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Leadership &

Communication Skills
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Leadership Skills

To know concept of leadership

To study roles and type of a
To know characteristics of
successful leaders and
entrepreneurial leadership
To learn different leadership styles
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What is Leadership?

Leadership is a process in which a

leader attempts to influence his or
her followers to establish and
accomplish a goal or goals
(Kepimpinan melibatkan kebolehan
mempengaruhi, memotivasikan
dan menyakinkan manusia untuk
bekerja dan membantu ke arah
pencapaian matlamat organisasi)
Leadership is a continuous process
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What Leadership is

Leadership is not just a person or

group of people in a high position;
understanding leadership is not
complete without understanding
interactions between a leader and
his or her followers.
Neither is leadership merely the
ability or static capacity of a leader.
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Leadership vs.

Management involves planning the goals of

an organization, recruits the necessary staff,
organizes them, and closely supervises them
to make sure that the initial plan is executed
properly (PODC).
Leadership goes beyond management of
plans and tasks. It envisions the future and
sets a new direction for the organization.
Successful leaders mobilize all possible
means and human resources; they inspire all
members of the organization to support the
new mission and execute it with enthusiasm.
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The Role of a Leader

To ensure that the mission and goals of

the organization is achieved by
exercising their power and influence
over subordinates. That power is
exercised in earlier stages by
motivating followers to get the job
done and in later stages by rewarding
or punishing those who do or do not
perform to the level of expectation.
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The Role of a Leader

Once a goal is set, the leader assumes

the role of ensuring successful
accomplishment of the goal.
Another vital role of leadership is to
represent the group/organization and
link it to the external world in order to
obtain vital resources to carry out its
When necessary, leadership has to
defend the organization's integrity.
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Additional Roles

Challenge the processsearch out

challenging opportunities, take risks,
and learn from mistakes.
Inspire others to come together and
agree on a future direction or goal
create a shared vision by thinking
about the future, having a strong
positive vision, and encouraging others
to participate.
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Additional Roles

Help others to acthelp others to work

together, to cooperate and collaborate by
developing shared goals and building trust, and
help to make others stronger by encouraging
them to develop their skills and talents.
Set an examplebehave in ways that are
consistent with professed values and help
others to achieve small gains that keep them
motivated, especially when a goal will not be
achieved quickly.
Encourage othersrecognize each individual's
contributions to the success of a project.
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Characteristics of a
Successful and Effective

Inborn or acquired?
Personality traits: determination,
emotional stability, diplomacy, selfconfidence, personal integrity,
originality, and creativity.
Intellectual abilities: judgmental ability,
knowledge, and verbal communication
Physical traits: age, height, weight, and
physical attractiveness.
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Types of Leader

Autocratic leaders set their goals

without considering the opinions of
their followers, then command their
followers to execute their assigned
tasks without question.

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Consultative leaders solicit the

opinions and ideas of their
followers in the goal-setting
process but ultimately determine
important goals and task
assignments on their own

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Types of Leader
Democratic or participative leaders
participate equally in the process with their
followers and let the group make decisions.
Extremely laid-back leaders, so called laissezfaire leaders, let the group take whatever
action its members feel is necessary.
- Kelebihan
1.terbuka dalam mengambil keputusan
diperolehi dr musyawarah/muafakat-top
priority pendapat employee
2.Tidak terbeban dgn masalah yg timbul

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Pengambilan keputusan tidak selalunya
sesuai kerana suara terbanyak belum
tentu keputusan yang terbaik
Perselisihan pendapat - jika seorang
pemimpin tidak dapat mengambil
keputusan dengan tepat dan anggota
tidak sepahaman atau memiliki
pandangan yang berbeza dengan
pemimpin, keputusan tidak terjadi titik
temu kerana hanya saling berdebat satu
sama lain.
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Leadership Styles

The job-centered leader closely supervises

subordinates to make sure they perform their
tasks following the specified procedures. This
type of leader relies on reward, punishment, and
legitimate power to influence the behavior of
The employee-centered leader believes that
creating a supportive work environment
ultimately is the road to superior organizational
performance. The employee-centered leader
shows great concern about the employees'
emotional well-being, personal growth and
development, and achievement.
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Leadership Styles

The leadership style of initiating structure

is similar to the job-centered leadership
style, whereas consideration is similar to
the employee-centered leadership style.
A leader who could demonstrate both
high initiating structure (job-centered)
and high consideration (employeecentered) would be successful and
effective in all circumstances.
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Leadership Styles

Task-oriented leadership or situational

leadership style is appropriate when the
situation is either extremely favorable (good
relationship, well-defined tasks, have power)
or extremely unfavorable to the leader.
If situation is moderately favorable, peopleoriented leadership style is appropriate.
Directive leadership style is effective when
followers are inexperienced and lack maturity
and responsibility.
Supportive leadership is effective when
followers are experienced and/but willing to
take charge.
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Charismatic and

A great leader is remembered for his or her

charisma, which means "divinely inspired
gift" in Greek. Charismatic leaders have
profound effects on followers. Through their
exceptional inspirational and verbal ability,
they articulate ideological goals and
missions, communicate to followers with
passion and inspiration, set an example in
their own behaviors, and demand hard work
and commitment from followers, above and
beyond normal expectation (e.g. Adolph
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kebolehan yg ada pd diri seorg

pemimpin dlm mempengaruhi
pengikut utk mencapai sst matlamat
mampu mempengaruhi pekerja dgn
kaedah yg memenuhi keperluan dan
kehendak stp pekerja

Luar biasa-pemikiran dan kebolehan

Peka pd perubahan
Sikap kepimpinan
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Transformational leadership is an extension

of charismatic leadership theory.
Bernard Bass (1985) views leadership as a
process of social exchange between a
leader and his or her followers.
In exchange for desired behaviors and task
accomplishment, a leader provides rewards
to followers. This nominal social exchange
process is called transactional leadership.

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Charismatic and
A transformational leader places a higher

A transformational leader places a higher

level of trust in his or her followers and
demands a much higher level of loyalty and
performance beyond normal expectations.
With unusual charismatic qualities and
inspirational person-to-person interactions,
a transformational leader transforms and
motivates followers to make extra efforts to
turn around ailing organizational situations
into success stories (e.g. Lee Iacocca).
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Merujuk kpd proses seseorg pemimpin

mempengaruhi pekerjanya dlm
melakukan sst perubahan (spt aspek
perubahan pemikiran dan sikap pekerja
serta komitmen utk mencapai wawasan,
misi strategi dan taktik) dlm organisasi
membentuk seorg pemimpin menjadi
role model kpd pekerja yg menyuntik
semangat kpd pekerja
Perlu sentiasa memberi motivasi/nilai
etika agar pekerja sentiasa fokus dan
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Visionary Leadership

Visionary Leadership increases

efficiency by moving decision-making
responsibility to the frontline. Efficiency
is achieved with limited supervision. To
make frontline responsibility effective,
leadership must give workers
opportunity to develop quality decisionmaking skills and learn to trust them
(e.g. Wal-Mart stores & HP).
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Pemimpin yg berupaya
membayangkan masa hadapan dlm
pencapaian dan penetapan stp
Berfikiran futuristik dan berupaya
mempengaruhi pekerja utk terus
berusaha mencapai matlamat
Pemimpin berwawasan perlu memiliki
sikap kemanusiaan , menerima
pandangan pihak lain dan berfikiran
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Elements of Visionary

Visionary leadership push

responsibility to the frontline.
When priority is responsibility at the
frontline, leadership will seek talent,
people he can depend on to complete
tasks with limited supervision. The policy
will be do it. The frontline develops
quality decision-making skills that are also
found in layers of management.
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Elements of Visionary

Visionary leadership leads to higher

High efficiency workplaces are based on
visionary leadership, where workplace
policies authorize decision-making
responsibility at the frontline. Limited
supervision is needed with worker

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Elements of Visionary

Visionary leadership delegates

decision- making responsibility.
Decision-making responsibility, at all
levels, allows minor problems to be solved
by those who are first aware of them.
Management can stay focused on
problems related to the organization goals.
As a bonus, employee motivation is high
when they feel what they are doing makes
a difference.
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Elements of Visionary

Visionary leadership provides learning

Learning to make quality decisions is the
result of worker responsibility, resulting in
the development of personal skills. An
experienced workforce prevents
elementary problems. Continuous learning
opportunity is highly motivatingit
controls employee inspiration, skill level
and quality.
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Elements of Visionary

Visionary leadership rewards achievers.

People, who have a burning drive to be an
achiever, seek opportunity in organizations
that have a reputation of supporting
personal ambitions. Their presence inspire
co-workers to do the same or simply be
proud of their surroundings. Visionary
leadership welcomes subordinates more
capable than themselves, because their first
priority is to get the job done with limited
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Elements of Visionary

Visionary leadership nourishes natural

Where workers have decision-making
responsibility, unique skills and natural
talent are soon recognized by coworkers and
leadership. An employee may discover
talent he did not know he had. With
discovery, he can search for ways to
develop it. Efficiency increases when natural
talent is in harmony with assigned tasks.
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"It is a constant struggle to find

people who can be both
entrepreneurial and conventional
leaders... Finding them is the
fundamental issue in any company
that wants to grow."
Roger Ackerman, Chairman and CEO, Corning, a
Fortune 50 company

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What is
In the increasingly turbulent and

competitive environment business firms

face today, a new type of
"entrepreneurial" leader distinct from
other behavioral forms of managerial
leadership is required.
Entrepreneurial leadership is leadership
that is based on the attitude that the
leader is self-employed.
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What is
Entrepreneurial leadership

involves instilling the confidence

to think, behave and act with
entrepreneurship in the interests
of fully realizing the intended
purpose of the organization to the
beneficial growth of all
stakeholders involved.
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Elements of
Take initiative and act as if they are playing a

critical role in the organization rather than a

mostly important one and energize their people,
Demonstrate entrepreneurial creativity ,
search continuously for new opportunities and
Take risk, venture into new areas and provide
strategic direction and inspiration to their people,
Take responsibility for the failures of their team,
learn from these failures and use them as a step
to ultimate success and strategic achievement

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8 common characteristics
entrepreneurs vs.
leaders Entrepreneurs Leaders
Risk taking




Able to motivated




Source- Zainai Mohamad, Entrepreneurship Education The Future of Entrepreneurship in Higher

Education. Entrepreneurial Leadership Training Programme Series. 11-12 Oct.2011, Kota Bharu,
organised by AKEPT and UMK
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All entrepreneurs are leaders, but
not all leaders are entrepreneurs.
Entrepreneurial leadership requires
all characteristics of successful
leader, but it also related with the
bottom line financial profit

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Communication Skills:
Negotiation &

To know effective communication

To know what make better
negotiation skill that consider as a
must for entrepreneurs.
To study how networking is
important for entrepreneurs and
how they need to capitalise it
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Communication Skills

Communication is the process by

which information is exchanged
between individuals. It requires a
shared understanding of symbol
systems, such as language and
Communication skills refer to the
skills in using language effectively and
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Types of

Verbal or oral communication

Speaking, language, intonation, choice of
words, loudness, orator ship, clarity,
confidence, etc.

Non-verbal or body language

Gestures, body movement, physical
movement, restlessness, overwhelmed, etc.

Written communication
Readable, convincing, short, precise, clear
message, non-grammatical error, standard
formatting, using symbols, acronyms, etc.
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The party who receive the message

understood clearly the content of the
message, therefore message must be:

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Communication Skills
Area of Importance

Sales/business presentation
Project proposal
Business meetings
Business negotiations
Sales promotions
Project biddings
Daily communication
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Negotiation Skills

Successful entrepreneur don't

take "no" for an answer. Get
what you want through
effective negotiation.
Precedes before reaching an



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Importance of
Negotiation Skills

The strength of your agreements,

understandings and relationships can make
the difference between success and failure.
Weak agreements always break down.
They bring nagging dissatisfaction and
aggravation into your business and
personal lives.
Strong agreements help you reach and
exceed your own objectives, while bringing
mutual satisfaction to all parties.
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Situations of

Determining the price and terms at which you buy or sell;

Closing deals with an important customer;
Persuading others to work with and not against you;
Setting or meeting budgets;
Finalizing and administrating simple or complex
Working on a problem with someone important to you;
Managing and supervising those responsible for doing
the work properly in your organization, in other
and on the outside; and
Breaking or avoiding a serious impasse
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Negotiation Success

Know your own facts and the other

party in advance
Projects your confidence visibly
Use any hidden leverage
Understand and use your power base
Do not enter into negotiation until you
got all the facts verified
Always think long term relationship
Do not dictate your term, communicate!
Win-Win strategy
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Networking Skills

What is network?
Something resembling an open work fabric
or structure in form or concept, especially:

A system of lines or channels that cross or

interconnect: a network of railroads.
A complex, interconnected group or system: an
espionage network.
An extended group of people with similar
interests or concerns who interact and remain in
informal contact for mutual assistance or
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Networking Skills

To interact or engage in informal
communication with others for
mutual assistance or support.

Networking skills
The ability to take advantage or
benefits of the network for the
betterment of the organization
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Types of Networks

Formal and Informal Networks

National Networks
Regional Networks
Tailor-made Networks
Event Networks

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In business, entrepreneurial networks are

social organizations offering different types of
resources to start or improve entrepreneurial
projects. Having adequate human resources is
a key factor for entrepreneurial achievements.
Combined with leadership, the
entrepreneurial network is an indispensable
kind of social network not only necessary to
properly run the business or project, but also
to differentiate the business from similar
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Purpose of Networking

To create pool of talent (exchanges)

The goal of most entrepreneurial networks

is to bring together a broad selection of
professionals and resources that
complement each other's endeavors.
Initially a key priority is to aid successful
business launches. Subsequently provide
motivation, direction and increase access
to opportunities and other skill sets.
Promotion of each members talents and
services both within the network and out in
the broader market increases opportunities
for all participants.
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Purpose of Networking

To share/acquire resources at
competitive rate
One of the key needs of any startup
is capital, and often entrepreneurial
networks focus on providing such
financial resources, particularly
tailored to their membership
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Purpose of Networking

To stand as a common voice

(unified force)
Entrepreneurial networks may also
become community involved,
endorsing reforms, legislation or
other municipal drives that
accommodate their organization's
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Lawyers, various
on managers
Real estate
Government people or

High skilled
Clients or any other
kind of social
contacts that can
make the
business (or project)

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Tips for Better


Its not who you know. Its also who they

Know what youre looking for before you
Schmooze with care.
Consistency is king (even though cash is
important too).
Prioritize tangibility.
Build relationships, not acquaintanceships.
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Entrepreneurs communicate with
their stakeholders. Effective
communication requires skills that
can be enhanced through practise.
Negotiation skills as well as
networking give an advantage for
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