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The Vaccine Dosage and the Water consumption and ducks.


Day(s)
Day 1
Week 1
Week 2
Week 3
Week 4
Week 5

Vaccine
Mareks
Newcastle disease (Mdondo/ Kideri)
Infectious Bursar Diseases(Gumboro)
Newcastle Disease(mdondo/Kideri)
Infectious Bursar Diseases(Gumboro)
Fowl Fox (Ndui)

NB; Rudia Chanjo ya Newcastle kila baada ya miezi mitatu

Water consumption rates for chickens


Water is an essential nutrient for life. Water consumption can be limited if the water is too hot or is
contaminated with excess minerals. Water and food consumption rates are interdependent, so
reduced water intake can also lead to reduced food intake. There are other factors that affect water
intake, with temperature being the most obvious one. For example, chickens drink between 30-50%
more water when the environmental temperature is above 32oC compared with when it is
21oC. Water intake is also affected by the type of drinkers used. The rule of thumb for water
intake is that water intake is usually 1.5 to 2 times feed intake. Tables 1 and 2 provide data on
typical water consumption levels for layers and broilers, respectively, at 21oC.

Table 1. Typical daily water consumption for layers


Production Stage

Layer pullet

Age/Rate of Production

Litres of water per 1000 birds at 21oC

4 weeks

100

12 weeks

160

18 weeks

200

50% production

220

90% production

270

Laying hens
Source: Poultry CRC
Table 2. Typical daily water consumption for broilers at 20oC (litres per 1000 mixed sex birds)
Age (weeks)

Water Intake
(litres)

65

120

180

245

290

330

355

370

Source: Poultry CRC

Nutritional requirements of ducklings


Unfortunately, very little research has been done in Australia on the nutritional requirements of ducks.
Nearly all the information comes from overseas sources. However, the basic principles of poultry
nutrition must be applied to ducks if the best results are to be obtained from both breeding and growing
stock.

Table 1. Minimum basic nutritional requirements of ducklings


Nutrient

Starter

Grower

Breeder

Protein (%)

20

17

16

Calcium (%)

Fat (%)

Methionine (%)

0.35

0.3

0.3

Phosphorus (%)

0.45

0.4

0.4

Manganese (mg/kg)

60

50

40

Niacin (mg/kg)

55

40

55

Pantothenic acid (mg/kg)

15

10

20

Pyridoxine (mg/kg)

Riboflavin (mg/kg)

10

10

Vitamin A (mg/kg)

3100

1720

4130

Vitamin D3 (mg/kg)

300

22.5

62.5

Vitamin K (mg/kg)

2.5

2.5

Energy (kcal/kg)

2850

2850

2650

The use of antibiotics appears to be unwarranted, and some antibiotics and 3-nitrophenylarsonic acid (a
growth promotant) can be toxic. Ducklings should be started on a diet containing 20% protein within 36
hours of hatching. Maintain this protein level for 2 weeks and then reduce it to 17% until marketing.
Higher protein rations may be used if faster growth is required. As high-energy rations tend to cause too
much fat to be deposited, they are not recommended.
Both riboflavin and niacin must be added to the diet, because deficiencies of these B group vitamins
restrict growth and development in ducklings. Grains, which form the bulk of the ration, are deficient in
these vitamins. Salt generally makes droppings more watery and should not be added to rations. Onequarter per cent (0.25%) of common salt is not harmful, but ducklings up to the age of 3 weeks are very
sensitive to salt. Give ducklings free access to feed crumbles and give them starter feed (in shallow trays)
up until they are 2 weeks of age.
Rations for growing ducks

If mash is fed to the ducklings, moisten it slightly with water. (Table 2 gives ration mixtures.) Give five
equally spaced feedings throughout the day and make sure they do not have more than they can eat at one
feeding.
Cheap food, such as stale bread and kitchen refuse, can greatly reduce feeding costs when used in the
ration correctly. These substitute ingredients should be fed only to ducklings that are over the age of 2
weeks. Kitchen refuse should be boiled to kill any harmful bacteria and to make the feed more palatable
before it is fed to ducklings. After boiling, thoroughly mix the refuse with the mash. Because the quality
and type of food from kitchen refuse varies tremendously, no general recommendations can be made for
proportions of refuse to mash.
Bread has a protein content of about 9%, and can be used to provide up to 40% of the total ingredients.
Use it to replace equal amounts of crushed grain, but adjust so the reduced protein and amino acid content
are increased.
Ducklings should have access to insoluble grit, and to plenty of fresh drinking water in a container that
enables immersion of the head.

Table 2. Rations for growing ducks*


Ingredients

Day-old to marketing
Ration 1 (%)

Ration 2 (%)

Crushed grain

46

19

Bread

40

Bran

18

10

Pollard

18

10

Meatmeal

10

11

Soybean meal

Lucerne meal

Milk powder

Ground limestone

Total

100

100

*A vitamin and mineral premix should be added to the rations in Table 2.

Rations for breeding stock


Rations for breeding hens are usually adequate for breeding ducks. Rear potential breeding stock on a
similar diet to that given to ducklings raised for meat consumption. When ducklings are about 8 weeks of
age, transfer them to a breeders ration. Breeding ducks should then be restrictively fed to about 80% of
their normal daily feed intake until 2 weeks before the onset of egg production. This will prevent the
ducks from becoming overfat.
Breeding stock require the basic nutritional levels given in Table 1. The same rules apply to feeding both
meat ducklings and breeding stock. Ducks can be fed on both mash and pelleted feed, but crumbles and
pellets are more economical because less feed is wasted and weight gains are higher. Also, mash tends to
stick to ducks bills, causing some birds to choke. Crumbles or pellets can be placed in hoppers so ducks
have access to them at all times, or wet mash may be fed twice daily. Each duck will eat about 225 g of
feed per day. Provide about 40% of this in the morning feed and 60% in the evening feed. Ducks must
have access to unlimited soluble grit, such as shell grit, and to unlimited fresh drinking water.

Table 3. Rations for breeding ducks*

Ingredients Breeders
Ration 1 (%)

Crushed grain 39
Bread -

Ration 2 (%)
20
40

Bran 18

10

Pollard 25

10

Meatmeal 6

Soybean meal

Lucerne meal 5

Milk powder 5

Ground limestone 2

Total 100

100

*A vitamin and mineral premix should be added to the rations in Table 3.


Feed consumption

Table 4 serves only as a guide to expected feed consumption. The actual amount of feed eaten will
depend upon factors such as quality of feed, strain of ducks and method of management.
Table 4. Average feed consumption of Pekin ducks (mixed sexes)
Age (weeks)

Feed for week (kg)

Cumulative feed (kg)

0-1

0.15

0.15

0.40

0.55

0.75

1.30

0.95

2.25

1.00

3.25

1.30

4.55

1.65

6.20

1.80

8.00

1.60

9.60

Feed conversion ratios


In Australia, feed conversion ratios for ducks are a long way behind those obtained in the USA and the
UK. Some overseas strains of ducks have feed conversion ratios around 2.5:1 when ducklings are
marketed at 6 weeks of age with a liveweight of nearly 3 kg. In Australia, it is usual to market ducks at an
older age, and with a lower bodyweight, for a feed conversion ratio of approximately 3:1. Ducks housed
in controlled environment houses will have a much better feed conversion than those housed in
conventional sheds.

Created by Ally Tuliani


Allytulian@outlook.com