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# 1Lifting Lug Load Capacity Vs Crack length Calculation

Sample Calculation
Thickness of Lug (t)
=
Width of Lug (W)
=
=
Diameter of Hole ( Dh)
=
Diameter of Pin ( Dp)
=
Distance from centre of hole to Welding (h)=
Area of Cross Section
=
Length of Crack ( a )
=
Distance from centre of hole to edge of crack = (Dh / 2 + a) =
Temperature (T)
Fracture Toughness ( k1c)

=
=
K1c =

## Check For Geometry

We =R- Dh/2
=

65 - 60/ 2 =

We =R- Dh/2

65 - 60/ 2 =

We =R- Dh/2

65 - 60/ 2 =

By Yeild Theory
Yeild Strength of Plate
Effective width of plate

=
=
=

By Fracture Theory
K1c =

Fd . . Sqrt(. a)

Fd =
Where,

d=
d=
Fd =
=

K1c =
63 =

250
130 - 60- 2 x4.5 =
0.9 x 250 x 61 x 15/1000 =

## 0.5 x (3 - d) [ 1 + 1.243 x (1 - d)3 ]

a / (Dh / 2 + a)
4.5 / (60/ 2 + 4.5)
0.5 x (3 -0.13) [ 1 + 1.243 x (1 -0.13)^3 ]
2.61
Area

Fd . . Sqrt( . a)
2.61 x 0.000513P x sqrt(3.1416 x 0.0045)

396 kN

## Temp = 30 Degree Celcius

Length of Crack
( a ) (mm)
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
5
5.8
7
8
9
10

(Dh / 2 + a)
31
31.5
32
32.5
33
33.5
34
35
35.8
37
38
39
40

Temperature
(T) oC
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30

Fracture
Toughness ( k1c)

d = a / (Dh / 2 + a)

66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66

0.032
0.048
0.063
0.077
0.091
0.104
0.118
0.143
0.162
0.189
0.211
0.231
0.25

Temperature
(T) oC
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15

Fracture
Toughness ( k1c)

d = a / (Dh / 2 + a)

63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63

0.032
0.048
0.063
0.077
0.091
0.104
0.118
0.13
0.167
0.189
0.211
0.231
0.25

Length of Crack
( a ) (mm)
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
6
7
8
9
10

(Dh / 2 + a)
31
31.5
32
32.5
33
33.5
34
34.5
36
37
38
39
40

## Temp = Zero Degree Celcius

Length of Crack
( a ) (mm)
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
3.7
5
6
7
8
9
10

(Dh / 2 + a)
31
31.5
32
32.5
33
33.5
33.7
35
36
37
38
39
40

Temperature
(T) oC
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

Fracture
Toughness ( k1c)

d = a / (Dh / 2 + a)

60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60

0.032
0.048
0.063
0.077
0.091
0.104
0.11
0.143
0.167
0.189
0.211
0.231
0.25

Temperature
(T) oC
-15
-15
-15
-15
-15
-15
-15
-15
-15
-15
-15
-15
-15

Fracture
Toughness ( k1c)

d = a / (Dh / 2 + a)

57
57
57
57
57
57
57
57
57
57
57
57
57

0.032
0.048
0.063
0.077
0.091
0.094
0.118
0.143
0.167
0.189
0.211
0.231
0.25

Length of Crack
( a ) (mm)
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.1
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

(Dh / 2 + a)

## Temp = -30 Degree Celcius

31
31.5
32
32.5
33
33.1
34
35
36
37
38
39
40

Length of Crack
( a ) (mm)
1
1.5
2
2.5
2.6
3.5
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

(Dh / 2 + a)
31
31.5
32
32.5
32.6
33.5
34
35
36
37
38
39
40

Temperature
(T) oC
-30
-30
-30
-30
-30
-30
-30
-30
-30
-30
-30
-30
-30

Fracture
Toughness ( k1c)

d = a / (Dh / 2 + a)

54
54
54
54
54
54
54
54
54
54
54
54
54

0.032
0.048
0.063
0.077
0.08
0.104
0.118
0.143
0.167
0.189
0.211
0.231
0.25

Temperature
(T) oC
-45
-45
-45
-45
-45
-45
-45
-45
-45
-45
-45
-45
-45

Fracture
Toughness ( k1c)

d = a / (Dh / 2 + a)

51
51
51
51
51
51
51
51
51
51
51
51
51

0.032
0.048
0.063
0.067
0.091
0.104
0.118
0.143
0.167
0.189
0.211
0.231
0.25

Length of Crack
( a ) (mm)
1
1.5
2
2.15
3
3.5
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

(Dh / 2 + a)
31
31.5
32
32.15
33
33.5
34
35
36
37
38
39
40

## > Dh/4 ; Hence OK

15 mm
130 mm
65 mm

Crack Length
(a)

60 mm
57 mm
130 mm
4.5 mm

1950 mm2
Both side of Hole
35 mm

15 C
o

(60 + 0.2 T)
Mpa. Sqrt(m)
For -140 < T < 150

63 oC

35 mm

35 mm

< 5t ; Hence OK

35 mm

> 2t ; Hence OK

MPa
61 mm

61 x 15/1000 =

206 kN

0.13

-0.13)^3 ]

P / 1950 =

16 x 0.0045)

0.0005 P

100
mm

15 x 130 =

## > 1.5xDh ; Hence OK

Fracture Theory

Fd
3.157
3.059
2.97
2.89
2.812
2.743
2.67
2.546
2.457
2.337
2.246
2.167
2.096

- Fracture Stress in the
Theory
Net Section
727
792
613
677
546
613
502
572
471
545
447
526
430
514
403
498
388
492
371
491
361
496
353
503
346
513

Yeild Theory

Effective width
of Plate (mm)
68
67
66
65
64
63
62
60
58.4
56
54
52
50

Fracture Theory

Fd
3.157
3.059
2.97
2.89
2.812
2.743
2.67
2.61
2.434
2.337
2.246
2.167
2.096

- Fracture Stress in the
Theory
Net Section
694
756
585
647
522
585
479
546
450
521
427
502
410
490
396
481
368
469
354
469
345
473
337
480
331
490

(kN) -Yeild Yeild Stress
Theory
(s)
230
250
226
250
223
250
219
250
216
250
213
250
209
250
203
250
197
250
189
250
182
250
176
250
169
250

Yeild Theory

Effective width
of Plate (mm)
68
67
66
65
64
63
62
61
58
56
54
52
50

(kN) -Yeild Yeild Stress
Theory
(s)
230
250
226
250
223
250
219
250
216
250
213
250
209
250
206
250
196
250
189
250
182
250
176
250
169
250

Fracture Theory

Fd
3.157
3.059
2.97
2.89
2.812
2.743
2.711
2.546
2.434
2.337
2.246
2.167
2.096

- Fracture Stress in the
Theory
Net Section
661
720
557
616
497
558
457
520
428
496
407
478
400
474
367
453
350
447
337
446
328
451
321
457
315
466

Yeild Theory

Effective width
of Plate (mm)
68
67
66
65
64
63
62.6
60
58
56
54
52
50

Fracture Theory

Fd
3.157
3.059
2.97
2.89
2.812
2.796
2.67
2.546
2.434
2.337
2.246
2.167
2.096

- Fracture Stress in the
Theory
Net Section
628
684
529
585
472
530
434
494
407
471
403
468
371
444
348
430
333
425
321
424
312
428
305
434
299
443

Fracture Theory

(kN) -Yeild Yeild Stress
Theory
(s)
230
250
226
250
223
250
219
250
216
250
213
250
211
250
203
250
196
250
189
250
182
250
176
250
169
250

Yeild Theory

Effective width
of Plate (mm)
68
67
66
65
64
63.8
62
60
58
56
54
52
50

(kN) -Yeild Yeild Stress
Theory
(s)
230
250
226
250
223
250
219
250
216
250
215
250
209
250
203
250
196
250
189
250
182
250
176
250
169
250

Yeild Theory

Fd
3.157
3.059
2.97
2.89
2.873
2.743
2.67
2.546
2.434
2.337
2.246
2.167
2.096

- Fracture Stress in the
Theory
Net Section
595
648
501
554
447
502
411
468
405
463
366
430
352
420
330
407
315
402
304
402
296
406
289
412
283
420

Effective width
of Plate (mm)
68
67
66
65
64.8
63
62
60
58
56
54
52
50

Fracture Theory

Fd
3.157
3.059
2.97
2.947
2.812
2.743
2.67
2.546
2.434
2.337
2.246
2.167
2.096

- Fracture Stress in the
Theory
Net Section
562
612
473
523
422
474
410
463
364
421
346
406
332
397
312
385
298
380
287
379
279
383
273
389
268
396

(kN) -Yeild Yeild Stress
Theory
(s)
230
250
226
250
223
250
219
250
219
250
213
250
209
250
203
250
196
250
189
250
182
250
176
250
169
250

Yeild Theory

Effective width
of Plate (mm)
68
67
66
65.7
64
63
62
60
58
56
54
52
50

(kN) -Yeild Yeild Stress
Theory
(s)
230
250
226
250
223
250
222
250
216
250
213
250
209
250
203
250
196
250
189
250
182
250
176
250
169
250

100
mm

100
mm

Crack Length
(a)

60 mm Dia.
hole
200 mm

## Crack Length (a) VS Lug Capacity

Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture

800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0

a (mm)
6

## Net Section will Yeild before Fracture

Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture

800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0

6
a (mm)

## Net Section will Yeild before Fracture

Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture

700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0

6
a (mm)

600
500
400
300
200
100
0

6
a (mm)

(kN)

## Net Section will Yeild before Fracture

Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture

700

700
600

## Net Section will Yeild before Fracture

Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture

700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0

6
a (mm)

## Net Section will Yeild before Fracture

Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture

600
500
400
300
200
100
0

6
a (mm)

Theory

a (mm)
6

10

12

Theory

C

800
700
600
500
400
300

6
a (mm)

10

12

200
100
0
0

0
0

Theory

6
a (mm)

10

12

Theory

6
a (mm)

10

12

Theory

6
a (mm)

10

12

Theory

6
a (mm)

10

12

800
Temp = 30
Degree Celcius

700
600

Temp = 15
Degree Celcius

500
400

Temp = Zero
Degree Celcius

300

Temp = -15
Degree Celcius

200

Temp = -45
Degree Celcius

100
0
0

6
a (mm)

10

12

-Yeild Theory

Degree Celcius
0
0

6
a (mm)

10

12

-Yeild Theory

## 1Lifting Lug Load Capacity Vs Crack length Calculation

Sample Calculation
Thickness of Lug (t)
=
Width of Lug (W)
=
=
Diameter of Hole ( Dh)
=
Diameter of Pin ( Dp)
=
Distance from centre of hole to Welding (h)=
Area of Cross Section
=
Length of Crack ( a )
=
Distance from centre of hole to edge of crack = (Dh / 2 + a) =
Temperature (T)
Fracture Toughness ( k1c)

=
=
K1c =

## Check For Geometry

We =R- Dh/2
=

100 - 60/ 2 =

We =R- Dh/2

100 - 60/ 2 =

We =R- Dh/2

100 - 60/ 2 =

By Yeild Theory
Yeild Strength of Plate
Effective width of plate

=
=
=

By Fracture Theory
K1c =

Fd . . Sqrt(. a)

Fd =
Where,

d=
d=
Fd =
=

K1c =
43 =

345
200 - 60- 2 x4.5 =
0.9 x 345 x 131 x 20/1000 =

## 0.5 x (3 - d) [ 1 + 1.243 x (1 - d)3 ]

a / (Dh / 2 + a)
4.5 / (60/ 2 + 4.5)
0.5 x (3 -0.13) [ 1 + 1.243 x (1 -0.13)^3 ]
2.61
Area

Fd . . Sqrt( . a)
2.61 x 0.00025P x sqrt(3.1416 x 0.0045)

554 kN

## Temp = 30 Degree Celcius

Length of Crack
( a ) (mm)
1
1.5

(Dh / 2 + a)
31
31.5
32
32.5
33
33.5
34
35
35.8
37
38
39
40

2
2.5
3
3.5
4
5
5.8
7
8
9
10

Temperature
(T) oC
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30

Fracture
Toughness ( k1c)

d = a / (Dh / 2 + a)

46
46
46
46
46
46
46
46
46
46
46
46
46

0.032
0.048
0.063
0.077
0.091
0.104
0.118
0.143
0.162
0.189
0.211
0.231
0.25

Temperature
(T) oC
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15

Fracture
Toughness ( k1c)

d = a / (Dh / 2 + a)

43
43
43
43
43
43
43
43
43
43
43
43
43

0.032
0.048
0.063
0.077
0.091
0.104
0.118
0.13
0.167
0.189
0.211
0.231
0.25

Length of Crack
( a ) (mm)
1

1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
6
7
8
9
10

(Dh / 2 + a)
31
31.5
32
32.5
33
33.5
34
34.5
36
37
38
39
40

## Temp = Zero Degree Celcius

Length of Crack
( a ) (mm)
1

(Dh / 2 + a)
31
31.5
32
32.5
33
33.5
33.7
35
36
37
38
39
40

1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
3.7
5
6
7
8
9
10

Temperature
(T) oC
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

Fracture
Toughness ( k1c)

d = a / (Dh / 2 + a)

40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40

0.032
0.048
0.063
0.077
0.091
0.104
0.11
0.143
0.167
0.189
0.211
0.231
0.25

Temperature
(T) oC
-15
-15
-15
-15
-15
-15
-15
-15
-15
-15
-15
-15
-15

Fracture
Toughness ( k1c)

d = a / (Dh / 2 + a)

37
37
37
37
37
37
37
37
37
37
37
37
37

0.032
0.048
0.063
0.077
0.091
0.094
0.118
0.143
0.167
0.189
0.211
0.231
0.25

Length of Crack
( a ) (mm)

(Dh / 2 + a)

1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.1
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

31
31.5
32
32.5
33
33.1
34
35
36
37
38
39
40

## Temp = -30 Degree Celcius

Length of Crack
( a ) (mm)

(Dh / 2 + a)

1
1.5
2
2.5
2.6
3.5
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

31
31.5
32
32.5
32.6
33.5
34
35
36
37
38
39
40

Temperature
(T) oC
-30
-30
-30
-30
-30
-30
-30
-30
-30
-30
-30
-30
-30

Fracture
Toughness ( k1c)

d = a / (Dh / 2 + a)

34
34
34
34
34
34
34
34
34
34
34
34
34

0.032
0.048
0.063
0.077
0.08
0.104
0.118
0.143
0.167
0.189
0.211
0.231
0.25

Temperature
(T) oC
-45
-45
-45
-45
-45
-45
-45
-45
-45
-45
-45
-45
-45

Fracture
Toughness ( k1c)

d = a / (Dh / 2 + a)

31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31

0.032
0.048
0.063
0.067
0.091
0.104
0.118
0.143
0.167
0.189
0.211
0.231
0.25

Length of Crack
( a ) (mm)

(Dh / 2 + a)

1
1.5
2
2.15
3
3.5
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

31
31.5
32
32.15
33
33.5
34
35
36
37
38
39
40

## > Dh/4 ; Hence OK

20 mm
200 mm
100 mm

Crack Length
(a)

60 mm
57 mm
100 mm
4.5 mm

4000 mm2
Both side of Hole
35 mm

15 C
o

(40 + 0.2 T)
Mpa. Sqrt(m)
For -140 < T < 150

43 oC

70 mm

70 mm

< 5t ; Hence OK

70 mm

> 2t ; Hence OK

MPa
131 mm

131 x 20/1000 =

814 kN

0.13

-0.13)^3 ]

6 x 0.0045)

P / 4000 =

0.0003 P

100
mm

20 x 200 =

## > 1.5xDh ; Hence OK

Fracture Theory

Fd
3.157
3.059
2.97
2.89
2.812
2.743
2.67
2.546
2.457
2.337
2.246
2.167
2.096

- Fracture Stress in the
Theory
Net Section
1040
419
876
355
782
319
718
296
674
279
640
267
615
259
577
246
555
240
531
234
517
232
505
230
495
229

Yeild Theory

Effective width
of Plate (mm)
138
137
136
135
134
133
132
130
128.4
126
124
122
120

Fracture Theory

Fd
3.157
3.059
2.97
2.89
2.812
2.743
2.67
2.61
2.434
2.337
2.246
2.167
2.096

- Fracture Stress in the
Theory
Net Section
972
391
819
332
731
298
672
276
630
261
598
250
575
242
554
235
515
223
496
219
483
216
472
215
463
214

(kN) -Yeild Yeild Stress
Theory
(s)
857
345
851
345
845
345
838
345
832
345
826
345
820
345
807
345
797
345
782
345
770
345
758
345
745
345

Yeild Theory

Effective width
of Plate (mm)
138
137
136
135
134
133
132
131
128
126
124
122
120

(kN) -Yeild Yeild Stress
Theory
(s)
857
345
851
345
845
345
838
345
832
345
826
345
820
345
814
345
795
345
782
345
770
345
758
345
745
345

Fracture Theory

Fd
3.157
3.059
2.97
2.89
2.812
2.743
2.711
2.546
2.434
2.337
2.246
2.167
2.096

- Fracture Stress in the
Theory
Net Section
904
364
762
309
680
278
625
257
586
243
556
232
547
229
501
214
479
208
462
204
449
201
439
200
431
199

Yeild Theory

Effective width
of Plate (mm)
138
137
136
135
134
133
132.6
130
128
126
124
122
120

Fracture Theory

Fd
3.157
3.059
2.97
2.89
2.812
2.796
2.67
2.546
2.434
2.337
2.246
2.167
2.096

- Fracture Stress in the
Theory
Net Section
836
337
705
286
629
257
578
238
542
225
536
223
494
208
464
198
443
192
427
188
416
186
406
185
398
184

Fracture Theory

(kN) -Yeild Yeild Stress
Theory
(s)
857
345
851
345
845
345
838
345
832
345
826
345
823
345
807
345
795
345
782
345
770
345
758
345
745
345

Yeild Theory

Effective width
of Plate (mm)
138
137
136
135
134
133.8
132
130
128
126
124
122
120

(kN) -Yeild Yeild Stress
Theory
(s)
857
345
851
345
845
345
838
345
832
345
831
345
820
345
807
345
795
345
782
345
770
345
758
345
745
345

Yeild Theory

Fd
3.157
3.059
2.97
2.89
2.873
2.743
2.67
2.546
2.434
2.337
2.246
2.167
2.096

- Fracture Stress in the
Theory
Net Section
769
309
648
263
578
236
531
219
524
216
473
198
454
191
426
182
407
177
392
173
382
171
373
170
366
169

Effective width
of Plate (mm)
138
137
136
135
134.8
133
132
130
128
126
124
122
120

Fracture Theory

Fd
3.157
3.059
2.97
2.947
2.812
2.743
2.67
2.546
2.434
2.337
2.246
2.167
2.096

- Fracture Stress in the
Theory
Net Section
701
282
591
239
527
215
512
210
454
188
431
180
414
174
389
166
371
161
358
158
348
156
340
155
334
155

(kN) -Yeild Yeild Stress
Theory
(s)
857
345
851
345
845
345
838
345
837
345
826
345
820
345
807
345
795
345
782
345
770
345
758
345
745
345

Yeild Theory

Effective width
of Plate (mm)
138
137
136
135.7
134
133
132
130
128
126
124
122
120

(kN) -Yeild Yeild Stress
Theory
(s)
857
345
851
345
845
345
843
345
832
345
826
345
820
345
807
345
795
345
782
345
770
345
758
345
745
345

100
mm

100
mm

Crack Length
(a)

60 mm Dia.
hole
200 mm

## Crack Length (a) VS Lug Capacity

Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture

1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0

a (mm)
6

## Net Section will Yeild before Fracture

Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture

1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0

6
a (mm)

## Crack Length (a) VS Lug Capac

Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture

1000
900
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0

6
a (mm)

800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0

6
a (mm)

900
(kN)

## Net Section will Fracture

Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture

900

800

## Net Section will Fracture

Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture

900
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0

6
a (mm)

## Net Section will Fracture

Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture

900
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0

6
a (mm)

Theory

a (mm)
6

10

12

Theory

C

1200
1000
800
600
400

6
a (mm)

10

12
200
0
0

0
0

Theory

6
a (mm)

10

12

Theory

6
a (mm)

10

12

Theory

6
a (mm)

10

12

Theory

6
a (mm)

10

12

1200
1000

Temp = 30
Degree Celcius

800

Temp = 15
Degree Celcius

600

Temp = Zero
Degree Celcius

400

Temp = -15
Degree Celcius

200

Temp = -45
Degree Celcius

0
0

6
a (mm)

10

12

-Yeild Theory

Degree Celcius
0
0

6
a (mm)

10

12