebranch
MentionofNoahand/ortheflood

39

Peace,reconciliation,goodnews

10

Sourcegivensimplyasbiblical

Otherresponses

Noanswer

Total

57

aManyofthosewhonamedNoahalsospokeofhope,goodnewsetc.Thetableseparately
liststhosewhogavetheprecisebiblicalsource(thestoryoftheflood),andthosewhomade
nosuchmentionbutspokeofpeace,reconciliation,etc.

Anonbiblicalreligiousexpression,however,causeddifficulties,allthemoreasitwasofsomeimportanceforacoherentrepresentationofthemainrelationshipina
text(ST:TextE,Appendix6):
Example5WithmyBodyITheeWorship.
Foralittlewhileheletthetideofreliefandpeacecloseoverhimbutasthesurgeroseupinhisbloodhetookholdofhimselfandpushedherawayashestruggledtogetup.
'No.Stopit,'hewhisperedfiercely.'NothereItellyou.Notinthisholeandcorner.Iwon'tletyou.You'remineaswellasyourown.We'vegotsomethingtolose.'WithmybodyI
theeworship'anddon'tforgetit,mymyholyone.'(Allingham,1986:120)(quotationmarksanditalicsSTauthor)
Pojanvaltasihelpottunuthyvnolontunne,muttapiansevaihtuikiihkoksi,jotavastaanhnenoliponnistettavakaikkivoimansa.Hnyrittiirrottaatytnkdetkaulaltaanjanousta
yls.'Ei,jtminutrauhaan',hnsanoitukahtuneesti.'Eitll,ts sloukossa'.Minensallisit.Sinoletminunenkannasinunsrkekaikkea.Muista,ett'minpalvonsinua
mysruumiillani'...jumalattareni.'(Allingham,1990:127)(quotationmarksanditalicsinTTasinSTtheallusionistranslatedas'Iworshipyoualsowithmybody','myholyone'
as'mygoddess')

Inmanyofitslovescenes,thenovelhasallusionstofamouslovepoetryandmoreindefinableintertextualitytosuggestthatthemaincharactersaredeeplyand
romanticallyinlove.Therespondentsofcoursewereunaware

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ofthismacrocontext.Theyoungman's'No'canbetakentomean'notyet':hewantstomarryhisgirlfirst,thinkinganythingelsewouldcheapentheirlove(we'vegot
somethingtolose).Theauthorialadditionofquotationmarksaroundtheallusion(retainedbythetranslators)emphasisesthatthewordsareborrowed.FourNS
readersoutoffivestatedthatthegroundsgivenbytheyoungmanforhisrefusalarereligious.28Theallusionistothemarriageceremony(theBookofCommon
Prayer).
Themajorityofthegeneralreaders,however,didnotrecognisethesourceandmissedtheallusiontomarriage.TheallusionisaculturebumpbecausetheFinnish
Lutheranmarriageceremony29doesnotcontainasimilarlywordedphraseinstead,Finnishcouplespromisetoloveeachothermytjavastoinkymisess'in
goodtimesandbad',andthisisthephrasethatispopularlyrecognisedasshorthandformarriagevows.Thetranslationcannotincludetheclueofthearchaictheeof
theSTasthereisnoFinnishpronounsimilarlyrestrictedinuseandtherenderingofmyholyoneas'mygoddess'furtherobscurestheinterpretationofthepassagein
Christianterms.
OnlythreeoftheKLArespondents,allstudentsworkingwithEnglish,namedthesourceoftheallusion.Anotherthreewereawareofthereligiousbackgroundbut
unsureofitsprecisenature:'AnallusiontotheBible?Somegroundsforcelibacyorsomething?MaryMagdalene?'Overhalfdidnotanswerthequestionatall,30or
justputaquestionmark,orwrotedownversionsof'Idon'tunderstandthis'.Theanswersgivenweresometimesfairlygeneralcomments:'Hefindslovemaking
important','despitehisrefusalheisinlovewithher',butothersclearlyshowedthatmanyreadershadfollowedthegistoftheyoungman'sargument:'Heisverymuch
inloveanddesiresthiswoman,butdoesnotwantto"touch"herbecauseherespectsherorforsomereasontheycannotbetogether'.Acoupleofthecomments,
however,seemedtomisinterpretthesituation:'Hisbodyandsoulareseparate','Hefeelsforherphysically,too,thoughearlierperhapshecouldn't.'(SeeTable8)
ThegeneralreadersofGRT1perceivedthemotivationoftheyoungmanmoreeasily,perhapsbecauseoftheirmorematureyears(averageage42.3years)or
becauseincontrasttotheKLArespondents,theyreceivedthequestionnairesindividuallyandcouldanswerthemattheirconvenience.Manyheardtheyoungman
utter'anelevateddeclarationoflove':'hedoesn'twanttouseher,hefeelsforherdeeply,''hewantstolivewithintegrityandmaketherelationshippublic'.Onlyone,
however,recognisedthesourceasreferringtothemarriageceremonyanotherknewshehadhearditbeforebutadded:'whatismeansisuncleartome'.One
expressedherirritationinnouncertainterms:'incomprehensiblebabble,especiallythe

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markedclause[withtheallusion],nocoherence'.Thereweresomemisunderstandings:'Aselfishthought:hethinkshecouldperformbetterunderother
circumstances.'(SeeTable9.)
Table8KLAreaderresponsestoExample5:
WithmybodyItheeworship
Recognitionofsource(marriageceremony)

Vaguelyreligious

Respectforthegirl,lovemakingacommitment

12

Otherresponses

Noansweror'Don'tknow'

30

Total

51

Vaguelyreligious

Respectforthegirl,lovemakingacommitment

12

Otherresponses

Noansweror'Don'tknow'

Total

23

Table9GRT1readerresponsestoExample5:
WithmybodyItheeworship
Recognitionofsource(marriageceremony)

Thetestsshowthatonlyasmallminorityofthereadersrealisedtheyoungmanwasalludingtothemarriageceremony.Thismadehisargumenthardertofollow,and
whilegenerallifeexperienceperhapshelpedthemajorityofGRT1readersontherighttrack,eveninthatgroupathirdoftherespondentswereunclearofwhatthe
youngman'slinesimplied.Itmustbeadmitted,though,thatthebrevityoftheextractgivenmadeinterpretationdifficult.However,inthemacrocontextoftheST,the
linesaresurelymeanttoindicatehonourablestrengthofcharacterandcommitment,andatranslationwhichfailstoconveythisdetractsfromthecoherenceof
characterisationandplot.
Inthefollowingexample(ST:TextF,Appendix6)theuseoftheallusionisanelementincharacterisation,emphasisingthedifferencesinculturalliteracybetweenthe
literaryscholarVinnieandtheretiredbusinessmanMumpson.

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Example6PumpkinsatMidnight.
'Iwasjustlookingforataxi.'
MrMumpsonstaresoutacrosstheempty,rainsloshed,lightstreakedpavement.'Don'tseemtobeanyhere.'
'No.'Shemanagesabriefdefensivesmile.'Apparentlytheyallturnintopumpkinsatmidnight.'
'Huh?Oh,haha...'(Lurie,1986:22)
'Haeskelents svaintaksia.'
HerraMumpsonthyileetyhjn,sateenpieksmn,valojenjuovittamanasfaltinpoikki.'Einiitnytolevan.'
'Ei.'Vinnieonnistuuvlyttamntorjuvanhymyntapaisen.'Muuttuvatkaikurpitsoiksikeskiynhetkell.'
'Th?Ai.Hahhah...'(Lurie,1988:32)

GRT2brespondentswereaskedtoexplainwhatVinniemeantbyherreferencetopumpkinsatmidnightandtocommentonMrMumpson'sreaction.Astheywere
givenonlyasmallsectionofthescenetoread,theycouldobviouslynotbeawareofthemacrolevelfunctionoftheallusion,butthosewhocommentedonMumpson's
responsesawthatitwasslowerthanappropriateandperhapswasmeanttohidehispuzzlementattheallusion.
Asregardsthesource,thetestrevealedaclashbetweentwooccurrencesofpumpkinsinimportedculturaltexts:thetraditionaloneinthestoryofCinderellaandthe
newer(toFinns)ofpumpkinsatHalloween,familiarthroughmanychannels(includingfilms,exchangestudents,etc.)butinthistestshowntobesoespeciallythrough
thePeanutscartoons,whereoneofthecharactersspendsmuchofhistimewaitingfortheGreatPumpkintoappearatnight.Someoftherespondentswhosawthis
asthesourceweredoubtfulastopreciselyhowtheTTcouldbeunderstoodinthatlight.Threeotherrespondentswerevagueaboutwhichchildren'sstoryhad
vehicleschangingintopumpkins,andtwoidentifiedstoriesincorrectly:onethoughtthishappenedinSnowWhite,anotherinSleepingBeauty.(SeeTable10.)
Theremainingexamplesofretentionofnameorminimumchangeallinvolvedunfamiliarallusions,andallcausedproblemsofunderstanding.Itwasnoticeablethat
modifiedallusionsinparticularworkedbadlyinliteraltranslation.Modifiedallusionsareoftenmeanttoraiseasmile,butintheabsenceofrecognitionoftheallusion,
modificationsarenotspotted.
Inthefollowingexample(ST:TextG,Appendix6),thereisadescriptionofpoliceworkwhichincludes(asajoke),amodificationoftheproverbA

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manworksfromsuntosun,butawoman'sworkisneverdone(ODP32).Modificationsoftenusetranspositionsforhumorouseffect,andthewordsmanand
womanaredulytransposedintheST:
Table10GRT2breaderresponsestoExample6:
Pumpkinsatmidnight
MentionofCinderella

15

MentionofHalloween/Peanuts

10

Mentionofotherchildren'sfiction

Denotationonly

Noanswer

Total

35

Example7AWomanWorksfromSuntoSunbutaMan'sWorkisNeverDone.
Thenyouwash(yes,that'sright,wash)alltheshellsinyourfavoritedetergent(awomanworksfromsuntosun,butaman'sworkisneverdone)andyouarenowreadyto
comparethem.(McBain,1984:97)(italicsSTauthor)
Sittenkaikkiluoditpestn(aivanniin,pestn)tutkijanmielipesuaineella(nainentekeetytvuorokaudenympri,muttamiehelteitylopukoskaan)janiinollaanvalmiita
luotienvertailuun.(McBain,1981:108)(italicsinTTasinST)

Thesayingistrueinagriculturalsocietieswhereaman'sworkingdaybeginsatsunriseandendsatsunset,butawomanmustworkevenlongerdays.Asnosimilar
sayingappearstobefamiliarinFinnish,thegeneralreaderscouldonlyrelyontheirownperceptionsofsexrolesandwork:'Men'sworkismoreimportant','Women
doeverydayroutineandrepetitioustasks.Men'sworkrequiresmorecreativethinkingisdemandinginadifferentway','Awomanworks24hoursaday,butshe
doesfinishsomeofherjobs.Amanworkscontinuouslyanditneverstops.Hemaynotachieveanythingconcrete.'Onlyonerespondentnoticedthattherewasa
reversalofsexroles.Anotherwonderedifthemalechauvinismwasseriouslymeantorironical.Somerespondentscalledthelineoffensivetowomen.Therewasno
perceptionofhumourintheextract:thetranspositionofwordsinanunknownsayingisafterallunlikelytoberecognisedasfunny.Thereadersapproachedthesaying
fromaseriouspointofview,

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interestedinitstruthvalue,andquestioneditsrelevanceinthecontext:'Amildlychauvinistidea:womendoroutinework,whichmustalwaysbedoneontime.Men's
workisintellectual,andthereisalwaysplentyofthat.Still,Idon'tunderstandhowthesentencefitsinwiththetext.'(SeeTable11.)
Table11GRT1readerresponsestoExample7:
Awomanworksfromsuntosun
Comparisonofmen'sandwomen'swork

17

Expressesmalechauvinism

Speaksofuselesswork

Reversalofroles

Otherresponses

Noanswer

Total

29

aThetableincludesalternativeandcomplementaryexplanationsgiventhetotalof
respondentswas23.

TherewasanotherjokingmodificationofasayingwhichGRT1respondentsalsodiscussedseriously(asthetypeofproblemandtheresultsarethesameasin
example7,itisnotdiscussedinfulldetail).Thiswisecrack,usedinconversationbetweentwopolicemeninMcBain,transposedtheAmericanpoliticalslogan
Separatebutequal31intoNotevenequalbutseparate(ST:TextH,Appendix6),resultinginthepolicemenlaughingandtheaddresseeexpressinghis
approbation.TheFinnishreaderswroteaboutattitudestoracism,butonlyonespokeofthelineasajoke.Nonenamedthesource.Questionmarksand'Don't
knows'werefrequent,onereadercommenting:'Ithinkthesentenceisbadlytranslated,forevenifonereadsitmanytimes,itisstilldifficulttosaywhatthewriterhad
inmind.'32
Intheabsenceofconnotations,readerscanonlymakeuseofthecontextorofgeneralworldknowledge.Contextplayedadominantroleintheinterpretationofa
passage(ST:TextJ,Appendix6)wheretheanglophileVinniehasnamedherdeceasedAmericanlover'sdaughterBarbie'theBarbarian',andwhenherattitudetothe
girlbecomeslesshostile,directsheraggressiontowardsBarbie'smother,thatVisigothrealtor,seeingBarbie,withherlowselfesteem,asavictimofhermother.
Respondents

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wereunsureofthemeaningoflnsigoottilainen'Visigoth',andtendedtolookforcluesinsuchmattersasthemother'swayofmakingalivingasarealestateagent
andinpsychologicalperceptionsofmotherdaughterrelationships.
Example8ThatVisigothRealtorHerMother.
Barbie'scontinualassertionofherlackofintelligencehasbeguntoannoyVinnie.Stoptellingmehowstupidyouare,shewantstosay.YougraduatedfromtheUniversityof
Oklahoma,youcan'tbeallthatstupid.
'That'sallright,'shesaysinstead.'Ithinkyou'vedoneverywell,consideringeverything.'Almostagainstherwill,shereclassifiesTheBarbarianasaninnocentpeasantthe
victimratherthantheaccompliceofthatVisigothrealtorhermother,whoisnodoubtresponsibleforBarbie'slowopinionofherownintelligence.(Lurie,1986:2667)
BarbienjatkuvalykkyytensniukkuudenvakuutteleminenonalkanutkydVinnienhermoille.Lakkaisitjoselittelems t,mitentoheloolet,hnhaluaasanoa.Olethansin
suorittanutakateemisentutkinnonOklahomanyliopistossa:etsinnytniinhirventohelovoiolla.
'Eisemitn',hnsanoosensijaan.'Minustasinoletkaikenkaikkiaanprjnnytoikeinhyvin.'MelkeinvastointahtoaanhnluokitteleeBarbaarinuudestaan,nytviattomaksi
maalaistytksi,jokaonlnsigoottilaisenkiinteistnvlittjitinsuhripikemminkinkuintmanrikoskumppani.(Lurie,1988:343)

TheNSreadersalsodescribedthemotheras'dominant,interestedincash','soundsarealhorror','astrongminded,evenaggressivebutsuccessfulwoman','a
ruthless,uncultivateddealerinrealestate'.Onlytwoshowedinterestinthehistoricalaspect,thatis,inwhotheVisigothswere,andthusmadeitclearthattheyhad
seenthelinkbetweenVisigothandBarbarian.33
TheFinnishrespondentssawthemotherasdomineering,toostrict,critical,unfeeling,aggressive,etc.Somerespondentsmadeitclearthattheybasedsuch
interpretationspartlyonherbeingarealestateagent:'Idon'tunderstand''Visigoth"inanywayatall.Arealtorsuggestsacertainruthlessness,aggressivityand
efficiency.Notapositiveevaluationofthemother','realtorsareruthlesspeoplewhostomponothers.'RelativelyfewlinkedVisigothwithBarbarian.34Theword
victiminthecontextmayalsohavecontributedtothemotherbeingseeninnegativeterms.

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SeveralgavenoanswersomethoughtthephrasemeantthemotherwasaGerman(andnegativeconnotationsofGermanweremadeexplicit).Therewereafew
interpretationsbasedonGothichorrorandGothicarchitecture('WhenBarbiewasachildhermotherhadbeeninterestedinrealestatebusinessonly,sothatshe
seemedasdistantasaGothicchurchspire').Tworespondentsspontaneouslysuggestedthathunni'Hun'orvandaali'Vandal'mighthavemadeforabetter
translation.ThosewordsmightindeedhavehelpedsomeoftherespondentswhocomplainedofnotunderstandingthepassagetoseethelinkbetweenVinnie's
visualisationsofthetwoAmericanwomen.Someofthereadersexpressedannoyanceattheimpenetrablephrase:'Whatonearthisthiscreature"Visigothrealtor
mother"?'
The'psychological'interpretationsofthemotherdaughterrelationship(forexample'themotherhascontributedtoBarbie'slowsenseofselfesteembyemphasising
herownintelligence,practicalityandefficiencyandperhapscomparingthemwithBarbie's')alsotendedtoobscurethehumouroftheallusion.
EventhoughVinniefeelsgriefandguilt,sheisonanotherlevelobservingherownreactionsinadetachedway,awareofherownfoolishnessandcontradictions.(See
Tables12and13.)
Table12GRT1readerresponsestoExample8:
ThatVisigothrealtorhermother
Visigothlinkedwithbarbarian

Psychologicalcommentsonly(mother/daughter)

Commentsonrealtor/businesswomanonly

Ahardperson(nogroundsgiven)

Gothicarchitecture

German

Otherresponses

Noansweror'Don'tknow'

Total

25

aThetotalofanswerslistedexceedsthenumberofrespondents(N=23)astwoanswersare
listedtwice:inthem,thesuggestionsthatthemotherwasaGermanweresubsidiarytoher
beingarealtor.

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Table13GRT2readerresponsestoExample8:
ThatVisigothrealtorhermother
Visigothlinkedwithbarbarian

12

Psychologicalcommentsonly(mother/daughter)

Commentsonrealtor/businesswomanonly

Greedyformoney

Ahardperson(nogroundsgiven)

Gothicarchitecture

German/WesternEuropean

Otherresponses

11

Noansweror'Don'tknow'

Total

59

aThetotalexceedsthenumberofrespondents(N=57)becausesomeoftheresponses
containedelementsofmorethanoneanswer.

Ironymaybedifficulttospotinanextract(butnotethatquiteafewresponsestothetransculturalSupermanexamplespokeofirony).Inthefollowingexample(ST:
TextK,Appendix6),theminorcharacterEdwin'sattitudetoChuckMumpson(what'shisname),whetherdeadoralive,isoneofsnobbery,nordoesheseemto
noticethatVinnieisdevastatedbythelossofhersecretlover.Themodifiedallusionheusesisasubtlewayofdowngradingthedeadman,apinprickattack.
Example9SomeCornerofanEnglishField.
'Howiswhat'shisname,bytheway?...IshestilldiggingforancestorsdowninWiltshire?'
'Yesno,'Vinnierepliesuncomfortably...[S]hehasn'tdaredmentionChuck.Sheknowsitwillbenearlyimpossibleforhertotellthestorywithoutfallingapart...Butsheplunges
in[tellingEdwinthatChuckisdead].Severaltimesshehearsatelltalewobbleinhervoice,butEdwinseemstonoticenothing.
'Sothere'ssomecornerofanEnglishfieldthatisforeverTulsa,'hesaysfinally,smiling.
'Yes.'Vinniestranglesthecrythatrisesinher.(Lurie,1986:275)
'KuinkasMikhnennimensnytolikaanmuutenvoi?...VielkhnkaiveleeesiisiWiltshiress?'

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'Vielei',Vinnievastaavaivaantuneesti...[H]neioleuskaltanutmainitaChuckia.Hntiet,ettolisimilteimahdotontakertoats tratkeamattaitkuun...Muttahnrohkaisee
mielens[jakertooChuckinkuolleen].Useankerranhnkuuleepaljastavaavrinnessn,muttaEdwineinythuomaavanmitn.
'Niinettjollainenglantilaisellaniityllonnurkkaus,jokaonikuisestiTulsaa',mieslopultasanoohymyillen.
'Niin.'Vinniekuristaaitsessnkohoavanitkun.(Lurie,1988:353)

ThemoststrikingphraseinthetranslatedallusionisundoubtedlyTulsa,forEdwin,theBritishspeaker,theepitomeofunsophisticatedMidwesternAmerica.Rupert
Brooke'soriginallineglorifiedEngland('Thatthere'ssomecornerofaforeignfield/ThatisforeverEngland').(SeeothermodificationsofthelineinChapter3).The
modificationshowsEdwinheartlesslyusingChuck'sdeathassomethingtoquipabout,toshowoffhisownreadywitandsophisticationincontrasttoVinnie'scowboy
friend(adescriptionoccurringearlierintheextract).Verylittleofthiscamethroughtotherespondents,manyofwhomcouldnotunderstanditatall:'Areferenceto
ChuckbeinganAmerican.Tulsa=acityintheUS.Still,Idon'tgetthepointofthesentence.'Anotherrespondentsaid:'I'venoideawhatTulsais.ForthatreasonI
can'tfollowthethought.'
ThosewhogaveinterpretationsthoughtasarulethatEdwinwasofferingcomfortsincerely:35'Acomfortingidea,thatdeathispartoflifeanditisimmaterialwhereit
takesplaceonanyfieldlifeisgoingon.Histoneofvoiceiswarmandconvincing,whichshowsthathebelievesinwhatheissaying.'Foranother,Tulsastoodfor
'thecountryofdreams,agoodplacetoreturnto.'AfewreadersweremoreperspicaciousandsensedironyorSchadenfreudeinEdwin'swords.Noneoffereda
source,thoughonecalledtheline'afinesaying',whichsuggeststhisreaderhadaninklingofitspreformednature.(SeeTable14.)
Table14GRT1readerresponsestoExample9:
SomecornerofanEnglishfield
Ironical,amused,Schadenfreude

Comfort

Denotationonly

Otherresponses

Noansweror'Don'tknow'

Total

23

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SeealsoChapter6fortheresponsesof33studentsofEnglishtotheSTextract.
Thefinalexampleofresponsestominimumchangetranslationsinvolvesapassagewithtwoallusions,theeffectofwhichwasmissedbypracticallyallofthe
respondents,leavingthepassageflat,withadenotativemeaningonly.
Example10.WherearetheImpsofYesteryear?
InhismusingsontheachievementsoftheBritishmotorcarindustry,theprotagonistofLodge'snovelwonders:
Whenwasthelasttimeweweresupposedtohaveaworldbeatingaluminiumengine?TheHillmanImp,right?Wherearetheynow,theHillmanImpsofyesteryear?Inthe
scrapyards,everyone,ornearly.AndtheLinwoodplantagraveyard,grassgrowingbetweentheassemblylines,corrugatedironroofsflappinginthewind.(Lodge,1988:11)
Milloinviimeksimeillpitiknollamaailmanmarkkinatvalloittavaalumiinimoottori?OlikoseHillmanImp?MisstakavuosienHillmanImpitnytovat?Kaatopaikoilla,jokaikinen,
taiainakinlhestulkoonjokaikinen.JaLinwoodintehdasonhautuumaana,ruohokasvaakokoomalinjojenvliss,aaltolevykatotrepsottavattuulessa.(Lodge,1990:23)

ThefirstofthetwoallusionsintheSTpassage(ST:TextL,Appendix6)isamodificationofVillon'sOsontlesneigesd'antan?,whoseEnglishtranslation(by
DanteGabrielRossetti)36isWherearethesnowsofyesteryear?ThesecondmodifiesPeteSeeger'ssongofthe1960s,WhereHaveAlltheFlowersGone?
Lodgeusesscrapyardsforgraveyards,37butthelatterwordisincludedinthesentencethatfollowstheallusionintheST.Consulted,theNSreadersrecognisedthe
sourceswithouttroubleandthoughttheallusionsconveyed'conventionalnostalgiaforlostyouthanditsinnocenceandnaivet'or,tothosewhocouldn't'feeltoo
nostalgicaboutagrubbylittleHillmanImp,'ironyandwryhumour.Again,thesetoneswerenotrecognisedbyGRT1respondents(withoneexception),nordidthe
TTmakefulluseofexistingtranslationsoftheallusionstoallowTTreaderstorecogniseandrespondtopreformedmaterial.Inthetest,thisextractdifferedfromthe
restinthatnothingwasunderlinedfortherespondentstofocusoninsteadtheywereaskedtounderlineandexplainanyallusionstheynoticedinthepassage(the
concepthadbeenexplainedandexamplesgivenintheinstructions).Mostofthemsawnothingtocommenton.OnlyoneresponseresembledthatoftheNSreaders,
statingthatthepassage

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meant'destructionofdreams,orthatgoodoldtimeswerepast'.TheTTwording,inotherwords,didnotraisethedesiredconnotationsforthesereadersbutwas
devoidofimplicitmeaning.ThetranslatordidnotuseoneoftheexistingVillontranslations(atleastthosebyAaleTynniorVeijoMerihavebeenpublished)orthe
FinnishversionofSeeger'ssongtoemphasisetheubisunttheme.WhiletheVillontranslationsarelittleknownandseldomquotedinFinnish,suchelementscould
havebeenusedforrecreation(seeaproposedtranslationforthisexampleinChapter4).Instead,theminimumchangetranslationhadonereaderwonderingifthe
detailsofpetrolconsumptiongivenearlierinthepassagecouldpossiblybetrue,andseveralunderlinedandexplainedthemeaningoftheFinnishidiomylihilseen
(occurringearlierintheextract),arenderingfor'getsonhistits'.Nearly50%didnotmarkthepassageinanyway.(SeeTable15.)
Table15GRT1readerresponsestoExample10:
WherearetheImpsofyesteryear?
Allusionmarked:nostalgia

Allusionmarked:noconnotations

Othersection(s)marked

11

Noanswer

10

Total

23

Itappears,then,thatinsteadofrecognisingtheconnotationsandsubtleironies,TTreaders(withoneexception)readthetextatthedenotationallevel,asaninquiry
intothepresentwhereaboutsofoldHillmanImpcars.
ResponsestootherStrategies
Theremainingexamplesallinvolveallusionswhich,judgingbythepreviousexamples,canbeassumedtobeunfamiliar.Theresponsessuggestthatthetranslations
chosenhaveimprovedtheTTreaders'chancesofunderstandingthemeaningofallusivepassages.Asexplainedearlier,theexperimentaldatainthisstudywerenot
gatheredtoallowforacomparisonbetweenresponsestovariousstrategiesbuttoshowthatinliteraltranslationunfamiliarallusionsmaywellbeculturebumpsforthat
reason,therewereonlyafewexamplesofotherstrategiesinthequestionnaires,buttheresponsestotheseexamplesshowthatmuchofthemeaningoftheallusions
hasindeedbeenreceived.

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Inthefirstexampleofmore'interventional'strategies(wherethetranslatorhasvisiblyintervenedandassumedtheroleofculturalmediator),anunfamiliarnamehas
beenreplacedbyamorefamiliarone.
Example11RebeccaofSunnybrookFarm
'Whatyouwant,Mr.Ticknor,issomeonefeistyenoughtogetinthelineofsomeoneelse'sfire,andtoughenoughtogetawaywithit.AndyouwanthimtolooklikeWinniethe
PoohandactlikeRebeccaofSunnybrookFarm.I'mnotsureRebecca'sevengotagunpermit.'(Parker,1987a:11)
'HerraTicknor,tehaluattejonkun,jokaontarpeeksirivakkaastuakseentuleenjonkuntoisenpuolestajatarpeeksikovaselvitkseensiit.HnenvainpitisiollaNallePuhin
nkinenjakyttytykuinPollyanna.LiekhnPollyannallaollutaseenkantolupaa.'(Parker,1988:145)

EitherthetranslatorwasunfamiliarwithKateDouglasWiggin'sstoryforpreteenagereaders,RebeccaofSunnybrookFarm,orheassumedhisreaderswouldbe,
andthereforechosetoreplacethatnamebythenameofanothernaivelyoptimisticfictionalgirl.Indeed,KLArespondents(seeChapter4)showedthatthenameof
Pollyannawasreasonablywellknowneventhoughthepreciseconnotationsofthenamewerenotalwaysclear,itwasrecognisedbyapproximatelyhalfthe
respondentsasthenameofalittlegirlinabookorfilm.TheparallelismwiththewellknownPoohhelpsinthecontext.ThepointintheSTpassage(ST:TextM,
Appendix6)isthatbodyguardsmustbephysicallytough(unlikeWinniethePooh)andalwaysbepreparedfortheworst(unlikeRebeccaandPollyanna)iftheyare
toprotecttheirclientssuccessfully.AstheconversationintheextractispartofaseriesofsceneswheretheworldviewsofRachel(representedherebyTicknor)and
Spenserareshowntoconflict,itneedstobeintelligible,ortheTTreaderwillbeunabletoseethecontrast.GRT2respondentswereasked:'Howdoyouunderstand
theunderlinedrequirement?Whatdoesthespeakerpretendabodyguardshouldbelikeandhowshouldheact?'Onlythepartsoftheresponsesthatshowreactions
tothenamePollyanna(thatis,mostlytheanswersto'howshouldheact?')arelistedhere,asthenameofWinniethePoohprovedtobefullytranscultural.(SeeTable
16.)

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Table16GRT2readerresponsestoExample11:
Rebecca/Pollyanna
Nice,wellbehaved,correct

14

Active,selfassured

Joyful,positive,bubbly,innocent

Obedient,dolllike

Otherresponses

14

Noansweror'Don'tknow'

13

Total

57

Readerswerenotaskediftheyidentifiedthesource,andsoonlyafewmentioned'thegirls'booksIread45yearsago'ortheDisneyfilm.Somereaderswereclearly
familiarwithbothnamesthoughtheygavenoinformationonsources:'Youcan'tbeabodyguard,onguardandakiller,ifyoubelievethebestofeveryone,andyour
I.Q.is30.Forgiveme,Pooh,forgiveme,Pollyanna.'AnotheraddedthatA.A.MilnewasoneofRaymondChandler'sfavouriteauthorsandthatParkeremulates
Chandler.SomerespondentsprovidedsophisticatedanalysesofTicknor'srequirements:'Theallusionstofictionalcharactersinchildren'sliteratureemphasisethe
impossibilityofabodyguard'stask.Spenserthinksthedutiesofabodyguardandtheideologicalworldviewofafeministwriterareirreconcilable.Abodyguard
shouldbereflectiveandsimple=WinniethePooh,andactinaconventional,niceandbriskway=Pollyannabutifnecessary,bepreparedtokill.'Oneaddedthe
remark:'Thetextisamusing.'Otherresponseswereguessworkbyreaderswhodidnotrecognisethename:'meanonthejob','toughanddirect'.Suchreaders
doubtlessthought(andinsomecasesstatedthattheythought)thattherewasmeanttobesomecontrastbetweenPoohandPollyanna.
Thenamewasunfamiliartohalftherespondents,whoeitherrefusedtospeculateortookittoimplythatabodyguardshouldbevariously'curious','tough','an
intelligentgentleman','atrippingBarbiedoll','afussyoldwoman',etc.Whenevaluatingthesuccessofthestrategy,itshouldberememberedthatinalllikelihood,the
nameofRebeccawouldhavebeenunfamiliartomostreaders.
Inthefollowingexample(ST:TextN,Appendix6),anunfamiliarname38wasreplacedbyacommonnoun.Thetranslatorappearstohaverecognisedthatthename
wouldconveynothingtothemajorityofreaders,and

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replacedthenamebyanounphrasewhich,whileinexactasadescriptionofCarryNationherself,couldbeexpectedtomakeinferencingpossible.
Example12SheDidNotLooklikeCarryNation.
ImetRachelWallaceonabrightOctoberday...Shedidn'tlooklikeCarryNation.ShelookedlikeapleasantwomanaboutmyownagewithaDianeVonFurstenbergdressonand
somelipstick,andherhairlongandblackandclean.(Parker,1987a:12)
TapasinRachelWallacenernkirkkaanalokakuunpivn...Hneinyttnyt20luvunsuffragetilta,vaansuunnilleenikiseltnimiellyttvltnaiselta,jollaoliDianeVon
Furstenberginsuunnittelemamekkojahuulissaanjonkinverranpunaa.Hiuksetolivatpitktjamustatjapuhtaat.(Parker,1988:17)['Shedidnotlooklikea1920ssuffragette']

TheSTallusionismeanttoconveySpenser'ssurpriseatmeetingthefeministwriter.Inpopularsourceculturalimagination,CarryNationisalarge,hatchetwielding
leaderofthetemperancemovement,dressedinsevereblackandwhite(EncyclopediaBritannicaVII:207).Rachelturnsouttobepleasantlooking:sheiswell
dressedandcleanandwearsdiscreetmakeup.Inotherwords,shelooksneithermilitant,uglynorfrightening.Atleastsomeoftheseaspectswereperceivedbyall
therespondents.TheywereaskedtodescribewhatRachelWallacedidnotlooklike,thatis,whattheexpression'a1920ssuffragette'suggestedtothem.
Therespondentsmadeunfavourablecommentsona1920ssuffragette'sdressandhair(undoubtedlyreinforcedbytheimmediatecontexthowever,therewasonly
oneremarkonmakeupwhichislikewisesingledoutinthepassage)39butalsoonherbehaviourandfacialexpression.Itisnotablethateveryrespondenthad
somethingtooffer:therewereno'Don'tknow's'andnooneleftthequestionunanswered.(SeeTable17.)
Someoftherespondents(bothmenandwomen)madeitclearthattheydidnotsharethestereotype:'atough,masculinewomanwhodoesnotuseclothesorlooksto
emphasiseherfemininity.Foramanundoubtedlyafrighteningandunappealingwoman'(emphasisintheoriginal),or(afteradescription):'inotherwords,shedidnot
looklikeafeministinthenegativesenseoftheword.'
Oneofthereadersbelievedhehadnotedadiscrepancy:'Suffragette:ahardandmasculinewoman(probably,though,datingbacktotheturnofthecentury,notthe
1920s,whichmakesonewonderhowwellinformedSpenserreallyis).'Thetranslator'sslip,ifslipitis,40thusledthisreadertoreaditaspartofthecharacterisation
oftheprotagonist(withaneffect

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probablycountertotheintentionsoftheauthor,aprofessorofEnglish.Spenserispresentedas'unexpectedlyliterate'onthebackcoverofthepaperback).
Table17GRT2areaderresponsestoExample12:
CarryNation/A1920ssuffragette
Dress

11

Hair

Behaviour

Untidiness

Facialexpression

Voice

Otherresponses

Noansweror'Don'tknow'

Total

40

aThetotalofresponseslistedbelowexceedsthenumberofrespondents(N=22)asmost
answerscontainedmorethanoneelement,forinstance'shorthair,untidyclothes,loudvoice'.

Inthefollowingexample,theST(Text0,Appendix6)hastworhyminglinesofpoetrycontaingametaphor.Insteadofaminimumchangetranslationorarhyming
version,neitherofwhichwouldberecognisableasanallusioninFinnish(thoughthelatterwoulddoubtlessberecognisedaspoetry),thetranslatordecidedtoretain
thepoeticmetaphorbuttocompressit,dispensingwiththerhyme.Thetranslationthussoundslikeapieceoffolkwisdom:
Example13TangledaretheWebsWeWeave
Thethreecopsinvestigatingthecaseknewverylittleabouthighlevelbusinesstransactionsinvolvingastronomicalfigures.Theyknewonlythattangledarethewebsweweave
whenfirstwepractisetodeceive...(McBain,1984:175)
Juttuatutkivillakolmellapoliisillaoliperinvhntietoakorkeantasonkaupoista,joissarahasummatliikkuivatthtitieteellisisslukemissa.Hetiesivtvain,ettsotkuisiaovat
petoksenverkot...(McBain,1981:198)['Theyknewonlythattangledarethewebsofdeceit']

Therespondentsasarulehadnodifficultyexplainingthisonthe

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denotativelevel(thoughnoonespokeofdeceiversbeingcaughtintheirowntangledwebs).Noneexpressedsurpriseatthewordinginotherwords,therewere
noneoftheannoyedremarksthataccompaniedresponsestosomeoftheculturebumps.Notsurprisingly,therewerenoattemptstosuggestasourceeither.(See
Table18.)
Table18GRT2areaderresponsestoExample13:Tangledwebs
Complicatedcrimes,difficulttounravel

13

Theysmellarat(illegalactivity)

Otheranswers

Noanswer

Total

22

Twoofthe'otheranswers'alsospokeoffraudorcrimeinmoregeneralterms.
AnotherexamplewithanallusivemetaphorwaschangedtoanothermetaphorfromthesamesphereoflifeintheTT.TheSTallusion(ST:TextP,Appendix6),
there'sgoldinthemtharquarters,alineoccurringinmanyWesterns(usuallyintheformofthere'sgoldinthemtharhills)andmeaning'thereareopportunitiesin
thewayindicated'(Rees,1991:315),wasnotgivenaminimumchangetranslation(noillaseuduilla/kukkuloillaonkultaa).Instead,anothermetaphordispensing
withthepotentialreaderpuzzlementcausedbyseuduilla'areas'(oranotherpossibletranslationforquarters)butstillsuggestingthegoldrush,andhencethechance
ofgrowingrichquickly,wasused.
Example14There'sGoldinThemTharQuarters.
'...Whoareyouworkingfor?Thelittleladhimself?'
'No.Ibelongtotheothersideofthefamily.Iamprotectingtheinterestsofthegirlfriend.'
'Areyouindeed?Quiteaclient!'Hewasopenlyenvious.'There'sgoldinthemtharquarters.Ohwell,goodlucktoyou...'(Allingham,1986:76)
'...Kenenlaskuunteoikeintyskentelette?Pojanko?'
'En.Minsuoritantiedustelujahnentyttystvn spuolesta.'
'Niink!Siinonkinasiakas!'Mieseivlittnytpeitellkateuttaan.'Todellinenkultakaivos!Onneksiolkoon![...]'(Allingham,1990:82)['Averitablegoldmine!']

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Mostoftherespondentsunderstoodthegolddiggingmetaphortomeanthatthegirlfriendorherfamilywasrich.Quiteafewaddedthatshemightalsobenaive,and
hencesusceptibletoinflatedbills.Tworespondentssuspectedirony:couldsheinfactbequitepoor?(SeeTable19.)
Table19GRT2readerresponsestoExample14:
Goldinthemtharquarters/Veritablegoldmine
Rich

32

Richandnaive

16

Naive

Irony:poorinreality

Noanswer

Total

57

Inthelastexampleofthissection(firstpresentedinChapter4),therewasamoreextensivealteration:thewordsofamedievalmystic,StJulianofNorwich,whomust
bedeemedtotallyunknowntoFinnishreaders,werereplacedbyamodifiedallusionechoingtheLord'sPrayer.Thealterationwassuccessfulinthatallreaderseither
wereabletosuggestasourceorexplainedthemeaningoftheallusion(orboth).
Example15AllbeWell,andAllWillbeWell,andAllMannerofThingWillbeWell
'Allbewell,'sheshuthereyesandsaid,quotingsomethingshehadread,butnotquitesurewhat'andallwillbewell,andallmannerofthingwillbewell,'andClifforddidnot
evensnubherbyaskingforthesourceofthequotation.(Weldon,1988:72)
'Jakaikkionhyvin',Helensanoisulkiensilmn sjasiteeratenjotakin,jonkahnolilukenut,olemattaaivanvarma,'niintaivaassakuinmaanpll',eikCliffordedesnolannut
hntkysymll,mistsitaattioli.(Weldon,1989:103)['Andalliswell...inheavenasonearth']

ThesceneintheSToccurswhenHelenhasjustgivenbirthtoClifford'schild.Shehadplannedtohaveanabortion,butCliffordhadpreventedthis.Helen'swords
expressthefeelingsofbothparents:Cliffordhasforgivenher,andthechildisapromiseoffuturehappiness.Thelongerextractusedinthequestionnaire(ST:TextQ,
Appendix6)containsmanyemotionallychargedwords(correspondingtopainandpleasurethedrivetoprotectthewarmreassuringglowtherecognitionof
privilegeungrudgingloveHelenglowedinhisforgiveness).AliteraltranslationofStJulian'swords('Kaikkion

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hyvin,jakaikkituleeolemaanhyvin,jakaikenlaisetasiattulevatolemaanhyvin')isunrecognisableasanallusionaswellasintolerablyclumsy(becauseofthe
repetitionsandthespecialfutureforms,rarelyusedinFinnish)sothattouseitwoulddisturbtheheightenedemotionalityofthescene.
Thetranslator'schoiceofwordswasperceivedasreligiousbymostoftheFinnishreaders.Theywereasked:'WhatdoesHelenmean?Doesthisalludeto
anything?'(SeeTable20.)
Table20GRT2readerresponsestoExample15:Allbewell
Peace,happiness,forgiveness

36

Mentionofsourceonly

16

Otheranswers

Noanswer

Total

57

Readerswere,however,uncertainabouttheprecisesource.41TheyreferredtotheLord'sPrayer(N=19),thenativity(N=3),Revelations(N=1)orsimplythe
Bible(N=8).Somesawacombinationofareligiousandasecularsource(eitherthesayingLoppuhyvinkaikkihyvin=All'swellthatendswellorthecryof
medievalnightwatchmencombinedwiththeLord'sPrayeroravaguely'biblical'source).OnesuspectedthismightbeaShakespeareanallusion.Tenrespondents
suggestednosourceatallbuttwoofthesedidexplainthemeaningofHelen'swords.
Theexplanationsvariedfromassurancesofhappinesseverafteroratleastforthetimebeingtomoreanalyticalones,involvingawarenessofpastcontroversiesand
theneedforreconciliationandtheprobabilitythatthepresenteuphoriawillbeshortlived.
OneofthestudentsgatheringdatawrotethatshethoughttheremarkintheextractaboutaskingforthesourceofthequotationunmotivatedinFinnishasthesource
wassofamiliar.Theresults,however,showthattherewasadegreeofuncertaintyamongtheTTreadersabouttheexactsourcehence,theremarkisnotoutof
place.(ItisofcoursebettermotivatedintheSTwhileStJulian'swordscanbefoundinreferenceworksandarerecognisableasreligious,twoofthethreeNS
colleaguesconsultedonthisexamplecouldnotplacethem.)42
Thisexplorationofreaderresponsestoallusionsintranslationsupportsthehypothesisthatliteraltranslationsofunfamiliarallusionsposeproblemsofunderstandingfor
TTreaders.Inotherwords,theyareculture

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bumps.TosaythisisnottounderestimatetheTTreaders:therewasevidenceofreadingcompetencebothintheresponsestothetestallusionsandinthecommon
recognitionofthemodifiedtobeornottobeintheoriginalFinnishtextusedasatest(Appendix3).Itshouldalsobeborneinmindthatmanyrespondentswere,to
someextent,bilingual,astheywereinthehabitofreadingtextsinforeignlanguagesincludingEnglish.Still,thedegreeofbiculturalismrequiredbothtorecognisethe
presenceofsourceculturalallusionsinaTTthroughtheveiloftheTLasitwere,inliteraltranslation,andtoseetheirmeanings,wouldseemtobetoomuchtoexpect.
Readerswhoarebiculturaltothatdegreewillprobablyprefertoreadforeignbooksuntranslatedanyway.ResponsestoExamples11to15suggestthatcultural
mediationthroughmoreinterventionalstrategieshasabetterchanceofenablingTTreaderstograspthepointofanallusivepassage.
Itisdifficulttogiveanexactquantitativeconclusionasthequestionswereopenended,notmultiplechoice,andhencemoredifficulttoassigntoparticularcategories.
However,bywayofconclusion,anattemptismadetoreducethepreviousdatatosimplerfigures.ThetotalsinTable21includeonlyoneanswerperrespondent,
unlikesomeoftheearliertableswheretotalsoccasionallysurpassthenumberofrespondents,asalternativeorcomplementaryanswershavebeenlistedseparately
(seenotestoindividualexamples).Thenumberofrespondentsperquestionvaries.43'NSlikeresponse'meansaresponsecomparabletothoseofcompetentnative
speakersasindicatedbythewrittenresponsesoftheNSrespondentsandinformationonsourcesandconnotationsinreferenceworks.Itisofnecessityarelative
conceptcf.thediscussionearlierinthisChapter.(SeeTable21.)
Table21GRTreaderresponsestoallusionsinliteraltranslation
Example1(TheWhiteRabbit)

NSlikeresponse

Other

16

Noanswer

Total

23

Example2(TheWalrusandtheCarpenter)

NSlikeresponse(=linktoseanoted)

Other

17

Noanswer

13

Total

35

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Table21continued
Example3(Alightbluebodystocking)

NSlikeresponse(=namedSuperman)

40

Other

16

Noanswer

Total

57

Example4(Anolivebranch)

NSlikeresponse

53

Other

Noanswer

Total

57

Example5(WithmybodyItheeworship)

NSlikeresponse(=religion)

Other

15

Noanswer

Total

23

Example6(Pumpkinsatmidnight)

NSlikeresponse(=Cinderella)

15

Other

19

Noanswer

Total

35

Example7(Awomanworksfromsuntosun)

NSlikeresponse(=reversalofroles)

Other

21

Noanswer

Total

23

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Table21continued
Example8(ThatVisigothrealtorhermother)

LinkbetweenVisigothandBarbariannoted

13

Notnoted

56

Noanswer

11

Total

80

Example9(SomecornerofanEnglishfield)

NSlikeresponse(=ironical,putdown)

Other

13

Noanswer

Total

23

Example10(WherearetheImpsofyesteryear)

NSlikeresponse(=nostalgia)

Other

12

Noanswer

10

Total

23

Ananalysisofthesefiguresshowsthatbasically,theexamplescanbeputintotwocategories:(1)culturebumps,towhichfewreadersreactedinthewayananalysis
oftheSTextractbasedonsourceculturalbackgroundknowledgesuggestsasappropriate.ThiscategoryincludestheexampleswithalowoccurrenceofNSlike
responses(Examples1,2,7,9and10)andahighnumberofnoanswers(2)transculturalexampleswhichclearlycommunicatedtheirmeaning:themajorityofreaders
hadnodifficultyunderstandingthem(Examples3and4).(AsindicatedinNote25,itispossiblethatsomeofthosewhodidnotspecificallynameSupermantookthis
identificationforgrantedifso,theanswerofNSlikeresponseswouldbeevengreaterforExample3.)Threefurtherexamples(Examples5,6and8)aretosome
degree(3)inconclusive.Manyofthe'otheranswers'forExample5,whilenotspecificallymentioningreligiousreasons,yetspokeofrespectandcommitmentandthus
sensedmuchofwhattheissuewasinExample6,thedenotativemeaningoftheallusion(notaxisavailable)wascleareventothosewhofailedtoseethepointofthe
mentionofpumpkins.ForExample8,fewofthenativespeakersmadeovertmentionofthelink

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betweencallingonewomantheBarbarian,anotheraVisigoth,sothatstrictlyspeaking,anNSlikeresponseapparentlydidnotinvolvethisidentification.Itisworth
noting,however,thatthenumberofnoanswerswasquitehighforExample8:thiscanbethoughttoindicatereaderpuzzlement.
AsimilarreductiontosimplerfiguresforExamples1115isgiveninTable22.
Table22GRTreaderresponsestomoreinterventionaltranslations
Example11(Rebecca/Pollyanna)

NSlikeresponse(=positiveattributes)

26

Other

18

Noanswer

13

Total

57

Example12(CarryNation/A1920ssuffragette)

NSlikeresponse(=unattractive)

16

Other

Noanswer

Total

22

Example13(Tangledwebs)

NSlikeresponse(=difficulttounravel)

13

Suspicionofcrime

Other

Noanswer

Total

22

Example14(There'sgoldinthemtharquarters/Averitablegoldmine)

NSlikeresponse(=richand/ornaive)

49

Other

Noanswer

Total

57

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Table22continued
Example15(Allbewell)

NSlikeresponse(=peaceetc.)

36

Sourceonly

16

Other

Noanswer

Total

57

AnanalysisofthefiguresforExamples1115showsadistributionwhichdoesnotindicateculturebumps:theclearmajorityofreadersshowanNSlikeresponse,
andthenumbersofnoanswerarelow.Thenumberofexamplesistoosmalltoallowforgeneralisation,butatleastwiththeseexamples,theallusionscanbesaidto
have'worked'fortherespondents:theirmeaningdidnotproveverydifficulttoget.
Thefollowingchapter,whichreportsonsomeexperimentaldatainvolvinguniversitystudentsofEnglish,maygiveussomeindicationofhoweasilythenecessary
degreeofbiculturalismrequiredoftranslatorsisacquiredbystudentsofaforeignlanguage.
Notes
1.Empiricalstudiesofreadingconcerningrealreadershavebeencarriedoutinthecontextofliterarystudies,focusingonreactionstogiventexts,suchaspoems
(Richards,1929).Sociologicallyorientedstudieshavelookedfordataforexampleonliteracyorthelackofitinagivensegmentofsociety,suchasschoolleavers
(cf.Hirsch,1988,Pattison,1982),ornational,cultural,genderoragegroupdifferencesinreaderresponses(cf.Eskola,1990:1701).Culturaldifferencesinawide
senseareconsideredwhenthecognitiveorientationofnonnativereadersisassumedtocolourtheirresponsestoliterarytextsinanotherlanguage,beyondmere
languagedifficultiesorunfamiliarrealia(Watts,1991:28).
2.ThefirstFinnishlanguagenewspaperwasissuedin1776butdiscontinuedthesameyearitdidnothavesuccessorstillthe1820s.
3.ABritishvisitortoFinlandacenturyagoreportsthat12ofShakespeare'splayshadbeentranslatedandperformedinFinnishby1896(Tweedie,1989:138).
4.In1994Finlandhadapopulationof5,098,800discountingthoseundersevenyearsofage,thesizeoftheschoolageandadultpopulationwas4,644,400.Of
these,2,488,000or49.2%wereborrowersofbooksfrompubliclibraries,borrowing102,010,000booksinall,oranaverageof41booksperborrowerthatyear
(StatisticalYearbookofFinland,1995:475).Thecombinedweekdaycirculationofnewspapersissued47daysaweekinFinlandwas2.4million,or473

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copiesper1000inhabitants,in1994(StatisticalYearbookofFinland,1995:473).Thefiguredoesnotincludenewspaperswithacirculationofbelow8000.
5.TheonlygroupinFinlandtoreadmoreforeignbooksthanFinnishonesareurbanreadersunder30yearsofage(Eskola,1987).
6.Itisnotmyintentiontodenigrateanysuchchoices,onlytopointoutthattheyarelikelytohaveaneffectonareader'sattitudetoreadingandresponsestotexts
laterinlife.
7.EightlecturersteachingatFinnishuniversities.
8.'Sufficiently'wasnotquantifiedbuttherewasnorealdisagreementaboutmeaningswiththeexampleschosen.(Inadifferentselectionoftexts,particularlyifthey
representedmorechallengingliterature,therewouldundoubtedlyhavebeenmoredifferencesofopinion.)Besides,asSchaar(1975)notes,whileassociationsare
subjective,similaritiesbetweentextscanbeverifiedbycomparison.Theallusionsinthereaderresponsetestswerealsoverifiedbyconsultingreferenceworks.
9.Thiscouldpossiblyalsobetakentomean'turnedthetrainupsidedown',butKelletatdoesnotmentionthispotentialbutratherperversetranslation.
10.Thatis,thattrainsfromHelsinkitoNorthernFinlandleavingTampere(acitylargelysurroundedbywater)usedtogobackalongthetrackstheyhadcomeinby
beforeresumingtheirnorthboundway.AninexperiencedpassengermightthinkthetrainwasreturningtoHelsinki.
11.Theusenotofextractsbutofcompleteshorttextssuchasshortstoriesmighthavebeenawayofresolvingthelastdifficulty.(ThepublishedTTsofthecorpus
wereover250pageslongontheaverage.)ContemporaryshortstoriesaresorarelypublishedinFinnishtranslation,however,thataselectionofavailableoneswas
unlikelytoofferenoughvarietyintypesofallusionsandtranslationstrategiesused.
12.AtranslationmaymakesensewithoutreproducingthesenseoftheST,andthisissometimesalegitimatetranslationstrategy(forinstancewithjokesand
wordplay).
13.ThestrategyofomissionremovestheculturebumpbutmayatthesametimeremovemuchorpartofwhattheSTtriestoconvey.Itmaythereforebeaneffective
strategyfromonepointofviewbutrarelyanoptimalone.
14.FinnishnotbeinganIndoEuropeanlanguage,thereismoreofaninitiallanguagebarrierforlearnerstoovercome.
15.Forreasonsofspace,allexamplesgiveninthischapterareshorterthantheextractsgiventotherespondents.TheFinnishtargettextsarenotincludedinthis
volume,butseeAppendix6fortheSTextracts.
16.Theothersusedthewords'nervous,harassed''blankandharried''preoccupied''worried,hurried,bothered'.
17.AllreadersansweredinFinnishmytranslations.
18.Cf.Pocheptsov(1991:89),whonotesinareviewofUrdangandRuffner(1986)thatthehare,presentedbythemas'sexualdesireincarnate',isratherasymbol
ofcowardiceinRussianculture.Pocheptsov'scommentappliestoFinnishcultureaswell:Finnstraditionallythinkofthehareasatimid,easilyfrightenedanimal(cf.the
slursjnishousu'harepants'=cowardmenikpupupksyihin?'Haveyougotabunnyinyourpants?'=Areyouafraid?).
19.Rabbits(Oryctolaguscuniculus)aregenerallythoughtofaspetsinFinland,notcreaturesoutinthewildwhichtheycanbeforinstanceinBritain.Ofhares,both

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Lepuseuropaeus'rusakko'andLepustimidus'[mets]jnis'arecommonlyglimpsedinFinnishwoodlands.Thelaypersonmaythinkofallthreeasrepresenting
roughlythesamespecies.
20.Therewerealsosomesuggestionsthatthiswasadifferentliteraryallusion.AmongthosementionedwereJohnUpdike(whosebestknowncharacteriscalled
RabbitAngstrom),WinniethePooh(whereoneofthecharactersiscalledRabbit),anunnamedchildren'spicturebookaboutablackhareorrabbitandawhiteone,
andRichardAdams'sWatershipDown(whereallthecharactersarerabbits).
21.InThroughtheLookingGlass,theWalrusandtheCarpentergoforawalkwithoysters,invitingthemtolunch,andeventuallyeattheoystersforlunch:'Nowif
you'reready,Oystersdear,/Wecanbegintofeed'(Carroll,1981:241).
22.ThisrespondentusedthewordsMursujaNikkari(seelater).
23.Theotherrespondentofferedaguessonly:'WouldthisbeareferencetoAliceinWonderland?'
24.Additionally,threerespondentsalsomentionedthehabitofgivingEnglishpubsoddnamesasapossibleexplanation,butasthesesuggestionsweresecondaryto
theirmainanswers,theyarenotshownonthetable.
25.Itispossiblethatsomeoftherespondentswhogavecontextualinterpretationsratherthanbriefexplanationsonthelinesof'heiscomparinghimselftoSuperman'
hadinfactrecognisedthereferencetoSuperman,butthoughtthiswasselfevidentandthatthequestionfocusedonthepurposeofSpenser'swords.Theneedfor
suchspeculationshowsaweaknessinthetestquestion.
26.ThefamiliarityofthischaracterinFinlandwasprovedlaterin1992,asFinnishnewspapersincludeditemsonthedeathofSupermanwhenitoccurredinthe
Americanstripcartoon.
27.Thisinformationwasgiventotherespondents.
28.Thelackofalargercontextwas,however,moreofaproblemthananticipated:twohighlyexperiencedNSreaderscommentedonanearlierpresentationofthis
examplesayingthatwhiletheyrecognisedtheallusionasbeingtothemarriageceremony,theythoughtitwasbeingusedironically.IntheST,thesceneishighly
chargedemotionally,andveryserious.(Itmayberelevantthattheauthorwasbornasearlyas1904.)
29.85.9%ofFinnsareLutherans(1994).12%arenotmembersofanyreligiousassociation.
30.Asthisgroupofrespondentshadlimitedtimeattheirdisposal,allofthemmaynothavehadsufficienttimetocometoaconclusion.
31.Areferencetoracerelationsseep.73.
32.AnotherexampledeletedfromdiscussionhereassuperfluousisareferencetotheMillerofDee(anoldsong)inLurie(ST:TextI,Appendix6),whichprovedto
betotallyunknowntoGRT1respondents.
33.Oneofthemalsowonderedwhetherpresentationoftherolesofvictimandaccompliceinacertainworkofpopularpsychologywasbeingreferredto.The
VisigothssackedRomeinAD410.
34.OneGRT2brespondentreferredtoAsterixasasourceoffamiliaritywithGoths.
35.Hymyillen'smiling'soundsmostlypositiveinFinnish.TheextractusedinthetestdoesnotcontainoneoftherecurrentreferencesintheSTtoEdwin'sCheshire
CatappearancejudgingbytheotherresponsestoallusionstoAlice,however,itisquitelikelythateventheCheshireCatwouldhavebeenlittle

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knowntothesereaders.ThenamesusedfortheCheshireCatintheSwanandKunnasandMannertranslations(Irvikissa,Mrklli),however,havenegative
associations(withgrimacesorsulking),sothatifthosenameswereusedintheTT,readersofthewholetextwouldbepreparedforEdwintosaysomething
unfriendly.Theassociationsofthetranslator'schoiceofVirnukissa(cf.Chapter4,Note19)aremilder('GrinningCat').
36.Rossetti'stranslationistheonequotedinalldictionariesofquotationconsultedexceptforthePenguinone,whichtranslatesVillon'swordsliterally.
37.Thepenultimatestanzacontainsthelines:'Wherehaveallthesoldiersgone?Inthegraveyards,everyone.'
38.IntheKLAtest(Chapter4)thenameofCarryNationwasunfamiliartoalltherespondents.
39.Thiscouldperhapsbeduetoculturaldifferences.InFinland,thewearingofmakeupmaybelessofasignofawomanwhohasinternalisedthetraditionalviewof
awoman'srole.
40.InGreatBritain,wherethetermisassociatedwiththePankhursts,womenweregrantedlimitedsuffragein1918andequalvotingrightsin1928(PCE).Emmeline
Pankhurstfoundedherorganisationin1903.
41.TheFinnishformoftheLord'sPrayercontainsthewordsTapahtukoonsinuntahtosimysmaanpllniinkuintaivaassa'Thywillbedoneinearth,asitis
inheaven'(Matt.6:10).
42.Nordidtheauthorrememberthesourceoffhand,whenasked(Weldoninterview,1989).
43.KLAresponsesarenotincludedinTables21and22asstudentsandteachersoftranslationcannot,strictlyspeaking,bethoughtgeneralreaders.IfKLA
responses(availableforExamples1and5)wereincluded,theywouldbegroupedasfollows:Example1:NSlikeresponse19,other26,noanswer6Example5:
NSlikeresponse6,other15,noanswer30.Total51.

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6
AllusionsintheClassroom(TheNoviceTranslatorStumbles)
TheexperimentdiscussedinChapter5showedthatallusionsparticularlythosetounfamiliarsourcesdonotcrossculturalbarrierseasily.Translatorstherefore
needtoacquiresufficientculturalandmetaculturalcompetencetomeettheneedsoftheirreaders,whomayunderstandablywelllackit.Butisthiscompetence
automaticallyacquiredaspartofthelanguageskillstaughtatschoolanduniversity?Nonnativestudentsofaforeignlanguageare,bydefinition,alsoundergoinga
processofbiculturalisation.Willstudentsthen,afterlearningthelanguageitselfwell,alsodemonstrateafamiliaritywithforeignallusionswhentheyreadtextsinthe
foreignlanguage?Oristheirbiculturalisationinthisrespectincomplete,sothattheydonotfullyunderstandthefunctionandmeaningofallusionsinsuchtexts,oreven
donotnoticethattheSLauthorisusingpreformedmaterial?Togetaclearerviewofwhatmightbeexpectedofnovicetranslators,Ididsomeempiricalworkwith
FinnishuniversitystudentsofEnglish.
EmpiricalDataonStudentRecognitionofSourcetextAllusions
Therewereanumberofinterlinkedquestionsonwhichdatawerewanted.First,howwellwouldthestudentsnoticeallusionsinEnglishtexts,andwhatfactorsmight
haveaneffectonvisibility?Second,towhatextentwouldstudentsseewhattheallusionsconveybeyonddenotation?Third,whattranslationstrategieswouldstudents
outlineandfourth,wouldtheirreadingcompetence,asrevealedbytheirunderstandingofthemeaningofallusions,bereflectedintheirtranslations?Thissection
addressesthefirstquestionwhiletheothersarediscussedinthenext.
InthistestofstudentsofEnglish(TSE)asinthegeneralreaderandKLAtestsdiscussedinChapter5,extractsoftextshadtobeused.Thestudents

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weregivennineEnglishlanguageextractsroughlyonepagelongeachtoread(TextsAtoJinAppendix7forreasonsofspacetheextractsarenotreproducedinthis
discussion).Theywereaskedtoreadthemthroughattheirownpaceandtounderlineanyallusionstheynoted.Asheetofinstructionsincludedseveralstandard
definitionsoftheterm(Appendix5).Theywerealsoaskedtowritedownanysourcetheywereabletoidentify,includingguessesandvaguerecollections.Afterthis
theyhandedthepaperstotheteacherconductingtheexperiment,andreceivedanothercopyofthesamepages,withcertainallusions(N=14)underlined.Their
instructionswerethentoexplainthemeaningofthoseallusionsinthecontextshownandtodraftatranslationforeachofthemarkedsections.Thestudentscontinued
toworkattheirownpace,awarethattheydidnotnecessarilyhavetocompletethetest.Allstudentscompletedthefirsttaskofthetest,butnoneexplainedand
translatedallofthesetsections(tasktwo).1 Thestudentswerealsoencouragedtoevaluatealternativestrategiesandtonotedownanythoughtsoccurringtothem
concerningthetranslationoftheallusions.Nodictionariesorreferenceworkswereavailable,norcouldstudentsconsulteachotherortheteacher.Thelanguageofthe
textswasnotparticularlydifficultforthestudents.AnswerscouldbegivenineitherEnglishorFinnish.2
ThetestwasconductedatthedepartmentofEnglishoftheUniversityofHelsinkiin1991.3 Therespondents(N=33)were20studentsattendingtheircompulsory
onetermStageIItranslation(EnglishintoFinnish)courseand13studentsattendingathennew,noncreditcourseincultureboundtranslationproblemswhichwas
notlinkedtoanyparticularstageofstudies.4 Thelattergroupwastestedaftertheintroductorylecture,beforeanydiscussionofallusionshadtakenplace.Fourofthe
studentsinthetwogroupstesteddifferedfromtherestbecauseoffamilybackgroundormoreexperienceintranslation:oneStageIIstudenthadlivedinBritainfor
severalyears,andanotherhadaparentwhowasanativespeakerofEnglishtwooftheStageIIIrespondentswereprofessionaltranslators,oneoffictionandthe
otherofnonfiction.Withtheexceptionofthetranslatorofnonfiction,thescoresofthesestudentswithspecialbackgroundswerethehighestachieved.
Answersforthefirsttask,findingallusionsandgivingtheirsources,weregradedasfollows.
0=notunderlined(thatis,notnoted)
1=underlinedbuteithernosourceoranincorrectsourcegiven
2=vagueorincompleteanswer(forexample'literary'for'Macbeth'[TextB,Appendix7]'Bible'for'ProdigalSon'[TextE])5
3=fullidentification(forexample'Macbeth'forB'RobertFrost'forHa)

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Table23ScoresofindividualstudentsinTSE
Score(Sumsofpoints

Numberofstudents

scoredbystudents)

withthescore

34

30

27

25

24

23

22

20

19

18

17

16

15

14

13

12

11

10

7
5
Total

1
33

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Iftheresultsofbothgroupsareconsideredasawhole(seeTable23),itcanbeseenthatthescoresofindividualstudentsforthe14allusionsconsideredvarieda
greatdeal.Thepotentialmaximumscorewas42thehighestscoreachievedwas34andthelowest5.
Thetopthreescoreswereachievedbythetranslatoroffiction,thestudentwhohadlivedinEnglandandthestudentwithaNSparent.Theaveragescorewas16.5
points.Theaveragesforthetwogroupswerepracticallyidentical,andhencethegroupswillnotbedifferentiatedinfurtherdiscussion.Whenscoreswerecounted,
pointswerenottakenoffforunderliningother,inmyviewnonallusive,wordsorphrases,butitcouldbenotedthatstudentswhodidthisthemostwereallstudents
withaveragetolowscores.Someofthe'falsealarms'(seelater)appearedtoindicateahazyconceptionofthetermallusionitself.
Table24showsthedistributionofscoresforsevenkeyphrase(KP)allusions.Itshowshowvisibletheallusionswere,inotherwords,whetherornottheywere
notedbythestudents,andalsodegreesoffamiliarity,thatis,howwelltheywereidentified.(SeeTable24.)
Table24ThevisibilityandfamiliarityofsevenKPallusionsinTSE.(Thedistributionofscoresamong33
respondentsshowingallusionsnotedandidentified:absolutefigures)
Allusion

18

10

14

10

20

12

19

Ha

30

Hb

23

28

WiththeKPallusions,closetohalfoftheanswers(47%)givenbythestudentsweregradedaszero.Approximately30%oftheanswersconsistedofjustan
underlining(andpossiblyanincorrectsourcereference),showingthattheallusionhadbeenspottedbutthatitssourcewasunknown.Approximately11%hadsome
ideaofthesource,andfullidentificationwasgivenonlyinc.12%oftheanswers.Thepercentagesofmissesandidentificationsvariedagreatdealfromallusionto
allusion,aswasexpected.Itisof

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someinterestnexttoseewhichKPallusionswereeasytospot,andwhichwereeasytomiss.Thislinksupwiththequestionofrecognisability(seeChapter3).
TherewasonlyoneclearlyvisibleKPallusion:anoldgoosebegettingaswan(F).Nostudentoverlookedit,andc.36%identifieditasanallusiontoH.C.
Andersen.6 Twootherallusionswerenotedbythemajority,namelyOh!witheredisthegarlandofwar!Thesoldier'spollisfallen(G)7 andfattedcalves(E).
Thelatter,abiblicalallusion,wasconfidentlyidentifiedasreferringtotheprodigalsonby30%,whileanadditional15%identifieditmorelooselyas'biblical'.The
actualShakespeareplayalludedtoinG,AntonyandCleopatra,onthecontrary,wasnotidentifiedbyanyoftherespondents,but27%suggested'Shakespeare'or
'literary'(somewithquestionmarksattached)and57%spotteditwithoutknowingitssource.Thuswhenbothvisibility(howeasilyanallusionisspotted)and
familiarity(howwellitssourceisknown)aretakenintoaccount,itcanbeseenthattheydonotnecessarilycorrelate.Anallusioncanbehighlyvisible(easytospot)
withoutbeingfamiliar.
WhatthetopthreevisibleKPallusionsinthetestshareisthattheyareallmetaphorical.Thenatureofmetaphorissuchthatreadersunderstandthatametaphorical
statementisnottobetakenliterally(forinstancereadersdonotassumethatthefatherinEregretsnothavingactualfattedcalvestooffer).Passagesrecognisedby
commonsenseandworldknowledgeasnonliteralappeartobemoreeasilysuspectedofbeingallusionsthanpassageswhichcanbeunderstoodintheliteralsense
thisclaimisreinforcedbymanyofthe'falsealarms'discussedlater.ForinstancethelesscommonlynotedcornerofanEnglishfield(A)canalsobetakeninits
surfacesense,asasimplereferencetoaburialspot.Also,theallusioninAismodified(seeChapter3)asforeignisreplacedbyEnglishandEnglandbyTulsathe
modificationmaybeacontributoryfactortoitslackofvisibility.(Asitistheonlymodifiedallusioninthetest,thispointcannotbeestablished.)G,thelongestliterary
quotationinthetest,mayhavebeenhighlightedbecauseofitslengthandunusualwordorderthereisnoparallelexampleinthetest.Amongthelessvisibleallusions
(Hb,HaandJ),thesharedcharacteristicsarelackoffamiliarity(under10%identifiedthesource),brevity(45words),commonvocabularyand,inthecaseofHa
andJ,ellipsis.Thesewouldseemtobefactorswhichtendtohideanallusion.(SeeTable25.)

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Table25ThevisibilityandfamiliarityofsevenPNallusionsinTSE.(Thedistributionofscoresamong33
respondentsshowingallusionsnotedandidentified:absolutefigures)
Allusion

21

10

Ca

12

20

Cb

12

13

26

Hc

13

15

Hd

11

11

11

He

12

14

Propername(PN)allusionsasaruleseemtobemorevisiblethanKPallusions.PNallusionsinthistestweremissedbyonlyoneinfourontheaveragecomparedto
nearlyhalfforKPallusionsandiftwocaseswhereanumberofstudentsleftfamiliarnames(SherlockHolmesandNeroWolfe,CbDavidAttenborough,Hd)
unmarked,unsurewhetherornottheyshouldbeconsideredallusions,areomitted,thepercentageofzerosgoesevenfurtherdown,toc.18%.8 Fullidentifications
weregiveninonethirdofthePNanswersontheaverage,comparedto12%forKPallusions.
Asregardsfamiliarity,Alice(D)wasbyfarthemostfamiliar,beingasetbookinthedepartment.ThephraseperfumesofArabia9 (B)wasnotedbyall,though60%
couldnotidentifyit,orsawjustthedenotation('referstoOrientalperfumes').TheleastfamiliarnamewasDickButkus(Ca),anAmericanfootballplayerofthe
1970s,whosenamenoneoftheinformantsknew(thesolethreepointanswerwasbasedontheclueofafootballmetaphorinthecontext).Theoldstoryofthegeese
savingtheCapitol(He)wassurprisinglylittleknownthoughinthediscussionwhichfollowedthetestinclass,somestudentsrememberedmeetingthestoryintheir
Latinreader.
Figures4and5showthevisibilityofthedifferentKPandPNallusionsinotherwords,howmanyofthe33respondentsnotedeachallusion.Thefiguresalsoshow
howmanyrespondentsfullyidentified(=score3)thesameallusions.
ThetestthusshowsthatPNallusionsarebothmorevisibleandinthecaseofmostoftheexamplesusedmorefamiliar.Visibilityandfamiliarity

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maythusbelinkedtoacertaindegree(atleastwiththenamesstudied),butfurtherexaminationoftheresultsalsoshowsthatthemerepresenceofapropernamein
thetestoftenledtoadecisiontounderlineit(evenwithnamessuchasSellotapeseethediscussionlateronfalsealarms).Therewereactuallynoinstancesoflow
visibility(i.e.over40%misses)forPNallusions.Wecanthereforeaddonemorefactortothoseleadingtohighvisibilityforallusions:thepresenceofapropername.

Figure4
ThevisibilityandfamiliarityofKPallusionsinTSE

Figure5
ThevisibilityandfamiliarityofPNallusionsinTSE

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Thefollowingconclusionsaredrawnonthebasisofthedatapreviouslydiscussedduetothesmallnumberofexamples,theconclusionsarenecessarilytentative.
Factorsleadingtohighervisibilityappeartoinclude:
familiarity(E,F,D,Hc),
presenceofapropername(B,D,Hc),
metaphoricalstatements(F,E,G),
?length(A,G),
?stylisticcontrast(G),
Factorstendingtohideallusions,ontheotherhand,wouldinclude:
lackoffamiliarity(A,Ha,Hb,J),
absenceofpropername(Ha,Hb,J),
commonvocabulary(A,Ha,Hb,J),
brevity(Ha,Hb,J),
ellipsis(Ha,J),
?modifications(A).
TherewerealsoagreatnumberofwordsorphrasesmarkedbyTSErespondents,whichpossiblyrangabellforsomeofthem,butwhichmoreexperiencedreaders
havefailedtoconfirmasallusions.Itistruethatallusionsinasensedonotexistforareaderwhodoesnotseethemconversely,itmaybearguedthatifareader
claimsthatacertainphraseisallusive,itisaprivateorpersonalallusionforthatreader(butitsassociationswoulddependonthatindividualreader'sexperiences).
Mostofthe'falsealarms',however,didnotseemtobelongtoacategoryofpersonalallusionsasnosourcesweregivenforthem.Falsealarmsarerelevanttosome
degreeasahypersensitivetranslatorwhoseesallusionswherenoneareintendedislikelytowastetimeintryingtotrackthemalldown,ormayinanyeventfeelunsure
aboutwhichonesneedtobetrackeddownandwhichdonot.Thiswouldbecontrarytotheminimaxstrategy(Lev,1967),greatlyincreasingthetranslator's
workloadbutaddinglittletothequalityofhis/hertranslations.
Thetendencyforthestudentstoseeallusionsinpropernamesispartlyexplainedbythefactthatthetextsusedwereextractsthestudentscouldnotalwaysknowif
thenamesusedreferredtopeopleandplacesinthenovelorwhethertheyhadallusivesignificance.Forinstance,theplacenameWiltshire(inTextA)wasthoughtby
severalstudentstohaveallusivesignificance(onereferredtoStonehenge).SomestudentsfeltimpelledtoexplainsuchbrandnamesasClorox(B)andSellotape(D)
('adetergent','abrandofstickytape'),aswellastheNHS(J).

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Somemetaphorsattractedunderliningsfromseveralstudents.Amongthemwerediggingforancestors(A),fireworks(C),thebattlemetaphorsinGandcrucifiedin
H.Evendeadmetaphorsliketheverbsinfishedapackofcigarettes(E),thedoorswungopen(F),redflamelikespotsburnedinhercheeks(G)were
underlinedbyonestudent.Thistendencyfornonliteralexpressionstoattractnoticewascommentedonearlierwhereitwassuggestedthatanonliteralallusionis
moreeasilynoticedthanonewhichcanbetakenliterally.Apparently,forsomestudentsthetendencywentfurthersothatwhenastudentwasrequestedtolookfor
allusions,nonliteralexpressionsingeneralweresuspectedofbeingallusive.
Someoftheunderliningshighlightedwordsandphraseswhichmaywellnothavebeenpartofthestudent'svocabulary:malodorousshoes(B),bawledmeout(E),
absorbent(G),poundedsorghumandwaterfromastinkinggoatskinbag(J).Theymayhavebeenunderlinedontheprinciplethatwhatonecannotmakesense
ofispossiblyanallusionparticularlyassourcesorexplanationsastowhytheseshouldbeallusionswerenotofferedbythestudentsforthesephrases.Thismayalso
meanthatsomestudents'conceptionsofallusionwerehazydespitethedefinitionsgiven,orthatthedefinitionsthemselvesweretoovaguetobehelpful.
StudentInterpretationsandSuggestionsofStrategies
InthesecondpartofTSEthestudentrespondentswereaskedtoexplainthemeaningsoftheallusionsinthecontextshown,andtosuggesttranslationsortocomment
onpossibletranslationstrategies.Feweranswersweregiveninthispartofthetest,andsomepassagesinparticularwereprovidedwithveryfewexplanationsor
translations.10
Thispartofthetestshedsfurtherlightonthestudents'readingcompetence:towhatextentdidtheyseebeyonddenotation?Another,relatedpointofinterestisthe
translationsoffered:isthe'point'oftheallusionstransmittedornotinthetranslationsofthosewhodidnotspecificallyspeakofconnotationsintheirexplanationsand
conversely,dothosewhoexpressedawarenessofconnotationssuggestdifferenttranslationsoroutlineothertranslationstrategiesinordertotransmitmoreofthe
meaning?
Withsomeoftheallusions,ofcourse,therewaslittlehiddenmeaning.EverybodywhoofferedanexplanationtoF(goose/swan)sawthattheallusionreferstoanugly
manandhislovelydaughter(apartfromonecarelessreaderwhothoughtthemetaphorreferredtothedaughteralonewho,liketheducklingofAndersen'sstory,
couldhavechangedfromaplainchildtoabeauty).Likewise,thereferencetoAlice(D),thoughexplainedvariouslyasreferringtoareaderwhowasboredbyher
book,or

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spoilt,orlonely,didnotseemtorequireanydeeperanalysisintheextractshown.11Theuseofextractsnodoubtimpededfullunderstandingofsomeofthepassages:
forinstanceinA(cf.thediscussionofthisexampleasExample9inChapter5),onlyacoupleofrespondentssensedtheironyinthespeaker'suseoftheallusion
thoughinapagelongextract,withoutknowledgeoftherelationshipsbetweencharacters,thiswasperhapshardtoinfer.Similarly,B(notalltheperfumesof
Arabia),whilerecognisedasalludingtoMacbethbyten(seeAppendix7fortheextract),hadonlyfourmentionsofbloodandguilt.TheotherShakespearean
allusion,G,wassaidbyallwhocommentedonittorefer,denotatively,tothedeathofasoldier.Again,theshortnessoftheextractmayhaveobscuredthecontrastin
thenovelbetweentheeverydayexpressionoftheyoungwidow'sgriefandthepoetryofCleopatra'sgrieffortheslainAntony.
Butevenwheretherelationshipsbetweencharacterswereclearlysetoutandtheallusioncouldbethoughttranscultural,connotationswerenotnecessarilyrecognised.
Anexamplewerethecommentsonfattedcalves(E),whereonlyonerespondentoutofthreereferredtotheimportantreturnoftheprodigalsonmotif.Therest
treatedtheallusiononthesurfacelevel,asareferencetosometypeofdelicacyorjustasageneraltermforfood.TheclassicalmythinHewasalsomysteriousto
practicallyalloftherespondents,oneevendoubtingwhetherthereferencewastoactualbirdsatall:'Hawks?flags?planes?war?nature?'.ThewordplayinJ
(unkindestcut)defeatedallbutthetheprofessionaltranslatoroffiction.
Connotationsinallthepassages,then,wereoftenmissedoratleastnotovertlystated,thoughtheuseofextractsundoubtedlymadeitmoredifficulttoseewhatthe
functionoftheallusionsmightbeinalargercontext.Theremainingquestionsconcernthetranslationsoffered:dothestudentswhosawallusionsinvolvingconnotative
meaningstransferthisawarenesstotheirtranslationsoraretheirtranslationssimilartothoseofferedbythemajority?Or,dothestudentswhodidnotspecifically
mentionconnotationsneverthelesstrytoconveythemintheirtranslations?Itmustberememberedthatthestudentsdidnothavemuchtime,andtheirtranslationsare
thereforefirstdraftsonlytheywerealsotoldthattheycouldsimplyoutlinetranslationstrategiesforthevariousallusionsinsteadoforinadditiontoactuallyverbalising
them.
IntheunproblematicF,manyofthestudentsdecidedtochangegooseintoduck,inaccordancewiththeirassumptionthattheexpressionwasanallusionto'TheUgly
Duckling'.Somedeletedallreferencetobirds,speakingoffatheranddaughterwithoutmetaphor.
InD,practicallyeverybodyusedniinkuinLiisaihmemaassa'likeAlicein

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Wonderland'forlikeanotherAlice,thisbeingtheFinnishtitleofCarroll'sbook.NiinkuintoinenLiisa'likeanotherLiisa'wasnotthought(withoneexception)to
referclearlyenoughtoCarroll'sbook,whichisperhapslesscommonlyreadinFinlandthaninBritainandofcoursethenameofthecharacterinthetextusedisAlice,
notLiisa.OnestudentleftinamysteriousreferencetoerastoinenAlice,aliteraltranslationofanotherAlice.12Shehadnotunderlinedtheallusioninpartoneofthe
test,andthereferencewasstillobscuretoherwhenshetranslatedit,whichledtothisimpenetrabletranslation.Onestudent,whilerecognisingtheallusion,choseto
deleteit,speakingofpicturesandconversationunallusively.
InCa,thesinglestudentwhosuspected(onthebasisofcluesinthecontext)thatDickButkusmightbeafootballplayerusedanAmericanfootballterm
('quarterback')todescribehisapproach.Thosewhothoughthimafictionaldetectiveneverthelesssawtheintendedcontrastbetweentwotypesofapproachesto
problemsandmanagedwellenoughtodescribetheDickButkusapproachwithavarietyofwordsofaction('attack,directaction',etc.).Onestudentwonderedif
thenameshouldbereplacedbythatofabetterknowndetective,suchasMarlowe.
TherewassomedoubtamongrespondentsastotheactualwordsforfattedcalfintheFinnishBible.Amongthosewhorecognisedthereferencetothebiblicalstory
oftheprodigalson,thephrasewastranslatedvariouslyassyttvasikka,juottovasikka,lihotettuvasikka(allofthesemeanacalfnotbutcheredbutlefttoeat,
drinkandgrowfat),etc.Ofthosewhorecognisedtheallusionmorevaguelyasbiblical,mostusedoneoftheseterms,butalsootherexpressionsaboutfoodlike
'enoughfoodtofeedanarmy'.TheFinnishNewTestament(Luke15:23)hassytettyvasikka,atermnotusedbyanyofthestudentsbutoccurringinSinnemki
(1989:429),aFinnishdictionaryofquotations.Severalstudentswrotethattheywereuncertainoftheprecisetermandwouldlookitupiftheyweretranslatingthe
text'forreal'.Thisuncertaintysuggeststhatthearchaictermssyttvasikka,juottovasikkaarethoughtbymanytobethestandardbiblicalexpressionifthis
uncertaintyiscommonamonggeneralreadersaswell,theywouldseemtobeadequatetranslations.
ThetranslationsofAasaruleleftsomethingtobedesired.Onlyacoupleofstudents'marked'theirtranslationsaspoetrybyusingaspecialrhythm(siisp
ikuisestijokinniityistmme...)orapoeticphrase(ikiajoiksi).Ofthetwowhorecognisedtheirony,onlyoneattemptedatranslation,andshedidtrytoconveythe
ironybysuggesting,insteadofTulsa(whichdoesnotimmediatelysignifyAmericaincontrasttoEnglandtoaFinnishreadercf.thedifficultiesofgeneralreaderswith
thisallusion,Chapter5),alternative

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termslikecowboyortheWildWest.Otherwisethetranslationswereflat,simplystatingthat'oneplaceinEnglandwillalwaysremindusofTulsa'.
Similarly,theuseoftheMacbethallusioninBconveyeddenotationonly('thesmellissobadthatnotevengoodArabianperfumeswouldhelpremoveit')tomostof
thestudents,despitetheuseofthewordguiltysomelinesearlierintheextract.Themaincharacterhadresortedtosomequestionablemethodsburglaryinher
detectiveworkandforgottenaboutadinnerdate.Whencriticisedonbothscoresbyherdate,sheangrilyturnstowashingfirstherrunningshoes,whichsmellof
vomit,andthenherhands.ShethushasrelativelylittlereasontofeellikeLadyMacbeth,andtheeffectoftheallusionispartlyhumorous,thoughthisdidnotcome
throughinthesuggestedtranslations.ThreestudentssuggestedlookingupthepassageinpublishedtranslationsofMacbethonewouldhaveaddedkutenMacbeth
totesi'asMacbethsaid'asguidancetoheruseofthe'officialtranslation'another,siteerasinShakespearea'saidI,quotingShakespeare'.Onechoseinnovativelyto
usemirhami'myrrh',anOrientalsubstanceneverdiscussedineverydaycontextsbutknowntosmellsweet.Therest,moreorlesselliptically,transferredthe
denotationonly('Irubbedlemonjuiceonthem,notfineArabianperfumes').Theideaofanactivemodernwomancontemplatingrubbing'fineArabianperfumes'on
herhandsaftercleaningherdirtytrainersmightpuzzlesomereaders,though.
InG(Oh!witheredisthegarlandofwar...),manyofthetranslationsretainedtheinvertedwordorderoftheST.Thisminimumchangestrategyconveyedthe
poetry,whichwasuseful.Threestudentswantedtoestablishthewordingofthe'officialtranslation'first.OneplannedtofindsomethingtothesameeffectinFinnish
literatureasthedeathofasoldieristhetopic,shesuggestedlookingforasuitablephraseinVinLinna'sclassicwarnovelTheUnknownSoldier,whichis,
however,sodifferentfromShakespearestylisticallythatitisunlikelytoprovideareplacementpoeticenoughtoconveythecontrastingstylesofexpressinggrief.
ThetranslationsoftheellipticalHa(lovely,darkanddeep)wereliteral,usuallywithaheadwordaddedthiswastheshadowsoftheprecedingsentence,notthe
woodsofFrost('Underthetreestherewerelovely,deep,darkshadows').Ofthetwowhorecognisedthesource,onechosetodeletetheallusion,theotherplanned
tocheckwhetherthereisaFinnishtranslationofthepoem.Athird,whosuspectedthesourcemightbeliterary,sawthefunctionoftheallusionandnotedthataliteral
translationwouldruintheeffect.
OfthetranslationsofHb(Onlymanisvile),theintendedcontrastwasconveyedbythethreestudentswhobroughtthewordspeto'beast'orelin

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'animal'intotheirtranslations,asinIhminenonpahinpeto'manistheworstofbeasts'.
WithHe(itsancestorshadsavedtheCapitol),thewordCapitolcausedproblemsforthosewhounderstoodittorefertoCapitolHillinWashington,DC('Hardto
believethatitsancestorshadsavedtheUnitedStatesParliament').InFinnish,theCapitolinRomeisknownbytheLatinformofthename,Capitoliumthisrequired
changewasmadebyonestudentonly,whorememberedthestorywellandsuggesteditmightbe'readerfriendly'tonamethespeciesofbirdinthetranslation.
AsforJ(theunkindestcutofall),'obscure,obscure'wasonestudent'sonlycomment.Jisanexampleofastereotypedallusionreanimatedinitscontext:
'That'sthetroublewithtoday'sGovernment,'shesaid.'Thesecutsaredoingsomuchdamage.'
Sheflourishedaboxofmintsaboutinawaythatdefiedyoutotakeone.Pennypluckeduphercourage.IntheSudan,she'dseenachilddiefromaninfectedinsectbitebecause
noantibioticshadbeenavailable.
Theunkindestcutofall.(Moody,1985:64)

Ascutmeansbudgetcutstothefirstspeakerandamortalwound(asinJuliusCaesar)tothesecond,andthereisnopreciseequivalentinFinnish,itisdifficultto
workoutasolution.Thefewtranslationssuggestedbythestudentseitherrepeatedthewordleikkaus'operation,cut'orreplaceditwhereitoccursonthelastlineby
supistus'financialcut,contraction'orthelessspecifichirvetilanne'ghastlysituation'.Theprofessionaltranslatoroffictionsuggestedeithercheckingifthe'official
translation'ofJuliusCaesarhasanythingatallusabletooffer,butpointedoutthedifficultycausedbythewordplay.Alternatively,hesuggestedsacrificing
Shakespeareinfavourofamorefamiliarallusionwithinthesamegenre.13
Thistestthusallowedussomeinsightintowhatwasgoingoninthemindsofthenovicetranslators(withlessprecisionthaninthinkaloudprotocolstudieslikeKrings
[1986],butwithconsiderablymoreinformantsthanKrings'eight)andtocomparewhattheyknewandsensedwithwhattheyproduced.Theuseofstudentsinstead
ofprofessionalswaspartlydictatedbypracticalconcerns(thestudentsbeingacaptivepopulationofasortwhileprofessionalsmightseelittlereasontoparticipatein
suchatest),butalsobecauseofmyinterestinlanguageteachingandtranslatortraining,whichmeantthatpeopleintheprocessofbecominglanguageprofessionals
wereamoreinterestingobjectofstudythanthosewhoalreadypossesstheskills.Also,thepublishedtranslationsexaminedin

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Chapter4weretheworkofprofessionals.TheconsiderabledifferencesamongTSErespondents(cf.theirscoresinfindingallusionsandgivingtheirsources,Table
23)showedthatsomewerecompetentandsensitivereadersbiculturalisedtoaconsiderableextent,butthatthehighestscoreswereachievedbythefewwhohad
eitherprofessionalexperienceintranslatingfictionorprolongedpersonalexperienceofBritishculture.Thebiculturalisedstudentshadawidervarietyofstrategiesin
mindwhendraftingtranslations,andattemptedtobringintheconnotationstheyhadperceived.Theothersweremuchlessabletograspthepointofallusivemessages
andevenofspottingallusionsintheextracts(ortheysuspectedallkindsofstrikingphrasesofbeingallusions)theyusuallylimitedthemselvestofairlyliteral
translations(manyofwhichwould,inmyview,havebeenculturebumps),mademistakesandusuallydidnotcommentonorevaluatetheirownofferings.Asmanyof
thestudentstookmuchlongerthanexpectedtocompletethefirsttask,theyhadlesstimeforthesecond,whichmeantthatfewerexplanations,translationsand
commentswereproducedthanhadbeenhopedfor,particularlyforthelasttextsofthetest,G,HandJ.Onlytentativeconclusionscan,ofcourse,bedrawnonthe
basisofthesedata.Nevertheless,withtheallusionsusedinthetest,manyofwhichhaveimportantconnotationswhichshouldnotbelostintranslation,itcanbeseen
that
in47%oftheanswerstoKPallusions,theallusionwasmissed
fewstudentsshowedthattheyunderstoodthemeaningoftheallusionsandtheirfunctioninthecontextshown
understandingthefunctionandmeaningdidnotnecessarilyspontaneouslyleadtoasatisfactorytranslation(asevaluatedbythestudenthim/herselfandalsoby
myself)
butwithoutsuchrecognitionandanawarenessofwhatwasimplied,inmostcasesthedraftedtranslationswereflatandfailedtoconveywhatthewriter'schoiceof
wordswouldconveytoacompetentreaderoftheST.
ImplicationsforTranslatorTraining
TheresultsofTSE14suggestthatnonnativeuniversitystudentsofEnglish,evenafteradozenyearsormoreoflearningthelanguage,arenotnecessarilyallsufficiently
competentreadersofEnglishlanguagefictionnorbiculturalisedenoughtorecogniseallusionsandtheirconnotationsinatestsituation.(Cf.theestimatesofthe
interviewedtranslatorsinChapter4thatallusionsmightoccasionallybemissedbynovicetranslatorsthiswouldappeartobeanunderstatement.)Itisclearthatthe
degreeof

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biculturalisationrequiredofcompetenttranslatorshadnotbeenacquiredbyallofthestudentswhoparticipatedinthetest,despitetheirc.10yearsofEnglishatschool
inacountrywhereAngloAmericancultureishighlyvisibleandaccessible,andtheirfurtheryearsatauniversitydepartmentofEnglish.15Itwouldseem,therefore,
thatfamiliaritywiththetypeofsocioculturalelementsfocusedoninthisstudyisnotautomaticallyacquiredinthecourseofadvancedlanguagestudies.What,then,are
theimplicationsofthisfortranslatortrainingandfortheteachersoffuturelanguageprofessionals?
Weneedtoaskquestionsbothaboutthesyllabusandabouttheworkthatgoesonintheclassroom.Asteachers,dowerelysolelyonakindofosmosis,oristhe
acquisitionofbiculturalismbuiltintotheprogramme?Arestudentsmadeawareofthegoalattheoutset?Itis,ofcourse,alifelongprojecttolearnmoreandmore
aboutaforeignlanguageculture,andweneedtobeopenaboutthissothatstudentswillnotbeundulydowncastwhentheyrealisehowmanygapstheymustfill
beforetheycanclaimtobemorethansuperficiallyfamiliarwiththesourceculture,includingallusiongeneratingtexts.Toachievethisrealisation,whichcanserveasa
motivator,weneedtopresentauthenticexamplesofallusionsinallsortsoftexts,notonlyliteraryones.(Themanyexamplesinthisbookcanperhapsprovideexercise
materialsforteacherswhoworkwithEnglishasthesourcelanguageseeespeciallythelastsectionofChapter4,inparticulartheflowcharts.)Studentscanbemade
moreawareoftheuseofpreformedmaterialbypresentingfordiscussiondifferenttypesofbothSLandTLallusions,includingmodifiedones,andbytalkingaboutthe
typesofsourcesthatprovideallusionsinaparticularlanguageculture.Theeffectofformalpropertiesonrecognisabilitycanbeexplored.Aboveall,weneedtostudy
thefunctionandeffectofallusionsincontext,sothatstudentsseehowmuchcanbeconveyedwhentheauthorandthereadermeethalfwayinthecreationofmeaning.
Thematicallusionsandallusivewordplayshouldbeparticularlyrewardingmaterialintheclassroom.Andtoencouragestudentstosolveproblemscausedbyunfamiliar
allusions,exercisescaninvolvetheuseofdictionariesofquotationsandallusionsaswellasotherreferenceworks,notforgettingthepowerfulelectronicsearch
engines,todevelopproblemsolvingfaculties.Increaseddemandforbetterworksofreferencemightevenleadtotheproductionandpurchaseofworkswith
morehelpfulformats.
Iftheworkintheclassroomisdoneasanintellectualchallengeawayofsolvingpuzzlesandifteacherscanacceptthatanintergenerationallearningexperiencecan
gobothways:thatauthorsofsourcetextsmayalsoalludetomaterialsthataremorefamiliartothestudentsthantotheteacher

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(manyallusionstopopularculturesourcesmightwellfallinthiscategory),itwillgreatlyenhancethelearningprocess.Myexperienceofstudentswhoworkwith
EnglishastheSLsuggeststhatstudentsfindworkonallusionsrelevantandusefulandfeelthatitaddssignificantlytotheirlanguageskills.
Thereis,ofcourse,alimittohowmuchlanguagelearningcanbedoneinclassasopposedtoindividuallearningforwhichstudents,andlater,languageprofessionals,
arethemselvesresponsible.Theprocessofbiculturalisationalsoinvolvesotheractivitiesthanreading,thoughfirsthandfamiliaritywithboth'greatworks'and
children'sclassicsisclearlyvaluable,showinghowlonglivedsomeoftheliteratureisandhowmucheffectitcontinuestohaveonthelanguage.Butstudentsalsoneed
toknowwhatfilmsandtelevisionprogrammespeoplesee,whattheylistentoontheradio,whatslogansareusedinadvertisingandpoliticalcampaigns,etc.this
requiresforeigntravelandideallyevenextendedstaysabroad,notonlywhentheyarestudentsbutthroughouttheirworkinglives.
InadditiontolearningmoreaboutallusionsintheSL,translationstudentsandpractisingtranslatorsintheirinservicetrainingwouldneedspecificallytoconsider
thetranslationofallusions,recognisingtheresponsibilityoftranslatorstoTTreaders.ExamplesofvariousstrategiesadoptedinTTsandalternativestothesecanbe
discussedandevaluated.Throughsuchdiscussionsnovicetranslatorswilllearnthatiftheytranslateatextwithoutspottingorunderstandingitsallusions,thenthe
meaningsofallusivepassagesarelostforthemassofTTreaders,irrespectiveoftheTTreaders'ownreadingcompetence,withtheexceptionofreaderswhoare
themselvessufficientlybiculturaltobeabletobacktranslatetheculturebumpsandtorecognisethemeaningbehindthewordsdespitethetranslatorasitwere.
Toreturntoourconceptionofthetranslatorasacompetentreader,aresponsibletextproducerandaculturalmediator,wecansummariseasfollows.Inordertobe
competentreadersofSLtexts,novicetranslatorsneedtolearntobeawareofthepossiblepresenceofallusivematerialinSTsandoftheirfunctionandmeaningin
thosetexts.Toberesponsibletextproducers,theyneedtoconsiderthevariousstrategiesavailableinindividualcasesinordertoavoidculturebumpsandinstead
choosestrategiesthatbestservetheneedsoftheiractualorpotentialreaders(onesuchneed,dependingonthetexttype,maywellbetheneedtofollowtheauthor's
thoughtprocessesandimaginationasfarasthesearerevealedbytheallusionss/hechoosestouse).Andasculturalmediators,translatorsneedtobefamiliarwiththe
culturaldifferencesbetweenSTandTTaudiencesand

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totaketheseintoaccountwhenmakingchoices.Atvariousstagesintranslatortraining,withappropriatematerialsandplanning,studentscanbeguidedand
encouragedtolearnmoreaboutallofthesethings.
Notes
1.Thenumberofextractswasdeliberatelyhighsothatnostudentwouldleavebeforetheendofthetimereserved,thuspossiblydisturbingtheconcentrationofothers
anddecreasingtheirmotivationtocompletethetest.Thestudentsworkedmoreslowlythanexpected,though.
2.TranslationsofanswersgiveninFinnishbytheauthor.
3.InFinland,sometranslatorshavestudiedinforeignlanguagedepartments,othersintranslationdepartments.
4.SeeAppendix2fordetailsontherespondents.(AnMAusuallytakessixtoeightyearstocompleteinFinland,partlybecausethestudentscannotaffordtostudy
fulltime.)
5.Someanswershadquestionmarksattached,indicatingdoubt,buttheanswersweregradedwithoutregardtothequestionmarks.Questionmarkswerefound
attachedtobothcorrectandincorrectanswers.
6.True,Andersen'sstoryhasducks,notgeese:nevertheless,'TheUglyDuckling'wastheonlynamedsourcesuggestedbythestudents.Iamunawareofan
alternativesourcethatcouldexplainRendell'suseofgoose.ANSinformantnotesthat'oldduck'isanendearment.'Oldgoose'isusedprimarilyofanunattractiveold
womanhere,byextension,ofaman.
7.Fewstudents(N=8)markedthewholeofthetwolinesofpoetry.Ifonlythegarlandofwarwasmarked,zeropointsweregiven(N=3).
8.TheexclusionofCbandHdfromsomeofthestatisticsseemsadvisable,asanequalnumberofstudentsleftthemunmarkedorgavetheidentification,somesaying
theCbpairofnameswasknownto'everybody'.Thissuggeststhedecisionwhetherornottounderlinethemwasnotbasedonwhetherornotthenameswere
recognisedashavingallusivepotential,butoneachstudent'sviewofwhatthetermallusionwassupposedtocover.Theexamplesareindeedmarginal,andwere
includedonlybecauseoftheirproximitytolessfamiliarallusions(DickButkusinCaandtheothervariousallusionsinH).
9.ThisphraseandthegeeseoftheCapitol(He)areincludedamongPNphrases:whenresponseswereanalysed,thecriterionwasthatiftherewasanyproper
nameinaphrase,itwaslistedunderPNs.
10.TheallusionsthatweremostoftencommentedonwereA,B,Ca,Cb,D,EandF,wherethenumberofexplanationsvariedfrom11to17foreachthatof
translationsandcommentsfrom16to27foreach.(Thenumberofrespondentswas33.)TheleastoftencommentedonwereG,Ha,Hb,HeandJ,withthreetosix
explanationsandinterpretationsandsixtotentranslationsandcommentsforeach.(HcandHdwereexcludedfromthispartofthetesttoavoidrepetitionasthe
translationprobleminthemissimilartothatinCb.)Thedearthofcommentsonthelastfewexamplessuggeststhatthestudentsranoutoftime.
11.Thisisdifferentonthemacrolevelofthenovel,wherethecharacterAlicefindsherselfinanightmarishsituationwhereordinaryeventsmayhaveasinister
interpretation,andeventually'wakesup'fromher'dream'.
12.ThemostrecentFinnishtranslationofAlice'sAdventuresinWonderland(byAlice

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Martin,1995)doesnotchangetheheroine'snameintoLiisabutkeepsAlice.TSEwascarriedoutbeforethistranslationwaspublished.
13.HehadinmindadetectivestorybyJoyceParkerwiththisallusioninitstitle(DoverandtheUnkindestCutofAll),whichhasbeentranslatedintoFinnishas
Doverjatukalaleikkaus'Doverandapainful/embarrassingoperation'(thereferenceistocastration).
14.Andofother,informalquizzescarriedoutovertheyearsinthecourseofmytranslationteaching.
15.ItistruethatthesewerestudentsofEnglishandnotoftranslation,sothatthemajoritymaywellhavebeenplanningtousetheireducationinotherfieldsthan
translation.Still,theirdecisiontotakeanoncreditcourseincultureboundtranslationproblemsindicatesthatatleast13oftherespondentstookaspecialinterestin
translationandtheaveragesforthesestudentswerepracticallyidenticalwiththoseoftheotherstudentrespondents.ItisalsoafactthatmanyFinnishtranslators
workingincommercialaswellasliteraryandmediatranslationareformerstudentsoflanguagedepartments.

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7
ConcludingRemarks
Thisbookhasfocusedonaparticularproblemininterculturalcommunication,thetranslationofsourceculturalallusionsforreadersinanotherlanguageculture.Ithas
lookedatthreestagesinthetranslationprocess:sourcetextanalysis,reverbalisationandreception.Therolesofthemainparticipantsinvolvedintheprocess,
translatorsandtargettextreaders,arenecessarilyinterlinkedsincewhatreaderscandoisultimatelydependentonwhatchoicestranslatorshavemadeand
conversely,translatorsalwaysneedtoconsidertheexpectationsandculturalcontextofthetargettextreadership.Ascompetentreadersandresponsibletext
producers,translatorsdeveloptranslationstrategiesandtrytodeterminewhichwillworkbestinaparticularcontext,whilereaders,asendusersoftheproducts,or
ascoauthors,ifweacceptamoredramaticinterpretationoftheirrole,receiveandrespondtotheresultsofthetranslators'endeavours.
Translationbeingareallifephenomenon,thisbookcouldnotfocusontheoreticalissuesonly.Theyneededtobeviewedatalltimesagainsttherealityoftranslation
practiceandreception.Hencerealtranslatorsandrealreaders(whoareoftenabsentfromstudiesoftranslation)hadtobeapproachedandheard,andthisgaveuseful
insightsbothintothewayprofessionaltranslatorsdealwithallusionsandthewaytheirreadersunderstandtheresults.Indeed,theempiricalfindingspresentedinthis
bookindicatethatrealreadersarenotinfrequentlypuzzledbypassagesintargettextsifculturaldifferenceshavenotbeentakenintoaccountatthestageof
reverbalisation.
Furtherempiricaldatasuggeststhatthebiculturalisationexpectedoftranslatorsisaveryslowprocess,asevenatuniversitylevelandwithgoodforeignlanguageskills
ingeneral,novicetranslatorsfrequentlyfounditdifficulttospotallusionsandtoseetheirfunctioninthesourcetext.Inotherwords,theirsourceculturalreading
competencewasnotyetsufficienttoenablethemtocopewiththisaspectofsourcetextanalysis.
Adifferentpointofinterestwastoseeifitwouldbepossibletosystematisepotentialstrategiesinawaythatwouldbehelpfulintranslationclasses

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andpossiblyalsointranslationpractice.Thisresultedina'minimax'orderingofstrategiesintheformofflowcharts,whichmayserveasareminderoftherangeof
strategiesavailable,andcounteractthetendencyobservedinthedescriptivepartofthestudy,thattranslatorsalltoofrequentlyoptforminimumchangewhendealing
withallusions.
Itistheconclusionofthisbookthattheuseofthepredominantstrategyinthetargettextsstudiedminimumchangeofkeyphraseallusion,retentionofpropername
allusioncanbequestionedonthebasisoftheresultsofthereaderresponsetests.Thetestssupportthehypothesisthattranslatingthewordsoftheallusionsbut
ignoringtheirconnotativeandpragmaticmeaningoftenleadstoculturebumps,inotherwords,renderingsthatarepuzzlingorimpenetrablefromthetargettext
reader'spointofview.Thisconclusioncanbereadasarecommendationfortranslatorstotaketheneedsofreceiversintoaccountwhenchoosingtranslation
strategiesforallusions,andforuniversitylevellanguageteachingandtranslatortrainingtopaymoreattentiontothebiculturalisationoftheirstudents.Clearly,target
textreadersareentitledtotranslationswhichworksuccessfultranslationsarethosethatgivereadersthematerialsneededforparticipationinthecommunicative
process.
Itistobehopedthatfutureworkintranslationstudieswillbringinmoredataonhowtranslatedtextsarereceivedandhowtheirreceptionvariesovertimeandfrom
culturetoculture.Afterall,fewtranslatorstranslateforthemselves.Itistheircrucialroletoactasmediatorsbetweenculturesintheserviceoftheirreaders.

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StatisticalYearbookofFinland1995Vol.90(newseries).Helsinki:Valtionpainatuskeskus.
TheStoryofBritishPeopleinPictures.S.a.London:Odhams.
Straight,H.S.(1981)Knowledge,purposeandintuition:threedimensionsintheevaluationoftranslation.InM.G.Rose(ed.)TranslationSpectrum.Essaysin
TheoryandPractice(pp.4151).Albany,NY:StateUniversityofNewYorkPress.
Tanner,L.B.(comp.anded.)(1971)VoicesfromWomen'sLiberation.NewYork:NewAmericanLibrary/Signet.
Toury,G.(1980)InSearchofATheoryofTranslation.TelAviv:ThePorterInstituteforPoeticsandSemiotics,TelAvivUniversity.
(1991)Experimentationintranslationstudies:achievements,prospectsandsomepitfalls.InS.TirkkonenCondit(ed.)EmpiricalResearchinTranslationand
InterculturalStudies(pp.4566).Tbingen:GunterNarr.
(1992)Everythinghasitsprice:analternativetonormativeconditioningintranslatortraining.Interface,JournalofAppliedLinguistics6(2),6072.
Troupp,H.(1987)OnkoWodehousesuomennettavissa?Lkrijavapaaaika3,327.
Turk,H.(1991)Thequestionoftranslatability:Benjamin,Quine,Derrida.InH.KittelandA.P.Frank(eds)InterculturalityandtheHistoricalStudyofLiterary
Translations(pp.12030).Berlin:ErichSchmidt.
Tweedie,MrsA.(1989)MatkallaSuomessa1896.Trans.A.T.K.Lahtinen.Helsinki:Otava.
Urdang,L.andRuffner,F.G.Jr(eds)(1986)AllusionsCultural,Literary,Biblical,andHistorical:AThematicDictionary.Secondedition.Detroit:Gale.
Venuti,L.(1995a)TheTranslator'sInvisibility:AHistoryofTranslation(pp.2631).London:Routledge.
(1995b)Preliminaryremarkstothedebate.InC.SchffnerandH.KellyHolmes(eds)CulturalFunctionsofTranslation.Clevedon:MultilingualMatters.
Watts,R.J.(1991)Crossculturalproblemsintheperceptionofliterature.InR.D.Sell(ed.)LiteraryPragmatics(pp.2643).London:Routledge.
Weisgerber,J.(1970)Theuseofquotationsinrecentliterature.ComparativeLiterature22(1),3645.
Weldon,F.(1985,1984)LetterstoAliceonFirstReadingJaneAusten.London:Coroner/HodderandStoughton.
Williamson,D.(1991)KingsandQueensofBritain.Enderby:PromotionalReprint.
Wilss,W.(1983)Translationstrategies,translationmethodandtranslationtechnique:towardsaclarificationofthreetranslationalconcepts.RevuedePhontique
Applique666768,14352.
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(1990)Cognitiveaspectsofthetranslationprocess.LanguageandCommunication10(1),1936.
(1992)bersetzungsfertigkeit.AnnherungenaneinenkomplexeniibersetzungspraktischenBegriff.Tbingen:GunterNarr.
WSOY(1992)LettertotheauthorfromthepublishinghouseWernerSderstrmOy,16January,unpublished.
Ylikangas,H.andKoivusalo,E.(SignedHY,EK)(1994)Lainvalmistelunkieli.Hiidenkivi4/1994,2.
IV.Interviews
ElsaCarroll,Interviewinwriting,April1992.
LiisaHakola,Interviewinwriting,March1992.
ErkkiJukarainen,Interviewinwriting,April1992.
KaleviNyytj,Personalinterview,February1992.
EilaSalminen,Personalinterview,February1992.
AnnaLauraTalvio'Elone,Personalinterview,January1992.
FayWeldon,Personalinterview,March1989.

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Appendixes
Appendix1
TheTranslatorInterviews
Translationofthequestionnaireused.Thequestionswereformulatedbothfororalinterviewsandforsendingtotranslatorsiftheypreferredtoanswerin
writing.(Translationofthisandthequestionnairesintheotherappendixesbytheauthor.)
ALLUSIONSTUDY/TRANSLATORINTERVIEW
I.Background
1.Howmanybookshaveyoutranslated?
2.Whendidyoustartworkingasatranslator?
3.Whatwasyoureducationalbackgroundandtraining?
4.WhathadyourtrainingNOTgivenyou(i.e.whatknowledgeandskillsdidyoufindyoulackedtobeginwith)?
II.Thetranslationproblem
1.Whatisyourviewoftranslationstudies(researchontranslation)atpresent?
2.Haveyouyourselffoundallusionsdifficulttotranslate?Wouldyoucallthematranslationproblem?
3.Whatprinciplesdoyoufollowwhenyoutranslatethem?
4.Areyouinthehabitofthinkingaboutsuchquestionsonagenerallevel,ordoyouapproachthemonacasebycasebasis?
III.Thereaders
1.Doyouthinkofyourfuturereaderswhentranslating?
2.DoyouseethemasyourreadersorastheSTauthor's?
3.Howdoyouseethepeoplewhoreadyourtranslations?Doyouhaveanideaofyour'typicalreader'?
4.Doesthisideachangefromonetexttoanother?

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5.Hasthisconceptofreaderchangedduringtheyearsyouhavebeenworkingasatranslatorandhavegainedexperience?
6.Doyouthinkatranslatorneedstoconsiderhis/herreaders?Isitofanyuse?
7.Doyoueverthink:thisissomethingFinnishreaderswillnotunderstand?
8.Ifso,doesthishaveaneffectonthesolutionyouchoose?
IV.Findingandrecognisingallusions
1.WhenyoureadaST,howdoyouknowyouhavecomeacrossanallusion?
2.Doyouthinkyoumissany?
3.Doyoueversetouttotraceanallusion?Howdoyoudoit?Howcommonisthis?
4.Doesunderstandingthemeaningofanallusion(=whythishasbeenusedhere?)evercauseyoudifficulty?
V.Translationstrategies
1.Inyourview,isatranslatorallowedtoexplain?
2.Inwhatkindofcircumstanceswouldyouomitanallusion?
3.Whatareyourprinciplesonreplacingoneallusionbyanotheroronexplainingthingsinafootnote?
4.Howdoyoureactasarulewhenyouspotanallusioninatext?
5.Howdoyoufeelabouttheideathatatranslatorisaculturalmediator?
6.Doyouthinkofyourownworkasculturalmediation?
VI.Further
1.Doyourememberanyilluminatingexamplesregardinganyoftheissuestouchedonhere?
2.Isthereanythingelseyouwouldliketosayregardingthistopic?
3.Whatwasitliketranslatingthetextwhichisnowpartofmycorpus?
Thankyou!

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Appendix2
DetailsonRespondents(GRT,KLA,TSE)
TheGRT1test
Respondents:generalreaders(N=23)
Sex

Age

Female

20

2029

Male

3039

Notstated

4049

Total

23

5059

60+

Total

23

ForeignLanguageReading
Therespondentsestimatedtheirfrequencyofreadingforeignlanguage(Swedishisincludedasaforeignlanguageifarespondentsonamedit)texts
(newspapers/magazinesorbooks)asfollows:
(a)English

Often(=everyweek)

Sometimes(=onceortwiceamonth)

Rarely(=afewperyear)

(b)OtherforeignlanguagesbutnotEnglish

Often

Sometimes

Rarely

(c)Noforeignlanguages

Total

23

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The'Hamlet'Test
Respondentswereaskedtounderlineandgivethesourceofanyallusionstheynoticedintext0,anextractfromanovelbyEevaKilpi(1983)(seep.141forpartof
theextract).ThemostobviousallusionintheFinnishtextwasamodificationofTobeornottobe.
Sourcegiven

13

Nosource,butstandardFinnishformgiven

Nosource,butunderlined

Notmarked

Total

23

TheGRT2Test
Respondents:generalreaders(N=57)
Sex

Age

Female

20

19

Male

36

2029

31

Notstated

3039

13

Total

57

4049

5059

60+

Total

57

ForeignLanguageReading
(a)English

Often(=everyweek)

13

Sometimes(=onceortwiceamonth)

17

Rarely(=afewperyear)

19

(b)Otherforeignlanguagesbutnotenglish

Often

Sometimes

Page214
Rarely

(c)Noforeignlanguages

Total

57

The'Hamlet'Test
Sourcegiven

50

Nosource,butstandardFinnishformgiven

Nosource,butunderlined

Notmarked

Total

57

TheKLATest
Respondents:studentsandteachersoftranslationattheKouvola
departmentoftranslationstudies,UniversityofHelsinki(N=51)
Sex
Female

32

Male

Notstated

10

Total

51

Age
(a)StudentsworkingwithEnglish
19

2029

16

3039

(b)Studentsworkingwithotherlanguages
19

2029

20

3039

Page215
(c)Teachers(oneworkingwithEnglish)
4049

5059

Total

51

TheTSETest
Respondents:studentsatthedepartmentofEnglish,Universityof
Helsinki(N=33)
Sex

Female

30

Male

Notstated

Total

33

Age

2029

30

3039

4049

5059

60+

Total

33

Stageofstudies(afterc.10yearsofEnglishatschool)
I(basic)

II(intermediate)

23

III(advanced)

Postgraduate

Total

33

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Appendix3
TheGRTQuestionnaire
TranslationoftheinstructionstoreadersparticipatinginGRT,andofthequestionstoeachextract.(Thetargettextsusedarenotreproducedinthisbook.
Forsourcetextextracts,seeAppendix6.)
READERINQUIRY
Dearreader,
IamwritingadissertationonthetranslationofallusionsandneedinformationonhowFinnishreadersrespondtowhattheyread.
allusion=anoftenshort,eitherdirectorindirectreferencee.g.toaperson,book,eventorsayingwhichisassumedtobefamiliartothereader.
Allusionsareculturebound,sothatsomeofthemarefamiliaronlyinone'snativelanguage,whileothersarefamiliarinmorethanonelanguage(e.g.
throughtheinfluenceoftranslatedbooksorfilms).
Forinstance:'WouldyoulikeFinlandtostayinherImpivaaraforever?'(anallusiontoAleksisKivi'sSevenBrothers)
'Theteacherpromisedthesixthformersblood,sweatandtearsbutthen,it'sthroughdifficultiesthatoneachievesvictory.'(Theformerisanallusion
tooneofWinstonChurchill'sspeechesduringthesecondworldwar,thelattertotheLatinsayingperasperaadastra.)

Iwouldlikeyoutoreadtheenclosedextractsandtoanswerthequestions.Pleaseansweronthebasisofwhatyouyourselfknowandfeelwithoutconsultingother
peopleorworksofreference.Pleasereturnthequestionnaireeventhoughyoumayfeelthatyouhavesaidverylittle.Itwillstillbeusefultome.
ForprocessingtheinformationIshallalsoneedthefollowingdataontherespondent:(fillin,underline,markwithacircleoracross...)
Iamawoman/man,agedyears.
Ialsoreadnewspapersandmagazinesinforeignlanguages:yes/no
Likewisebooks:yes/no
Approximatelyeveryweek/oneortwopermonth/afewperyearinwhichlanguages?

Page217

Furtherinformationavailable[phonenumber].
Thankyouforyourhelp!
[Example:anextractfromaFinnishnovelnotreproducedinthisbook]
TheenclosedextractfromanovelbyEevaKilpicontainsanallusion(theunderlinedwords).Italludestoahymnandmaysuggestforexamplethatthecharactersin
theextractareofareligiousturnofmindorareadermayfindthecombinationofeverydaymattersandalinefromahymnamusing.
Ifyounoticeallusionsinthetextsofthisquestionnaire,pleaseunderlinethemandwritedownwhattheybringtomind.Therearealsophrasesorsentencesinthetexts
thathavealreadybeenunderlined.Answerthequestionsonthosephrasesorsentencesinyourownwords.
Pleasenotethatthisisnotatestonwhatyouknow.Itdealswiththewayyouasareaderrespondtowhatyouread.
Text0:anextractfromaFinnishnovel,Kilpi(1983)(usedtocheckwhethertherespondentswereabletonoticeapresumablyfamiliarbutmodified
allusionusedinanoriginaltextintheirnativelanguage.Seep.141forpartoftheextractfortheresultsofthis'Hamlet'test,seeAppendix2.)
Targettextsused
GRT1
Lodge(WherearetheImpsofyesteryear)
Instruction:Underlineanyallusionsyoumayfind.
McBain(Awomanworksfromsuntosun)
Question:Whatdoyouthinkthismeans?Whatdoesitmeaninthiscontext?
McBain(Separatebutequal)
Question:Whatdoyouthinkthismeans?Whatdoesitmeaninthiscontext?
Allingham(WithmybodyItheeworship)
Question:Howdoyouunderstandtheyoungman'sargument?
Lurie(TheWhiteRabbit)
Question:Whatkindofexpressionisthis(andwhatmakesyouthinkso)?

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Lurie(TheMillerofDee)
Question:Whatdoesthiscomparisonsuggesttoyou?
Lurie(ThatVisigothrealtorhermother)
Question:HowdoyouunderstandthereferencetoBarbie'smother?
Lurie(SomecornerofanEnglishfield)
Backgroundinformationgiven:ThesceneofthenovelisEngland.Vinnie,amiddleagedwomanresearcher,istellingheroldacquaintanceEdwin,an
Englishman,thatChuck,a'typicalAmerican'whomtheybothknew,hassuddenlydiedofaheartattack.WhatVinniedoesnotrevealisthatsheand
Chuckhadhadabriefloveaffairjustbeforethishappened.
Question:HowdoyouinterpretEdwin'swords?(thethought,thetoneofvoice)
SourcetextsinAppendix6.
GRT2
Parker(Rebecca/Pollyanna)
Backgroundinformationgiven:Ticknorisinvitingthenarrator,Spenser,tobecomethebodyguardofthefeministwriterRachelWallaceforsometime.
Question:Howdoyouunderstandtheunderlinedrequirement?Whatshouldanidealbodyguardbelikeandhowshouldhebehave?
Parker(CarryNation/A1920ssuffragette)(inversion(a)ofthetest)
Question:DescribewhatRachelWallacedidNOTlooklike,ie.whatkindofimagethewords'asuffragetteofthe1920s'givesriseto.
Parker(TheWalrusandtheCarpenter)(inversion(b))
Question:WhywastheplacecalledtheWalrusandtheCarpenter?Whatifithadbeencalled'MursuandNikkari'?('Nikkari'isanotherpossibletermfor'carpenter')
Parker(Alightbluebodystocking)
Question:HowdoyouunderstandSpenser'swords?
Allingham(There'sgoldinthemtharquarters/Averitablegoldmine)
Question:Whatdoestheexclamation'Averitablegoldmine!'mean?

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McBain(Tangledwebs)(inversion(a))
Question:Whatdotheunderlinedwordsmeantoyouinthiscontext?
Lurie(Pumpkinsatmidnight)(inversion(b))
Question:Whatisthemeaningoftheunderlinedwords?(=whatdoesVinniemean?)Doyouseeanallusiontosomethinghere?HowdoyouunderstandMr
Mumpson'swords:'Huh?Oh.Haha'?
Lurie(Anolivebranch)
Question:Whatdotheimagesusedinthesecondparagraphmakeyouthinkof?Whatcouldtheybeanallusionto?
Lurie(ThatVisigothrealtorhermother)
Question:HowdoyouunderstandthereferencetoBarbie'smother?
Weldon(Allbewell)
Backgroundinformationgiven:Helenhasjusthadababy.
Question:WhatdoesHelenmean?Issomethingbeingalludedtohere?
SourcetextsinAppendix6.
Appendix4
TheKLAQuestionnaire
TranslationofthequestionnaireusedintheKLAtest
READERINQUIRY
Informationontherespondent
female/male,aged
student/teacher/translator
workingwithEnglish:Y/N
mothertongue(ifnotFinnish):
(1)Doyouknowthefollowingnames?Underlinethosethatarefamiliartoyouandgiveafewwordsofdescription.
Example:LittleRedRidingHoodwenttoseehergrandmother,eatenbywolf
Agag
Boadicea(Boudicca)
DaisyBuchanan

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ThomasGradgrind
CarryNation
Pollyanna
NeroWolfe
thegeeseoftheCapitol
(2)Readthefollowingextractsandanswerthequestionsbriefly:
Lurie(TheWhiteRabbit)
Question:Whatkindofexpressionisthis(andwhatmakesyouthinkso?)
Allingham(WithmybodyItheeworship)
Question:Howdoyouunderstandtheyoungman'sargument?
Thankyouforyourhelp!
Targettextsnotreproducedinthisbook.SourcetextsinAppendix6.
Appendix5
TheTSEQuestionnaire
TranslationoftheinstructionstostudentsparticipatinginTSE
ALLUSIONTEST
ThistestattemptstodiscoverhowmuchdifficultyallusionsinEnglishlanguagetextscausetoFinns.TheaimistoseehoweasilyastudentofEnglishwillspotallusions
inanEnglishtext,recognisetheirsources(i.e.whattheyalludeto)andunderstandtheirmeaning.Afurtheraimistomapthevarioustypesoftranslationsoffered.
Twohandoutscontainingthesametextswillbegiventoyou.Youmayproceedatyourownspeed,andyouneednothavedealtwithallofthetextsbytheendofthe
test.
DOTHIS:
Firstreadthedefinitionsofallusiongivenandanswerthequestionsbelow.
Readallthetextsinthefirsthandoutandunderlinetheallusionsthatyouspot.Writedowntheirsources(i.e.whattheyalludeto)ifyourecognisethem.Youmay
alsobaseanansweronavaguerecollectionoraguess.AnswersineitherFinnishorEnglish.

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Exchangethefirsthandoutforthesecond.Inthesecondone,certainallusionstobedealtwithareunderlined.Irrespectiveofwhichonesyouunderlinedonthefirst
round,consider(a)thecontentofeachinthecontextshownandgiveanexplanationinwriting(onaseparatesheetoronthebackofthepage),asifyouwere
explainingthepassagetosomeonewhoknowsEnglishlesswellthanyoudo.Alsoexplainthesignificanceoftheallusion(i.e.answerthequestion:Whyisitused
here?).Then(b)translatethemarkedsectioncontainingtheallusionintoFinnish.Youmayoutlinemorethanonetranslation,andevaluateandcommentonyour
translations.
'ALLUSION.Latinalludere,toplaywith,tojest,toreferto.Areferencetocharactersandeventsofmythology,legends,history.'(Scott,CurrentLiteraryTerms,1965)
'ALLUSION.Tacitreferencetoanotherliterarywork,toanotherart,tohistory,tocontemporaryfigures,orthelike.'(Preminger,EncyclopediaofPoetryandPoetics,1965)
'Areference,usuallybrief,oftencasual,occasionallyindirect,toaperson,event,orconditionpresumablyfamiliarbutsometimesobscureorunknowntothereader.'(Shaw,Dict.
ofLit.Terms,1976)
'Anallusionisafigureofspeechthatcomparesaspectsorqualitiesofcounterpartsinhistory,mythology,scripture,literature,popularorcontemporaryculture.'(Lassetal.1987)

Participant:
codename
age
female/male
stageofstudiesI/II/III
familybackground,education(answeronlyifeg.aparentisanativespeakerofEnglish,oryouwenttoanEnglishschoolorthelike)
Sourcetextsused:
Lurie(SomecornerofanEnglishfield)
Paretsky(NotalltheperfumesofArabia)
Paretsky(DickButkus)
Rendell(LikeanotherAlice)
Bawden(Fattedcalves)

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Rendell(Goose/swan)
Rendell(Oh!witheredisthegarlandofwar)
Moody(Lovely,darkanddeep)
Moody(Unkindestcut)
SourcetextsreproducedinAppendix7.
Appendix6
SourceTextExtracts(GRT,KLA)
TextA:Lurie(TheWhiteRabbit)
Thestudio,whenhefindsit,isdiscouragingnottheplaceanyonewouldchooseforalovers'meeting.FredwouldhavepreferredtheBBCbuildinginPortlandPlace,wherehe
oncewentwithRosemary:acomictempleofartdecodesignwithagoldensunburstoverthedoorandabankofgildedelevators.Behindthemwasawarrenofcorridorsdown
whicheccentriclookingpersonshurriedwithWhiteRabbitexpressions.Thesoundroomswerecosyburrowsfurnishedwithbatteredsoftleatherchairsandhistoricallooking
microphonesandswitchboardstheBattleofBritainstillseemedtoreverberateinthesmokyair.
ThecommercialstationiscoldandanonymousandultracontemporaryitsglassfrontedlobbyisdecoratedinMadisonAvenueminimalism.Adozenorsoteenagersslumpon
plasticdivans,chewinggumandjigglingtheirkneestothepoundingbeatofrockmusic.(AlisonLurie,ForeignAffairs)

TextB:Parker(TheWalrusandtheCarpenter)
SusanandIwereattherawbarinthemiddleofQuincyMarketeatingoystersanddrinkingbeer,andarguing.Sortof.
'Sowhydidn'tyoukeepoutofit?'Susansaid.'Rachelhadaskedyouto.'
'Andstandthereandletthemdragherout?'
'Yes.'Susanslurpedanoysterofftheshell.Theydon'tofferforksattherawbar.Theyjustserveoystersorclamsorshrimp,withbeerinpapercups.Therearebowlsofoyster
crackersandsqueezebottlesofcocktailsauce.TheynamedtheplacetheWalrusandtheCarpenter,butIlikeitanyway.
'Icouldn'tdothat,'Isaid.Underthevaultedceilingofthemarket,peopleswirledupanddownthemainaisle.Abeardedmanwearinga

Page223
skicapandagreenturtlenecksweatereyedSusanandwhisperedsomethingtothemanwithhim.ThemanwithhimlookedatSusanandnodded.Theybothsmiled,andthenthey
bothcaughtmelookingatthemandlookedawayandmovedon.Iorderedanotherbeer.Susansippedalittleofhers.
'Whycouldn'tyoudothat?'Susanasked.
'Itviolatedsomething.'
'What?'
Ishrugged.'Mypride?'(RobertB.Parker,LookingforRachelWallace)

TextC:Parker(Alightbluebodystocking)
'Itoldyoubefore,Ihavenosenseofhumor.Doyouagreeordisagree?'
'Agree.'
'Finally,exceptwhenyoufeelmylifeisindanger,Iwantyoutostayoutofmyway.Irealiseyouwillhavetobearoundandwatchful.Idon'tknowhowseriousthethreatsare,but
youhavetoassumetheyareserious.Iunderstandthat.ButshortofamortalsituationIdonotwanttohearfromyou.Iwantashadow.'
Isaid,'Agree,'anddranktherestofmybeer.Thewaitercamebyandremovedtheemptypeanutbowlandreplacedit.RachelWallacenoticedmybeerwasgoneandgesturedthat
thewaitershouldbringanother.TicknorlookedathisglassandatRachelWallace's.Hiswasempty,herswasn't.Hedidn'torder.
'Yourappearanceisgood,'shesaid.'That'sanicesuit,andit'swelltailored.Areyoudressedupfortheoccasionordoyoualwayslookgood?'
'I'mdressedupfortheoccasion.NormallyIwearalightbluebodystockingwithabigredSonthefront.'Itwasdiminthebar,butherlipstickwasbright,andIthoughtfora
momentshesmiled,ornearlysmiled,oronecornerofhermouthitched.
'Iwantyoupresentable,'shesaid.
'I'llbepresentable,butifyouwantmeappropriate,you'llhavetoletmeknowyourplansaheadoftime.'
Shesaid,'Certainly.'(RobertB.Parker,LookingforRachelWallace)

TextD:Lurie(Anolivebranch)
TheotherweightonFred'smindisheavier,thoughitconsistsnotofastackofbooksbutofanairletteralmostlighterthanair.TheletterisfromhisestrangedwifeRoo,andisher
firstinfourmonthsthough

Page224
Fredhaswrittenherseveraltimes:askinghertoforwardonhismail,returningherhealthinsurancecard,andinquiringfortheaddressofafriendwho'ssupposedtobeatthe
UniversityofSussex.Roo,ashemighthaveexpected,hasn'tforwardedthemail,acknowledgedthecard,orprovidedtheaddress.
Butnow,likeatardybluebirdofpeacereturninglatetoadesertedarkafterthreetimesfortydaysandnights,thisblueairletterhasflappedacrosstheoceantohim.Initsbeakit
holds,noquestionaboutthat,afresholivebranch.(AlisonLurie,ForeignAffairs)

TextE:Allingham(WithmybodyItheeworship)
Heleftherwithoutspeaking,shutthedoorofthestaircasecarefullybehindhim,turnedontheswitchwhichlitthebedroomaboveandranupintoit,tocometoasuddenhalton
thethreshold.Someonewasthere,lyingonthebed,theshadowsofthehighfootboardhidingherface.Heknewwhoitwasbeforehewentoverandlookeddown.
Juliawaslyingonherback,herhandsbehindherhead,hereyeswideopenandverydark.Therewasnoexpressionwhateveronherfaceandhegottheimpressionthatshewas
notbreathing.Shewatchedhimsilently,onlyhergraveeyes,darkwithexhaustionfromtheemotionalstruggleshehadlost,flickeringtoshowthatshewasalive.
Timothystoodlookingamomentandthenmadeasiftoturnawayfromher,hisfaceworking,andsheputupherarmsandpulledhimdown.
Foralittlewhileheletthetideofreliefandpeacecloseoverhimbutasthesurgeroseinhisbloodhetookholdofhimselfandpushedherawayashestruggledtogetup.
'No.Stopit,'hewhisperedfiercely.'NothereItellyou.Notinthisholeandcorner.Iwon'tletyou.You'remineaswellasyourown.We'vegotsomethingtolose.'WithmybodyI
theeworship'anddon'tforgetit,mymyholyone.'(MargeryAllingham,TheChinaGoverness)

TextF:Lurie(Pumpkinsatmidnight)
Something.What?Well,shecouldgobackintotheterminalandtrytotelephoneforaminicab,thoughtheyarenotoriousfornotturningupwhenpromised.Andfor
overcharging.Andiftheydoovercharge,doesshehaveenoughEnglishmoney?
Nouseworryingaboutthat,notyet.Takingacoupleofdeepbreathstocalmherself,Vinnieshovesherluggagebacktowardtheterminal,hopingforthemiraculousapparitionof
ataxi.Thereisnone,ofcourse

Page225
onlyamobofSunTouristsandtheirluggagewaitingtoboardacharteredbus.SheisabouttoretreatwhenMrHobbs/Mumpsonhailsher.Heisnowwearingatancowboyhat
trimmedwithfeathersandafleecelinedsheepskincoat,andishungaboutwithcameras,makinghimlookevenmorethaneverlikethecaricatureofanAmericantourist,Western
division.
'Hithere!What'sthetrouble?'
'Nothing,'saysVinnierepressively,realisingthatherstateofmindmustbeengraveduponhercountenance.'Iwasjustlookingforataxi.'
MrMumpsonstaresoutacrosstheempty,rainsloshed,lightstreakedpavement.'Don'tseemtobeanyhere.'
'No.'Shemanagesabriefdefensivesmile.'Apparentlytheyallturnintopumpkinsatmidnight.'
'Huh?Oh,haha.Listen,Iknowwhat.Youcancomeonthebuswithus.It'sgoingrightintotown:centrallylocatedhotel,saidsointhebrochure.Betyoucangetacabthere.'
Overherweak,wearyprotests,heplungesintothecrowdandreturnsaminutelatertoreportthatitisallfixedup.Luckily,sinceVinnieandMrMumpsonarethelasttoboard,
theyhavetositseparately,andsheissparedanymoreofhisconversation.(AlisonLurie,ForeignAffairs)

TextG:McBain(Awomanworksfromsuntosun)
Ifyouknowthemarksaguncanleave,andifyouknowwheretolookforthemonaspentcartridgecase,whythen,allyouhavetodoisfiresomeshellsfromthesuspectgun,
retrievethem,andmarkthemforidentification.Thenyoutaketheshellfoundatthesceneofthecrime,andyoualsomarkthatforidentification,sinceanynormalBallisticsSection
hasalotoflooseshellsaround,andyoudon'twanttospendallyourtimeplayingtheshellgamewhenyou'vegotmoreimportantmatterstoconsiderlikehomicide,forexample.
Thenyouwash(yes,that'sright,wash)alltheshellsinyourfavoritedetergent(awomanworksfromsuntosun,butaman'sworkisneverdone)andyouarenowreadyto
comparethem.Youdothiswithamicroscope,ofcourse,andyouphotographyourfindingsunderobliquelighttobringthemarksintosharprelief,andthenyoupasteupan
enlargementofthesuspectshellalongsideanenlargementofthecomparisonshell,andyourecordthemarksoneachthewayyouwouldrecordthewhorlsandtentsandloops
andridgesofafingerprintandthereyouare.
Whereyouare,ifyouareMichaelO.Dorfsman,isinthateuphoriclandknownasPositiveIdentification.Itisverynicewhenallthose

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marksandscratcheslineuplikeseparatehalvesofthesameface.Itmakesamanfeelgoodwhenhe'sabletopickupthetelephoneandcalltheinvestigatingdetectivetoreport
withoutquestionthatthegundeliveredtoBallisticswasdefinitelythegunthatfiredthebulletsthatkilledsomebody.(EdMcBain,Bread)

TextH:McBain(Separatebutequal)
AtaquarterpastnineRosalieWaggeneraskedifitwasallrightifshewenthome.Thedetectivestoldheritwasnotallright.Thedetectivestoldherthattheywerecharging
Hemmings,Worthy,andChasewitharsonandhomicide,andGrimm,Chase,andherselfwithattemptingtosmuggledopeintothecountry.
'Ihadnothingtodowithanydope,'Rosaliesaid.
'Youpaidforit,'Carellasaid.
'Iwasonlyamessenger.'
'Forajigpusher,'Olliesaid.
'Knockoffthatkindoftalk,willyou?'Carellasaid.
'Whatkindoftalk?'
'Thatbigotedbullshit,'Hawessaid.
'Bigoted?'Olliesaid.'Whiteorblack,they'reallthesametome,theyallstink.That'sbigoted?'
'That'snotevenequalbutseparate,'Carellasaid,andOllieburstoutlaughing.HeslappedHawesandCarellaontheirbacks,simultaneously,withbothbeefyhands,almost
knockingoverCarella,whowasoffbalancetobeginwith.'Ilikeyouguys,'hesaid,'youknowthat?Ireallyenjoyworkingwithyouguys.'(EdMcBain,Bread)

TextI:Lurie(TheMillerofDee)
PresumablyChuckisstillawayinSomerset,whichmustmeanthathe'sfoundmorerelatives,possiblyevensomearistocraticones.Butinthatcase,whyhasn'thecalledtotellher
allaboutit?Becausehe'sangryather,ortiredofher,and/orbecausehe'smetsomebodyhelikesbetter.Well,shemighthaveforeseenit.Astheoldrhymeputsit,
Shethatwillnotwhenshemay,
Whenshewouldsheshallhavenay.
VinniefeelsanirritabilityrisingtoangeratChuckandatherself.Untilshetookupwithhim,shehadbeencontentinLondon,almosthappy,really.LiketheMillerofDee,aslong
asshedidn'treallycareforanyone,thefactthatnobodycaredforhercouldnottroubleher.She'sjustaswelloffnowasshewasbeforeChuckgotintoherlife,butshe

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feelsmiserable,hurt,rejected,andsorryforherself.
Vinnieimaginesthelongsittingroomofalargeexpensivecountryhouse,farawayinthesouthwestofEnglandinatownshehasneverseen.There,atthisverymoment,Chuck
MumpsonishavingteawithnewlydiscoveredEnglishcousinsnamedDeMompesson,whohavearosegardenandhunters.CharmedbyhisAmericannaivetandbluntnessof
speech,theyareplyinghimwithwatercresssandwiches,walnutcake,raspberriesandheavycream.(AlisonLurie,ForeignAffairs)

TextJ:Lurie(ThatVisigothrealtorhermother)
'Theytookcareofeverything,really.Exceptforthecremains.Thatwaskindaweirdandawful,y'know.ProfessorGilsonhadthemsavedforme.Ithoughtthey'dbeinabigheavy
silverurnorsomething,butitwasn'tanythinglikethat.'Barbiesnuffles,stops.
'Nothinglikethat,'Vinnieprompts.
'Naw.Theywereina,Idon'tknow,akindawaxedcardboardcartonlikeyougetwithstorepackedicecream,aboutthatsize.Insideitwasaplasticbagfullofthiskindapalegritty
graystuff.Icouldn'tbelievethatwasallthatwasleftofDad,justacouplapoundsofwhatlookedlikehealthfoodsoymix.'Barbiesnufflesagain,swallows.
'ThenIdidn'tknowwhattodowithit,'shecontinues.'Ididn'tknowifitwaslegaltotakecremainsonaplane.Imean,supposetherewasacustomsinspection?Icouldn'tsee
puttingthatcartoninthesuitcasewithmyclothesanyhow,y'know?'Shebeginstotearupagain.'Sorry.I'msostupid.'
Barbie'scontinualassertionofherlackofintelligencehasbeguntoannoyVinnie.Stoptellingmehowstupidyouare,shewantstosay.YougraduatedfromtheUniversityof
Oklahoma,youcan'tbeallthatstupid.
'That'sallright,'shesaysinstead.'Ithinkyou'vedoneverywell,consideringeverything.'AlmostagainstherwillshereclassifiesTheBarbarianasaninnocentpeasantthevictim
ratherthantheaccompliceofthatVisigothrealtorhermother,whoisnodoubtresponsibleforBarbie'slowopinionofherownintelligence.
'Anyhow,whenIphonedhomenext,Momsaidnottobother,'Barbieresumespresently.'ShesaidwhatIshoulddowasscatterthecremainssomewhere.SoProfessorGilson
drovemeoutinthecountrytoaplacehesaidDadhadliked...'(AlisonLurie,ForeignAffairs)

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TextK:Lurie(SomecornerofanEnglishfield)
'...She'dhavetobeanawfullygiftedactress.'
'Oh,she'sgifted,'Edwinagrees,carefullyskinningaripepeachwithoneofhisivoryhandledVictorianfruitknives.'Shecanimitatejustaboutanyone.Youshouldhearherdo
yourcowboyfriend,Chuckwhat'shisname.Howiswhat'shisname,bytheway?'headds,changingthesubjectwithhiscustomarydeftness.'Ishestilldiggingforancestors
downinWiltshire?'
'Yesno,'Vinnierepliesuncomfortably.ThoughshehasbeenatEdwin'sfornearlytwohours,andspokentohimearlieronthephone,shehasn'tdaredtomentionChuck.She
knowsitwillbenearlyimpossibleforhertotellthestorywithoutfallingapartasshehasbeenfallingapartatintervalsforthepasttendays.Butsheplungesin,beginningwith
Barbie'stelephonecall.
'Sothewifeandsoncouldn'tmakeittoEngland,'Edwinremarkspresently.
'No.Ofcourse,it'sjustaconventionthatwhensomeonediesyouhavetohurrytothefatalspot.Itdoesn'tactuallydothemanygood.'
'Isupposenot.Still,itdoesgiveoneacertainopinionofChuck'srelatives.'
'Itdoes.'Vinniecontinueswithherstory.Severaltimesshehearsatelltalewobbleinhervoice,butEdwinseemstonoticenothing.
'Sothere'ssomecornerofanEnglishfieldthatisforeverTulsa,'hesaysfinally,smiling.
'Yes.'Vinniestranglesthecrythatrisesinher.
'PooroldChuck.Ratherawfultogooutlikethat,sounpreparedandsuddenandfarfromhome.'(AlisonLurie,ForeignAffairs)

TextL:Lodge(WherearetheImpsofyesteryear)
VicisallinfavourofbackingBritain,buttherearetimeswhentheMail'swindychauvinismgetsonhistits.Hetakesadragonhiscigaretteandtapstheashbetweenhislegs,
hearingafainthissasithitsthewater.100M.P.G.FAMILYCARLOOKINGGOODINTESTS.
TrialshavebeenstartedbyBritishLeylandoftheirrevolutionarylightweightaluminiumengineforaworldbeatingfamilycarcapableof100milespergallon.
Whenwasthelasttimeweweresupposedtohaveaworldbeatingaluminiumengine?TheHillmanImp,right?Wherearetheynow,the

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HillmanImpsofyesteryear?Inthescrapyards,everyone,ornearly.AndtheLinwoodplantagraveyard,grassgrowingbetweentheassemblylines,corrugatedironroofsflapping
inthewind.Acarthatnobodywantedtobuy,builtonasitechosenforpoliticalnotcommercialreasons,hundredsofmilesfromitscomponentsuppliers.HeturnstotheCity
Pages.HOWTOGETUPAHEADOFESTEEM.
WhathasbeendesignatedIndustryYearhasgotofftoapredictablysillystart.VariousbodiesinManufacturingIndustryareworkingthemselvesintooneoftheirregular
lathersaboutthesupposedlowsocialesteembestoweduponengineersandengineering.
Vicreadsthisarticlewithmixedfeelings.IndustryYeariscertainlyalotofballs.Ontheotherhand,theideathatsocietyundervaluesitsengineersisnot.(DavidLodge,Nice
Work)

TextM:Parker(Rebecca/Pollyanna)
'TheonlyreservationIhave,'Ticknorsaidwhenthewaiterhadretreated,'isthepotentialforapersonalityclash.'
Ileanedbackinmychairandfoldedmyarms.
'Youlookgoodinmostways,'Ticknorsaid.'You'vegotthebuildforit.Peoplewhoshouldknowsayyouareastoughasyoulook.Andtheysayyou'rehonest.Butyouwork
awfullyhardsometimesatbeingawiseguy.AndyoulooklikeeverythingRachelhates.'
'It'snothardwork,'Isaid.
'Whatisn't?'
'Beingawiseguy.It'sagift.'
'Perhaps,'Ticknorsaid.'ButitisnotagiftthatwillendearyoutoRachelWallace.Neitherwillthemusclesandthemachismo.'
'Iknowaguywouldlendmealavendersuit,'Isaid.
'Don'tyouwantthiswork?'Ticknorsaid.
Ishookmyhead.'Whatyouwant,Mr.Ticknor,issomeonefeistyenoughtogetinthelineofsomeoneelse'sfire,andtoughenoughtogetawaywithit.Andyouwanthimtolook
likeWinniethePoohandactlikeRebeccaofSunnybrookFarm.I'mnotsureRebecca'sevengotagunpermit.'
Hewassilentforamoment.Theothertablecleared,andnowwewerealoneintheupstairsdiningroom,exceptforseveralwaitersandthemaitred'.
'Goddamnit,'Ticknorsaid.'Youareright.Ifyou'lltakethejob,it's

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yours.Twohundreddollarsadayandexpenses.AndGodhelpme,IhopeI'mright.'
'Okay,'Isaid.'WhendoImeetMs.Wallace?'(RobertB.Parker,LookingforRachelWallace)

TextN:Parker(CarryNation/A1920ssuffragette)
ImetRachelWallaceonabrightOctoberdaywhenTicknorandIwalkeddownfromhisofficeacrosstheCommonandthePublicGardenthroughtheearlyturnoffallfoliageand
visitedherinherroomattheRitz.
Shedidn'tlooklikeCarryNation.ShelookedlikeapleasantwomanaboutmyagewithaDianeVonFurstenburgdressonandsomelipstick,andherhairlongandblackandclean.
Ticknorintroducedus.(RobertB.Parker,LookingforRachelWallace)

TextO:McBain(Tangledwebs)
'What'sAlfie'sbusinesswithErhardBachmann?'
'Idon'tknow.'
'WasBachmannexpectingyouwhenyougottoGermany?'
'Yes.ButIusedaphonyname.Alfietoldmetouseaphonyname.'
'WhatdidBachmannsaywhenyougavehimthemoney?'
'Hesaid''Dankesehr."'
ThatwastheendoftheirlittlechatwithRosalieWaggener.Theyfigured,bythattime,thatshehadeithertoldthemallshekneworallshewaswillingtotell.Theythankedher
verymuch(inEnglish),andaskedhertowaitintheroomdownthehall.Fromwhattheycouldgather,ChaseandGrimmseemedtobeequalpartnersinthelittlewoodenanimal
business.WithoutWorthyandHemmingsknowingaboutit,Chasehadpaid$500,000ofhisownmoneytoGrimm'spackerinGermany,andGrimm(beforethedevastating
warehousefire)hadbeenreadytopayanother$500,000forthecargowhenitreachedAmerica.AccordingtoGrimm'sownestimate,theresalevalueofthecargowasonemillion
dollars.Thethreecopsinvestigatingthecaseknewverylittleabouthighlevelbusinesstransactionsinvolvingastronomicalfigures.Theyknewonlythattangledarethewebswe
weavewhenfirstwepracticetodeceive,andtheyfurtherknewthatnobodyinvestsamillionbuckshopingmerelytobreakeven.
Itlookedliketimeforalittlegameofpoker.(EdMcBain,Bread)

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TextP:Allingham(There'sgoldinthemtharhills/Averitablegoldmine)
Mr.Campioncontinuedtobedubious.
'YouaretellingmeseriouslythatyoungKinnitwasresponsibleforwreckingthecouncilflat?Haveyouanyproofofthisatall?'
'Idon'twantany.Idon'twantanythingtodowithit,anddon'tforgetanythingI'mtellingyounowisofftherecord.'
JoeStalkey'sface,unattractivetostartwith,wasnotimprovedbyanexpressionofobstinateprejudice.'Ofcourseheis.Ronreportsthatheisbabblingabouthavingbeenlocked
inhiscollegeatOxfordatthehourinquestion,butthatonlyproveshehassomeusefulfriendsorenoughmoneytoemployafewhooligans.Whatonemightbeabletoproveis
onethingbutwhatweknowmustbethetruthisanother.Beyourage,Campion.Whoareyouworkingfor?Thelittleladhimself?'
'No.Ibelongtotheothersideofthefamily.Iamprotectingtheinterestsofthegirlfriend.'
'Areyouindeed?Quiteaclient!'Hewasopenlyenvious.'There'sgoldinthemtharquarters.Ohwell,goodlucktoyou.You'rewelcometoeverythingwe'vegotattherightprice,
ofcourse.Happytoobligeyou.Butinthisparticularcasewedon'twanttoworkwithyou.We'vecomeoutandwe'restayingout,especiallyafterthismorning'sperformance.That
kindisdecadentanddangerous.Itneverpaystotakeayoungsteroutofhisnormalenvironmentandbringhimupinsomethingplushy.'
'Doyouknowwhathisnormalenvironmentwas?Ithoughtthatwastheobjectoftheexercise.'(MargeryAllingham,TheChinaGoverness)

TextQ:Weldon(Allbewell)
Hepickedthebabyup.
'Careful,'saidHelen,buttherewasnoneed.Cliffordwasaccustomedtohandlingobjectsofgreatvalue.Andthereandthenhefelt,tohissurprise,andacutely,boththepainand
pleasureoffatherhoodthepiercinganxiousneedleintheheartwhichisthedrivetoprotect,thewarm,reassuringglowwhichistheconvictionofimmortality,therecognitionof
privilege,theknowledgethatitismorethanjustachildyouholdinyourarms,butthewholefutureoftheworld,asitworksthroughyou.More,hefeltabsurdlygratefultoHelen
forhavingthebaby,makingthefeelingpossible.ForthefirsttimesincehehadrescuedherfromthedeWaldoclinic,hekissedherwithungrudginglove.Hehadforgivenher,in
fact,andHelenglowedinhisforgiveness.

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'Allbewell,'sheshuthereyesandsaid,quotingsomethingshehadread,butnotquitesurewhat'andallwillbewell,andallmannerofthingswillbewell,'andClifforddidnot
evensnubherbyaskingforthesourceofthequotation.Andsoitwas,verywellindeed,foratime.
Untilshewasnearlyayearold,then,Nelllivedinthecocoonofhappinesscreatedbyherparents.Leonardo'sflourishedunderCliffordWexford'sguidanceaninteresting
Rembrandtwasacquired,afewtediousDutchmasterssold,theputativeBotticellilabelledandhungassuch,totheUffizi'sastonishment,andinthenewcontemporarysection,
thepriceofaDavidFirkin,nowrequiredtopaintnomorethantwopaintingsayear,lesthespoilhisownmarket,soaredtofivefigures.Helenlostawholestoneandworshipped
CliffordandbabyNellinturns.Itisevenpleasanterifmoredifficulttolove,thantobeloved.Whenbothhappenatonce,whathigherjoycantherebe?(FayWeldon,The
HeartsandLivesofMen)

Appendix7
SourceTextExtracts(TSE)
Thestudentshadthetextstwice,firstunmarked,thenwithasectionorsectionsmarkedandsomewordsunderlined.ThisAppendixshowsthemarkingsand
underlinings.
TextA:Lurie(SomecornerofanEnglishfield)
SeeAppendix6,TextK.

TextB:Paretsky(NotallperfumesofArabia)
Peterseemedtothinkthiswassoundadvice.HecaughtupwithmeasIstartedupthestairs.'Sorry,Vic.Didn'tmeantocriticise.Thethingis,I'vebeendrinkingmorethanI
should.Thesethedocuments?Here,letmecarry'emforyou.'
Hetookthebooksfrommeandfollowedmeupthestairs.IcarriedmymalodorousshoesintothekitchenandbeganpouringwaterandCloroxonthem.Iwasreallyfurious,both
withhiscriticism,andalsowithmyselfforhavingsaidanything.It'sneveragoodideatoletpeopleknowthatyou'vebeenobtaininginformationthroughquestionablemeans.
IfIhadn'tbeenstartled,guilty,feelingateasewithMr.Contreras,andpissedashellwithDick,Iwouldn'thavesaidonewordaboutit.Goestoshow.
Petergavemeatentative,alcoholickissbehindmyear.'C'mon,Vic.

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Scout'shonor,Iwon'tsayanythingmoreaboutyouruhbusinessmethods.Okay?'
'Yeah,okay.'Ifinishedrinsingmyshoes./MyhandsnowsmelledofClorox,notasbadasvomit,butnotgood.Irubbedlemonjuiceintothem.NotalltheperfumesofArabia./
'Noonelikesbeingcriticised,Peter.'(SaraParetsky,BitterMedicine)

TextC:Paretsky(DickButkus)
'Rawlings?'Murrayasked.'Whybringinthepolice?They'llspoileverything.'
'Idon'tknowifhe'llcome,'Isaidimpatiently.'ButI'dlikehimtoseethestorywithhisowneyes.It'stoounbelievableotherwise.Willyoudoit,Max?'
'Certainly.AndIwanttobethereinperson.Iftherearetobefireworks,whyshouldInotseethem?Anyway,thiswillbeafineopportunityformetowatchyouatyourdetective
work.Ihavealwaysbeencurious.'
/'It'snotthethrillyou'reexpecting,Loewenthal,'Murraysaid.'Vicfavors(Ca)theDickButkusapproachtodetectionhittheoffensehardyouknow,justsotheyknowtheymet
youatthelineofscrimmagethenseewho'sleftonthegroundwhenshegetsdone.Ifyou'relookingfor(Cb)SherlockHolmesorNeroWolfedoingsomeintellectualfootwork,
forgetit.'/
'Thankyouforthetestimonial,'Isaid,bowingoverthetable.'AllareappreciatedandmaybesenttoourheadofficeinTripoli,whereanappropriateresponsewillbegenerated.
Anyway,Murray,youdon'thavetocome.IwasjustaskingMaxtoincludeyououtofcourtesy.'
'Oh,no.I'mcoming.IfthisstoryisgoingtostartbreakingonFriday,Iwanttobethere.Anyway,I'mgoingtohavethethingkeyedin,readytotransmit,themomentyourpal
Burgoynelooksatyouwithhishonestbuttroubledeyesandsays,"Vic,you'vepersuadedmetoturnmyselfin."Ordoeshejustcallyou"sweetheart"or"Victoria"or"She
WhoMustBeObeyed"?'(SaraParetsky,BitterMedicine)

TextD:Rendell(SomeotherAlice)
Foramomentortwo,feelingafaintrecurrenceofmalaise,sheheldthebookunopenedinherhands.Thebrownandbluecoverwasslightlytorn.Andrewcouldbringherthe
Sellotapewhenhecameupagainandshewouldmenditforhim.
Iftheywerereallytoleavetomorrowshemustmakeaneffort,not

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justlieherelistlessly.Toseeherreadingwouldpleasehimhewouldunderstandthatshewasbeginningtorelaxagain,totakeaninterestinsomethingapartfromherownhealth.
WereVictorianwomenreallyattractedbyhuskymeninNorfolkjackets,menwithgreatbushyfairbeards?ShesmiledatthedelicateHuskinsondrawings,lingeringoverthem.
HerewasawinsomecrinolinedgirlstandinginfrontofaGothicmansionandhereapainfullyrealillustrationofahuntingaccident.Thepictureswereamusingbutthetextlooked
dreadfullypolitical.HowwouldsheeverploughthroughallthatstuffabouttheBallotandtheIrishReformBill?Besidestheillustrationswerefewandthetextvast,nearlythree
hundredandsixtypagesinthefirstvolume./Shesighed.LikeanotherAliceshewantedpicturesandconversation./
Snugglingdowninthewarmbed,sheturnedbacktothelistofcontents.Thecharactersandtheplacenamesinthechapterheadingswereallnewtoher.'PhineasFinnTakesHis
Seat',shereadabstractedly,'LordBrentford'sDinner','TheNewGovernment','AutumnalProspects'.Hereyeswerebeginningtoclose...Then,withalittlegasp,suddenlywide
awake,shestruggledup,firstrubbinghereyes,thenbringingtheprintclosetothem.
No,itcouldn'tbe!Itmustbeahallucination,adelusion.Sheshuthereyestightlyandfrightenedbythedarknessandthedrumminginherhead,openedthemagaintostareand
stare.Everynumber,everylineonthatpageswamtogetherintoagreyishblurexcepttwowordsinitalics:SaulsbyWood.(RuthRendell,VanityDiesHard)

TextE:Bawden(Fattedcalves)
'Oh,Dad,'hesaid.'Don'tgoon.'
Afamiliar,agonisedcry.Andhelookedagonised.Hewasadirtygreycolourtherewashardlyanyfleshonhisfacehischeeksweresuckedin,hisjawjutted.Hefisheda
squashedpackofcigarettesoutofthepocketofhisfilthyredleatherjacket.Igrabbedaboxofmatchesfrombesidethestoveandlithiscigarettebeforehecouldgetouthis
lighter.Hesmiledhisgratitude,notforthisgesture,butforthereasonbehindit.Heinhaleddeeplyandstartedcoughingagain.Whenhecouldspeak,hesaid,'Icouldn'tstaywith
Mum.She'sgotsomeonethere.'Heglancedatme,hesitating.'Afriend,'hesaid,delicately.'Andshewasangryanyway.Bawledmeout.'
'Youunderstandwhy,Ihope?'
'Yes,Dad.Isupposeso.'Eyesdowncast.Veryhumble.
/'Good.Well,forgetthatforaminute.Idon'tknowthatwe'vegot

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anyfattedcalvesinthecupboard,butyoulookasifyououghttoeatsomething.Andyoucoulddowithabath.'/
Hesaid,'Ismellbadbecausemybodyisrotting.'
Hespokeflatlyandcalmlystatingafacthebelievedabsolutely.
Nopointintellinghimitwasn'ttrue.Ihadlearnedthatmuch.Isaid,ascasuallyasIcould,'Abathwon'tdoanyharm,allthesame.Formysake,ifnotyours.Fionaisinyourroom,
she'sstayingthenightbecauseweweren'tsurehowlatewe'dbehomethisevening.You'llhavetosharemybedwithme.Soabath,ifyouplease.'
HetrailedupthestairsaftermestrippedoffhisclotheswhileIranthebathandshookinpineessence.Itriednottolookathisbody,notbecauseheappearedtobemodest,or
evenselfconscious,butbecauseittoreatmyhearttoseetheravagesithadsuffered.Hisbuttocksandthighswerelikeanoldman's:shrunkenandwithered.Hesankunderthe
green,scentedwaterwithagruntofwhatIhopedmightbepleasure,andthen,asIbegantogatherhisclothes,shotupwithalookofalarm.(NinaBawden,CirclesofDeceit)

TextF:Rendell(Anoldgoose)
...ratherlikethat,Wexfordthought.'Ihadthepleasureofavisitfromyourdaughtertheotherday,'heheardthedentistsay.'Whatalovelygirlsheis.'
'I'mtoldshe'smuchadmired,'Wexfordsaiddryly.Thecomplimentslightlydispleasedhim.Heinterpreteditasspuriousandingratiating./Alsotherehadbeenanoteofincredulity
inVigo'svoiceasifhemarvelledatsuchanoldgoosebegettingaswan./
ThefrontdoorswungopenandMrs.Vigocamein,holdingthechild.Forthefirsttimesincehisarrival,Wesfordrememberedthattherewasanotherchild,amongol,confined
somewhereinaninstitution.
ThebabywhichVigonowtookinhisarmswasperhapssixorsevenmonthsold.Noonecouldhavedoubteditspaternity.Alreadyithaditsfather'sjawanditsfather'sathletic
limbs.Vigoliftedtheboyhigh,laughingashechuckled,andtherecameintohisfaceanintensebesottedadoration.
'Meetmyson,Mr.Wexford.Isn'thesplendid?'
'He'sverylikeyou.'(RuthRendell,TheBestManToDie)

TextG:Rendell(Oh!witheredisthegarlandofwar)
'Mrs.Hatton,didyourhusbandeverreceiveanycallersinthisflatthatyoudidn'tknow?Strangers,Imean,thathewantedtotalkto

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alone?'
'No,heneverdid.'
'Perhapswhenyouwereout?Canyoueverrememberyourhusbandaskingyoutogooutandleavehimalonewithanyone?'
Thehandkerchiefwastornnow,soppingwetanduselessasanabsorbent.Butsheputittohereyesandbroughtitawaystreakedblackandgreen.'Whenhewashome,'shesaid,
'Ineverwentout.Wealwayswentouttogether.Wewaslikelikeinseparable.Mr.Wexford...'Shegrippedthearmsofherchairandtworedflamelikespotsburnedinhercheeks.
'Mr.Wexford,I'veheardallyou'vesaidandI'vegottobelieveit.ButwhatevermyCharliedid,hediditforme./Hewasahusbandinamillion,agoodkindman,awonderfulmanto
hisfriends.Youaskanyone,askJack...Hewasoneinamillion!'
Oh!witheredisthegarlandofwar!Thesoldier'spollisfallen...Strange,Wexfordthought,thatwhenyouconsideredCharlieHattonyouthoughtofwarandsoldiersandbattles./
WasitbecauselifeitselfisabattleandHattonhadwageditwithunscrupulousweapons,winningrichspoilsandfallingashemarchedhomewithasongonhislips?/
Howsentimentalhewasgetting!Themanwasablackmailerandathief.IflifewasabattleandCharlieHattonasoldieroffortunehe,Wexford,stoodinthepositionofaUnited
Nationspatrolwhosejobitwastopreventincursionsontheterritoryofthedefenceless.(RuthRendell,TheBestManToDie)

TextH:Moody(Lovely,darkanddeep)
Emeraldstoppedatawidebarredgateletintothewire.Thepathcarriedonbetweenclumpsofhazeltoalane.PennyguesseditledbacktowardstheManor'sstableyard.The
groundintothewoodwaspittedandchurnedup,asthoughheavymachinerypassedthroughquiteoften.
Underfoottherewereleaveswhichcrackledlikecornflakesastheywalked.Theairwaswarmwithresidualheat.Beneaththetreeswereshadows.(Ha)Lovely,darkanddeep.
'Countryliving,'saidEmerald.'IneverknewIwasadeprivedchilduntilKendalbroughtmehere.'Shescuffedupleaves.Shebreatheddeeply.
'Goodgrief,'saidPenny.
Asquareofgroundhadbeenfencedoff.Thinwhiteposts.Barbedwire.Itwasgrotesquelyupholsteredwiththecorpsesofsmallcreatures.Greysquirrelsweretiedinrowsby
theirtails,pawscurled

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againsttheirchests.Crowshungupsidedown,wingsspread,beaksopen.Therewasaweasel,itssharpwhiteteethbaredasthoughsuckingbackascream.Ratsandvolesand
rabbitslaycrucifiedonthewire.Morecrowsswungfromthebranchesofnearbytreeslikebrokenumbrellas.
'Fun,isn'tit?'Emeraldsoundedapologetic.
(Hb)'Onlymanisvile,'saidPenny.Shetriednottolookatavixenspreadlikeajumblesaletippetalongthebarbs,tailthreadedbetweenthewirestrands.Therewasalongdried
dropofbloodatthecornerofthehalfopenmouth.Hereandthere,whiteboneshowedthroughrottingflesh.
'It'smeanttobeawarningtotheothervermin.'
'Doesn'tseemtobeworking.'
'Ifyousawwhatfoxesdotopheasantpoultsyou'dthinktheywereprettyviletoo.'
'Killthemifyouhaveto,'saidPenny.'Butwhystringthemup?'
'It'sOldMayhew'sidea,notmine.'
'Whoisthisguy,(Hc)theMarquisdeSade?'
Pennystompedoff.Thewoodwasfullofatmosphericstuff.Rottingstumps.Sproutingfungi.Longtaprootsviciouswiththorns.ItonlyneededaBBCcameracrewand(Hd)
DavidAttenboroughcuddlingababoon.
/Alargegreybirdwaswipingitsbeakonalog.Whenitsawthem,itcamerunning.Ithelditswingsouttobalanceitself.Onewingwashigherthantheother.Everynowandthen
itgavealittleskiptokeepupwithitself.Hardtobelievethat(He)itsancestorshadsavedtheCapitol./
'Heknowstoexpectme,'saidEmerald.
'Forgoshsakes,'saidPenny.'They'realmosthuman,aren'tthey?'(SusanMoody,PennyPost)

TextJ:Moody(Unkindestcuts)
PriscillapouredwineintolongstemmedglassesandtoldthemhowbroketheCassidyswere.Shewipedlipstickfromhereyetoothandsaidpricesthesedaysweresohighthey
couldhardlyaffordtoeat.Pennywonderedhowshe'denjoypoundedsorghumandwaterfromastinkinggoatskinbag.
Priscillasuggestedtheygointothedrawingroomforcoffee.Throughthehatchshesuggestedthesamethinginlesskindlytones.ShestartedonabouttheNHSandhowshe'd
waitedninemonthstohaveanonmalignantmoleremovedfromherfoot.

Page238
'That'sthetroublewithtoday'sGovernment,'shesaid.'Thesecutsaredoingsomuchdamage.'
Sheflourishedaboxofmintsaboutinawaythatdefiedyoutotakeone.Pennypluckeduphercourage./IntheSudan,she'dseenachilddiefromaninfectedinsectbitebecause
noantibioticshadbeenavailable.Theunkindestcutofall./
'You'remakingafilmoverhere,Ibelieve,'MartinCassidysaidtoOliver,whenPriscillalefttheroom.
'Notquite,'saidOliver.'I'mscoutinglocationsinEurope.'
'Ifyouwanttouseourhouse,dearboy,you'rewelcome,'Cassidysaid.Helaughedasifitwasonlyajoke.'Filmcompaniesusuallypayhandsomelyforthatkindofthing,don't
they?'
'Notmine,'saidOliver.'I'manindependent.'
Priscillareturned.'I'veneverseenanyofyourfilms,'shesaid.Shesoundedglad.
'Youmissedout,'saidEmerald.
'I'vereadreviews,ofcourse.'PeoplelikePriscillaalwayshad.(SusanMoody,PennyPost)

Page239

Index
A
Aaltonen,A.96,138
Abrams,M.H.6
Archer,C.M.ix,4
Armstrong,P.B.63
Amott,P.98,130
Arrowsmith,W.19
B
Bakhtin,M.40
Bassnett,S.1,19,77
Beaugrande,RA.de22
Benjamin,A.13
BenPorat,Z.6,9,12,51,61
Blake,N.F.18
Bdeker,B.17
Bradbury,M.12
Bradley,H.68
Briere,E.18
Broeck,R.vanden13
BrookeRose,C.55
Brown,P.49,59
C
Cajander,P.108,118
Carroll,E.85,8789,129
Carroll,L.x,23,30,44,145,147,176,188
Catford,J.C.18
Chesterman,A.17,21,278,76
Churchill,W.53
CoindreauM.E.18
Coleridge,S.T.65,67,77
Corcoran,B.135
Cordero,A.D.2
D
Dagut,M.113
DejeanLeFal,K.21,103
Delabastita,D.44
Delisle,J.2,15,20
Dickens,C.22,68,110,112,124,131
DiJin167,23
Dittgen,A.M.12,122
Dressler,W.U.22
E
Eco,U.6
Enkvist,N.E.22,138
Eskola,K.135,140,1745
F
Fish,S.E.136
Fontanier,P.6,12
Frank,A.P.122,133
Franklin,P.135
Fraser,A.66,131
Fraser,J.19
Freund,E.21,136
G
Genette,G.21
Gilbert,S.M.37
Gordon,I.A.69
Gorp,H.van312
Grice,H.P.8
Gubar,S.37
Gutt,EA.8,14,53
H
Hakola,L.859,128
Hall,W.F.7
Harrison,G.B.67
Hatim,B.8,30,34
Hazlitt,W.67
Heibert,F.56,59
Hewson,L.12,13,15,18,29,55
Hickey,L.2
Hirsch,E.D.Jr63,174
Hlebec,B.126
Holmes,J.S.12,17,19,122,130
HolzMnttri,J.19
Hnig,H.G.26,29,104,131
hooks,b.37

Page240

House,J.28
Hrala,M.17
I
Ingo,R.1
Iser,W.132
J
Jskelinen,R.19,28,104
Jalonen,O.134
Jauss,H.R.24
Johnson,A.L.8
Jukarainen,E.859,128
Juva,K.129
Jylh,Y.108,1178,124
K
Kallio,J.15
Karvonen,P.15
Kelletat,A.137,175
Kernan,A.135
Koivusalo,E.15
Koller,W.17
Kovala,U.134
Krings,H.P.19,141,190
Kristeva,J.8
Kulick,D.17
Kunnas,K.129,148,177
Kussmaul,P.26,29,104,122,131
L
Lakoff,R.T.98
Lambert,J.12,312
Larson,M.L.20
Lass,A.H.5,6,52,57,112,128,137,143
Lefevere,A.1,57
Leppihalme,R.29,37,110
Levine,S.J.100,102,122
Levinson,S.C.49,59
Lev,J.26,95,102,105,1245,131,185
Linna,V.127,135,189
Loponen,S.104
Lrscher,W.19,246,30,130
Lyytikinen,E.15
M
Mkel,K.135
Makkonen,A.32
Manner,EL.129,148,177
Martin,A.129,195
Martin,J.12,13,15,18,29,55
Masnerov,E.113,131
Mason,I.8,30,34
McMordie,W.53
Meyer,H.3,32,534
Morier,H.12
N
Nash,W.40,41,44,46,70
NedergaardLarsen,B.2
Neubert,A.26
Newmark,P.11,14,77,79
Nida,E.A.16,130
Nikula,H.23
Nord,C.3,157,245,34
Nyytj,K.85,879
O
Oksala,T.113
O'Neill,M.139
Ostman,JO.98
P
Paloposki,T.J.133
Partridge,E.534,70
Pasco,A.H.10,31
Pattison,R.174
Perri,C.67,62
Pocheptsov,G.G.175
Preminger,A.67
R
Raitio,R.129
Ratinen,S.103,130
Redfern,W.D.33,44
Rees,N.70,137,143,167
Reiss,K.4
Richards,I.A.174
Rissanen,M.67
Ruffner,F.G.175
Runeberg,J.L.85
S
Salminen,E.859
Schaar,C.34,534,67,116,175
Schogt,H.G.2
Scott,A.F.6
Sguinot,C.26,30,125,141
Seidl,J.53
Sell,R.D.2
Shakespeare,W.38,52,63,679,88,118,131,182,187,189
Shattuck,R.19
Shaw,H.67
Shreve,G.26
Smith,B.D.2
SnellHornby,M.1,2,4,17
Sorvali,I.18

Page241

Stoppard,T.8
Straight,H.S.4,20
Swan,A.129,177
T
Taber,C.R.16,130
Talvio'Elone,Al.858
TirkkonenCondit,S.19
Toury,G.1,13,26,125,141
Turk,H.36
Tyyri,J.115
U
Urdang,L.175
V
Venuti,L.18,135
Vermeer,H.J.4
Villon,F.69,162,177
Vonnegut,K.86,128
W
Weisgerber,J.7,9,32,62
Weldon,F.23,32,71,767,122,129,177
Wilss,W.7,8,12,14,20,24,267,30,32,41,55,76,138
Y
Ylikangas,H.15