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R1

R2

R3

R4

R5

RT

0.988k

0.980k

469.8k

0.681k

0.670k

2.319k

MEASURED

V1

V2

V3

V4

V5

VT

VALUES

6.35V

6.291V

2.24V

1.136V

1.118V

14.91V

I1

I2

I3

I4

I5

IT

6.5mA

6.5mA

4.8mA

1.9mA

1.9mA

6.5mA

CALCULATED

R1

R2

R3

R4

R5

RT

VALUES

976.92

967.85

466.67

597.89

588.42

2293.85

SAMPLE CALCULATIONS

Calculated Values:

DISCUSSION

The analysis of an electrical network consists of determining each of the

unknown branch currents and node voltages. A number of methods for network

analysis have been developed, based on Ohms Law and Kirchhoffs Law.

Resistive circuits may be analyzed by combining networks of parallel

series resistances into a single equivalent resistance, then using Ohms Law to

the current or voltage across that equivalent resistance. Once this is known,

possible to work backward and use Ohms Law to calculate the voltage

current across any resistance in the network.

and

find

it is

and

Ohms Law deals with the relationship between voltage and current in ideal

conductor. The relationship states that: The potential difference (voltage) across an

ideal conductor is proportional to the current through it. The constant of

proportionality is called the resistance R. Mathematically speaking: V=IR, where V

is the potential difference between two points which include a resistance R. I is the

current flowing through the resistance. Ohms law can be used to solve simple

circuits. A complete circuit is one which is a closed loop. It is formed when a

conductive path is created to allow free electrons to continuously move. This

continuous movement of free electrons through the conductors of a circuit is

called a current. The force motivating the electrons to flow in a circuit is called

voltage. The sum of the voltages around a complete circuit is zero.

Current is a flow of electrical charge carriers, usually electrons. The standard

unit is the ampere, symbolized by A. Electric current can be either direct or

alternating. Direct current (DC) flows in the same direction at all points in time,

although the instantaneous magnitude of the current might vary. In an alternating

current (AC), the flow of charge carriers reverses direction periodically. Resistance

is the opposition that a substance offers to the flow of electric current. The

standard unit of resistance is the ohm

. In general, when the applied voltage is

held constant, the current is a DC electrical circuit is inversely proportional to the

resistance. If the resistance is doubled, the current is cut in half; if the resistance

is halved, the current is doubled. Voltage, also called electromotive force, is a

quantitative expression of the potential difference in charge between two points in

an electric field. The greater the voltage, the greater the flow of electrical current

through a conducting or semi-conducting medium for a given resistance of the

flow.

two simplest of these are called series and parallel. In a series circuit, it provides

only one complete path where current could flow wherein the resistors are simply

connected end to end. It may also be defined as a circuit that provides only one

path for current between two points in a circuit so that the same current flows

through each series resistors. Observations regarding resistances in series can be

summarized in 3 rules: i. The current in all parts of the series circuit has the

same magnitude. ii. The sum of all the separate drops in a potential around a

series circuit is equal to the applied emf. iii. The total resistance in a series circuit

is equal to the sum of all the separate resistances.

In a parallel circuit, it is described as a circuit connection of two or more

resistors that are connected between the same two node or points. A parallel

circuit provides more than one path for the current. Each current path is called a

branch. Observations regarding resistances in parallel can be summarized in 3

rules: i. The total current in a parallel circuit is equal to the sum of the currents

in the separate branches. ii. The total potential difference across all branches of a

parallel circuit must have the same magnitude, iii. The reciprocal of the equivalent

resistance is equal to the sum of the reciprocals of the separate resistances in

parallel.

CONCLUSION

group was able to determine the difference between series and parallel circuit. In a

series circuit, the current is constant at any resistor and is equal to the total

current in the circuit while in a parallel circuit, the total current in a parallel circuit

is equal to the sum of the currents in the separate branches. Voltage is constant

in a parallel circuit and its total resistance is equal to the reciprocal of the sum

of the reciprocals of the individual resistance. In a series circuit, the total

resistance is equal to the sum of the individual resistances and the total voltage

is also equal to the sum of the individual voltages across the circuit.

Mathematically speaking, for Series Circuit:

From the result of the experiment, the group got 2319 as the measured

value of resistance, while the computed value was 2293.85 with 1.1% difference.

Probable cause of error might be from human mistakes in reading the ammeter.

Instrumental errors are also a factor.

During the experiment, the group took so much time getting resistors with

values that are somewhat close to each other and for that reason it is suggested

that before the start of the experiment, the resistors should be arranged in order

of their resistive values.

ANSWERS/SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS

1.

2.

3.

A parallel circuit has two or more paths for current to flow through,

hence of one of the parallel paths is broken, current will continue to

flow in all the other parts. The voltage is the same across each

component of the parallel circuit. Finally, the sum of the currents

through each path is equal to the total current that flows from the

source.

resistances are added (a) in series, (b) in parallel?

4.

flow is constant throughout the circuit, there is voltage drop across

each component on the circuit and lastly, there is the linear flow of

electrons.

total resistance of the circuit. For series circuits, RT = R1 + R2 + R3

+ + Rn.

Conversely, adding parallel resistance reduces the total resistance of

the circuit. The easiest way to determine the parallel resistance is to

add the inverse of resistance which is conductance. For parallel

circuits, RT = (1/R1 + 1/R2 + 1/R3 + + 1/Rn)-1.

a.

Fixed Resistors are used in situations where an electrical circuit may

need a lesser amount of current to flow through it than the input value.

i.

carbon granules and powdered ceramic. The resistor value

depends of the composition of the ceramic material. A higher

quantity of ceramic content will result in more resistance. This is

often used in power supply and welding circuit.

ii.

layer on an insulating substrate. Helical cuts are then made

through the carbon film to trace a long and helical resistive

path. The resistance can be varied by using different resistivity

carbon material and modifying the shape of the resistor. The

helical resistive path make these resistors highly inductive and

of little use for RF applications. The operation of these resistors

requires high pulse stability.

iii.

coated with metal or metal oxide. The value of resistance is

controlled mainly by the thickness of the coating layer (the

thicker the layer, the lower is the value of resistance). These

have much better temperature stability than their carbon

equivalents, lower noise and are generally better for high

frequency or radio frequency applications.

iv.

Their resistive elements are commonly length of wire wrapped

around a small ceramic or glass fiber rod and coated in an

insulating flameproof cement film. They are normally available in

low values of resistance but are capable of dissipating large

amounts of power but gets very hot during use, thus, fireproof

cases or coatings are vital.

v.

material onto an insulating substrate. These are usually more

expensive than thick film resistors and are typically used in high

precision measuring or monitoring equipments.

vi.

dissipation along with very high component density. These are

made by depositing a film of resistive material on a tiny

ceramic chip.

vii.

may be giving the identical value at all pins, with one pin acting

as a a common terminal. These are available in both single line

package and dual in line package and may be surface mount or

through hole. These are used in applications such as pull

up/pull down, DAC etc.

b.

Variable Resistors are the combination of resistances which may be

giving the identical value of all pins, with one pin acting as a common

terminal. These are available in both single line package and dual in line

package and may be surface mount or through hole. These are used in

applications such as pull up/down, DAC, etc.

i.

Potentiometers are a 3-terminal variable resistor. It has wide use

in circuits for a variety of uses but their main function is to increase or

decrease the amplitude of a signal circuit.

ii.

Rheostats are a 2-terminal variable resistor.

potentiometers, rheostats can be used to vary AC or DC signals.

Just

like

iii.

Thermistors are a thermally sensitive resistor whose resistance

value changes with changes in operating temperature. Thermistors are

frequently used in electronic circuits that handle temperature measurement,

temperature control, and temperature compensation.

iv.

Photoresistors are resistors whose resistance values change

according to the light striking the surface of the resistor.

5.

6.

connected in series then the lamps would have to share the voltage,

each would only get (Voltage / no. of lamps) each. If just one of the

lamps burned out, all of it would go out. That is why it is better that

the connection is in parallel, so that it can be easily controlled

separately.

resistance of the lamp filament?

7.

resistors R1 = 3 and R2 = 3.5 if the potential difference across the 3

resistor is 9V. What is the emf of the battery?

8.

series R1 = 6 , R2 = 8 , and R3 = 10 if a required current of 0.5A

flows in the circuit.

9.

R3,4 = R3 + R4 = 4.5 + 1.5 = 6

R7 and R8 are in series

R7,8 = R7 + R8 = 5 + 25 = 30

(

R10,11,12 = RA = 4 +8

= 12

(

) =(

RB,5 = RB + R5 = 4

+ 5

= 9

(

)

(

RC,2 = RD = RC+R2 = 6 +14

= 20

(

R1,E,6 = RT = 12 + 1 + 2 = 15

RTOTAL = 15

REFERENCES:

http://www3.eng.cam.ac.uk/DesignOffice/mdp/electric_web/DC/DC_5.html

https://www.swtc.edu/ag_power/electrical/lecture/parallel_circuits.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Series_and_parallel_circuits

http://www.learningaboutelectronics.com/Articles/Types-of-resistors

http://www.engineersgarage.com/tutorials/resistors

http://www.electronics-tutorials.ws/resistor/res_1.html

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