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# FINAL DATA SHEET

## Table 2.1 (Measured Values)

R1

R2

R3

R4

R5

RT

0.988k

0.980k

469.8k

0.681k

0.670k

2.319k

MEASURED

V1

V2

V3

V4

V5

VT

VALUES

6.35V

6.291V

2.24V

1.136V

1.118V

14.91V

I1

I2

I3

I4

I5

IT

6.5mA

6.5mA

4.8mA

1.9mA

1.9mA

6.5mA

CALCULATED

R1

R2

R3

R4

R5

RT

VALUES

976.92

967.85

466.67

597.89

588.42

2293.85

SAMPLE CALCULATIONS
Calculated Values:

DISCUSSION
The analysis of an electrical network consists of determining each of the
unknown branch currents and node voltages. A number of methods for network
analysis have been developed, based on Ohms Law and Kirchhoffs Law.
Resistive circuits may be analyzed by combining networks of parallel
series resistances into a single equivalent resistance, then using Ohms Law to
the current or voltage across that equivalent resistance. Once this is known,
possible to work backward and use Ohms Law to calculate the voltage
current across any resistance in the network.

and
find
it is
and

Ohms Law deals with the relationship between voltage and current in ideal
conductor. The relationship states that: The potential difference (voltage) across an
ideal conductor is proportional to the current through it. The constant of
proportionality is called the resistance R. Mathematically speaking: V=IR, where V
is the potential difference between two points which include a resistance R. I is the
current flowing through the resistance. Ohms law can be used to solve simple
circuits. A complete circuit is one which is a closed loop. It is formed when a
conductive path is created to allow free electrons to continuously move. This
continuous movement of free electrons through the conductors of a circuit is
called a current. The force motivating the electrons to flow in a circuit is called
voltage. The sum of the voltages around a complete circuit is zero.
Current is a flow of electrical charge carriers, usually electrons. The standard
unit is the ampere, symbolized by A. Electric current can be either direct or
alternating. Direct current (DC) flows in the same direction at all points in time,
although the instantaneous magnitude of the current might vary. In an alternating
current (AC), the flow of charge carriers reverses direction periodically. Resistance
is the opposition that a substance offers to the flow of electric current. The
standard unit of resistance is the ohm
. In general, when the applied voltage is
held constant, the current is a DC electrical circuit is inversely proportional to the
resistance. If the resistance is doubled, the current is cut in half; if the resistance
is halved, the current is doubled. Voltage, also called electromotive force, is a
quantitative expression of the potential difference in charge between two points in
an electric field. The greater the voltage, the greater the flow of electrical current
through a conducting or semi-conducting medium for a given resistance of the
flow.

## Components of an electrical circuit can be connected in many ways. The

two simplest of these are called series and parallel. In a series circuit, it provides
only one complete path where current could flow wherein the resistors are simply
connected end to end. It may also be defined as a circuit that provides only one
path for current between two points in a circuit so that the same current flows
through each series resistors. Observations regarding resistances in series can be
summarized in 3 rules: i. The current in all parts of the series circuit has the
same magnitude. ii. The sum of all the separate drops in a potential around a
series circuit is equal to the applied emf. iii. The total resistance in a series circuit
is equal to the sum of all the separate resistances.
In a parallel circuit, it is described as a circuit connection of two or more
resistors that are connected between the same two node or points. A parallel
circuit provides more than one path for the current. Each current path is called a
branch. Observations regarding resistances in parallel can be summarized in 3
rules: i. The total current in a parallel circuit is equal to the sum of the currents
in the separate branches. ii. The total potential difference across all branches of a
parallel circuit must have the same magnitude, iii. The reciprocal of the equivalent
resistance is equal to the sum of the reciprocals of the separate resistances in
parallel.

CONCLUSION

## In experiment 2, Analysis of Resistive Network: Series-Parallel Circuits, the

group was able to determine the difference between series and parallel circuit. In a
series circuit, the current is constant at any resistor and is equal to the total
current in the circuit while in a parallel circuit, the total current in a parallel circuit
is equal to the sum of the currents in the separate branches. Voltage is constant
in a parallel circuit and its total resistance is equal to the reciprocal of the sum
of the reciprocals of the individual resistance. In a series circuit, the total
resistance is equal to the sum of the individual resistances and the total voltage
is also equal to the sum of the individual voltages across the circuit.
Mathematically speaking, for Series Circuit:

## For Parallel Circuit:

From the result of the experiment, the group got 2319 as the measured
value of resistance, while the computed value was 2293.85 with 1.1% difference.
Probable cause of error might be from human mistakes in reading the ammeter.
Instrumental errors are also a factor.
During the experiment, the group took so much time getting resistors with
values that are somewhat close to each other and for that reason it is suggested
that before the start of the experiment, the resistors should be arranged in order
of their resistive values.

1.

2.

## What are the identifying characteristics of a parallel circuit?

3.

A parallel circuit has two or more paths for current to flow through,
hence of one of the parallel paths is broken, current will continue to
flow in all the other parts. The voltage is the same across each
component of the parallel circuit. Finally, the sum of the currents
through each path is equal to the total current that flows from the
source.

## What changes occur in the total resistance of a circuit as additional

resistances are added (a) in series, (b) in parallel?

4.

## The three characteristics of a series circuit are as follows: The current

flow is constant throughout the circuit, there is voltage drop across
each component on the circuit and lastly, there is the linear flow of
electrons.

total resistance of the circuit. For series circuits, RT = R1 + R2 + R3
+ + Rn.
Conversely, adding parallel resistance reduces the total resistance of
the circuit. The easiest way to determine the parallel resistance is to
add the inverse of resistance which is conductance. For parallel
circuits, RT = (1/R1 + 1/R2 + 1/R3 + + 1/Rn)-1.

## What are the different types of resistances and their purpose?

a.
Fixed Resistors are used in situations where an electrical circuit may
need a lesser amount of current to flow through it than the input value.
i.

## Carbon Composition Resistors - composed by a mixture of

carbon granules and powdered ceramic. The resistor value
depends of the composition of the ceramic material. A higher
quantity of ceramic content will result in more resistance. This is
often used in power supply and welding circuit.

ii.

## Carbon Film Resistors - are formed by depositing a carbon film

layer on an insulating substrate. Helical cuts are then made
through the carbon film to trace a long and helical resistive
path. The resistance can be varied by using different resistivity
carbon material and modifying the shape of the resistor. The
helical resistive path make these resistors highly inductive and
of little use for RF applications. The operation of these resistors
requires high pulse stability.

iii.

## Metal Film Resistors - are made from small rods of ceramic

coated with metal or metal oxide. The value of resistance is
controlled mainly by the thickness of the coating layer (the
thicker the layer, the lower is the value of resistance). These
have much better temperature stability than their carbon
equivalents, lower noise and are generally better for high

iv.

## Wire Wound Resistors - vary in size and physical appearance.

Their resistive elements are commonly length of wire wrapped
around a small ceramic or glass fiber rod and coated in an
insulating flameproof cement film. They are normally available in
low values of resistance but are capable of dissipating large
amounts of power but gets very hot during use, thus, fireproof
cases or coatings are vital.

v.

## Thin Film Resistors - are made by sputtering the resistive

material onto an insulating substrate. These are usually more
expensive than thick film resistors and are typically used in high
precision measuring or monitoring equipments.

vi.

## Surface Mount Resistors - help to achieve very low power

dissipation along with very high component density. These are
made by depositing a film of resistive material on a tiny
ceramic chip.

vii.

## Network Resistors - are the combination of resistances which

may be giving the identical value at all pins, with one pin acting
as a a common terminal. These are available in both single line
package and dual in line package and may be surface mount or
through hole. These are used in applications such as pull
up/pull down, DAC etc.

b.
Variable Resistors are the combination of resistances which may be
giving the identical value of all pins, with one pin acting as a common
terminal. These are available in both single line package and dual in line
package and may be surface mount or through hole. These are used in
applications such as pull up/down, DAC, etc.
i.
Potentiometers are a 3-terminal variable resistor. It has wide use
in circuits for a variety of uses but their main function is to increase or
decrease the amplitude of a signal circuit.
ii.
Rheostats are a 2-terminal variable resistor.
potentiometers, rheostats can be used to vary AC or DC signals.

Just

like

iii.
Thermistors are a thermally sensitive resistor whose resistance
value changes with changes in operating temperature. Thermistors are
frequently used in electronic circuits that handle temperature measurement,
temperature control, and temperature compensation.
iv.
Photoresistors are resistors whose resistance values change
according to the light striking the surface of the resistor.

5.

6.

## Because lamps are rated in voltage and if the lighting circuit is

connected in series then the lamps would have to share the voltage,
each would only get (Voltage / no. of lamps) each. If just one of the
lamps burned out, all of it would go out. That is why it is better that
the connection is in parallel, so that it can be easily controlled
separately.

## A small lamp is designed to draw 300mA in a 6V circuit. What is the

resistance of the lamp filament?

7.

## A battery with an internal resistance of 1.5 is connected in series with

resistors R1 = 3 and R2 = 3.5 if the potential difference across the 3
resistor is 9V. What is the emf of the battery?

8.

## Determine the ideal voltage source needed by three resistors connected in

series R1 = 6 , R2 = 8 , and R3 = 10 if a required current of 0.5A
flows in the circuit.

9.

## R3 and R4 are in series

R3,4 = R3 + R4 = 4.5 + 1.5 = 6
R7 and R8 are in series
R7,8 = R7 + R8 = 5 + 25 = 30

(

## R11 and R10,12 are in series

R10,11,12 = RA = 4 +8

= 12

(

) =(

## RB and R5 are in series

RB,5 = RB + R5 = 4

+ 5

= 9

(

)
(

## RC and R2 are in series

RC,2 = RD = RC+R2 = 6 +14

= 20

(

## R1, RE and R6 are in series

R1,E,6 = RT = 12 + 1 + 2 = 15

RTOTAL = 15

REFERENCES:

http://www3.eng.cam.ac.uk/DesignOffice/mdp/electric_web/DC/DC_5.html
https://www.swtc.edu/ag_power/electrical/lecture/parallel_circuits.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Series_and_parallel_circuits