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.

.)
-)

-)

.)

..)

.)
The Study
Guide
For Those Learning

Third

..)

French

Edition)

-)))

English

Grammar

Students

for

French)

of

The

for

Study

Those

Guide

Learning

French)

l1Jird

edition)

Jacqueline

Morton)

The

Olivia

and

Hill Press@)))

ENGLISH

series)

GRAMMAR

for Students

Grammar

English

of Spanish

English

for

English Grammar

for StudentsofItalian

Gramnzar

Grammar

English

Students

Students

for

English Grammarfor Students


for Students

Grammar

English

Gramdtica

para

espaflola

1993,

any

of Latin
of

Russian

of Japanese

estudiantes

de ingles)

Morton)

Jacqueline

All rights

of German

reserved.No

fonn of

by

any

or transmitted
be reproduced
part of this work may
means, electronic or mechanical,
including
photocopying
any infonnation
storage retrieval system, without

and recording, or by
in writing from

pennission

Printed

in the U.S .A.)

Library

of Congress

ISB N 0-934034-18-4)))

the

publisher.)

Catalog Card Number:

87-7889)

in

CONTENTS)

Introduction

1.

What

is

a Noun?

2.

What

is

Meant

by Gender?

3.

What

is

Meant

by Number?

4.

What

are

12

Articles?

12

Articles

Defmite

14

IndefmiteArticles

15

Articles

Partitive

the Possessive?

18

is

a Verb?

21

What

is

an Infinitive?

23

8.

What

are

9.

What

is

a Subject?

28

10.

What

is

a Pronoun?

30

11.

What

is

a Subject

12.

What

is

a Verb

13.

What

are

Affirmative

and Negative

What

are

Declarative

and Interrogative

What

is

Meant

by Mood?

50

16.

What

is

Meant

by Tense?

52

17.

What

is

the

Present

18.

What

is

the

Imperative?

19.

What

is

a Participle?

5.

What is

6.

What

7.

14.
15.

25

Verbs?

Auxiliary

Pronoun?

32

Conjugation?

36
Sentences?
Sentences?

56
59

59

60

Past Participle
What

is the

Past

63

Tense?

63

Present Perfect (passecompose)


Imperfect

Selection

65

(imparfait)

of the

46

54

Tense?

Present Participle

20.

43

passe compose or

ii i)))

the

imparfait

66)

21.

What

22.

What

is the
is

the

Past Perfect

69

Tense?

72

Tense?

Future

73

Immediate Future

23.

What

24.

What

Perfect

is

the

Future

is

the

Conditional?

75

Tense?

77

Present Conditional

77

PastConditional

79

Sequenceof

80

25.

What

is a

26.

What

is

Tenses

82
85
by Active and Passive Voice?
an Active
Sentence
to a Passive Sentence 86

Reflexive Verb?

Meant

Changing

Passive

the

Avoiding

Voice

in French

27.

What

28.

What is

an

29.

What is

a DescriptiveAdjective?

30.

What

is

is

the

90

Subjunctive?

92

Adjective?

a Possessive

What is an

32.

What

is

a Demonstrative

33.

What

is

Meant

93

Adjective?

Singular Possessor: my, your,


Plural Possessor: our, your,
31.

87

his,

her, its

their

Interrogative Adjective?
Adjective?

by Comparison

of Adjectives?

96
97
99

101
103

105

Comparative

105

Superlative

106

34.

What

is an Adverb?

35.

What

is

36.

What is a Preposition?

37.

What

109
112

a Conjunction?

are

Direct

114
116

Objects?

116

Object

118

Indirect Object

Objectof

119)

Preposition

iv)))

38.

is an

What

123

Object Pronoun?

DirectObject

124

Pronouns

Indirect

126

Pronouns

Object

129

Pronouns as Objectsof a Preposition


39.

What is

an

133

Pronouns

(Stressed)

Disjunctive

138

Pronoun?

Interrogative

138

Subject

139

Direct Object

IndirectObject

and

\"Which

Object

145

148

40.

What

41.

Singular Possessor: mine,yours,


Plural Possessor: ours, yours,
What is'a Relative Pronoun?

is

Pronoun?

a Possessive

Subjectof

the

Direct Object

his,

hers,

Object

of a

154
155

Preposition

Relative Clause

Possessive
is

What

without

Antecedents

Pronoun?

a Demonstrative

\"Thisone, that one\" and \"these, those\"


\"Theone, the ones\"(celuiqui)
de to Show Possession
Celui
Answer

157
in a

159
163

\"whose\"

Modifier

Pronouns

149
151

theirs

of the Relative Clause


and

42.

its

Clause

Relative

IndirectObject
Relative

141

Preposition

ones\"

which

One,

of a

166
169
169
170

172
175

Key

179)

Index

v)))

STUDENT)

THE

To

for Students ofFrench explains


the
grammatical
terms that are in your French textbookand shows
you
how they relate to English grammar.Onceyou
have
understood
the terms and concepts in your own
it will be easier for
language,
to
With
undertand
textbook.
and
you
your
simple
explanations
numerous examples this handbookcompares
and
French
English
grammar,
pointing out the similarities and differences.
English

Grammar

Grammar into the class sylyou


pages to read before doing an
in
If you are selectingthe pages
French
textbook.
assignment
your
check
the
detailed
index
for
the terms and concepts
yourself,
you
will need to understand for your
When
assignment.
you finish a
chapter in the handbook, you can test your comprehension
by
and
doing the short Reviews
checking
against the
your answers
Most

teachers

English

incorporate

labus so

which

know

will

Answer Key.)

for

Tips

1. RULES

Make sure you


on to the next one.Language

each brickis only


2.

a Foreign

Studying

as

each

understand

secure

Language

learning

as its

rule

is like

you move
building a house;
before

foundation.

in lanMemorization plays an important


part
guage learning. For instance, you will have to memorize vocabrules.
To memorize,
here
ulary, verb conjugations, and grammar
are the steps you should
follow:
MEMORIZATION

you can easily


2 sentences
or 5 words).
retnember(for instance,
\302\267
Read
the first section
aloud several times.
\302\267
Write
down
the first section as you repeat it aloudto
\302\267
Divide

the

into sections

passage

yourself.
\302\267

what

Compare

\302\267

what
\302\267

Repeat

said

you

these

\302\267
Continue

reciting

steps

metnorizing
frotn

wrote

with the

original.
is no differencebetween
the original.
to metnorize the second section.
each section in the same way,

until there
or wrote and

above

the

Repeat

you

the

each

beginning
vi)))

time.)

3.

Use any trick


remember new words.Hereare
VOCABULARY

or
some

that

gimmick
that

students

helps

you

have found

useful:)
\302\267
Write

word

each

oneside,

on a
on

English

separate index card, Frenchon

the

other.

or pens of different colors.Thiscan


other useful information about the
help
you remember
word:using blue for masculine nouns and red for femwill
inine nouns
you remember
genders. (You
help
can also usegreen
for
for
verbs,
orange
adjectives,

\302\267
Use

index

cards

etc. to relnelnber parts of speech.)


the French words, look at the English
learning
words.Say the French word that corresponds aloud,

\302\267
When

and flip the cardto check


answer.
Shuffle
the
your
so you see the English word cold (i.e.,
without relnemberingthe word order).

deck often

4.

- Read the Frenchwords


sentences
out
and
write
them.That
are
seeing,
way
you
practicing
you
them.
saying, and hearing the words.It will help you remember
to
5. DAILY PRACTICE - Don't get behind.It's almost
impossible
need
catch up in language learning because you
daily
practice
and time to absorbthe material.
WRITTEN

EXERCISES

loud as

6.

LANGUAGE

TAPES

- It is betterto listen

several times duringthe


one long session.)

week

rather

Bonnechance,
Jacqueline

Morton)

vii)))

to

than

for short

periods
doing everything in

tapes

1)

INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION)

When

1. The

language, in this

a foreign

you learn

word in threeways:

at each

male

a young

Boy,

word

you

must look

English word must be connected


equivalent meaning.
has the same meaningas the French

that has an

word

a French

French,

word-An

of the

meaning

with

case

child,

gar\037on.

Words

with

easy

words

These

and

same

the

are

words

two

course,

by memorizing vocabor very similar in both


are called cognates and are, of

are learned

meanings

equivalent

ulary. Sometimes
French.
English
learn.

to

French

English

intelligent

intelligent

gouvernement

government

continuer

continue)

knowing one French word will help you learn another.


that etudiant is a male student shouldhelp you learn
that
Knowing
is a female student; or knowingthat
vendeur
is a
etudiante
vendeuse
salesman should help you remember
that
is a salesOccasionally

woman.

Usually there is littlesimilarity


French word will not help you
must memorizeeachvocabulary
Knowing
girl.

In addition,

that

is

gar\037on

boy

between

item

will

there are times when

words,

As a

another.

learn

and

one

knowing

general rule, you

separately.

not help

words

you learn

in combination

that

fille

is

take on

special meaning.
French

The

However,

word

faire

faire means to make; la queuemeansthe


la queue means to line up, to stand in line.

tail.

as a whole (faire la queue)is difindividual words (faire and la


queue)is calledan Idiom. You will need to be aware of these
in
order
to recognize
them and use them
idiomaticexpressions

An

whose

expression
from

ferent

the

meaning

meaning

of the

correctly.

2.The
sified

classification
in

eight

of

categories

the

word-English
called parts

and French words are clasof speech. Here is a list of the)))

INTRODUC\037ON)

of speech:

parts

article

noun

verb

adverb

pronoun

preposition

adjective

conjunction

Each part of speech has its own rules for spelling,


pronunciation,
and use. You must learn to identify the part of speech of each word
in order
to choose the correct French equivalentand
to know
what
rules to apply.

Look at

a.

the

word

What

do

in the

what

following sentences:

want?

you

b. What mov.ie do you want


c. I'll do what
want. 1
you

to see?

in French
is the same in all three sentences;
but
words will be used and three
different
sets of rules
will apply becauseeachwhat
to a different
belongs
part of speech.
3. The use ofthe word-A
word must also be identified accordingto
the roleit plays in the sentence. Each word, whether English or
will
French,plays a specific role. Determining this role or function
also help you to choose the correctFrenchequivalent
and
to know
what rules to apply. Hereis a listof functions:
The

word

English

different

three

subject

direct

object

indirect object

object of a preposition

Let

us

go

back

to the

again

a.

What

is on

b.

What

is she

the table?
doing?

c. What are you

talking

about?2)

a. Interrogative pronoun,
see p. 138.
b. Interrogative
adjective, see p. 101.
Relative
pronoun without antecedent, see p. 166.

c.
2

word what.

Subject, see p. 28.


b. Direct object,
see p. 116.
c. Object of a preposition, see p. 119.)))
a.

3)

INTRODUCTION

sentences;
English word is the same in all three
three different words will be used becauseeach what

but in French
a different

The

has

function.)

Careful
As a student of Frenchyou

speech

the

and

essential
because
one

The small
petites

black shoes are on


chaussures
I

the

big

noires sont
I

IN

word in a

another.)

Les

both the part of


given sentence. This is
sentence
have a great deal of
to recognize

learn

a French

in

words

on

influence

must

of each

function

II

round

table.

sur la grande table ronde.


I
I
I
I)

ENGLISH

is shoes,
only word that affects another word in the sentence
which forces us to say are. If the word were shoe, we would haveto
.

The

say

IS.)

IN FRENCH

for shoes (chaussures) not only


(soot), but also the spellingand pronunciation

The word

the, small, and


and

black.

The
of the

pronunciation

word

French

for table

affects

of the

the

word

French

for are
words for

(table) affects the spelling

words for

the, big, and

round.

The

means
on.
affected by another word is sur, which
in the same
are
determined
Since parts of speech and function
usually
in
in
this
will
show
handbook
way English and French,
you how to
identify them in English. You will then learn to compare English and
Frenchconstructions.
Thiswill give you a better understanding of the

only word not

explanationsin

your

French

textbook.)))

IS A NOUN?)

WHAT

word

is a

A noun
thing,

NOUN?)

of a person,

the name

be

can

that

an animal,place,

idea.)

or an

event,

IS

WHAT

1.

ENGLISH

IN

types of words which are nouns:


professor, clown, student,girl

some different

us look at

Let

. a

person

Professor

animal

an

dog,

Paul,

Bozo,

Smith,

Mary

bear, snake

bird,

Heidi, Tweetie,Teddy
. a

city, state,

place

.a

thing

continent

country,

Paris,

Michigan,

lamp,

airplane,

France, Europe
book, dress

Perrier, Eiffel

Tower,Arch
graduation, marriage,birth,

. an event
or activity
. an idea

As

a noun is not only

can see,

you

tangible, i.e.,
it can

House,

Triumph
football

death,

robbery, rest, growth


mathematics
poverty, democracy, humor,
addition, strength, elegance, virtue,

or concept

that is

of

that

also be

you

can

which

a word

such as

touch,

the nameof things

are

that

increase

names

something

table, dog, and


abstract,

White

i.e., that you

and
honor.
cannot touch, suchasjustice,jealousy,
A noun that does not state the nameof a specific
person,place,thing,
noun
does not begin with a
a common noun. A common
etc.
is called
capital letter, unlessit is the first word of a sentence. All the words
are common nouns.
above that are not capitalized
A

noun.

words

above

the

The

girl
I

proper

that are

is made

cream or a propernoun,
the

begins

always

with a

capitalized are propernouns.

etc.

is called

capital letter. All

noun can

compound

where

specific person,place,thing,

noun)

that

To help

noun

proper

noun
noun

is Mary.

cotntnon

name of a

is the

that

noun

a proper

you

learn

nouns

up of two wordsis calleda

be a commonnoun,
such

as Western

nouns,

to recognize
are in italics.

The best purchasesfroln


gloves and other luxury

France
items.

such

as comic

strip

and ice

America.

Europe

and North

look at

the paragraphbelow

include
Today,

noun.

compound

wines, perfumes, scarves,


French workers make excel-)))

5)

IS A NOUN?

WHAT

lent skis and tennis racketswhich


sold the world over. Thanks
are
to
the Common
Market,
Germany,
Italy,
you can find goods from
and their commercial partners in all large French stores.
England,
and
Thus, Italian sportscars, English leather,German
glassware,
in
lace can be bought at prices
to
the
those
Belgian
comparable
of origin.)

country
FRENCH

IN

in the

are identified

Nouns

same way as they

Used to

Terms

are

in English.)

Talk About Nouns

noun has a gender; that is, it can be classified according to


whether it is masculine,feminine,or neuter
What
is Meant
(see
by
Gender?, p. 6).
- A noun has a
NUMBER
number; that is, it can be identified according
to whether it is singularor plural
What
is Meant
(see
by Number?,
p. 9).
- A noun can be classifiedas to whetherit is a
OR NON-COUNT
COUNT
count
noun
or non-count
noun; that is, whether it refersto something
can
be counted
are Articles?).
that
or not (see p. 15 in What
- A

GENDER

A noun can have a


is, it can be the subjectof the
-

FUNCTION

p. 28) or an

(see

object

sentence

(see

are Objects?,

What

in a

functions

of

variety

sentence;

is a

What

that

Subject?,

p. 116).)

................REVIEW..................
Circle

the

nouns

in the

sentences:

following

into the classroom and

1. The

boy came

2. The

textbookhas a painting on its cover.

3.

Mary

Evans

Paris

visited

4. Thelionroaredand
5. Truth is
6. His

stranger

kindness

than

the

with her
children

spoke

to the

teacher.

class.

screamed.

fiction.

and understanding

were known

throughout

the

world.)))

WHAT IS MEANT

BY GENDER?)

IS MEANT BY

2. WHAT

in the grammatical
sense means that
as masculine, feminine,or neuter.
Gender

in English;

is not

Gender

very important
French language

of the

heart

GENDER?)
a word

be classified

can

however, it is at the very

where the gender of a

in the way the word is spelledand pronounced.


in English.
Parts
speech have a gender in Frenchthan

is often

word

More
parts of
of speech that

reflected

indicate gender:
French
nouns

English

pronouns

articles

adjectives)

possessive

pronouns

adjectives

Sinceeach

of

part

fmd

will

gender

look at
IN

the

speech

in the

discussed

types of

various

its own rules to indicate gender,you


sections dealing with articles
and the
In this section we shall only
adjectives.

follows

pronouns and
of nouns.)

gender

ENGLISH

their
do not have a gender, but sometimes
themselves
meaning
or
will indicate a gender based on the biologicalsex the person
or
the noun stands for. When
we
a
common
animal
proper
replace
noun with he or she, we automatically use he for malesand she for
All the nouns which name things
that
do not have a sex are
females.

Nouns

of

replaced

it.

by

Nouns

came

Paul

indicate the masculinegender.

to males

referring

home;

tired, and I was glad to

he was
1

see

him.
1

masculIne

mascu Ine

noun

male)

Nouns

to females

referring

The

girl
1

came

indicate the feminine gender.


she was

home;
\037

.1.

tired, and I was glad to

see
\037

lemlnlne

noun

her.
.1.

lemlnlne

female)

All

ered

which

nouns

other

do not

indicate a biologicalgenderare

neuter.

The

of
ci1ty
noun

Washington

is lovely. I

enjoyed visiting if.


neuter)))

consid-

WHAT

to

referred
The
IN

United States sailed

S/S

for

BY GENDER?

MEANT

such as ship, which

well-known
exceptions,
as she. It is custom, not logic,which
a few

are

There

IS

7)

is

decides.

She

Europe.

was a

beautiful ship.)

FRENCH

nouns and proper nouns-have a gender;they


or feminine. Do not confusethe grammatical
\"masculine\"
and \"feminine\"
with the meaning of \"male\"
and
a few French nouns have a grammatical gendertiedto
Only
of the male or femalesex,most
refer
to someone
nouns
they

All

nouns-common

are

either

terms

\"female.\"
whether

masculine

which must be

a gender

have

The genderof

mine.These

are

the

of

other

Males

based

nouns

\037

on

whose

nouns

biological

memorized.
biological
meaning

or female.

sexes, male
Females

masculine

Paul

\037ary

is easy to detertied to one or the

gender
is always

\037

boy

girl

brother

sister

son

daughter

feminine

The gender of all othernouns,


common
and
explained or figured out. Thesenouns only
gender which is unrelated to biologicalsex.Here
of English nouns classified underthe gender
of

cannot

proper,
have
are

their

be

a grammatical
some

French

examples

equiva-

lent.)

Masculine

Feminine

boat

car

suicide

death

Japan

France

blackboard

chalk

government)

democracy)

Gender is important not only


and

pronunciation

rize

the

noun

does
you

does

not
will

indicates

for

words

the

noun

it influences.

but for the spelling


You will have to memo-

itself,

French noun you learn. Sincea


indicate
its gender, when memorizing
usually
have to learn a noun with its articlebecausethe
gender (see What are Articles?,p. 12).)))
gender

grammatical
alone

vocabulary

article

of the

of every

WHAT IS

MEANT

BY GENDER?)

Careful

of French
rely on biological genderto indicatethe gender
of nouns such as professorwhich
refer
can
to a female or
equivalents
male. Such nouns
have
a grammatical
gender which must be
only

You cannot

memorized.

TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTREVIEW

TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT

Circle
can
up

or F (feminine)
(?) next to the

M (masculine)

and
identify,
in a dictionary.)

GENDER

IN

next

to the

nouns whose

nouns whosegenderyou

FRENCH

1. boys

2. chair

3. Jane

4. classroom

5. visitor

6. sisters

7. houses

?)))

would

gender you
have

to look

IS

WHAT

IS MEANT BY

WHAT

3.

MEANT

BY NUMBER?

9)

NUMBER?)

Numberin the grammaticalsensemeans


that
is singular or
a word
When
a
word
refers
to
one
or
it
is
saidto
besInplural.
person
thing,
when
it
refers
more
than
it
is
to
one,
gular;
plural.
Moreparts of speech indicate number in French, and there are more
in French than in English. Parts of
and
spelling
pronunciation
changes
number:

indicate

that

spe\037ch

French
nouns

English

nouns

verbs

articles

pronouns

verbs

demonstrative

only

pronouns

adjectives

adjectives

Since each part of speech


follows
will
find
number
discussed
you
the various types of adjectives

and

tenses. In this

section weshallonly

look

at the

ENGLISH

made plural in oneof two


or \"-es\"
singular noun can add an \"-s\"
noun is

A singular
1. A

2. A

own

of nouns.)

number
IN

and their

verbs

on

tions

rules to indicate number,


sections dealing with articles,
as well as in all the secpronouns,
its

in the

book

books

kiss

kisses

singular

plural

noun

can change

man

men

mouse

mice

leaf

leaves

child)

children)

noun

is usually

ways:
.

its spelling.)

spelled and pronounceddifferently

from

the

singular.

nouns, called collective nouns, referto a


things, but the noun itself is consideredsingular.
A football
team has eleven players.
Some

well.

Thefamity

is

The crowd

was under

control.)))

group

of persons

or

WHAT IS MEANT

1 0

NUMBER?)

By

IN FRENCH
spelled
differently
plural form of a noun is usually
The most commonchangeis the same as the one
made in English; that is, an \".s\" is added to the singular noun.

As in English, the
from the singular.
livre

livres

book

books

table

tables

table

tables

Thereis
gular

an

and

to .aux

change

words that end in

of French

group

important
which

.al in the sin-

in the plural.)

Singular

Plural

Iejournal

les journaux

newspaper

newspapers

les

animal)

animals)

'animal)

animaux)

of a noun doesnot change

The gender

What is Meant by

Hearing

The main difference betweenthe

that in French, even though

reading

the

word,

can

you

when

it becomes

plural

(see

p. 6).)

Gender?,

Plural

the

forms

plural

in English

and French

is

you
plural ending if you are
the final \"s\" is never
hear
because
it,
rarely

see the

can

pronounced.)
same

on

unciati
pro\037

Ii vre

Ii vres

table

tables)

You will usually

have

to listen

to the

word

that

comes

The
whether the noun is singularor plural.
show you that in English you hear the plural in the
in French you hear it in the word that precedes it.)

to know

English

French

Singular

Plural

the book

the books

the table

the tables

livre

les livres

la table

les tables)))

Ie

before

the noun

examples
noun
itself,

below

while

WHAT

.....\037...\037......REVIEW

IS MEANT

By

NUMBER?

11)

.\037..\037.\037\037\037\037\037\037\037.\037\037..

Indicate
under
COLUMN A if
English and French wordsbelow.
is singular (S) or plural
(P).
\302\267 the
B if you
under
COLUMN
English and French words aloud.Indicate
Say
if
can hear if the word is singular (S) or plural
or
can't
tell.)
(?)
you
(P),
Look

the

at the

word

Column

Column

1. desks

2. maisons

3. tooth

4.

5. feet

6. etudiantes

?)))

cheval

WHAT ARE

12

ARTICLES?)

ARE ARTICLES?)

WHAT

4.

the
noun
word placed before a noun to show whether
or
or idea,
event,
particular person, animal,place,thing,
or
idea.
whether the noun refers to an unspecified
thing,
person,
An

is a

article

to a

refers

I saw the boy

spoke

you

about.

a particular

boy)

a boy

I saw

street.

the

in

an unspecified

boy)

Articles)

Definite

IN ENGLISH

article is used beforea

A definite

particular person,place,

animal,

thing,

article,the.

the

read

noun

when

we are

or idea.

speaking about a
is one definite

There

you recommended.

book

a particular

book)

the apple

I ate

a particular

becomes

remains

the when the noun which

follows

plural.

I read

I ate
IN

me.

apple)

article

definite

The

you gave

the books
the

apples

you recommended.
you

gave

me.)

FRENCH

article is used beforea noun when referring


in
person, place, animal,thing,or idea.However,
the article works hand in hand with
the
noun
it belongs to in
French,
that it matches the noun'sgenderand number.
This
is
\"matching\"
called agreement. (One says that \"the article agrees with the noun.\") A
different
article is used, therefore,depending
on
whether
the noun
is
masculine or feminine (gender)and depending
on whether
the noun is
are
both
singular or plural (number).Becausethesearticles
pronounced
and spelled differently, they indicate the genderand number
of the noun to the ear as wellasto the
eye.)))
As

in English,

to a

particular

a definite

13)

WHAT ARE ARTICLES?

forms of the definitearticle:three

There are four


one plural.

Le indicates that

noun

the

is masculine

Ie livre

the

book

Ie

the

boy

gar\037on

la table

the table

la porn me

the

singular.

apple

L' is used instead of Ie and


la before
does not tell us, therefore,if the noun
I

and

noun is femininesingular.

that the

La indicates

forms

singular

'etudiant

the

student)

the

school)

a word

beginning

is masculine

with

It

a vowel.

or feminine.)

Inasculine)

I' ecole
I

felninine)

in writing. It is never pronounced.When


exists
only
with the letter \"h\",the word is usually
considered
with
vowel:
I'herbe
a
(the grass);
(the
hotel).
beginning
Your textbook
will go into the few exceptions to this rule.

The letter

\"h\"

starts

word

as

l'h6tel

The

of a

dropping

is called an

final vowel beforea word

elision. You

will

have

to rely

dictionary or your

word is masculineor feminine.


Les
is used to indicate that the noun is plural.Sincethere
form, it does not tell us if the noun is masculineor feminine.
to know

memory

Masculine

les
les

Ii

les

the

gar\037ons)

only

one

books

plural

tables

the tables

the apples)

Vowels are the sounds associated


with
the other letlers of the alphabet.)))

with

is

the boys)

les pOlnlnes)
I

if the

plural

vres

Feminine

a vowell

with

starting

on the

the letters 0, e, i, 0 and u; consonants are

the sounds associated

WHAT ARE

14

ARTICLES?)

Articles)

Indefinite

IN ENGLISH
An Indefinite

article is usedbeforea noun


an unspecified person,animal,place,thing,
two indefinite articles,a and an.
a word beginningwith

used before

A is

a boy

I saw

speaking about
There are

or idea.

event,

a consonant.

street.

the

in

we are

when

a particular

not

a word

before

is used

An

boy)

beginningwith

a vowel.

an apple.

I ate

a particular

not

article is used only

The indefinite

when the noun


but

it,

replace

apple)

becomes

it is

noun;

a singular

the word

it is

dropped

some is usedto

usually omitted.

I saw

boys

I saw

(some)boys

I ate

plural.

with

At times,

street.

in the

the

in

street.

apples.

I ate (some)apples.)
IN

FRENCH

in
English, an indefinite article is used
when referring to an unspecified
animal,
person,

As in

idea. Just as with

definite

the noun's genderand

indefinite

the indefinitearticle:two

one plural.

Un indicates that

Une

the

noun

un

livre

a book

un

gar\037on

a boy

indicates
une

that the

table

une pomtne

before

a noun

place, thing, event, or


articles must agree with

number.

forms of

are three

There

articles,

French

singular.

noun is feminine singular.

a table

an

is masculine

apple)))

singular

forms

and

WHAT

Des is
form,

ARE ARTICLES?

used to indicatethat the noun is plural. Since there is only


not tell us if the noun is masculineor feminine.

15)

one

it does
Masculine

plural

des

Ii

des

gar\037ons

boo ks

vres

Feminine

boys

plural

des tables

tables

des pOlnmes

apples)

Articles

Partitive

French also has another set of articlescalledpartitive


articles
because
are
used
before
certain nouns
they refer to \"part of the whole.\"They
called non-count nouns. As the name implies, a non-count noun dessinignatesan object that cannot be counted. It is, therefore, always
the
For
noun
water
is
a
non-count
n
oun
because
it
is a
gular.
example,

cannot be precededby

such
as 1, 2, 3, etc. (You
The
waters...)
opposite of non-count
is count
noun can be singular
nouns
or plural
because
an object that can be counted.Forexample,
the
noun
it designates
pen
can be preceded by numbers suchas 1,2,3 etc.(one
pen,two pens...).
in French, partitive articles agree with
Like
the
all articles
noun's
form
and number. Since non-count nounsdon't have
a plural
gender
and are always singular, partitive
have
forms.
articles
only
singular
As you will see in the examples
below, French partitive articles can be
translated
some or any, but they are often left out in Engby the words

noun which

numbers

water, two
A count
nouns.

one

count

cannot

lish. In French,

the

however,

partitive

article

expressed.

Thereare

Du indicates

of the

forms

three
that

the

partitive.
is masculine

noun

J'achete du beurre.

am

buying

(some)

butter.

Voulez-vous

du beurre?

Do you

(any)

want

butter?)))

singular.

must

always

be

16

ARE ARTICLES?)

WHAT

indicates that the noun

De la

de

J'achete

I am

vowel.

la viande.
meat.

(some)

buying

Voulez-vous

de la

Do you

(any)

De I'

.
nme.)

is femininesingular.

want

viande?
meat?

is used instead of du and de la before a word beginning with a


It does not tell us, therefore,if the noun
is masculine
or femi-

Je bois de I'eau.
I

felnin

I am

ine

drinking (some)

water.

Devez-vousde I'argenta Marie?


I

masculine

Do you
This

owe (any) money to

Mary?

you the genderbecausedeI' isused with both


singular nouns.
of the different forms of the partitive
summary
textbook
for the rules regarding their usage.)

does not tell


and feminine

form

masculine

The aboveis

articles.

Refer

brief

to

your

Hearing the Genderand


In

spoken

French

the singular form

the gender

of a noun can usually

of articles. When

article,the femininegender

can

Number

be

a noun

heard

be

is preceded

in the

\"a\"

sound

heard

only

in

by a definite
at the

end of

la. The masculinegenderis harder


to identify
because
the final \"e\" of
Ie is not pronounced.
When a noun is precededby a definite
article,
will
un and
have
to
train
ear
to
the
difference
between
hear
you
your
une. The number of a noun
will
in
often
be
heard
the
article
only

which precedesit, lesor des.)))

WHAT

....\037............\037

................REVIEW
is a

Below
\302\267
Circle
count
\302\267
Write

list of

English

which

of the

nouns

(N).

French

the

feminine

nouns

by a definite

preceded

are count

nouns below

article for each

ENTRY

DICTIONARY

shows

on

noun

you

if

nouns

the

the
noun

entry

livre

ami

chaise

idee

argent

(n.m.)

temps

(n.m.)

cours

luck

chance

dinner

diner

(n.m.)

glace

(n.f.))))

friend

3. some

7. a

chairs

idea

5. some
6. the

money

weather

course

8. some
9. the

article.

which are

non-

(f.).)

1. the books

4. an

or indefinite

(C) and

line provided. The French


(n.) is masculine (m.) or

Dictionary

2. the

17)

ARE ARTICLES?

10. some

ice-cream

(n.m.)
(n.m.)
(n.f.)
(n.f.)

(n.m.)
(n.f.)

French article

WHAT IS THE

18

POSSESSIVE?)

IS THE

WHAT

5.

The term possessivemeans

one

that

POSSESSIVE?)
owns or

noun

possesses another

noun.)

are torn.

The

b\037Ok'S payes

possessor possessed
plural)

singular

IN ENGLISH

show possession in oneof two


An apostrophe
can be used. In this
comes before the noun possessed.

You can
1.

\"s\"

the

noun possessor

or proper

common

singular

ways.
construction,

noun

adds an

possessor
+

apostrophe

.)

dress

Mary's
I

possessor)

singular

book

the professor's

a tree's branches

plural
the

possessor

ending

students'

teacher

with

\"s\"

adds

an apostrophe

after the

\"s\".

possessor)

plural

club

the girls'
A

plural
the

possessor

not ending

children's

playground

with

\"s\"

adds

an apostrophe

\"s\".

possessor)

plural

the men's

department

2. The word of can

comes

the

before

A singular

or of a.
the

be

noun

In this

used.

of the

the noun possessed

possessor

is preceded

possessor.

or plural commonnoun

book

structure,

professor
I

singular

common

noun possessor)))

by of

the

IS THE

WHAT

of the

teacher

19)

of a tree

the branches
the

POSSESSIVE?

students
I

common

plural

noun possessor)

noun possessor is precededby

A proper

the

dress

of

of Mary
I

noun possessor)

proper

IN

FRENCH

The

structure

apostrophe

( 1 above) does not

way to express possessionand


tion

(2

above).

a noun possesses another noun the


noun possessed + de + definiteor indefinite
sessor)
When

dress
Mary's
I
I
possessor

of Mary

book)

follows: the
noun pos-

+ the

article

noun

possessor

possessed

la robe
professor's

is as

structure

the dress

noun

possessed)

the

one

\"of' (de) construc-

using the

is by

that

is only

There

exist.

de

the book

Ie

of the professor
du

livre

Marie)

professeur

de + Ie)

a tree's

branches)

the branches

les

branches

the lady's

handbag)

the handbag of the


Ie sac

the students' teacher)

of a tree
d'un

arbre)
lady

de la dame)

the teacher of the


Ie professeur

des

students
\037tudiants

de + les)

Careful

confuse du, de la, de I', and des meaning


of and of the with
words of the samespellingwhich
are
articles
(see p. 15) and
partitive
the plural indefinitearticle(p. 15)meaning
some
or any. When they
indicate possession, they usually
come
between
two nouns (the book
of the teacher).)))
Do not

WHAT IS

20

THE

POSSESSIVE?)

REVIEW
\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037

are

Below

structure

possessives
which

is the

using the apostrophe. Write the alternate


English
equivalent of the French structure.

word-far-word

1. somechildren'sparents
2.

the

3. the

4.

dress's

5. the

color

school's entrance

car's

speed

books'

covers)))

\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037)

WHAT

6.
is a word that

A verb

IN

of the sentence. The word


necessarilyphysical action.)

action

the

indicates

broadest sense, not

in its

used

is

\"action\"

A VERB?)

IS

WHAT

21)

IS A VERB?

ENGLISH

Let us

look at different
a

mental

to

to run,

activity

physical

.a

types of words which areverbs:


to hope,
to think

activity

. a condition

to

be,

\"action\" of the

imagine, to

of the

one

into

neatly

because

they

sentence.)

The book costsonly

box
dream,

to have

nevertheless

verbs

to walk, to

talk,

to believe, to

to sit,

Many verbs, however,donot fall

gories. They are

to

hit,

above catethe

represent

$5.00.

to cost)

seem tired.

The students

to seem)

you learn to recognize


where the verbs are in italics.

To help

The

verbs, look

at

the

below

paragraph

selected a table,
looked at the menu
and
the waitress
asked
what she recommended. She advised
the
beef
stew.
It was not expensive. They
chose
daily
special,
a bottle
of red wine and ordered a salad.The servicewas
but the food tasted very good. Good cooking,they
slow,
takes
time. They ate pastry for dessert and finished
decided,
three

hung up

meal

the

The verb

entered

students

and

their

coats

with

coffee.

the restaurant,
sat down. They

is one of the mostimportant

words

write a completesentence,i.e.,express
verb. It is important that you learn to
tion

of

many

words

in a

sentence

the verb. For instance,the

actionof

the

verb

p. 116)

the

(see
.)))

verb,

What

and

is a

object

Subject?,

sentence;

a complete

identify

often

subject

the

in a

depends

of a

sentence

is the

thought,

you cannot
without a

verbs because
on their

is the

the func-

relationship

to

word doingthe

word receivingthe actionof

p. 28, and

What

are

Objects?,

WHAT IS A VERB?)

22

IN FRENCH

identified the same way

Verbs are

- The

INFINITIVE

its subject:

verb is

conjugated or changesin

I do, he does(seeWhat

an

form

the

an

is called

verb
is

Infinitive?,

to agree

with

Conjugation?,
p. 36).
or
indicates tense, that is, the time (present,
is Meant by
be (see
What
action: I am, I was, I will
Verb

is a

past,

A verb
of

future)

English.)

Verbs
Terms Used to TalkAbout
verb form which is the nameof the

- A

CONJUGATION

are in

they

to eat, to sleep, to drink (seeWhat

infinitive:
p. 23).

TENSE

as

Tense?, p. 52).
- A

VOICE

verb shows

and the actionof the

voice,

verb

(see

that

the

is,

relation

is Meant

What

Voice?,p. 85).
-

MOOD

shows mood, that

A verb

between the subject


by Active and Passive

is, the speakers'attitude

toward

(see What is Meant by Mood?,


p. 50).
they
form
PARTICIPLE - A verb
be
used
to
a
also
participle: writing,
may
written,
(see What is a Participle?, p. 59).
sung
singing,
- A verb can be classifiedas transitive
or
OR INTRANSITIVE
TRANSITIVE
or
the
verb
can
a
direct
on whether
not
take
intransitive
depending
are
Objects?,
p. 116).)
object (see What
are saying

what

\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037

\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037REVIEW

the

Circle

1. The
2. Paul

verbs

They

dinner,

6. I

the

sentences.

following

students purchase their lunch at


and Mary were happy.

3.
enjoyed
4. Paulate
sad
to
5. It
was

in

the

movie,

fmished

see the

but they
his

novel,

little dog

school.

preferred the book.


and then went to bed.

struggle to get out

attended a concertto celebratethe

New

Year.)))

of

the

lake.

WHAT IS AN

An
IN

is the

Infinitive

IS

WHAT

7.

name of the

23)

INFINITIVE?

INFINITIVE?)

AN

verb.)

ENGLISH

infinitive is composed of two words:to + the dictionary


the verb (to speak, to dance). By dictionary
we mean the
form,

The

the verb that is listedas the


be used in

most basic form


of the
another verb which
Conjugation?,
p. 36).

of

form of

(speak, dance).
verb, it can never

is conjugated(see

is exciting.

learn

To

dictionary

without

a sentence

a Verb

is

What

in the

is the

infmitive

the

Although

entry

form

\037ain

verb

infinitive)

It's

(it

on time.

important
\037s)

\037
. . ..
In f Inlhve)

verb

main

main

It has

I.

ver

ce

together.

\037ar

infinitive)

I. Y

main

L ver

b s)

infinitive

\037

form

dictionary

used after a verb

of the

verb, Le., the infinitive

such as must

must be

Paul

started to rain.

auxlhary

The

and Mary want

Paul

without

the

to, is

let.)

and

home by noon.

infinitive)

Her

parents

watch television.

let Mary

infinitive)

IN FRENCH

The infmitive

form is shown by

calledthe ending;the

English

the
word

last

or three letters of the verb


the infinitive has no French

two

to in

equivalent.

danser

to dance

finir

to finish

vendre

to sell

These endings,called
group each
belongs
la

verb

termlnalson
to:)))

in French,

also tell

you which

WHAT IS AN

24

belong to the 1st group

verbs

-er

INFINITIVE?)

-ir verbs belongto the 2nd group


-re verbs belong to the 3rd group
It is important for you to identify the group to which a verb
that
you will know what pattern to follow when conjugating

belongs

so

verb.)

Careful

When

equivalent of a verb

up the

looking

an English-French
of the English

in

nary, be sure to lookfor the specificmeaning


English it is possibleto changethe meaning

words (prepositionsor adverbs)


in ColumnA below changes

lows

a verb

of

depending

meaning

by placing

For example,

them.

after

dictioverb. In

on the

the verb

word that

short

look
fol-

it:)

Column

Column

to look

for

I am

after

look

to

out

look

for a book.

looking

to take careof

\037)

I
to

to search for

\037)

am

to beware of

\037)

Lookout for
it is

In French,

the children.

after

looking

lions.

impossible to change the meaning

of

a verb

by adding

A above. An entirely
a preposition or adverb
as in Column
different
When
verb would be used for each of the
above.
various
meanings
A will
under
Column
above
consulting a dictionary, all the examples
look (regarder),
but you will have
be found under the dictionary
entry
to searchunder that entry for the expression look for (chercher) or
lookafter (surveiller)
to find the correct French equivalent. Don't
selectthe fIrst entry under look and then add on the Frenchequivalent
for
the result will be meaninglessin French.)
after;
\037\037\037\037.\037.\037\037\037\037\037..\037\037REVIEW

words

Circle the

1. Mary
2.

The

4. They

5. Paul

you

would

replace

with

an

infinitive

has nothingmoretodotoday.
must study

students

3. Paul

that

\037\037...\037..\037..\037\037\037\037\037.\037

wants

to

learn

their lessons.

French.

can leave on Tuesday.


and

Mary

hope

to travel

this summer.)))

in French.

WHAT

8.
is called an

A verb
main

AUXILIARY

25)

VERBS?

VERBS?)

verb when it helps another


is used alone,it functions
as a

or helping

verb

auxiliary

tenses. When it

of its

one

form

verb

ARE

WHAT

ARE AUXILIARY

verb.)

Mary is a girl.
a headache.

has

Paul

He has

been gonetwo

weeks.)

is

main

verb

has

main

verb

has

auxiliary verb

been

auxiliary

main

gone)

verb

verb)

ENGLISH

IN

auxiliary verbs: to

are three

There

series of auxiliary
are

which
\302\267
An

words

to change

used

is used

auxiliary

verb

past,

(present,

have, to be, and

to

do,

as well

as a

must, can, could

as will,

would, may,
the meaning of the main verb.
such

primarily
future -

to indicate the tense of the

see

What

is

Meant-by

main

Tense?,

p. 52.))

Mary is
readinga book.
I
to

auxiliary

Mary

read a

has

present)

be)

book.

past)

to

auxiliary

Mary

have)

will read

a book.

future)

will)

auxiliary
\302\267

The
tomake

verb to do
auxiliary
sentences
negative
Sentences?,

rogative
tive

Sentences?,

Does Mary
Mary

does

p.

is used to help formulatequestions


and
What
are
Declarative
and
Inter(see
46 and What are Affirmative and Nega-

p. 43)

read a book?
not read

a book.

interrogative

negative

sentence
sentence)

IN FRENCH

are only two auxiliary verbs:avoir (to have)


and
etre
(to be).
The other English auxiliary
verbs
such
as do, does, did, will or would
do
not exist
as separate words. In Frenchtheirmeaning
is conveyed
either
a
different
structure
or
the
form
of
the
main
verb. You
by
by
will find more on this subject under the different tenses.)))
There

WHAT ARE

26

The

AUXILIARY

are irregularverbs

and etre

avoir

verbs

VERBS?)

They are importantverbs


auxiliary verbs and main verbs.
avoir
J'ai un livre.

be memorized.

whose
because

must

conjugations
they

both as

serve

main

verb

a book.)

I have

J'ai pris un

avoir

livre.

taken a

I have

book.

auxiliary

prendre

(to

\"

Je suis fatigu\037.

take)

verb

main verb)

etre)

main verb)

etre

auxiliary

aller

main

tired.

I am

Je suis

a la

all\037

maison.

gone home.

I have

(to

go)

verb

verb

in
different
the
tenses
verbs avoir and etre conjugated
is a
of
main
verb
the
the
What
(see
by
past participle
the
to
form
the
tenses
of
main
are
used
various
Participle?, p. 59)
verb.A verb tense composed of an auxiliary verb plus a main verb is
tense
which is a
to
a simple
called a compoundtense,as opposed

The auxiliary
and followed

tense composedof only

the

main

verb.)

Je mange.
I

\"

sunp

Ie

tense

present of manger
I eat.)

manee.

J'ai

I \" \"

I
auxl1ary

verb

compound

r\"

maIn
verb

tense

past tense of manger


I have
eaten.

look at some examplesofthe compound


tensesyou will
in your study of French. (The firstsentenceof each
pair
uses
a fonn of avoir as an auxiliary,
and the second, a fonn of etre.)
PASSE
COMPOSE
of avoir or etre + past par(PREsENT
PERFEcr)-Present
is
verb
Past
of
main
What
the
(see
Tense?, p. 63)
ticiple
Let us
encounter

Le

gar\037on

a mange

la pommel

The boy ate (has eaten)the apple.


La fille est allee au cin\037ma.
The
girl went (has gone) to the movies.)))

WHAT

participle

gar\037on avait
mange
the
had eaten
boy

Le
The

La fi
The

lle

allee
had gone

etait

girl

ANTERIEUR

FUTUR

participleof
p.

au

69)

la pommel
apple.

cin\037ma.

to the movies.
PERFECT)-Future
is the
What

(FUTURE
verb

main

or etre + past

Tense?,p.

verb

main

27)

VERBS?

AUXILIARY

of avoir
(PAST PERFECT)-Imperfect
is
the
Past
Perfect
What
(see

PLUS-QUE-PARFAIT
of

ARE

(see

of avoir or etre + past


Future Perfect Tense?,

75)

Le
The

mange
gar\037on aura
will have eaten
boy

La fille sera alleeau


The

girl will have

la pommel
the apple.

cinema.

gone

to

movies.

the

of avoir or etre
What is the Conditional?,
p.77)

CONDITIONNEL PASSE(PAST CONOITIONAL)-Conditional

of main

participle

past

Le
The

verb (see

gar\037on aurait
mange la pommel
would
have
eaten the apple.
boy

La fille serait allee au cinema.


The girl would have gone to the
You

other

wilileam

compound

movies.

tenses as your

study

of French

pro-

gresses.)

\037............\037..REVIEW
Cross

out the

English

auxiliary

\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037..

verbs

which

are not

French.)

1. Did

2.

the children

They

3. Do you

do

will

want

4. Have the

their

do their homework?
homework

to study

tomorrow.

now?

children donetheirhomework?)))

used as

auxiliaries

in

WHAT IS A SUBJECT?)

28

IS A

9. WHAT
In

subject. When
for

is called

action

the

performs

of a sentence,always

the subject

ask, who?or what?

I
will be the subject.

Paul

to find

wish

you

fIrst; then

the verb

or thing that

the person

a sentence

SUBJECT?)

the

before

verb.

the
look

The answer

French.

speaks

Who speaks French? Answer:


Paul is the subject.

The subject is singular.

Paul.

to one

It refers

person.)

Are the keys on the table?


W

hat

Keys

is on the table?
is the subject.

The subject is plural.


Train

to ask

yourself

Answer:

is in boldface

subject

(the

Didthe game

on

start

After

playing for two


in the

Looking

Some sentences

have

the subject. Never assume a


sentence. Subjects can

in the

fIrst

as you can see in the following


and the verb italicized):

time?

hours, Paul becameexhausted.


was a little girl.
than

more

The boys were doingthe

one

main verb;
while

cooking,

Mary

table.
Boys

is the

(Note

that

Mary

is the

(Note that
In

both

verb to
choose

English

thing.)

you have to find

the

verb.

of each

subject

mirror

one

than

to fmd

question

word is the subjectbecauseit comes


be locatedin several
different
places,
examples

keys.

to more

It refers

that

the

was setting

the

of were doing.
and verb are plural.)

subject

the subject

subject
the

subject

of was setting.
and verb are

and French it

make surethat the


the form of the verb

singular.))

is important to find the


and the verb agree;

subject
that

goes

VerbConjugation?,
p.

with

subject
that

the subject.

is,

of each
you

must

(See What is a

36.))

IThe subject performs


by Active

is Meant

the action in an active

sentence,

and Passive Voice?,p. 85).)))

but

is acted upon

in a passive

sentence

(see What

WHAT

..................

.\037..............REVIEW
Find

the

\302\267
Next

in the sentences
subjects
to Q, write the question you

\302\267
Circle

to A, write the
if the subject

the bell

1. When

below.
need

to

to ask

find

the

subject

of the

below.

sentences
\302\267
Next

29)

IS A SUBJECT?

answer to the question you


is singular (8) or plural
(P).)

rang, all the childrenran

just

asked.

out.

Q:

A:

p)))

Q:

A:

2. One

waiter

the

took

order

and another

brought the food.

Q:
A:

Q:

A:

3. The fIrst-year

students

voted

for the

class president.

Q:
A:

4. Frenchis a

beautiful

language,

but

it is

difficult to

learn.

Q:
A:

Q:

A:

WHAT IS A

30

PRONOUN?)

pronoun

therefore,

IS A PRONOUN?)

WHAT

10.

It
is a word used in place of one or morenouns.
for a person, animal,place,thing,
or
idea.
event,

For instance, rather than


lowing two sentences,

the

repeating

proper

it is betterto usea

noun

pronoun

\"Paul\"

in the

stand,

may

in

the

second

fol-

sen-

tence.

Paul likesto swim. Paul practices every day.


Paul likes to swim. He practices
every
day.
a pronoun
can only be usedto referto someone(or someGenerally
been mentioned. The word that the pronoun
that
has already
thing)
or refers
to is called the antecedentof the pronoun.In the
replaces
the pronoun he refers to the propernoun
Paul.
Paul
is
above,
example
the antecedent of the pronoun he.)
ENGLISH

IN

are different types of pronouns,eachserving


funca different
tion and following different rules. Listed belowarethe more
important
in detail.
are discussed
types and the sections where they

There

PRoNouNs-These

PERSONAL

the

function

pronouns

they

change

their form

according to

sentence.

in the

have

. as subject(seep. 32)
I

as

go;

direct

(see

object

she sings.

he runs;

read;

they

p. 123)

Paul loves it. Janemethim.


. as

indirect

object (see

Jane
. as objectof

us

gave

the

Speak to them.

book.

p. 129)

(see

preposition

Paul is going out


. as

p. 126)

with

her.

a disjunctive (seep. 133)


Who

is

there?

Me.

PRONOuNs-These

REFLEXIVE

sentence(seep.82).
I

cut

myself.

We washed

pronouns

refer

ourselves.)))

back to

the subject of the

WHAT

PRONoUNs-These

INTERROGATIVE

are used in

pronouns

31)

IS A PRONOUN?

questions

(see p. 138).
do you

What

that?

is

Who

want?

PRONouNs-These

DEMONSTRATIVE

persons or

is expensive.That

This (one)

to point out

169).

p.

(see

things

are used

pronouns

is cheap.

(one)

pronouns are usedto show

POSSESSIVEPRONouNs-These

possession

p. 148).

(see

is that?

Whose book

PRONoUNs-These

RELATIVE

Yours

Mine.

the table.

is on

to introduce

are used

pronouns

relative

subordinateclauses(seep. 154).
The

man

That

is

the

PRONoUNs-These

INDEFINITE

personsor

are used

pronouns

to refer to

unidentified

things.

do that.

doesn't

One

nice.
read last summer.

is very
book which you
came

who

Something is wrong.

The French
equivalents.

indefinite
They

in usage

correspond

pronouns

in your

be studied

can

to their

textbook.)

English

FRENCH

IN

same way as in English.The most


with the noun it
agrees
in
and
gender,
correspond
usually in number,
in the

identified

are

Pronouns

importantdifferenceis

replaces;

that

a pronoun

antecedent.)

its

with

it must

is,

that

\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037REVIEW

Circle
\302\267
Draw

the

pronouns

an arrow

is more

in

below.

sentences

the

\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037

from the pronoun to

its

or antecedents

antecedent,

than one.)

1. Did Mary

2.The coat
3.
baked

and

Mary

4. Paul and

Yes, she

Peter?

call

are

dress

the

cookies

I are very

5. If the bookis not

tired.
on

the

called him last


but they

elegant,

night.

are expensive.

herself.
We

bed,

went

out last

look under

night.

it.)))

if

there

WHAT IS A SUBJECT

32

is a

pronoun

subject

while

worked

He

pronoun used
she read.

subject of

Who read? Answer:

Sheis the

She.
verb read.)

Subject pronouns are divided

speaking (the
and

the

first

into

the

into

the

person),

about

spoken

person
divided

further

worked.

verb

the

of the

subject

as a subjectof a verb.

He.

Answer:

worked?

Who

He is the

PRONOUN?)

IS A SUBJECT

WHAT

11.
A

PRONOUN?)

singular

categories:

following

the person

second person),
spoken
person
third
These
(the
person).
categoriesare
to (the

and plural.

Let us comparethe personalsubject

and French.)

in English

pronouns

English)

French)

I)

je)

you

to

Singular

1st person
the

speaking)

person

2nd person

the person spokento

3rd

person

or objectspokenabout)

the person

he

it

she

elle

it

it or

we

noos)

you)

vous)

elle

Plural
1 st

person

the person
Paul

speakingplusothers

and I speak

French.

I
I

we)

2nd

person

the person(s)
Paul

and you

spoken to

speak French.

I
I

you)

3rd person

the persons
Paul and
I
I

they)

Mary
I

or objectsspoken
speak

French.

they)
about

ils
elles)))

WHAT IS A

are three

There

English subjectpronouns

than one

more

have

which

33)

PRONOUN?

SUBJECT

equivalent in French: you, it and they. Let us look at each one so that
can learn how to choose the correct fonn.)
you

IN

OR VOUS

\037 TU

\"You\"

ENGLISH

You

used to

is always

The same
or

States

you asked: \"Are

there weremany

IN

with

coming

you

talking

to.

of the United

singular and
standing

people

me?\" the

in the

you

in a

room and

you could referto one

than one.

to more

or

are

President.

between you in the

difference

plural. For example, if


person

you

the President

to address

Mr.
have any questions,
a good dog,Heidi.

is no

there

used

is

dog.

your

Do you
You are
Also,

addressthe personor persons

pronoun you

FRENCH

sets of pronouns for you.'

are two

There

1. The

form-tu

familiar

when

with

anyone

2. The
called
do

child, family
singular
is used to

form,

polite

very well.

know

not

to a

form-vous

formal
the

This form is used

plural).

(vous

member, a friend, an
whom you are not on formal terms.

speak

you

singular

When in doubt, always

use

the

animal,

or

(vous plural). This form, also


address one or morepersons
you

polite

form, unless

speaking to a child

or animal,because are likely to offend French speakers by


with
to when it is not appropriate.
addressing
Seep. and p. 39 for a more detailed
of these
forms.)
you

them

37

\"IT\"
IN

\037

study

IL OR

ELLE

ENGLISH

or idea,you
Where is the book?It is on the table.

Whenever

you refer

Hereis

IN

the

chair.

to one thing
It is

use

the

pronoun

it.

comfortable.)

FRENCH

The
noun

singular
it replaces

subject pronoun
(see What is

you use dependson the genderof the


Meant by Gender?,
p. 6); that is, the

-pronoun must correspond in genderwith

its

antecedent.)))

WHAT IS A

34

SUBJECT

antecedent

Masculine

est Ie

Ou

masc.

livre? II est sur la table.

masc.

sing.

pronoun

Elle est

\"THEY\"

fern. sing.

sing.

antecedent
pronoun
is the chair. It is

Here

\037

confortable.

fern.

table.

elle

\037

la chaise.

Voici

.
sing

book? It is on the

is the
antecedent

Feminine

it

\037

antecedent

Where

IN

PRONOUN?)

ILS

OR ELLES

you

refer to

comfortable.)

ENGLISH

Whenever

more

one

than

or more

person

than one

you use the plural pronoun they.


Paul

and

Here
IN

The

books?

the

are the

lot.

are students; they study a


They are on the table.

Henry

are

Where

object

chairs. They are comfortable.)

FRENCH

pronoun you use dependson


that is, the pronoun must correspond

subject

plural

it replaces,

antecedent.

Masculine antecedents\037
Paul

sont

et Henri

the

ils

\037tudient

ils

\037tudiants;

beaucoup.

masc. pI.

masc.
pI.
t
teceden

an

Paul

pronoun

and Henry

Ou sont

are students. They

les livres? lis sont


t
an

Where

are the

les chaises;
I

feln. pI.
antecedent

Here

are the

a lot.

la table.

masc. pI.
pronoun

books?

Feminine antecedents
Voici

sur

study

masc.
pI.
t
teceden

They

are

on

the table.

elles

\037

of
gender
in gender

elles sont

confortables.

fern.

pI.

pronoun

chairs; they are comfortable.)))

the noun
with the

IS A SUBJECT

WHAT

Two

masculine antecedents

or more

Ie livre

soot

Ou

masc.

la

Ou soot

fern.

notebook?

the

et

sing.

fern. sing.

fern. pI.
pronoun

watch?

the

fern.

sing.

rnasc. sing.

the key

are

masc. pI.
pronoun

and the notebook. They are on the

\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037REVIEW

Write

French

the

table.

Lantecedents--.J
Here

la

table.

\037 ils

genders

et Ie cahier.lIs sootsur

la cle

are on the

They

Two or moreantecedentsof different


Voici

the table.

\037

key and

are the

are on

sur la table.

Elles soot

la mootre?

I
antecedents

They

\037 elles

antecedents

cl\037

L
Where

pronoun

book and

Two or morefeminine

table.

masc.pI.

antecedentW

are the

Where

la

masc. sing.

sing.

subject pronoun

that

you

table.)

\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037

would

use to

replace the words in

italics.
\302\267
Write

the

person and number of each

corresponding

pronoun.

French

subject

pronoun
1.

I invited?

Am

2. Come on children, you


go to bed now.

must

3. Paul and I are goingout.

4.

have

you

Mommy,

to give

me a kiss.

5.

Mary

and

are home.

Helen

6. Do you and your

wife

likesports?

7.

My

brother

French.)))

and

sister

35)

ils

\037

et Ie cahier?lIs sootsur

PRONOUN?

speak

Person

Number)

36

IS A VERB CONJUGATION?)

WHAT

WHAT

12.

A verb

conjugation

IS

CONJUGATION?)

VERB

forms
is a list of the sixpossible

particular tense. For eachtense,

six persons usedas the

Pronoun?,p. 32.)
IN

of

verb

the

for a

each of the

form for

(See What

verb.

the

of

subject

verb

one

is

there

is a Subject

ENGLISH

verbs

Most

change

sing when eachof the

verb to

Let us lookat the

very little.

is the

pronouns

possible

of the

forms

various

subject.

Singular)

1 st

I sing

person

2nd person)

You sing

with

the

music.)

He

with

the

music.

sings

She sings

3rd person)

music.

the

with

It sings

music.)

the

with

music.

the

with

Plural
1 st

person

We

the music.

with

sing

2nd person

You sing

3rd person

They sing

music.

the

with
with

the

music.

English verbs change so little, you do


verbs.\" It is much simplerto say that verbs

Because

to \"conjugate
an \"-s\" in the 3rd

need

not

add

person

singular.

The

verb

English

verb forms in

three different

the most is the verb

that changes

the

I am,

present:

to

has

which

be

are,

you/we/they

he/she/it is.)
IN

FRENCH

forms change constantly, and it is thereforenecessary


for
each
the form of the verb for each of the six persons
Verb

forms of all the verbs that exist


endless task. Fortunately, mostFrenchverbs
following two categories:

rizing

all the

Regularverbswhoseformsfollow
a

example must be memorizedand

other verbs
1In

tJ1is section

in

the

we will

same

the

would
belong

pattern

tense.

be an
to the

can

Memo-

impossible,
first of the

pattern.

regular

know

to

then be

Only

one

applied to

group.)

speak only about

the present

tense (seeWhat

is the

Present Tense?,p. 54).)))

WHAT

Irregular verbs whose formsdonotfollow


must be

37)

IS A VERB CoNJUGATION?

regular

any

and

pattern

memorizedindividually.

you memorize,

verb

Whatever

conjugation
made
always

regular or irregular,a con-

is
up of a pronoun subject and the verb form
is
a conjugation
that goes with that subject. The orderused
then the
and
3rd
the same: the singular 1st,
persons,
always

jugation

2nd,

2nd, and 3rd persons.)

pluralIst,

to list

Subject
Pay

chanter

verb

subject pronoun in

to the

attention

special

French

(to

this conjugationof the

sing).

Singular
1st person

je chante

2nd person)

tu

chantes

it chante

3rd

person)

elle chante)

Plural
1 st

nous chantons
vous chantez

person

2nd person)
3rd
Each
1 ST

ils
person)))

PERSON SINGULAR-The\"

the person

whenever
Le

matin

In the
2ND
\"tu

form\")

je chante

SINGULAR-The

form\")

is used

\"you familiar

the person

terms, see p. 33) is the


tn

John,

you sing well.

is

I form\" of the verb

chantes

when

(the \"jeform\")

used

is

action.

doer

singular form\" of the verb

spoken to (with

of the

whom

you

(the
are

action.

bien.

elle
is

\"he, she, it form\" of the verb (the \"ii,


the person, thing, or idea spokenabout the)

SINGULAR-The
used

verb.

well.

whenever

Jean,
PERSON

doer of the actionof the

bien.

I sing

morning

chantent

speaking is the doerof the

PERSON

on familiar

3RD

{ elles
represents the

subject

chantent

WHAT IS A

38

doer
one

of the

3rd

The

\037ction.

of three

CONJUGATION?)

VERB

person

singular

subject can

be expressedin

ways:

person singularmasculine
pronoun
elle
(she,
person singular femininepronoun

1. the third

il (he,

it) and

the third

it)

bien.

II chante

He singswell.
II est

livre.

ce

Regardez

interessante

Look at this book.It is interesting.


bien.

chante

Elle

She sings

well.

la chaise.

Voici

Here is the

chair.

Elle est confortable.


It is comfortable.

2. a proper noun

Marie chantebien.
I

elle

well.

sings

Mary

Paul chante

bien.

I
il

Paul

sings

In both
pronoun
singular

well.

these sentencesthe proper


he (iI) or she (elle),so that
form

of the

noun
you

could be replaced by the


must use the 3rd person

verb.)

3. a singular commonnoun
La

title

chante

bien.

elle

The

girl

sings well.)

L'oiseau chante bien.


I

i}

bird

The
In

both

pronoun
singular

sings well.)
sentences the common noun
could
be replaced by the
(iI) or she (elle), so that
you must use the 3rd person
form
of the verb.)

these
he

- The \"we form\" of the verb


1STPERSON
PLURAL
\"nous
(the
form\") is
used whenever \"I\"(the speaker)is one of the doers
of the action; that
is, whenever the speaker is includedin a plural or multiple subject.)))

bien.

Nous chantons
We

39)

CONJUGATION?

IS A VERB

WHAT

well.

sing

moi chantons bien.

Paul et

Marie,
I

I
I

nous)

sentence, the
by the pronoun

last

this

In

sing well.

and I

Paul

Mary,

replaced

nous fonn of the


PLURAL

PERSON

2ND
form\")

1. The plural of tu
tu individually
et

Paul

verb.)

is used
the

Dupont,
sing

you

form\"

\"they

things,

persons,

vous chantez

bien.

well.
of the

or ideas

of the action. The 3rd personplural


of three ways:

verb (the \"ils, elles form\


are
which are spokenabout
subject

plural masculine pronoun i1s(they)


feminine
person plural
pronoun elles(they)
The

third

lis

person

bien.

chantent

They sing well.

RegardezcesIivres. lis sont interessants.


these books.They are interesting.

Look at
Elles

bien.

chantent

They sing well.


Voici

les

chaises.

Here are the

chairs.

more persons

action.

bien.

doers

in one
1.

the

when

chantez

one or

doers of the

sing well.

et Madame

- The

- When

are the

vous

Dupont,

PLURAL

use

well.

formally

Mr. andMrs.Dupont,
3RD PERSON

you

bien.
sing

you

Mrs. Dupont,you
Monsieur

whom

bien.

tu chantes

address

Madame

form\" of the verb (the \"vous

bien.

vous chantez

chantes

singular and plural politeform

whom you

be

use the

instances:

Paul and Mary,


2. The

must

you

two or more persons with


are the doers of the action.

tu

Marie,

in French

- When

Marie,

Paul,

that

we J so

- The \"you plural

in two

is used

subject, Mary, Paul and /, could

Elles

sont confortables.
are comfortable.)))

They

can

be expressed

and

the

third

40

2.

IS A VERB CoNJUGATION?)

WHAT

proper or commonnouns

or more

two

Marie et

bien.

chantent

Paul
I

I
I

ils

Paul sing

and

Mary

La tille et Iegar\037on
I

well.
bien.

chantent

I
I

ils

The

3.

and the

girl

boy sing well.

noun.

plural

Les rilles

bien.

chantent

elles

The

girls

sing well.)

Verb Form

Let

at
again
attention

look

us

special

paying

of the verb chanter


the conjugation
each
to the verb forms. Notice that

persons has a different verb form.However,


one
belong to the same person thereis only
the 3rd person singularhas two pronouns,

have the sameverb

chante

tu

chantes)

iI

verb

il and

form.

two

six

of the

pronouns

For instance,

elle, but

they both

chante.

form:

je

when

(to sing),

chante)
})

elle
nous)

chantons

vous

chantez)

ils
chantent)))

elles }

TheFrench
is composed
1. The stem (alsocalled
verb

the

by

dropping

What

is the

of two
root),

parts:

ilia racine\"

in French,

the last two or three letters fromthe


Infinitive?, p. 23).)

which is found
infinitive

(see

WHAT

Infinitive

Stem

chanter

chant

finir

fin-

vendre)

vend-)

In regular

IS A VERB CONJUGATION?

41)

verbs the stem rarely

a conjugation.

throughout

changes

for each
endlng,\"laterminaison\"in French,which
changes
in
the
of
and
verbs.
You will
person
conjugation
regular
irregular
know which endings to add when you have established which group
the verb belongs to.)

2. The

Regular verbs are divided


based on the infinitive

Eachof

verb

three

pattern

like

verbs

verb

-+ 1st

aiIner)
2.

Find

the verb

own set of verb

Tense?,

sample

belonging

at regular

(to speak) and

above.

of the verb by its infmitive

infmitive

aim-)
agrees

with

the subject.

je parle

j'aime

tu

tn aimes

paries

it parle

il aime

elle parle

elleaime

nons

nons

parlons

vons parlez
ils

parlent

elles parlent

ending.

conjugation or group)

stem by removing the

the ending that

for

each

first group (-er verbs),


aimer (to love) that follow the

of the

verbs

parl-

3. Add

endings

p. 52). You will have to memoverb from each group in order to


to that group. As an example, let

(to sing),conjugated

the group

parler

one

only

parler

of chanter

1. Identify

3rd group
has its

groups

more

is,

conJugations,

-re)

What is Meant by

any

also called

ending.)

2nd group

rizeallthe tensesof
conjugate regular
us look
closely
that

groups,

-ir)

the

tense (see

three

into

-er)

1st group

Verbs

of Regular

Conjugation

aimons

vons aimez
ils aiment

elles aiment)))

ending.

WHAT IS A VERB CoNJUGATION?)

42

The

belonging to the other groupswill


of conjugation will always
be the
same

for verbs

endings

the process

but

verbs:

1. Identify

the

2. Find

the verb

group

3. According

to

verb by its

of the

infinitive

be

different,

for regular

ending.

stem.
the

group,

add the ending

that

with

agrees

the subject.
in your
As irregular verbs are introduced
the entire conjugatextbook,
tion will be given
so that
memorize
them
can
you
individually. Be sure
to dosobecause
common
verbs
are
irregular (avoir, to have,
many

etre, to be,

and

to make,

faire,

Careful
A

special

Although

word

must

you can

be said

for example).)

about the verbs of the

among
easily see the differences

the

forms when they are written (parle,paries,parlent),they


nounced in the same way (parle). In orderto write
them
will have to identify
the
subject.)
\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037REVIEW

Write

the

stem

and conjugate the

first

group.

verb

various
are

all

pro-

correctly

you

\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037

regular verb

Stem:

Je

nous

tu

vous

il/elle

ils/elles)))

porter

(to carry,

to wear).)

ARE AFFIRMATIVE AND

WHAT

WHAT

13.

AND

AFFIRMATIVE

ARE

NEGATIVE

43)

SENTENCES?

NEGATIVE

SENTENCES?)
it is expressing
can be classifiedasto whether
a fact or situation that is not.
affirmative sentence expresses a fact or situation that

a fact

A sentence
uation

An

or sit-

is or

that

is;

it affirms

the information.

France is a country
Paul

in

will work at the

They liked to travel.


A

sentence

negative

Europe.

university.
a fact

expresses

the information. It includesa word

a country

France is not
Paul will not

IN

is

not;

it negates

negation.

Asia.

work at the university.

They did not


An

in

or situation that

of

to travel.)

like

ENGLISH

can become a negative sentencein

sentence

affIrmative

of two

one

ways:

1. add the

word not after

verbs)

some

Affirmative

Negative

Paul is a student.

Paul

Mary can do it.


They

travel.

will

is not

a student.

Mary

cannot

They

will not

do it.

travel.

Frequently, the word not is attachedto the verb and


replaced by an apostrophe; this is calleda contraction.
tracted fonn of \"will not\" is \"won't.\
Paul

isn't a

the

\"0\" is

letter
The

con-

student.

is not)

Mary

can't do

it.

cannot)

They

won't

travel.

will

not)

the auxiliary
of the main verb

2. add

verb do, does,or did+ not

(do or doesis

used

for

+ the

negatives

dictionary
in the

form

present)))

44

ARE AFFIRMATIVE AND

WHAT

SENTENCES?)

NEGATIVE

tense and did for negatives in the past tense-see What


is the Past Tense?, p. 63)
sent Tense?, p. 54 and What
Affirmative

We

Pre-

the

is

Negative

a lot.

study

We

Mary writes well.


The train arrived.

Mary

The

do

not
does

study a lot.
not write well.

train did not

Frequently, do, does, or didiscontracted

arrive.

with

not:

doesn't,

don't,

didn't.)
IN

FRENCH

The

basic

tence

is

(If

the

rule for turning an


ne before the

to put

conjugated verb and pas after that verb.


with a vowel, ne dropsthee and

verb starts

conjugated

becomes

affirmative sentence into a negativesen-

n'.))
Affirmative

Nous

Negative

Nous

beaucoup.)

mangeons

ne

pas beaucoup.

manfeons

verb

conjugated

We eat

not eat

We do

lot.)

Marie n'\037crit

Marie ecrit bien.)

lot.)

bien.

pas

conjukated verb

Mary does not write

well.)

writes

Mary

Le train est

Le

arrive.)

n 'est

train

The

placement

negated

of ne

and when

to consultyour

and pas

there is an

The train

arriv\037.

pas

conjugated

The train has arrived.)

verb

has not

varies somewhatwhen
object

pronoun

well.

in the

arrived.)

an

is

infinitive

sentence. Be

sure

textbook.)

Careful

Remember
that there
did in French; do not

is no equivalent for the auxiliary


to include
them in a negative
try

words
sentence.)))

do,

does,

WHAT

ARE

\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037REVIEW

Write

the

\302\267
Circle

negative
words

the

AND NEGATIVE

AFFIRMATIVE

SENTENCES?

45)

\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037

of each sentence.
which indicate the negative in

the

sentences

you have just

written.
\302\267
Box

in the

English words around

1. We want

2. He

to speak Englishin

does his

3. Helenwas

4. Paul

which

you

sentence.)

French

class.)

homework.)

home

this

morning.)

can go to the restaurant

with

us.)))

would

place

the ne

. . . pas in

WHAT ARE

46

SENTENCES?)

AND INTERROGATIVE

DECLARATIVE

WHAT ARE DECLARATIVE AND

14.

INTERROGATIVE

SENTENCES?)
whether
can be classified according to its purpose,
or asks a question.

A sentence

it

a statement

makes

is a

sentence

declarative

sentence that is a statement;it

the

declares

information.

discovered America

Columbus
An

sentence

Interrogative

written

IN

ENGLISH

one of

can be

sentence

A declarative

1.

a question.

asks

sentence always ends with

an interrogative

language,
mark.)

question

is a sentence that

Columbus discover America?

When did
In

1492.

in

changed to an

in

sentence

interrogative

two ways:

or did before the subjectand


the
change
dictionary form of the verb (do and
tense and did to
does are used to introducea questionin the present
What is the Present
introduce a question in the past tense-see
Tense?,p. 54 and What is the Past Tense?, p. 63).)
the

Add

do, does,

verb to

likes

Does Philip like the

the class.

3rd pers. sing.)

present

and Mary

Paul

Alice

went

3 rd pers.

3rd

present

pl.)

to Paris.

Did

Alice

past)

past

sing. + dictionary

and Mary

Paul

Do

class?

present

sing together.

3rd pers.

present

sentence

Interrogative

sentence

Declarative

Philip

verb

auxiliary
the main

pi ers.

form)

together?
sing
I

pI. + dictionary

fonn)

go to Paris?
I

+ di \037
tionary

form)

word orderof subject+ verb to verb + subject.


This Inversion process can only be used with verbs that can be used
are
as auxiliaries(seeWhat
Verbs?,
Auxiliary
p. 25).)
Declarativesentence
sentence
Interrogative
the normal

2. Invert

Paulis home.

Is Paul

subject

I am

late.

verb)

verb

+ subject)
I late?

Am

subject

home?

verb)

verb

subject)))

ARE DECLARATIVE AND

WHAT

She will come

tomorrow.

she

Will

+ will +

subject

IN

will

+ subject +

maio verb)

FRENCH

sentence can

A declarative

one of

1.

maio verb)

tomorrow?

come

47)

SENTENCES?

INTERROGATIVE

two ways:
the

Add

a la

mangez

Est-ce quevous
are

Are

you eating

eating

soir?

evening.

at home this evening?

a la

mange

the statement.

maison ce

a la
this

in

sentence

interrogative

soir.

maison ce

mangez

at home

You

Paul

que before

est-ce

expression

Vous

be changedto an

maison.

Est-ce que Paul mange


Paul eats at home.

maison?

a la

DoesPauleat at home?

Je

I can

maintenant.

manger

peux

Est-ce

que je peux manger maintenant?


eat now.

Can I eat now?

2. Usethe
verb.

inversion

that

form,

is, put any subject,

subject, use the est-ce


the subject is a pronoun,simply

(If je

When

is the

que
invert

except je,

after

the

form.)
the

verb

and pronoun

subject.
Vous

a la

mangez

maison ce

Mangez-vousa la maison
eating at home
you eating at home

soir.
soir?

ce

You are

this

evening.

Are

this

evening?

is a noun, follow thesesteps:

the subject

When

1.

State

the

noun

subject.

the verb and, when


add
writing,
3. State the subjectpronoun that corresponds
number of the subject (seep. 32).

2. State

Paul

est

a la

maison.

Paul est-it a la maison?


(word-for-word:

Paul

Paul is home.

Is Paulhome?)))

is he

home?)

a hyphen.
to the gender

and

WHAT ARE

48

DECLARATIVE

et la cl6 sont sur la table.


et la cle sont-elles
sur la table?

La montre

La

montre

Since both

and the

watch

The

(word-for-word:

(18 montre

subjects

will be feminine

pronoun

plural;

they on the

are

table?)
the

feminine,

watch

the

Paul et Mariechantent
Since one
pronoun

Paul and

Do

do they

together?)

sing

(Paul) and the other feminine


plural; i.e., Us (see p. 35).

is masculine

subject

will

be masculine

the

(Marie),

Mary sing together.


and

Paul

and Mary

Paul

(word-for-word:

ensemble.

chantent-ils ensemble?

et Marie

Paul

key

and 18 cle) are


i.e., elles.

and the key are on the table.


and the key on the table?

The watch
Are

SENTENCES?)

INTERROGATIVE

AND

sing

Mary

together?)

Tag Questions

In both Englishand
at the

French

when

a statement

transform

also

can

you

expect

a yes-or-no

into a question by

end of the statement.Thisshort

phrase

adding

answer, you

a short

is sometimes

phrase
called a

tag.
IN

ENGLISH

The

tag repeats
and

Paul

The watch
IN

the idea
Mary
and

sing
the

of the statementas a negativequestion.


together, don't they?
key are on the table, aren'tthey?)

FRENCH

words n'est.ce
pas?
turn it into a question.
The

can be addedto a

declarative

sentence

to

Paul et Mary chantent


n'est-ce
ensemble,
pas?
Paul and Mary singtogether,
don't
they?
La montre et la cl6 sont sur la table, n'est-ce pas?
The
watch
and the key are on the table, aren't they?
Notice

that

although

the English

n'est.cepasdoesn't

change.)))

tag changes, the Frenchexpression

ARE DECLARATIVE AND

WHAT

INTERROGATIVE

SENTENCES?

49)

Careful

Make sure that you do not use the auxiliaries do, does and did when
like
est.ce
que, they signal a
you are asking a question in French.Just
Also, use only one interrogativeform
question and are not translated.
or the other, either est.ce que with no inversion of the verb and subject, or the inversion form.)
\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037

\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037REVIEW

the interrogative form for


the words which indicate

I. Write
\302\267
Circle

each of the sentences


in the
the interrogative

below.
you have

sentences

written.

just

studied all evening.)

and Mary

1. Paul

2. His brother eatsa lot.)


3.

The

II. Let

parents

girl's

us

changed

the different

see

4. In

word

the

2. Circlethe
3. To

space

in

can

French.

and father went to the movies.


before
after

word

use the

the

ways the declarative sentence below

to an interrogative sentence
My mother

1. Box in

speak French.)

inversion

which

you

which you
form,

provided,

fill

fill

would
would

in the

in the

\302\267
State

the

noun subject:

\302\267
State

the

verb:

\302\267
State

the

pronoun

place
place

answers

answer

in

est-ce
n'est.ce

que?
pas?

to the steps

below.

French.

that

corresponds to the subject:)

\037

In French:)))

be

WHAT IS MEANT

50

BY MooD?)

WHAT IS

15.

one or

into moods which,in

are divided

forms

Verb

MEANT BY

more tenses. Theword

MOOD?)

turn,

are

subdivided

into

of the word mode,

mood
is a variation
The various grammatical moods indicatethe
if
For
of the speaker
toward what he or sheis saying.
attitude
instance,
if
are
use
one
but
an
are
a
statement
mood,
giving
you
making
you
you
use another.
As a beginning student of French,
order
you
only
you
so that you will know what
have to recognize the names of the moods
will
it uses these terms. You
to when
your Frenchtextbookis referring
verbs
and their
learn
when
learn
to use the various moods as you

or

manner

meaning

way.

tenses.)
IN

ENGLISH

can be in

Verbs

-The

INDICATIVE

that

one of three moods:

the verb

facts. This

forms that

you

indicativemood.
of
the indicativemood:
Most

the

p. 63),

future

the

and

used to state the actionofthe verb,


and most of
is the mostcommon
mood,
in everyday
conversation
use
belong to the
studied in this handbook belong to
the tenses
tense
(see p. 54), the past tense (see
present
mood is

indicative

is, to indicate

tense

(p. 72).

Paul studies French.


I

indicative)

present

Mary

was here.
I

past

They

indicative)

will come

tomorrow.

\037
future

indicative)

IMPERATIVE-The
(see

What

is the

imperative

mood

Imperative?,

tenses.

Paul, study French

Mary, be homeon

now!
time!)))

give commandsor orders


moodis not divided into
This
56).
p.
is used to

WHAT IS

MEANT

BY MooD?

SUBJUNCTIVE-The subjunctive mood is usedto expressan


toward the action of the verb. Sinceit
feeling
the
fact or idea, it is \"subjective\" about them. (SeeWhat

51)

or

attitude

stressesfeelings

junctive?,
p. 90.) In English, this moodis not divided
The school requires that students
French.
study
I wish

that

Mary

IN

were

is

the

Sub-

tenses.

here.

recommends

The teacher

into

about

that

he

do

his homework.)

FRENCH

The

French

language

identifies four

moods.

the indicative mood is the mostcommon,


will learnbelongto this mood.
in English, the imperative mood is usedto give
IMPERATIVE-As
orders
and it is not divided into tenses.
SUBJUNCfIVE-Unlike
the subjunctive
mood is used very freEnglish,
The
French
two
and
it
is
divided
into
tenses.
has
subjunctive
quently
The premain tenses: the present subjunctiveand the past subjunctive.
and in written
sent subjunctive is commonlyusedin conversation
French. Textbooks use the term\"present
to distinguish
subjunctive\"
that tense from the \"presentindicative\"
the \"present
conditional.\"
and
CONDITIONAL-Frenchgrammar also recognizesa moodcalledthe conto
ditional.
The conditional
mood (see p. 77) is frequently
used
if a
the action of the verb as a possibility or an impossibility
express
the present
condicertain condition is filled. There are two tenses:
tional and the past conditional.
and

in English,

As

INDICATIVE-

most

tenses you

of the

Sij'avais

de

I'argent,

If I had money,

I would

j'acheterais

buy this

ce livre.

book.

Les etudiants seraient allesa Paris,s'ilsavaient


eu Ie temps.
The students would have
to
had
had the time.
Paris,
gone
if they
use the

Textbooks

made

mood,

term \"present conditional\"to distinguish it from

to

the

the

the

is

ve\" and \"present subjunctive.\"If noreference


the tense usually belongs to the mostcommon
mood,

indicati

\"present

indicative.)))

52

IS MEANT BY TENSE?)

WHAT

WHAT

16.

The tense of a

IS MEANT BY

TENSE?)

time when the action of the verb


in
the past,or in the future). The word
takes
(at the present time,
place
as the French
word \"temps,\" which
tense comes from the same word
the

indicates

verb

means time.)
I aID

present

eating.

I ate.

past

I will eat.)

future)

the verb in a
see in the above examples, just by putting
tense
and
without
additional
information
different
(such as
giving
any
\"Iam eatingnow,\" \"I ate yesterday,\"
\"I will
eat tomorrow\,")
you can
indicate when the actionof the verb takes place.
A
are formed.
Tenses may be classified accordingto the way
they
simple tense consists of only one verb form (I ate), while a compound
tense consistsof two or more verb forms (I am eating).
In this section we will only consider tenses of the indicative mood(see
As

Meant

is

What

IN

can

you

by Mood?,

p. 50).

ENGLISH

are the main tenses of the indicativemoodwhose


will
encounter in French:)
you
below

Listed
alents

Present
I study

equiv-

present

I aID

present progressive)

studying)

Past)

I studied

past

simple

studied

I have

present

perfect

I was studying

past progressive

I had studied)

past perfect)

I will

future

Future)

study

I will have studied)

As you

can see,

past), all of

more

auxiliaries

p.

25).)))

the

there are only


other
plus

tenses
the

main

future

two

perfect)

verb (see

(present and simple


tenses formed by one or

tenses

simple

are compound

What are

Auxiliary

Verbs?,

WHAT

IS

MEANT

53)

BY TENSE?

FRENCH

IN

are the main


in French:)

below

Listed

encounter

tenses of the indicativemoodthat

you

will

Present

j' etudie

I study, I am

studying

present

(Present))

Past

etudiais

I was

j'ai etudie

I have

studied

I had

studied)

passe anterieur (Past

I will

study

futur

(Future)

have

futur

anterieur

j' avais etudie

(Imperfect)

imparfait

studying

passe

compose

(Present Perfect)
Perfect))

Future

j' etudierai

,
j aurai

etudie)

will

studied)

(Future Perfect))

can see, therearemore simple


tenses
than in English (Present,
tensesin French are formed with
Imperfect, Future).The compound
the auxiliary verbs avoir oretre+ the past participle
of the main verb.
This handbook discussesthe various
tenses
and their usage in separate
sections: What is the PresentTense?,
p.54; What is the Past
What
is
the
Past
Perfect
63;
Tense?, p.
Tense?, p.69; What is the
Future Tense?,p.72; and What is the Future Perfect Tense?,
As you

p. 75.

Careful
Do
not

way

assume

in English

that

tenses

and in French.)))

with the

same name are usedin

the

same

WHAT IS THE

54

WHAT IS

17.
The

It can

be:)
the

when

IN

action is happeningat

is speaking

speaker

. a habitual
. a

THE PRESENTTENSE?)

that the

indicates

tense

present

time.

TENSE?)

PRESENT

The sun

truth)

shines

he is nervous.

every

day.)

ENGLISH

forms of the verb which indicatethe present


have
although
slightly different meanings:
they
in the library.
studies
present
Mary
in the library.
present progressive
Mary is studying
present emphatic
Mary does study in the library.

There

are three

When you answerthe followingquestions,


you
choose
one of the above fonns.
Where

does

Where

is

Mary

now?
in

the

library.

Mary study in the

Yes, Mary

does

automatically

the library.

Mary is studying
Does

will

tense,

study?

Mary

Mary studies in

IN

present

you.

He smokes when

action

general

I see

the

study

library?

in the

library.)

FRENCH

There

is only

one verb form to indicatethe

present

tense.

It is

used to

and
progressive,
present,
present
express the meaningof the English
present emphatic tenses. In Frenchthe idea of the present tense is
indicated by the ending of the verb, without any auxiliary verb such as
is and does. It is very important, therefore, not to translate theseEnglish auxiliary
verbs.
Simply
put the main verb in the present tense.)))

WHAT

Mary studies

the

in

IS

THE

PRESENT

TENSE?

55)

library.

etudie)

is studying

Mary

in

the

library.

etudie)

does

Mary

study

in

the

library.

I
I

etudie)

\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037

\037\037\037\037\037.\037.\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037REVIEW

Fill

in the

\302\267
Write

the

proper form of the verb to read in


French verb form for sentences

does Mary

1. What

the

2 and

FRENCH VERB: lit.)


she

Has

No,

but

3. Does
Yes,

answers.

3.)

do all day?

She

2.

following

she

read

The Red

and the Black?


it right

she

now.

FRENCH

VERB:)

FRENCH

VERB:)))

Mary readFrench?
French.)

WHAT IS

56

IMPERATIVE?)

THE

WHAT

18.
The

IN

It isusedto

order.

an

and

something)

IMPERATIVE?)

is the command form of a verb.


There are affirmative commands

Imperative

someone

IS THE

negative

commands

(an order

give

(an orderto do
not to do something).

ENGLISH

are two types of commands, dependingon who


is being
told to
or
not
to
do,
do, something.
command
-When
an order is given to one or morepersons,
the
\"You\"
form
of the verb is used.
dictionary

There

imperative

Affirmative

imperative

Negative

Answer the

phone.

Don'tanswerthe

Talk

phone.

Don't clean your room.


Don't talk softly.

your room.

Clean

softly.

\"you\" is not stated. The absenceof the prosentence


is a good indicationthat you are dealing
you
with an imperative and not a present tense.

Notice that

the

pronoun

in the

noun

the

answer

You
I

phone.

present)

the phone.

Answer
I

imperative)

\"Well

command

- When an

order is given to oneselfas well

\"let's\" (a contractionof let us)


others,
the dictionary form of the verb.)
the phrase

Affirmative

Let's

Let's go to
IN

imperative

leave.
the

movies.)

Negative

is

used

followed

as

to

by

imperative

ut's

not leave.

ut's

not

go

to the

movies.)

FRENCH

in English,
there are also two basic types of commands, depending
on whom is beingtoldto do, ornotto do,something.
there
However,
are three forms because the \"you\"
command
has both a familiar (tuform) and a formal form (vous-form).
For the imperative,
without
the submost verbs use the presenttense
Your textbook will go over the few verbs that use
ject pronoun.
another tense for the imperative.)))
As

IS

WHAT

- When an

UTu\" command

order is given

THE

to whom

someone

to

57)

IMPERATIVE?

one

says tu.
Affirmative

imperative

Negative

imperative

Chante.

Ne chante

Sing.

Don't

avec

Va

Go

with

Notice

Paul.

Ne va

Paul.

Don't

etc.)drop

final

the

tu

\037

\"s\" of the tu

tu vas;

chantes,

an infinitive

with

verbs

that

imperative

pas.

sing.

pas avec Paul.


Paul.

go with

ending in -er (ex. chanter,aller,


form of the presenttense(present
\037

va).

chante,

- When
an order
one
uVous\" command
is given to more than
whom one says tu or to onepersonto whom
one
vous.
says
Affirmative imperative

Negative imperative

Chantez.

Ne chantez

Sing.

Don't sing.

- When

command

uNous\"

Don't

Paul.

an order

pas.

pas avec

N'allez

Paul.

avec

Allez

Go with

to

person

go with

Paul.

Paul.

is given to oneselfas

well

as

to

others.)
Affirmative

Ne chantons

Let's

Let's not

sing.

Allons avec Paul.

N'allons

Let's go

pas avec

Let's

sing.
with

Paul.)

\037\037\037\037\037\037.\037.\037\037\037\037\037\037\037REVIEW

the sentences

I. Change
1.

You

2. We

imperative

Negative

imperative

Chantons.

should

go

to the

evening.)

once a week.)))

go

with

Paul.
Paul.)

\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037.\037

below to the imperative

study every

movies

not

pas.

affirmative.

WHAT IS THE

58

the

II. Change

1. You

III.

if

Circle

sentences

following

shouldn't

2. We don't

IMPERATIVE?)

sleep

to the

imperative negative.

in class.)

speak in class.)

the

verb

of the

sentences

below is in

the

(P).)

present

1. Tu

2.

lis beaucoup.

Parlons

fran\037ais.

3. Vous

4.

Ne

allez en France.

dormons

pas.

P)))

imperative

(I)

or the

WHAT

19.

IS

WHAT

IS A PARTICIPLE?

A PARTICIPLE?)

is a form of a verb which can be used in one


verb to indicate certain tenses, or as an
to describe something.

A participle
an

with

of two

ways:

adjective

or

auxiliary

modifier

I was writing
I

59)

a letter.
I

participle

auxiliary

L past

tense.J)

The brokenvase was

on

the

floor.

describing

participle

and
the
types of participles: the presentparticiple
past
As you will learn, participlesarenot used in the same way

two

are

There

vase)

participle.

in English and French.)

Present Participle)
IN

ENGLISH

is easy to

The

present
participle
of the verb: working,

The

present

1.as

the

participle

tenses

She is singing.
I

present

They

were
I

progressive

of to

sing)

of to

dance)

dancing.
I

past

2. as an

progressive

adjective

This

is an

amazing discovery.
I

describes

-ing

form

studying, dancing,playing.
has two primary uses:

in compound

verb

main

recognize becauseit is the

the noun

discovery)

He was a good dancingpartner.


I

describes

the noun

partner)))

with

the

auxiliary

verb

to be

WHAT IS A

60

IN

The

PARTICIPLE?)

FRENCH

is formed

participle

present

by

to the

-ant

adding

nous formofthe present


fmissant,
(chantant,
We refer you to your textbookfor the useof

the

since it is only

French,

Keep

mind

in

formed

they

were

that

the

with

an

constructionscorrespond
to
She

participles in French. These English

simple
\037)

ing.

tense

They

chante.

Elle

present)

progressive)

were

dancing.

\037)

lis

dansaient.
I

past

imperfect)

progressive)

will be

He

writing.

\037)

II ecrira.

future

future)

progressive)

Past

IN

The

French verb.)

of a

\037s
\037in\037

present

in

participle

present

of the commonEnglish
equivalents
+ present participle (she is singing,

French

auxiliary
do not use

dancing)

the

introducedin advancedFrench.)

Careful

tenses

stem of

etc.)

tense

Participle)

ENGLISH

past

is formed in several ways.


the form of the verb that

participle

by remembering

I have walked.
spoken, I have written,
The past participle has two primary
uses:
1. as the main verb in compound tenseswith

I have written
He hasn't spoken
2. as an

all that I
to me

You

can

follows

the

find it

always
I have:

I have

verb

to have

auxiliary

have to say.
since our quarrel.

adjective

Is the

written

word more

describes

the noun

word

important

than

the

spoken

describesthe

word?

noun

word)))

WHAT

IS A PARTICIPLE?

61)

FRENCH

IN

have a

verbs

Regular

-er

regular past participle:


the stem

-e to

add

verbs

-ir verbs add -i to the stem


-re verbs add -u to the stem
Infinitive

Stem

Past

chanter

chant-

chante

finir

fin-

fini

repondre

repond-

repondu

participle

You will have to memorize irregularpast participles


individually.
be very different
may
you can see in the examples below, they

the

As

from

infinitive.)

Infinitive

Past participle

etre

ete

avoir

eu

recevoir

re\037u

comprendre

compris

ecrire)

ecrit)

English, the
verb or as an adjective.

As in

past participlecan beusedas

verb in compound tenses with


etre
or
have)
(to be)

1. as

the main

avons

Nous

We have

est aile

Paul

has gone

the past

avoir

auxiliary

(to

lesson.

home.
with

of

participle

tenses

These

a compound

la Inaison.

Many tensesareformed

p. 63).

of

la I\037on.

compris

understood the

Paul

the

part

the

auxiliary

verbs avoir

verb (see What is


under various

the

main

are

discussed

or etre plus

the Past Tense?,


sections of this

handbook.

2.

as

an

When

adjective

the past

the noun

it

participle is usedas an
in gender

modifies

it must

adjective

agree

with

and in number.

the spoken language

la langue

Spoken
feminine

parlee

modifies
singular,

This is shown

by

the

noun

language.

the word
adding

an

Since

for spoken must


-e.)))

la langue
be

(language) is

feminine

singular.

62

WHAT IS A

the

words

written

les mots

PARTICIPLE?)

ecrits
the noun

Written

modifies

plural,

the word

by

adding

for

words. Since les mots (words)is masculine


must

written

be masculine

\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037REVIEW

Circle

the

auxiliary

the equivalent of
1. I

am speaking

plural. This

is shown

an -s.)

+ present
a simple

participlesin

tense

in

\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037

the

sentences

French.

French.

2. Paul and Mary.were


3. Are you bringing
4. The students
will

studying
the

book

be trying

for the

exam.

to class?
to memorize

the

verbs.)))

below which

are

WHAT

20.

THE

IS

WHAT

tense is usedto expressan

The past

IS THE

PAST TENSE?

63)

TENSE?)

PAST

occurred

that

action

in the

past.)

ENGLISH

IN

verb forms

are several

There

action

the

indicate

that

took place in

the

past.

simple past

worked

I was

past progressive

working

I used

I did

to work

with

verb

helping

used to

past emphatic

work

present perfect 1)
The
simple
past is called \"simple\"because it is a simpletense;Le.,it
in the example above). The otherpast
consists
of
one
word
(worked
are
tenses
one
tenses;
Le., they consist of more than
word,
compound
an auxiliary plus a main verb (was working, did work, etc.).
worked)

I have

FRENCH

IN

There

French tenses which correspondto allthe English


past
listed above: the passe compose(the present
perfect)
the Imparfalt (the imperfect).)
are two

forms

verbal
and

Present Perfect (passe compose)


The
is formed by the auxiliary verb avoir (to have)
or
passe
compose
+
in
etre
the
the
tense
the
of
(to be) conjugated
present
pastparticiple
is a
main verb (see What are Auxiliary Verbs?,p. 25and
What
the past participle does not change
Participle?, p. 59). As in English,
form

one

from

j'aiI

person

I spoke,

parl\037
I

avo\037,:
auxIlIary)

past

nous

avons

I have

spoken

. .

participle

all\037
je suis
I
I
A
.:tr\037.

to another.

past

parl\037

we

spoke,

I went,
. .

we have
I have

spoken

gone

participle

auxIlIary)

il est

1A

separate

all\037

he

went,

he has

gone)

section is devotedto the past perfect (I had worked),

seep. 69.)))

WHAT IS

64

THE

PAST

TENSE?)

\"

of

Selection

Mostverbs use auxiliary


memorize the list of

the

avoir.

the

verbs

Avoir or

Auxiliary

conjugated

Therefore,
etre

with

Etre

it is easier for you to


and assume that all

the other verbs


are
with avoir.
conjugated
There are approximatelysixteenbasicverbs,
sometimes
referred
to by
with etre.
grammar books as \"verbs of motion,\"that are conjugated
\"Verbs of motion\"is not an accuratedescription
of these verbs since
some of them, such as rester (to stay,
to remain),
do not imply motion.
You will find the \"etreverbs\"
in pairs of oppoeasier
to memorize

sites:)

aller

to go

retourner

to

return

entrer

to

come

arri ver)

to arrive)

monter)

to

in

climb)

*'

venir

to

*'

rester

to remain

*'
*'

sortir

to

partir

to leave

descendre

to

{:)

*'
naitre
to be born
Verbs derived from the aboveverbs
rentrer (to return),revenir(to come

back),

out

go

down

go

to fall
to die

tomber

mourir
are

come

with etre:

also

conjugated
and devenir

(to become),

among others.)

The

rules

auxiliary

1.

of

verb

Agreement of the Past Participles


of the past participle dependon
agreement
is avoir
of

Agreement

participles

past

conjugated

with

etre

verb is etre, the pastparticiple


agrees
the
section
What is a Subject?,p.28).
subject (review

When

the

auxiliary

est

Pierre
I

aile

au

cin\037lna.

past participle

subject

L tnasc.
sing..-J

Peter went to the movies.)


est

Marie
I

subject

allee

the

whether

or etre.

au cinema.

past participle

Lfetn. sing. .-J

Mary went to the movies.)))

with

the

IS THE

WHAT

fay)

soot

Marie

alfes
past

subjects

L
and

Paul

PAST TENSE?

65)

au cinema.

participle

masc. pI. \037


Mary went to the

movies.)

2. Agreementof pastparticiples
with
avoir
conjugated
When the auxiliary verb is avoir, the past participle
with
the
agrees
in the senverb
direct
the
object if the direct objectcomesbefore
If
the
direct
tence (review the sectionon directobjects,
p.116).
the past parand
object comes after the verb, there isno agreement
textbook
will
ticiple remains in its masculinesingularform.Your
in
In
over
rule
this
detail.
the
here
are
a
few
meantime,
go
examples
some structures where there is agreement.
showing

Je I 'ai

vu Paul?

avez-vous

uand

hier.

vu

past part.

dir.obj.

L masc. sing.
When

did you

see Paul?

I saw him yesterday.)

vu Marie

avez-vous

Quand

.-J

? Je I 'ai vue
l
.
dlr.obJ.

hier.
I

past part.

L fern. sing.
did

When

you

vu Paul

avez-vous

Quand

I saw

see Mary?

.-J

her yesterday.)

et Marie? Je les ai
I

dir.obj.

past part.

L masc.
pI.
did

When

1.
2.

Depending

imparfait

the stem of the

needto

repeat

the

on which

rules of

is a
verb.
what

and Mary?

steps when

two
whether

Determine

priate

The

you

these

Remember

see Paul

verb

hier.

vus

.-J

I saw them yesterday.)

using the passe compose:


or etre as the auxiliary.

takes avoir

auxiliary verb

is required,apply

the

appro-

agreement.)

Imperfect (imparfait)
simple tense formed by
The
is in

conjugation

your French

textbook.)))

of endings to
there is no
that
regular

adding

is so

a set

66

WHAT IS

There

are two

should be

1.

English verb forms that


used in French:

the

when

that

indicate

the

imparfait

or could include,the

form includes,

verb

English

helping

to.)

used

verb

TENSE?)

PAST

THE

I used to go to Franceevery
en France chaque
J'allais

year.
ann\037e.

itn parf ai t)

I went

a child

As

to France every

year.

be replaced

could

enfant j 'allais

Comme

en Francechaque

verb form is in

the English

2. when

to go

used

by

the

past

was singing, wereworking.


At
A

P.M. last night,


hier soir,
heures

8:00
huit

ann\037e.

as in

tense,

progressive

I was eating dinner.


je dinais.
I

imparfait

for these

Except

to you

indicate

\037

verb forms,the English

two English

whether you

use

should

verb

the imparfait

not

will

or the

passe

compose.)

Imparfait

a verb is the passe composeor the imparfait


the
context in which a sentenceis used.As
upon
remember the following:
to put

Whether

depend
guideline,

passe compose\037
imparfait
Let us

\037

tells

\"what

tells

\"how

the verb, namely \"went,\"


the

on

depending

is

the

of

which

question

often

used to be\" or
to

France.\"

\"what

The

was

going

on\"

same form

of

two English answers below;


verb aller (to go) will be different

in the

used

French

tense

will

a general

happened\"

things

consider the sentence\"Hewent

however,
\302\267
\"What

compose or the

Passe

of the

Selection

the verb

answers.

happened?\"

QUESTION: What
ANSWER:

did Paul

He went to

do this

summer?

France.

context,
you are asking and answering
last
summer\";
therefore, the verb \"did
pened
the passe compose.)))
In

this

the question \"what


and \"went\" will

do\"

hapbe

in

WHAT

Qu'est-ce que Paul

a fait

cet

IS THE

67)

PAST TENSE?

\037t\037?

passe compose

II est aile en

France.

passecompose)
\302\267
\"How

to be\"

used

things

QUESTION:
During his childhood,where

Paul

did

go

for the summer?


went

He

ANSWER:

to France.

In this
context,
you are asking and
things used to be;\" therefore,the
the imparfait.)

Pendant son enfance,ou

answering
verb

est-ce

que

Paul

\"how

the question

\"did go\" and

allait

en

be in

will

\"went\"

\037t\037?

imparfait)

en France.

II allait
I

ilnparfait)

As you can see from the two Frenchexamples


above,
the answer will usually be the sameas the tense used
ti

the

tense

in the

of

ques-

on.

\302\267
\"What

was

going

on?\"

indicateactionsthat
imparfait and the passecompose
in
the
same
time
the
during
place
period
past,you will often
the two tenses intermingledin a sentenceor a story.

Since the
took

fmd

I was

reading
actions

Both

was

What

happened?

French
the

you

both

logical.)))

\037

passe

compose

arrive.
cOin

pose)

will give you additional guidelinesto help you


tense. You should practice analyzing English
in the past and indicate for each oneif
out
the verbs
in the imparfait or in the passe compose.
are possible,
but usually one of the two
is more

textbook
appropriate
Pick

times

He arrived

same time.

\037

passe

paragraphs.
would

and \"arrived\"
took
place at the
on? I was reading \037 imparfait

going

quand il est

im\037arfait

Your

arrived.

\"reading\"

What

Je lisais

choose

when he

put
tenses

it

Some-

68

IS THE

WHAT

PAST TENSE?)

\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037REVIEW

Circle
that

the

that

verbs

be put

would

in

be

would

the

put

passe

\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037.\037\037\037\037\037\037\037.\037

in the

compose.

I went to France with

Last summer,

Imparfalt and underline the verbs

my

family.

excited when we arrivedat the

airport.

luggage and

the tickets,

father

my

handled

parents droppedeverything
duckedbehind the counter.Finally,
brought her back to us.She was

leavingher dog

for

she

went

on to

two

the plane

weeks.
with

my mother

While

away. My

my

tried

and
a manager
crying

Everyone
a smile.)))

was very

Everyone

because

little

sister

to catch

Mary

ran

her, but she


her and

grabbed
she was

comforted

checked the

sad she was

her and,

fmally,

WHAT IS THE

21.

THE

IS

WHAT

want

IN

ENGLISH

ticipleof
She

I had

verb:

main

the

happened

the

past. It
times in the past and
in the

+ the

had

auxiliary

walked, he

had seen,etc.

had forgotten her


I
I

that she

remembered

suddenly

in the

completed

occurred

preceded the other.1)

is formed with

past participle

action

at different

which action

to indicate

you

The

actions

two

69)

TENSE?)

PERFECT

PAST

The past perfecttense isusedto express


an
or event
past before some otherspecificaction

is used when

PERFECT TENSE?

PAST

past par-

keys.

tense

past

Both actions1 and


1. Therefore,action

Don't forgetthat

Therefore,

in the

2 occurred
2 is

tenses

verb

in the

verbs

when

past perfect

1
in the

past, but
past perfect.)

action

indicate
the time that an action occurs.
same sentence are in the sametense,the

the same period of time. In orderto show


at
different
tenses
must
they
periods of time,different
place
used. Look at the following examples:
took

actions

during

place

took

that

be

The

was

mother

because

crying

her son

was leaving.
\037

past tense

past

Action

1 and action

The mother w

2 took place at

ing

1s

because

the

same

Action

\037dlleft-

past perfect

progressive

2 took

time.)

her son h

\037'i

past

perfect

place before action

1.)

FRENCH

IN

The

It is

past perfect is called Ie plus-que-parfait.


verb avoir or etre in the imparfait+ the

auxiliary

the main verb: j'avais marche,


ment of the past participlearethe

p.

2 preceded

action

elle etaitallee.

formed

past

The

same

as for

the passe

with

the

of
participle
of agreerules

compose (see

64).)

1You can
this tense with the future perfect which is used when two actions will happen
at difcompare
ferent times in the future and you want to stress which action will precede the other (see What is the
Future
Perfect Tense?, p. 75).)))

WHAT

70

THE PAST PERFECT TENSE?)

IS

the plus-que-parfait tense in orderto stressthat


verb took place beforethe actionof a verb in either

is put in

verb

of that,

action

the

the

passe compose or the imparfait.

Observe sequence
lowingtime-line:

of events

the

Plus-que-

Present)

Perfect

Present

Perfect

Past

TENSE:

VERB

past tensesin the fol-

by the

expressed

Passe

Parfait)

Present)

compose

Imparfait

-2)

-1)

TAKES

ACTION

TIME

same

'moment

Different

leaving.

imparfait
- 1

- 1

in the

before

in time)

imparfait

time

\037

\037before -1

crying because her son was


parce que son fils partait. I

The mother was


La mere pleurait

Two actions

J()

o \037 now

PLACE:)

- 1
- 2

Same verb tense \037

o)
J()

J()

the

in

imparfait

show that

took

they

at the

place

same

past.)

verb tenses

\037

different

times

crying because her son


parce que son fils etaitI

The mother was


La mere pleurait
I

had

left.

partie
I
I

plus-que-parfait
-2

imparfait

- 1

The action in the plus-que-parfait


action in the imparfait (point

(point
-

- 2)

occurredbefore

the

1).)

Careful

when
You cannot always rely on Englishto determine
cases,
usage permits
English
perfect in French. In many

simple past to describean


which actioncamefIrst.)
The

teacher

wanted
I

simple

action

to know

that

preceded

simple

past)))

use

the past

the use of the


another, if it is clear

who saw the student.


I

past

to

IS

WHAT

asked who

The teacher

the student.

seen

had

71)

PERFECT TENSE?

PAST

THE

simple past

past

perfect)

the two sentences above meanthe samething


Although
rect in English, only the secondsentence
with
its sequence

and

are

cor-

of tenses

would be correct in French.)

Le professeur

savoir

voulait
I

qui

vu 1'etudiant.

avait
Y

plus-que-parfait

ilnparfait

-1

Le

a demande

professeur

qui avait

plus-que-parfait

-2

-1

The action in the


pleted before the

plus-que-parfait
(point -2)
other
action (point -1) which

fait or the

compose

In French

passe

depending

number the verbs


parentheses,
line below, indicate if the verb

perfect(PP) in

2. After

could

context

the

than

Mary read the


))

lunch, Paul
))

(-)

accordingto
would be

in

book she bought

of

it was

com-

the imparthis sentence.)

in English.)

time-line

the

past

yesterday.)

))))

that

on p. 70.
(P) or past

the

))

asked who'd calledhim


(-)

that

be in

French.

morning

(-)

stresses

\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037.\037\037\037\037

the

(-)

on

the sequence of tensesis morerigid

\037\037..\037.\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037REVIEW

1. This

1 'etudiant.

-r-

In the

vu

\037

passe cOlnpose

\302\267
On

2)

morning.)

WHAT IS THE FUTURE

72

will take place sometime

in

future.)

the
IN

FUTURE TENSE?)

an action

that

indicates

tense

future

IS THE

WHAT

22.

The

TENSE?)

ENGLISH

The

future

nary

form

the
tense is formed with
main verb. Note

of the

will or

auxiliary

is used

shall

that

(and British English),will occurs in everyday


Paul and Mary will do their homework

shall + the dictioin formal English

language.
tomorrow.

leave tonight.

I will

In conversation, shall and

tomorrow;I'II

leave

are

will

to

shortened

often

'

II: They'll doit

tonight.)

IN FRENCH

You do
the

not need an

indicated by a simple tense.


infinitive as the stem for the future.)

the

use

verbs

Regular

Stem

Infinitive

aimer

aimer-

to love

finir

finir-

to finish

vendre)

vendr-

to sell

(the final
verbs have

Irregular

dropped))

irregular future

stems

which

aller

ir-

to

venir

viendr-

to come

avoir

aur-

to have

ctre

ser-)

to be)

notice

will

letter

of the
book

\"e\" is

will

the future

that whatever

\"r\"

show

tense.)

is

always

the stem, regularor irregular,


the
before the future ending. Your

the

when,

the

future,

sound

heard

you how to conjugate regular and

While Englishuses
and
as,
by the
in

be memorized.

go

Careful

place

must

Stem

Infinitive

You

action will takeplacein

time is

Future

future.

that the

to show

auxiliary

present

tense

after

irregular

text-

in

such as soon
action that will take

expressions

time, which introduce an


French
uses the future tense.)))

verbs

WHAT

as he returns, I will

As soon

She will

future

as he will

come.

. .\

come when she

is ready.
I

future

present
I

future

future

she

\". . . when

is more

sera prete.

quand elle

viendra
I

French

73)

future

Y
Elle

TENSE?

call.

future

\"As soon

FUTURE

je telephonerai.

reviendra,

qu'il

THE

present
Des

IS

strict

than

be

will

ready.\

in its

English

use of

tenses.)

Immediate Future

In

English

in

the

itself,
IN

the fact that an action will occur sometime


be expressed without using the future
tense
a construction which implies the future.)
in French

and

can also

future
but

ENGLISH

You can
form

+ the dictionary
use the verb to go in the presentprogressive
she
is going
to see, etc.)
main verb: I am goingto walk,

of the

sitnilar

meaning
I
I

I am
I

going

to sing.
I

I will sing.
\037

-r-

present propressive
of to go + infinitive)
IN

future

tense

FRENCH

calledIe
exists in French. It is sometimes
because
the
future
is conaction
proche
sidered nearer at hand than
an action
expressed
by a verb in the future
tense.
The
future is formed with the verb aller (to go) in
immediate
the
tense + the infinitive of the main verb:je vais
marcher,
present

The
futur

elle

same

construction
or Ie

immediat

va voir,

etc.)))

futur

WHAT IS THE FUTURE

74

TENSE?)

Je chanterai.

chanter.

Je vais
I

I)

aller +

of
present
immediate

going to

I am
I

future

infinitive

sing.
I

I will

In

to go + infinitive

future

tense)

future)

conversational

the immediate future

French,

often replaces the

tense.)

future

\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037REVIEW

Indicate

future

the

1. As

tense

as

it

is in

perfect (FP).

\302\267
Indicate

IN

sing.

of
present
immediate

tense)

future

the
soon

tense
as we

of the

the English

verb as it

finish our

would

\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037.\037\037

sentence: present (P),future


be in

a French

sentence.)

meal, we'll leave.

ENGUSH:

IN FRENCH:

2. We

will speak Frenchwhen

IN

ENGUSH:

IN

FRENCH:)))

we

go

to France

this summer.

(F),

or

IS THE FUTURE PERFECT

WHAT

23.
The

future

the

IN

ENGLISH

is used

to express an

action

in the

perfect is

future

participleof

In

tense

TENSE?)

action whichwill have

future or beforea specifictime

I'll see you

I'll seeyou
I'll seeyou

as I will

as

soon

as

as

soon

as

I'll call you

s\"

as I'vefound

soon

as

\",

or

\",

ve\" .

have finished.
I'll have finished.
I've finished.

soon

as

auxiliary

to

to

is shortened

will have + the past


she will have gone,etc.
II: or, in some cases,dropped

the

have walked,
'

I will

is shortened

will

have

and

formed with
verb:

main

the

conversation

altogether

75)

l)

future.

in

PERFECT

FUTURE

THE

another

perfect

before

happened

The

IS

WHAT

TENSE?

Mary.

LT-J

future

event

future

perfect

2
1
Both actions 1 and 2 will occur at some future
but action 1 will
time,
2 takes
be completed before action
place. Therefore, action 1 is in the
future perfect tense.)
I will have l
I

eft

beforetomorrow.
I

future

future event

perfect

1 and

action

Both

be completed

will

action 1 is in
IN

the

event 2

will

occur

at some

before a specifictime
future

perfect

future time, but action


future. Therefore,

in the

tense.)

FRENCH

future

The

auxiliary
verb

main

is

with
the
perfect is called Ie futur anterieur.It formed
avoir or etre in the future tense+ the pastparticiple the
com(the rules of agreement are the sameas for the passe

of

etc.
64): j'aurai marche,elleseraallee,
a verb is put in the futur anterieur tensein order
English,
that the action of the verb will take placebefore
the
action

pose-see p.
As

in

stress

verb in the

future,

or

before

a specific

to

of a

future time.)

You can con1pare


this tense to the past perfect
which is used when two actions OCCUlTed at different
the past and you want to stress which action preceded the other (see What
Is the Past Perfect

tilnes in

Tense?,p. 69).)))

WHAT IS THE

76

the

Observe

TENSE?)

expressed by the future

of events

sequence

TENSE:

Present

Future perfect

Present

Futur

telephonerai
I

2)

K)

o \037

TAKES PLACE:)

Je vous

Futur

1)

K)

ACTION

Future

anterieur

o)
TIME

in the

tenses

time-line:

following
VERB

PERFECT

FUTURE

K)

now

1 \037 after

0 and

2 \037

0)

after

des que j'aurai


I

before 2

trouve Marie.
I
I

[' II
Je

call you as

serai

['II

parti

have

left

soon as ['vefoundMary.)
avant demain.

before

tomorrow.
\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037

\037\037\037\037.\037\037\037\037..\037\037\037\037\037REVIEW

number the verbs accordingto


parentheses,
line below, indicate if in a French sentence
(F), or future perfect (FP).
present (P), future
In the

\302\267
On

the

1. When

the

bell

rings
()

FRENCH

2. As

soon as

I've written

))

TENSE:)))

the

time

line above.

the verb

would

be

they'll have finished the exam.)


()

))

TENSE:

(
FRENCH

at noon,

the

letter,

I'll send

it.
))

in the

WHAT IS

24.

WHAT IS

THE

77)

CONDITIONAL?

THE CONDITIONAL?)

does not exist in English, but is an important


is an
(see What is Meantby Mood?,
p. 50). There
verb
form
which
is
to
the
similar
French
conditional
however,
English
and
which
can help you to understand it. For our purposes,we
will
call this form the \"conditional.\" The conditionalmoodhas
a present
and a past tense.)
mood

conditional

The

in French

mood

Present Conditional)
IN

ENGLISH

The

conditional\"
is a compound tense.It is formed
would + the dictionary form
of the main
verb.

\"present

auxiliary

I would like someketchup,


please.
If she had the money, she would
call
I said that I would come tomorrow.

is more

polite

Would you please


The

. in

the main

If I had

close the door.


door\"is softened

\"please close the

command

ways:

to eat.\

\"I want

than

the

him.

The \"presentconditional\"
is usedin the following
. as a politefonn with like and in polite requests
I wouldlike to eat.
This

with

by the

use of

would.)

clause of a hypotheticalstatement
a lot of money, I would buy
a Cadillac.

or result clause.
buy a Cadillac\" is calledthe main clause,
It is a clause becauseit is composed
of a group of words containing
a subject (I) and a verb (wouldbuy)
and
is used
as part of a sentence.It is the main clause because it expresses a complete thought
and can stand by itself without being attached to the first part of the
sentence(\"If I had a lot of money... \.")It is calledthe result clause
because
it expresses what would happen as the resultof getting
a lot

\"I would

of money.

had a lot of
clause. It is subordinate
a verb
subject (I)
\"If I

is

money\"

and

and

cannot

stand

called

clause

(had),

it does

alone. It must

the

subordinate

because,

although

clause, or If.
it contains a

not express a completethought

be attachedto the main clause.)))

WHAT IS

78

THE CoNDITIONAL?)

because
it refers to a conis called hypothetical
at the present time (the personspeaking
is the remote possibility of
does
not have
a lot of money), but there
could
have a lot of
its becoming a reality (the person
speaking

entire statement

The

dition that

one

money

. in an

exist

not

does

day).

indirect statementto expressa future-in-the-past

for-word

opposed
of what

or reports, but does not quote,


direct statement which is a wordsomeone
said. In written form a direct

statementis always

between

quotation

statement

Indirect

An

someone's

as

words,

quotation

repeats,

to a

marks.)

Paul said Mary

indirect statement)

\037

present

past

Paul said: \"Mary

statement)

direct

will

the

indirect
statement,
it takes place after

action 2 is calleda

another actionin

statement, action 2 is merelya quotation


IN

come.\"

future)

past

because

conditional)

\037
2

\037

In

come.

would

\037

of

the

what

future-In-the-past

In the

past.

direct

was said.)

FRENCH

You

Ie
auxiliary to indicatethe presentconditional,
future
it is a simple tense. It is formedwith
the

need an

do not

condltlonnel

present;

72) + the imperfect


endings:je parlerais
il fmirait (he wouldflnish), nous vendrions (wewould
The present
conditional
is used in the same ways
as
. as a politeform or in polite requests
stem

(see p.

Je voudrais

sandwich.

un

conditional

present

I would

like a

sandwich.)

Pourriez-vous

fenner

la

present

conditional

Could

you close

the door?)))

porte?

(I

would

sell).

in English:

speak),

WHAT

. in the

main clause of a hypothetical

Si j'avais

in

an

had a lot of money,

II a dit

conditional

buy a

I would

to express

statement

indirect

79)

CONDITIONAL?

une Cadillac.

d'argent, j'acheterais

beaucoup

THE

statement

present

If I

IS

Cadillac.

a future-in-the-past

viendrait.

qu'il

conditional

present

(that) he

He said

Je

savais

wouldcome.)

pleuvrait.

qu'il

conditional

present

I knew

(that)

it

rain.)

would

Careful

The auxiliary would does not correspond


to the conditional
when
it
talk
while
he painted.\" In this senstands for used to, as in \"Shewould
tence,it means used to talk and requires the imperfect(see 65).)

p.

Conditional)

Past

IN

ENGLISH

is formed with
\"past conditional\"
past participle of the main verb.
I would have come if I had known.

The

Unlike some statementsin

the

present

the auxiliary

conditional

all
possibility of their becominga reality,
the
main
conditional are contrary-to-fact:
because the condition expressedwas never
done with.

He

have

would

spoken

if he

have

would

where

+ the

there is a

using the past


never
action
happened
met and it is now over and
statements

had known the truth.

past

conditional

Contrary-to-fact:
If you had called
Contrary-to-fact:

He did

us, we would
We did

have

eaten if I

Contrary-to-fact:

I did

I would

not

not

speak

have
come

because

he didn't

know

the

come.
because

you didn't

had been hungry.


not eat becauseI wasn't hungry.)))

call

us.)

truth.)

WHAT IS

80

CoNDITIONAL?)

THE

IN FRENCH
with
the
conditional, called Iecondltlonnelpasse,is formed
+
avoir or etre in the presentconditional the past participle
auxiliary
as for the passe
of the main verb (the same rulesof agreement
apply
elle
serait
allee, etc.
compose - see p. 64):j'auraismange,

The past

all statementsusing

As in English,

the

are contrary-

conditional

past

to- fact.)
II aurait

su la v\037rit\037.

s'il avait

parle,

conditional

past

have spoken, if he
I

He would
I

had known

the

truth.

conditional)

past

of Tenses

Sequence

Let us study

some

French tense.

Hypothetical

and

because they

the

are

learn to recognizethem
contrary-to-fact

always

if (si
. the

made

that

\"If\"-clause;
in

of constructions

examples

so that you

results

is,

their

is, the main clause


the

recognizing

difficulty

tenses

comes, I will be happy.


I

Y
S 'i I vient,
I

present

just

rutur)

present

present

and in French.
apply these three rules.

in English

same

REsULT CLAUSE-+ future

-+ present

If he

and

the appropriate

French)

result clause; that

\"lP\"-CLAUSE

conditions

to use

statements
are easy to recognize
of
two
clauses:
up
the subordinate
clause that starts with

The sequenceoftensesis
have

with

and

future

je serai
I
futur)))

contente.

If you

WHAT

-CLA USE -+

\"Ip\"

past

simple

IS

CLAUSE

RESULT

THE

CONDITIONAL?

-+ present

81)

conditional

conditionnel present)

imparfait)

I would
If he came,
I

be

happy.

\037

present conditional
je serais contente.

past
S'i1

venait,
I

conditionnel

imparfait

USE -+ past

-eLA

\"Ip\"

present)

perfect

CLAUSE

REsULT

conditional

-+ past

conditionnel passe)

plus-que-parfait)

come,I would I
If he had
\037

been

have

happy.

-r-

past conditional

perfect

past

S'i1 etait venu, j 'aurais etecontente.


I

conditionnel

plus-que-parfait

passe)

the if-clause can comeeither


at the
beginthe sentence beforethe main clause,
or at the end of the sentence.The tense of each clause remains the same no matterthe order.
In

in French

and

English

ning of

been

have

would
I

happy,

if he

had come.

\037

past conditional

past perfect

ete

J'aurais
I

s'i1 etait

contente,

venue

\037

conditionnel

passe

plus-que-parfait)

\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037.\037\037\037\037\037\037\037REVIEW

Write

the

tense

you

would

present
(P), future
imperfect
(I), past perfect

below:

for each of the italicizedverbs


(F) present conditional (C), past conditional
(PC),
in French

use

(PP).

1. Studentswoulddo theirhomework
2. If they

3.

When

4. We'll

had

they

had

were

be going

\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037

an exam,

separated,

if they

they would have


he would

had

time.)

studied.)

call her every

abroad, if we have the money.)))

evening.)

WHAT IS A

82

VERB?)

REFLEXIVE

IS

WHAT

25.

verb is a

verb that

reflexivepronoun;

pronoun

A reflexive

this

is

VERB?)

REFLEXIVE

special pronoun called a


the action of the

linked

to a

serves

to \"reflect\"

that is, to the subjectof the sentence.


The
performer,
the subject of the sentenceand the object
are the same

to the

back

verb

is that

result

person.

She cut herselfwith


IN

knife.

the

himselfin the mirror.)

He saw
ENGLISH

on a reflexive meaningby

can take

verbs

Many

a reflexive

adding

pronoun.

Peter cuts the

paper.

verb

regular

when he shaves.

cuts himself

Peter

+ reflexive pronoun)

verb

Pronouns

ending with -self or -selves


reflexive pronouns.

are used

to make verbs

reflexive.

are the

Here

singular)

Subject

Reflexive

pronoun

pronoun

myself

yourself
himself

you

he
it)

herself
itself

she

plural)

we

ourselves

you

yourselves

they)

themselves)

In a sentence a reflexive pronounis always


the subject
because both the pronoun
and

tied

object.

cut

Paul

Although
plural,

a specific

subject,

the same personor

myself.

and

themselves for

Mary blamed

the

accident.

the subject pronoun you is the samefor the singular


there is a difference betweenthe reflexivepronouns

yourselfis
yourselves

to

refer to

and

used:

used

is used

when

you

are speaking

when you

to one

person (singular)and

are speaking to morethan

one

(plural).)))

WHAT IS A

Paul, did
Children,

IN

REFLEXIVE

83)

VERB?

you makeyourself a sandwich?


make
sure you wash yourselves properly.)

FRENCH

in English many regular verbs can be turned


by adding a reflexive pronoun.
As

Marie

verbs

enfant.

son

lave

her child.

washes

Mary

reflexive

into

Marie se lave.
washes

Mary

The

the

herself.

lists laver

dictionary
of

infinitive

and

laver

to wash

as the infinitive

of

Look up

oneself

and se

to wash

laver as

both forms underthe verb

see

not under

Here are the Frenchreflexive


pronouns:
me

myself

te
se

singular)
yourse lf (familiar
himself, herself, itself

nous

ourselves

vous

yourselves

se

themselves)

Since the reflexivepronoun

perfonner,

the

changes.
verbs
example,

sent
placed

reflexive

(familiar

the

reflects

pronoun

plural,

will

fonnal

action

change

singular

& plural)

of the verb back to the


as the subject of the verb

to memorize the conjugation of reflexive


with
the subject
pronoun and the reflexive pronoun.For
let's
look
at the conjugation of the verb se laver in the pretense. Notice that unlike English wherethe reflexive
is
pronoun
after the verb, in French the reflexive pronoun is placedimmeYou

before

diately

have

will

the

verb.

Subject

pronoun

Reflexive
+)

pronoun

+)

Verb

je

me

lave

tu

te)

laves)

se)

lave)

nous

lavons

vous)

lavez

se)))

lavent)

il

elle) }

nous
vous

ils
elles)

WHAT IS A

84

verbs can

Reflexive

reflexive

the

and

VERB?)

REFLEXIVE

be conjugated in all tenses.Thesubjectpronoun


remain the same, regardlessof the tense

pronoun

of

ils se laveront (futur); ils sesontlaves


(passe
compose).
The perfect tenses of reflexive verbs are always
with
the
conjugated
rules
of
for
the
the
however,
agreement
past participle
auxiliary etre;
to the past
of reflexive verbs are differentfromthe rulesyou apply
French
of
verbs.
Be
sure
to
textnon-reflexive
consult
your
participles
verb:

the

book for these rules.)

Careful

Reflexive

common

more

are

verbs

in French than in

English;

that

is,

verbs that take a reflexive pronoun in Frenchbut not in


For example, when you say \"Paulwashed in the morning,\"
it
English.
In French
is understood,
but not stated, that
\"Paul
washed
himself.\"
the \"himself' must be stated:\"Paul s'est lave.\" In addition, other English verbs such as to get up have a reflexive meaning:\"Mary
got
up\"
means
that she got herself up. In Frenchyou
to get up by
express
using the verb se lever, that is lever (to raise) + the reflexivepronoun
se (oneself):
that
\"Marie
s'est levee.\" Memorize the many
verbs
are
idiomatic
a reflexive pronoun in French. Some of them
require
in English.)
for which there is no directequivalent
expressions
are many

there

..\037\037..\037...\037\037\037.\037\037\037.

\037.\037\037.\037\037.\037..\037\037\037\037\037REVIEW

Fill in
\302\267
Fill

the proper English


reflexive
pronoun.
French
reflexivepronoun
equivalent

in the

Les

every

enfants

2. Mary

3. Mary,

lavent

coupe

We

you cut

constantly.

coupes constamment.)

dress

Nous)

les soirs.

constamment.)

Marie, tu
4.

tous

evenmg.

constantl y.)

cuts

Marie)

French

children wash

1. The

in the

habillons.)))

sentences.)

IS MEANT BY ACTIVE

WHAT

WHAT IS

26.

The voice of the verb


its

and

- A

voice

Active

85)

VOICE?

PASSIVE

VOICE?)

basic relationship between the verb


voices: active and passive.

is said to be in

sentence

subject is the performerof the


an

AND

PASSIVE

to a

refers

are two

There

subject.

ACTIVE

BY

MEANT

AND

In this

verb.

the

active

instance,

voice

when

the verb

the

is called

verb.

active

prepares the exam.

The teacher

S
ate an

Paul

apple.

DO

DO

Lightning has struck

the

tree.
DO)

the subject (5) performsthe actionofthe verb


examples
What
direct object (DO)is the receiverofthe action
(see
are Objects?, p. 116).
Passivevolce-A sentence
is said
to be in the passive voice when the
In this instance, the verb is called
the
is
receiver
of
the
action.
subject
In

(v)

these

all

and the

a passive

verb.

is prepared

exaln

The

S
The

apple

teacher.
Agent)

was eaten by
V

Paul.

Agent

been struck by

tree has

The

by the

lightning.
Agent)

these examples, the subjectis the receiver


of the action of the
verb. The performerof the action,
if it is mentioned, is introduced by
the
word
\"by\" and is called the agent.
In all

IN

ENGLISH

the verb to be conjugatedin


The tense
verb.
appropriate
past participle of the main
the passive sentenceis indicatedby the tense of the verb to be.
The examisprepared
by the teacher.

The

passive

is expressed by

voice

+ the

tense

present)

The

exaln

was prepared by
I

past)))

the teacher.

the

of

WHAT IS

86

BY ACTIVE AND

MEANT

exam will be

The

PASSIVE

prepared by the

VOICE?)

teacher.

y
future)

IN

FRENCH

As in

English, a passive verb

conjugated

the

in

verb.

The

tense

is

tense

appropriate

by the

expressed

+ the

auxiliary etre (to

passive sentence is indicatedby

of the

verb etre. 1

L'examen est pr\037par\037

be)

past participle of the main


tense

the

of the

Ie professeur.

par

present

The

exam

is prepared

by the teacher.

L'examena ete prepar\037

Ie professeur.

par

passecompose
The

has

exam

L'examensera

par

prepare

teacher.

by the

been prepared

Ie professeur.

future

prepared by the teacher.


in the passive
voice is always \"etre\"(to be), all
Becausethe auxiliary
with
in a passive sentence agreein gender
and number
past participles
the subject.
The

exam

Les vins

will be

sont

fran\037ais

apprecies

\037 masc.

subject

French

an

Thestepsto
same English

monde entier

and

\037

Inasc.

pI.

appreciated the world over.)

Active
an

change

participle

past

pI.

wines are

Changing

in

dans Ie

Sentence

active

sentence

to a Passive
to a

passive sentence arethe

in French.

1. The direct objectof the activesentencebecomes


passive sentence.)

1Verbs
passive

partir,

Sentence

the

subject

of the

to Conn compound
tenses in the active voice (see p. 64) do not have a
that take \037tre as an auxiliary
voice since they are never followed by a direct object in the activevoice. For example, aller,
etc. cannot be made passive.)))
venir,

IS

WHAT

BY ACTIVE AND

MEANT

direct

J,)

object

is prepared by the

The exam

passive)

87)

VOICE?

preparesthe exam.
I

The teacher

active

PASSIVE

teacher.

subject)

tense of the verb of

2. The

the activesentenceis reflected

in

the

tense

verb to be in the passivesentence.)

of the

the exam.
prepares
I

The teacher

active

J,

present

passive)

is prepared by

exam

The

the teacher.

t)

presen

the exam.
prepared
I

The teacher

active

J,

past

exam

The

passive)

was prepared by

the teacher.

past)

The teacher

active

will preparethe

exam.

future

J,

The exam will

passive)

be prepared by the teacher.

future)

3.

of the active
subject
sentence introduced with
The

sentence becomesthe
The

by.

agent

J,

passive

omitted.)

prepares the exam.

The teacher

active

of the

agent

is often

subject

exam

The

passive)

is prepared by
I

the teacher.
I
I

agent)

the

Avoiding

Passive

Voice In French

French
has a passive
its use
as Engvoice, it does not favor
lish does, and whenever possibleFrenchspeakers
to
avoid
the
try
passive construction by replacingit with
an active
one. This is particularly true for general statements,that is, when we don't know who is
Although

doing

action.

the

is spoken
We don't know

English

in

many

who

is

countries.
speaking.)))

WHAT IS

88

BY ACTIVE AND

MEANT

is sold here.

New York Times

The

who is selling.)

know

don't

We

VOICE?)

PASSIVE

can
ways a passivesentence
1. by using the on construction

There are two

The

\"on\"

word

\"one,\"as

in

to the

corresponds

the

should

\"One

sentence,

be

in French.

avoided

English indefinite pronoun


eat when one is hungry.\"
To

construction, French often makes one the


an active sentence, even in sentences whereEnglish
speakers
never use such a construction.
a passive

avoid

On parle anglais

dans

(word-for-word:

The New York Times is


On vend Ie New York
(word-for-word:

2. by

using

the

de pays.
in many countries\

beaucoup

\"one

English

speaks

sold here.
ici.

Times

the New

sells

\"one

York Times

reflexive

exists

construction

only

in French

is spoken

in

se parle

L'anglais

\"speaks

The New

York

Le New York

voice

passive

to

p. 82). This
and is usually senseless

countries.

many

dans beaucoupdepays.

itself')
is sold

Times

se vend

Times

\"sells

here.
ici.

itself')

Careful

ticiple

the

Verb?,

English.

English

Make

here\

verb construction

reflexive

The main verb of the sentenceis changedfrom


is a Reflexi\\'e
its reflexive form (see What
in

would

countries.

in many

is spoken

English

of

subject

sure you distinguish between


used to form a present tensein

the auxiliaryetre +
the

iary etre + a past participleto form

a past

eaten)

is a

instance,\"est
voice, \"est aile\"

(is

mange\"

but

(went)

is a

passive

voice

past

and the

par-

auxil-

active voice. For


in the passive
tense
present
tense

in the

past tense in the active voice.)))

WHAT

IS

BY ACTIVE AND

MEANT

\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037

\037\037\037\037\037\037.\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037REVIEW

Underline
\302\267
Circle
\302\267

Identify

\302\267

Identify

in the
below.
sentences
subjects
performer of the action.
each sentence
as active (Ac) or passive
(Pa).
the tense of the verb: past (PP),present

the

the

(P),

over the moon.

1. The

cow jumped

2. The

bill was paid by

Bob's

parents.

3. The bank

is

4. Everyone

will be goingaway

transferring

the money.

spring break will be enjoyed

by

(F).

PA

PP

Ac

PA

PP

Ac

PA

PP

PA

PP

PA

PP

F)))

the

during

future

Ac

vacation.

Ac
5. The

89)

VOICE?

PASSIVE

all.

Ac

WHAT IS

90

SUBJUNCTIVE?)

THE

The

is

subjunctive

SUBJUNCTIVE?)

used to express a wish, hope,uncertainty


toward a fact or an idea. Since it stresses

a mood

attitude

similar

other

IS THE

WHAT

27.

speaker's feelings about the fact or idea,it

is

usually

subjective

or

the
about

them.)
IN

ENGLISH

The

constructions.

few

very

The

subjunc-

likeother
is difficult to recognizebecauseit is spelled

tive verb form

verb.)

of the

tenses

used in

is only

subjunctive

I am in Paris right now.


I

indicative

present

to be)

I wish

I were in

Paris

He

like a past tense

spelled

subjunctive

a book

reads

now.

right

of to be)

form

a week.

indicative

present

The course

to read)

requires that

a book

a week.

like the dictionary form of

spelled

subjunctive

read

he

to

read)

IN FRENCH

is used
will
usage
rarely help you

The subjunctive

frequently,

very

but unfortunately
and how to use

English

it in French.
Therefore,we referyou to your French textbook. First, learn how to
in the present tense of the subverbs
conjugateregularand irregular
of
the
are rarely used, particuother
tenses
(The
junctive.
subjunctive
decide

where

the
verbs
and expressions
that
larly in conversation.)Then,learn
the
verb
which
the
to
followsin
subjunctive.
require you put
1. Example
of a verb
of desire that is followed by a verb in the subjunctive: vouloir (to want)
Je

veux

que tu sois

vouloir

J want

subjunctive

you to

(word-for-word:

sage.
@tre

be good.
\"I want

that you

be good\))

WHAT

2. Example of

tive:il

faut

an

que

II faut que

(it is necessary
Paul

sache

must know

(word-for-word:

by a

SUBJUNCTIVE?

91)

verb in the subjunc-

that)

parler

fran\037ais.

subjunctive

Paul

is followed

that

expression

IS THE

savoir

how to speak French.


\"it is

necessary

that Paul

know

how

to speak

French \
emotion
3. Example of an adjectiveexpressing
an
in
the
etre
heureux
a
verb
(to
by
subjunctive:

Je suis

heureux que vous veniez

which
be

ce soir.

subjunctive

I am

happy that you are

venir

coming this

evening.)))

happy)

is followed

WHAT IS AN

92

ADJECTIVE?)

An

IN

word

is a

adjective

IS

WHAT

28.

AN

describes

that

ADJECTIVE?)

a noun

or a

pronoun.)

ENGLISH

according to the way they

are classified

Adjectives

describe a noun or

pronoun.

tells

what

See p. 93.

kind it is.

Sheread

an

adjective indicates a quality,

it

book.

interesting

brown eyes.

He has
POSSESSIVE

ADJECTIVE

tells

it is.

whose

- A
descriptive

ADJECfIVE

DESCRIPTIVE

- A

See p.

possessive

adjective shows possession,it

96.

His book is lost.


Our

are

parents

away.
-

INTERROGATIVEADJECTIVE

about someoneor something.


What book is lost?
Which

parents

DEMONSTRATIVE

someoneor
That

question

adjective asks a question

you speak to?


- A demonstrative
ADJECTIVE
did

See

something.

This teacher

An interrogative
See
p. 101.

p.

adjective points out

103.

is excellent.
is very

appropriate.

ormodifies,
In all these casesthe adjective
describes,
noun.)
IN

the

noun

or pro-

FRENCH

in the same way as in English.Theprincipal


in English
and French adjectives is that
English

Adjectives

are classified

difference

between

adjectives

in gender

in French
do not change their form,while
and number with the noun or pronoun they

adjectives
modify.)))

agree

IS A

WHAT

WHAT IS

29.

name

the

As

word that

ENGLISH

IN

The

it modifies.

or pronoun

of a

noun or

the noun or pronoun.)

does not change form,regardless


ofthe

adjective

descriptive

noun

a quality

indicates

it describes

implies,

93)

ADJECTIVE?

ADJECTIVE?)

DESCRIPTIVE

adjective is a

A descriptive

pronoun.

DESCRIPTIVE

The students are intelligent.


is an

She

person.

intelligent

The adjective intelligentis the same although


are different in number (studentsis plural
and

adjectives are divided into two groupsdependingon how


to the noun they modify.

Descriptive

connected

are

they

1. Predicate

- A

adjective

it describes

(the

The

are

children

The

sentence) by

linking

predicate

subject

verb

adjective)

noun

linking

predicate

subject

verb

adjective)

adjective

attributive

An

to the noun it describes and


I

usually

looks small.

The good

verb,

noun

house

2. Attributive

connected to the noun

a linking

good.

adjective is

predicate

subject of the

form of to be.

is connected

adjective
precedes

always

directly

it.

children were praised.


I

attributive

noun

adjective

described)

The family lives

IN

the persons
described
is singular).

person

in

house.

a small
I

attributive

noun

adjective

described)

FRENCH

The

most
and

French

adjective,

noun

it

difference

important
English

predicate
modifies;

between descriptive adjectives in


an
they change forms.In French,

is that in French

or attributive, always agreeswith the noun or prois, it must correspond in gender and numberto)))

that

94

WHAT IS A

ADJECTIVE?)

DESCRIPTIVE

Thus, before writing an adjectiveyou


if the noun or,pronounit modifiesis masculine
or plural.

its noun.

Most adjectives add an


nine

and

form

blue

the

an \"-s\"

\"-e\"

to the

masc.
.

sing.

sing.)

la robe blene

dress)

feln.
.

fern.

sing.)

sing.

les Iivres

the blue books)

biens

blue

singular

masc.

the

to determine

feminine,

bien

the blue

or

to the masculine
form to make the femifeminine ormasculineto makeit plural.)

Ie livre

book)

have

will

masc.

masc.

pI.

pI.)

bleues

les robes

dresses

fern.

fern.

pI.

pI.

the adjective
\"blue\"
As you can see in the examples above,in English,
\"bleu\"
after
the
comes before the noun it modifies,whereas
goes
some
French
the
noun in French. This is not always
case,
adjectives
Refer
to your textbook to
also come before the noun
they
modify.
is placed
before
or after the noun it
learn whethera Frenchadjective

modifies.)

Nouns Used as
IN

Adjectives)

ENGLISH

also be able to recognizenouns


noun.
When
another
a noun usedto modify
You should

another

the

noun,

tive)

+ the

noun

structure

is as

follows: the

The

French

noun)

noun)

that is,

is used to describe

describing noun (adjec-

described.)

French is difficult.

Chemistry

as adjectives;

used

a noun

The

interesting.

noun described)

adjective

is difficult.

class is

chemistry
I

adjective

books are
I

noun

expensive.

described)))

IS A

WHAT

ADJECTIVE?

DESCRIPTIVE

95)

IN FRENCH

noun is usedas an

When a

the structureis
noun

as

the French class


I

I\037fran\037ais

I\037

sing.

sing.)

the chemistry

la

classe

the

les livres)

adjectives

masc.

the

in

pI.

fern.

\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037

you

to the

circled

noun or pronoun

described.)

1. The young

man

was

2. Shelookedpretty

in

reading
her

long

a French

newspaper.

red dress.

3. It is interesting.

4.

The

5.

Paul

old
was

piano
tired

could
after

still produce
his long

sing.)

below.

sentences

from the adjective

an arrow

de chimie

\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037REVIEW

Circle

masc.)

les livres

la chimie

de fran\037ais

classe
fern.

books

another noun,

the describing
noun
remainsa
describing

\302\267
Draw

The

an article.
its fonn.)

not change

does

noun

the

without

(adjective)
and

noun

is, to describe
+ de +
described

that

adjective,

follows:

walk.)))

good music.

WHAT IS A

96

ADJECTIVE?)

POSSESSIVE

WHAT IS

30.

and the noun modifiedis calledthe

the \"possessor\"
\"possessed.\"

thing

Whose house
My is

is that?

It's

an adjective that

\"house.\
IN

ADJECTIVE?)

POSSESSIVE

adjective is a word which describesa noun


by
The
the thing or person beingdiscussed.

A possessive
who possesses
called

showing
owner

is

person

or

my house.

tells us

who

is

the

possessor

of the

noun

ENGLISH

Here

is a

list of the

Singular

possessor

1 st

possessive adjectives:

person

my

2nd person)

your

3rd person)
Plural

masculine

his

feminine

her

neuter)

its)

possessor

1 st

our

person
2nd person
3rd

your

their)

person)

Possessive

of the
adjectives never changetheir form,regardless
only refer to the possessor.

thing

they

possessed;

Is

that

your

house?

Are those your

keys?

house.

Yes, it is my
Yes,

they

are my keys.

the objects
The same possessive adjective(my) is used, although
in
is
is
are
different
number
(house
keys
singular,
plural).
possessed
color
is John's
What
car? His car is blue.
What
color
is Mary's
car? Her car is blue.
the

Although
tive
singular,

is

different
Mary

possessed
because
the

object

feminine

same (car), the possessive


adjecis
different
masculine
(John
possessor
is the

singular).)))

WHAT IS A

and

97)

ADJECTIVE?

FRENCH

IN

Like
but

POSSESSIVE

a French possessive adjective refersto the possessor,


it must agree, like all French adjectives,in gender
English,
number
with the noun it modifies, that is, the personor
English,

unlike

object

possessed.
For

example,

the

possessive

my, while
which
is

in the

mon frere (my brother) the first letterof


to the 1st personsingular
possessor

phrase

m- refers

adjective

the ending -on is


masculine
singular.

my brother

masculinesingularto agree
Let us see
when
happens

with

what

plural.

[love

brothers.

my

mes freres.

J'aime

endings

\037asc.pl.

1 st

pers. sing.

possessor)

Let us look at the Frenchpossessive


adjectives
formed. Because the rulesfor the selection
from
the
for a singular possessoraredifferent

possessiveadjectives
Frenchpossessive

for

plural

adjectives

Singular
In French,

Possessor:

3. the

into

possessors,
these
two

my, your (tu

each of these possessive

depending on the gender and


1. the mascul ine singular
2. the feminine singular
plural

(the

Here are the stepsyou

of the

same for both

genders)

follow

of possessive
rules for the
we

1. Indicatethe possessor

with

adjective.
my

m-)

your

t-)

(tn fonn)

his

her

s-)))

the

they are

how

see

adjectives

selection of
have the divided the

groups.)

form),

his,

her,

Its

ves
has three
noun possessed:

adjecti

number

should

to

in choosing

the correct

sive adjective.

its)

frere,

we make

first

letter

of the

forms

posses-

possessive

WHA T IS A POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVE?)

98

2.

according to

the ending

Choose

the genderand

of the

number

possessed.

noun

is masculine

possessed

beginning
Helene

with

a vowel

lit mon

livre.
I

masc.

Helene

lit

Helene

lit son

ton

singular

or feminine

Helen reads my

book.
I

.
noun

sing.

livre.)

Helenreads

her

Paul meetsmy

mon arnie.

friend.
I

noun possessed

fern.

sing.
with vowel
begins

rencontre

noun

consonant

\037

lit ma

Paul

ton arnie.

Paulmeets

Paul meetshis (her)friend.

friend.

your

beginning

singular

lettre.

Paul

reads my letter.

lit ta

Paul

Paull it
. noun

sa

noun

sing.

your letter.

Paul reads

lettre.)

Paul reads

his

Helen

my books.

reads

masc.

lit tes

Paul

letter.)

(her)

-es)

add

livres.

lit mes

singular

possessed

lettre.

possessed is plural \037

Helene

with

-8)

add

fern.

singular

son arnie.
is feminine

possessed

book.)

(his)

Paul

singular

possessed

your book.

Helen reads

Paul rencontre

singular

-on)

add

livre.

rencontre

Paul

\037

noun

pI.)

lettres.

Paul

reads

possessed

your

plural)

letters.)

fern.

Elle

lit ses

pI.

She is reading her (his)

livres.
I

masc.

the proper

3. Select

Let us

apply the
is

Paul

looking

books.)

pI.)

form accordingto the two

steps

above.

above steps to someexamples:


at his

mother.

1. Possessor:s-

2.

Noun

possessed:

3. Selection:sa

Paul regardesa mere.)))

La mere

(mother) is feminine singular.

noun

IS A POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVE?

WHAT

99)

Paul is lookingat hisfather.

1.

: s-

Possessor

possessed: Le pere (father)

2. Noun

is masculine

singular.

son

3. Selection:

Paul regardeson pere.)


Possessor:

Plural

In French,

depending
same

for

. noun

possessed is singular\037

lis

fille.

Pierre et Mariesont

daufhter.
noun possessed

\037

nos

or leurs)

vos,

nos,

Peter

enfants.

and Mary

are our children.


I

noun

Helene lit vos

singular

Paul reads your letter.


They read their letter.

is plural

possessed

genders).

our

is

Mary

both

or leur

votre,

notre,

lettre

leur

lisent

two forms
1. the singular(the

has only

plural (the samefor

lettre.

lit votre

Paul

noun

and 2. the

genders),

Marie est notre

adjectives
possessive
of the noun possessed:

number

the

both

these

of

each

on

their

(vous form),

your

our,

livres.

Helen reads

Elles lisent leurs lettres.)

plural

your books.

their

read

They

possessed

letters.)

Careful

the subjectand the


not necessarily match. It all dependson what
In French

and in English,

Avez-vous moo livre?


I

Also,
decide

Do you

have

you

1st

2Ad

st
\037

pers.

pers.)

pers.

pers.)

whether

you write a sentence


it is appropriate to

with the possessiveadjectiveyour,


use the tu form or the vous form in

French. Then makesurethat every


right form, including the verb. \"You

either \"1\\1
lis 18lettre\"

or

\"Vous

to say.)

want
book?

my

2nd

before

do

adjective

possessive

lisez

word

that

are

reading

votre

refers
your

lettre.\)

to

\"you\"

is

in the

letter\" would

be

1 00

IS A POSSESSIVE

WHAT

ADJECTIVE?)

Summary

is a

Here

chart you can useas a reference.)


Noun

Possessor

possessed

Singular

Plural

mon

mes

mon

mes

ma

mes

ton

tes

ton

tes

fern.

ta

tes

masc.

son

ses

fem.+ vowel

son

ses

fern.)

sa

ses)

our

notre

nos

your

votre

vos

leur

leurs)

Singular

masc.
fern. + vowel
fern.

my)

your

masc.

(Iu form))

fern.

his, her,

its)

+ vowel

Plural

(vous

form)

the ir

\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037REVIEW

\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037

below.
possessive
adjectives in the sentences
arrow from the possessive adjectiveto the noun it modifies.
of the possessive
number
adjective: singular
(8) or plural (P).
in this section, fill in the French possessive adjective in
the charts
French
sentences
below.
the

Circle

. Draw an
. Circlethe

Using

the

1. I took my

home.

books

POSSESSIVE ADJECfIVE
J'ai

2.

IN

livres a la

pris
borrowed

Mary

(familiar)

your

IN FRENCH:

ADJECfIVE

POSSESSIVE

Marie a

our

4. Your

clothes

p)

s)

p)

s)

p)

s)

p)))

maison.
car.
feminine

mother.)

POSSESSIVE ADJECfIVE

ressemble

s)

voiture.

emprunte

3. Paul lookslike
Paul

masculine

FRENCH:

IN

mere.

a
are

feminine

FRENCH:

expensive.

POSSESSIVEADJECfIVE
vetements

IN FRENCH:

masculine

sont chers.)

IS AN INTERROGATIVE

WHAT

WHAT IS AN

31.

An Interrogative
about
a noun.)
IN

ADJECTIVE?

101)

ADJECTIVE?)

INTERROGATIVE

is a word that asks for moreinformation

adjective

ENGLISH

The

words
come

they

are called interrogativeadjectiveswhen


and areusedto ask a questionabout that

which and what


in front of a noun

noun.

are

courses

What

IN

is teaching the course?

teacher

Which

you taking?)

FRENCH

one interrogative adjective quel which


to agree
changes
and number with the noun it modifies. Therefore, in order to
book\"
or \"what dress\" in French, you start by determining
say \"which
the genderand number
of the word book or dress.

There

is only

in gender

Noun

is masculine

modified

Livre

(book)

so the

word

What

Noun

Iivres

Quels

Oil

sont

Livres

(books)

so the

word

What

singular,
must be masculinesingular.

table?

the

is masculine

modified

plural \037
sur la table?

plural,
must be masculineplural.

table?

Noun modifiedis femininesingular


Quelle

robe

word for

Which dress
Noun

modified
Quelles

quelle

are you

singular.

plural

\037

queUes

voulez-vous?

word for

Which dresses

be feminine

wearing?

is feminine
robes

singular,
must

\"which\"

Robes (dresses)is feminine

so the

\037

portez-vous?

Robe (dress) is feminine

so the

quels

is masculine
for \"what\"

are on the

books

quel

is masculine
for \"what\"

is

book

\037

sur la table?

vre est

Quelli

singular

\"which\"

do you

plural,
must

want?)))

be feminine

plural.

WHAT IS AN

102

ADJECTIVE?)

INTERROGATIVE

above, the interrogativeadjectiveimmediately


preThis is not always
the
case.
As you will
from the noun it
can be separate
see below, the interrogative
adjective
because
the interrogative
modifies.
You must learn to find that
noun,
adjective agrees with it no matter where it is placed in the sentence.

In the

sentences

cedes

the noun

it modifies.

address?

is your

What

To establish
Quelle

which

can

sentence

the

est votre

word
the interrogative
be restructured to read:

adjective modifies,
\"What

is yours?\"

address

adresse?

I
I

fern.

sing.)

are his favorite

What

To establish

which

can

sentence

the

programs?

the interrogative adjective modifies,


be 'restructured to read: \"What
are his
programs
word

favorites?\"

ses programmespreferes?

Quels soot
I

I
I

masc.

pI.)

Careful

The

word

tence

what is

not

on

the

is

\"What

that

important

are used

an Interrogative

and

Pronoun?, p. 138.))

\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037REVIEW

interrogative

an arrow

\302\267
Indicate
\302\267
Fill

\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037

below.
adjectives in the sentences
from the interrogative adjective to the noun
it modifies.
if the noun modified is singular (8) or plural
(P).
the French interrogative adjective in the French
sentences
below.

the

Circle
\302\267
Draw

is

table?\"

distinguish

you

words

different

In the seninterrogative
adjective.
it is an interrogative pronoun. It
one from the other, becausein French
rules.
is
What
(See
they follow different
an

always

in

1. Which
NOUN

courses are you

MODIFIED IN
cours

2. What
NOUN

is your

FRENCH:

masculine)

s)

p)

s)

p)))

suivez-vous?

favorite

MODIFIED IN

taking?

city?
FRENCH:

est ta

feminh,e

ville preferee?)

WHAT

32.

ADJECTIVE?)

DEMONSTRATIVE

IS

WHAT

adjective is a word usedto point out

A demonstrative

103)

ADJECTIVE?

IS A DEMONSTRATIVE

or an

a person

object.
IN

ENGLISH

demonstrative

The

are this

adjectives

the plural. They


in
noun
number
with
the
agreeing
and those in

these

that

and

to those

changes

cat

that man)

and

singular

of adjectives

they modify: this changes to


when they modify a plural noun.)

these

cats

those

men)

This and these referto a personor objectnear


from
and those refer to a personor objectaway
IN

the

in

examples

these

Plural

Singular

this

and that
rare

are

the

the

speaker,

and

that

speaker.)

FRENCH

in gender

say
the

to agree
one demonstrative adjective ce which
changes
and number with the noun it modifies. Therefore, in order to
or \"this dress\" in French, you start by determining
book\"
and number of the word bookor dress.

is only

There

\"that

gender

Noun

is masculine

modified

livre

Ce

Livre

est sur
(book)

singular

is masculine

modified
Cet

with

begins

is feminine

modified
Cette

robe

singular.

table.

singular and starts with


is masculine

is

word

\"this\" must

cette

est jolie.

word for

This (or that)

a vowel

\037

singular.
for

large.

singular \037

Robe (dress)is feminine


so the

be masculine

a vowel, the

This (or that) apartment


Noun

\037

est grand.

appartement
it

a consonant

singular,

Appartement (apartment)
Since

with

la table.
is masculine

so the word for \"this\" must


This (or that) bookis on the
Noun

and starts

\"this\"

singular,
must

dress is pretty.)))

be feminine

singular.

be cet.

cet

ce

WHAT IS A

104

ADJECTIVE?)

DEMONSTRATIVE

Cette Am\037ricaioe \037tudie Ie fran\037ais.


Americaine
(American girl) is feminine
must
be feminine
so the word for \"this\"

girl is studying

This (or that) American


is plural

modified

Noun

soot sur

livres

Ces

Livres

so

ces

la table.
must be plural.

for \"those\"

word

These (or those)booksareon


To distinguish

what is far

after the noun:


noun

the

that

French.

is plural,

(books)

the

\037

singular,

singular.

the

table.

between what is closeto the


from the speaker(that,
those),
from the

these)

-Ia can

from

be added

is close to the speaker;-Ia

speaker.

Ces livres-cisoot
These books (here)are
chers;

and

-ci

the noun

that

indicates

-ci

is far

(this,

speaker

ces

livres-Ia

expensive;

oe soot
those

books

pas chers.
(there)

are not

expensive.)
\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037REVIEW

Circle

demonstrative

an arrow

\302\267
Circle
\302\267
Fill

below.
adjectives in the sentences
from the demonstrative adjectiveto the noun it modifies.
if the noun modified is singular (8) or plural
(P).
sentences
below.)
the French demonstrative adjective in the French

the

\302\267
Draw

\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037

in

1. They
NOUN

prefer that

restaurant.

MODIFIED

IN

FRENCH:

masculine

s)

p)

s)

p)

s)

p)

restaurant.

Ils preferent

2. This testis toohard.


NOUN

IN FRENCH:

MODIFIED

examen est

3.Thesehouses

are

NOUN

MODIFIED
maisons

masculine

trop difficile.

expensive.
IN

FRENCH:

sont

feminine)

cheres.)))

WHAT IS MEANT

33.
We

quality.

105)

nouns have the same


and we want to indi-

of these nounshas a greater,lesser,orequaldegreeof

that one

cate
this

color,

size,

(height,

quality

two or more
characteristic),
any

when

adjectives

compare

OF ADJECTIVES?

OF ADJECTIVES?)

BY COMPARISON

MEANT

IS

WHAT

BY COMPARISON

comparison of adjectives
I
I

but Mary

is tall

Paul

is taller.
I

adjective

adjective

modifies

modifies

Paul

Mary)

and in French there are two


superlative.)

in English
and
comparative
Both

types

of

comparison:

Comparative

The comparative
same

quality

one or

that

person or

in another person or thing.Thecomparison


the otherhas more,less,or the same amount

thing with

the

indicate

can

of the quality.)

ENGLISH

IN

Let's

the three

go over

Greaterdegree-

The

short

is prettier

. more

of the

the length

+ than

Paul is tallerthan
Mary

degree (more) is formed


adjective beingcompared:

of greater

comparison

+ -er

adjective

degrees of comparison:

on

depending

differently

of one

a quality

compares

Mary.
than

sister.

her

+ longer adjective+ than


is more

Paul

My car

intelligent

than Mary.

is more expensivethan

car.

your

lesserdegree(less)is

The comparisonof
degree
not as + adjective as, or less+ adjective

Lesser
follows:

Paul
My

is not as tall
car

is less

Equal degree
follows: as +
Paul

formed

as

formed

as

+ than

as Mary.

expensive

than

your

car.

- The comparisonof equaldegree(same)

is

adjective+ as

is as

tall as

Mary.

My car is as expensiveas your


for conlparing
Iln English and in French, the structure
same as the structure for comparing adjectives.)))

car.)

adverbs

(see What Is an Adverb?,

p.

109) is the

WHAT IS MEANT

106

OF ADJECTIVES?)

BY COMPARISON

FRENCH

IN

are

There

English.
and
tive

and

as in
the same three degrees of comparisonof adjectives
Remember
that, in French, agreement betweenthe adjective

required. However, since a comparativeadjecthan one noun, it always agreesin gender

is always

noun

the

more

always

describes

number

with the

subject.

Greater degree - Thecomparison

lows:plus

(more)

Paul est

Lesserdegree-

moins(less)+

adjective

The

adjective

is

degree

is formed

as follows:

que

active que Paul.


I
with Marie

comparison

adjective

as

of equal degreeis formedas follows:

+ que

active que Paul.

est aussi

Marie

as fol-

less active than Paul.


- The

Mary

of lesser

comparison

agrees

degree

is formed

with Paul

est moins

Mary is
Equal

degree

que Marie.
plus actif
I
agrees

aussi(as)+

greater

mOTeactive than Mary.

Paul is

Marie

of

+ que

active

as Paul.)

Superlative

The superlativeis usedto stressthe


quality.
go over

the two

Greatestdegreeently
the

depending
+ short

the

The

lowest

degrees

of a

adjective

of highest

superlative

of the

My
most

+ long

cheapest on the market.


adjective

Mary is the most


most

intelligent.
expensive

of

degree

adjective:

+ -est

smartest.

car is the

His caris the

degrees of the superlative.

the length

on

Mary is the

and

ENGLISH

IN

Let's

highest

all.)))

is formed

differ-

IS MEANT BY COMPARISON

WHAT

Lowest

- The superlativeof lowest

degree

is the leastexpensiveof all.)

His car
IN

as fol-

active.

least

the

is

Paul

is formed

degree

lows: the least+ adjective

107)

OF ADJECTIVES?

FRENCH

same two degrees of the superlative.

are the

There

Greatestdegreelows:Ie,la, les
described)

The

(depending

on the

+ plus

(most) +

adjective.

Marieest la plus active


I

de

degree is formed as foland


number of the noun
gender

of highest

superlative

or

la famille.

feln.

sing.

is the

Mary

est Ie

Paul
I

most active

in

the

family.)

plus grand.

I
I

masc.

sing.

tallest.)

is the

Paul

Marieet Paul

sont

les
I

plus

intelligents

de la classe.

Inasc.

Mary
Lowest
lows:

pI.

and Paul

degree
Ie, la, or

are the most intelligentin

est

class.

- The superlativeoflowestdegreeis formed

les (dependingon

described)+ moins(less)+
Paul

the

Ie moins

the

and

gender

number

as

of the

fol-

noun

adjective.

actif de la classe.

I
I

Inasc.

Paul

SlOg.

is the

least active

in

the

classe.)

Careful

In English
comparison
adjective

and in French, a few adjectiveshave


irregular
which you will have to memorizeindividually.
Cette

pomme

est bonne.

pomme

est meilleure.

This apple is good.


comparative

Cette

This apple
superlative

Cette

pomme

is better.
est la

meilleure.

This apple is the best.)))

forms

of

WHAT IS MEANT

108

BY COMPARISON

OF ADJECTIVES?)

\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037REVIEW

the superlative

I. Underline

\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037

and comparativeadjectives in

the

sentences

below.

from the adjective to the noun


it modifies.
of
degrees
comparison: superlative (8), comparative
degree (C+), comparative of equal degree(C=),or comparative
degree (C-).

an arrow

\302\267
Draw
\302\267
Circle

the

greater
lesser

1. The
2.

He

3.

Mary

various

teacher is olderthan

is less
is

the

intelligent than I

as tall

students.)

am.

c+

c+ c=

S c+

as Paul.

c=

c-

5.

c+ c=

student

than

Mary.)))

c-

c=

c+

a better

c-

c-

is

of

c=

4. That boy is the worst in the school.


Paul

of

c-)

WHAT

WHAT IS

34.

AN

ADVERB?)

is a word that describes a verb, an


It indicates quantity, time, place, intensity,

adverb

An

adverb.

109)

IS AN ADVERB?

or

another

or

adjective,

manner.

drives well.

Mary

adverb)

verb

The house

is very big.
I

adverb

The girl ran

adjective)

too quickly.
I

adverb)

adverb

IN ENGLISH

are different

There

adverbs and

common
with

answer

of manner

verbs

ad

types of adverbs:
the question

usually easy

to

how? They

are

they end

because

recognize

most

the

-ly.

beautifully.

sings

Mary

the verb

describes

Beautifully

They parked the

you

how

Mary

tells

you

how

the car

car carefully.
the verb

describes

Carefully

sings-it tells

parked-it

sings.)

was

parked.)

of

adverbs

of

adverbs

He will
. adverbs
The
IN

well

does

Paul

quantity

time
come

or degree
enough

answer

answer the

in class.

the question

when?

soon.

of place answerthe question


old were left behind.)

where?

FRENCH

memorize most adverbs


can be recognized
the
by
ending
to the English ending-lYe)
You

question how much?

will

have to

of manner

as

vocabulary.

which

-ment

11n English and in French, the structure


for con1paring adverbs
is the same
adjectives (see What L4iMeant by Comparison of Adjectives?,
p. 105).)))

as

Most

adverbs

corresponds

the structure for comparing

WHAT IS AN

110

The

ADVERB?)

joliment

beautifully

generalement

generally

heureusement

happily

fact
important
this means that

most

invariable:

for you to rememberis that adverbs


they never becomeplural,nor dothey

are
have

gender.)

or AdJective?

Adverb

must
Because adverbs are invariableand adjectives
agree with the
noun they modify, you must be able to distinguish one from the other.
make
sure
that adjecWhen
you write a sentence in French, always
and that adverbs
tives agree with the nounsor pronouns
they
modify
remain unchanged.

The tall girltalked


modifies

Tall

verb talked;
I

it is an

girl;

boy talked

Le grand

Rapidly

modifies

the

modifies

the

adverb.

is an

rapidly.

gar\037on

boy; it is an adjective.
how he talked; it

adverb.

I
adverb)

sing.

in English

that

Rapidly
is an

rapidement.

parlait

Remember

it

adverb)

the noun
Tall modifies
verb talked; it describes

masc.

adjective.

she talked;

how

describes

sing.

tall

The

noun

fille parlait rapidement.


I

La grande
fern.

it

rapidly.

the

good is

an

well

adjective;

is an

adverb.

The student writes goodEnglish.


modifies

Good

The student

English;

the verb

writes;

in French bon is an
adverb meaningwell.

Likewise,

The

students

good

speak

French

well.
I

bons etudiants
I

pI.

adverb)

Ie fran\037ais.
parlent bien
I
adverb)))

an adverb.)

meaning

adjective

adjective

masc.

an adjective.)

is therefore

is therefore

it

Les

it

writes well.

modifies

Well

the noun

good;

bien

is the

WHAT

IS AN ADVERB?

\037\037\037\037\037\037..\037.\037\037.\037.\037.\037
\037..\037.\037..\037\037\037\037\037\037\037.REVIEW

Circle

the

adverbs

in

the

sentences

below.

\302\267
Draw

an arrow

from the adverb to the word

1. The

students

arrived early.

2. Paul learnedthe
3. The
4.

He

5.

Mary

lesson

really

it

modifies.)

quickly.

students were tootiredto study.


has a
is

reasonably secure

a good

student

income.

who speaks

French very

well.)))

111)

WHAT IS A

112

CONJUNCTION?)

is a

A conjunction
IN

IS

WHAT

35.

word

CONJUNCTION?)

words

links

that

or groups

of words.)

ENGLISH

There

and
kinds of conjunctions:coordinating

are two

join words, phrases, and clausesthat


elements of equal rank.The majorcoordinating
but, or, nor, for, and yet.

coordinate

they

are

conjunctions

and,

or evil

good

over the river and through


They invited us, but we

woods

the

couldn't

go.

conjunctions join a dependent clauseto a main


introduced
one clause to another. A clause

Subordinating
subordinate

they

clause.
ordinating conjunction is called subordinate
are
before, after,since,
nating conjunctions
a

Typical

although,

while,

so that,

unless,

are

conjunctions

Coordinating
equal;

subordinating.

sub-

subordi-

because,

if,

beginning

of

invited, we didn't go.

we were

Although

by a

when.

and

that,

clause;

subordinating

m \037
in

conjunction

clause)

They left

because

they

were

bored.

YI
main

subordinating

clause

conjunction)

he was tired.

He said that

I..

main

subordinatIng

clause

conj

the subordinate

that

Notice

the sentence
IN

unction)

or

after

the

main

clause may come

either at

the

clause.)

FRENCH

must

Conjunctions
that,

like

they

never

adverbs
change

be memorized
and
their

prepositions,
fonn).)))

as vocabulary items. Remember


conjunctions are invariable (Le.,

WHAT

\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037.\037\037.\037\037\037\037REVIEW

Circle

the

coordinating

and

subordinating

IS A CoNJUNCTION?

\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037

in the

conjunctions

sentences

below.
\302\267
Underline

the

words

each conjunction serves to

coordinateor to

subordinate.)

1. Mary

and Paul

were going to study

2. She

did not study because she was

3. Not

only had

or Spanish.

French
too

he forgottenhis ticket,but

passport as well.)))

113)

tired.
he

had

forgotten

his

WHAT IS A

114

PREPOSITION?)

PREPOSITION?)

the relationship
of one word (usuword in the sentence.The noun or
the preposition is calledthe objectof the preposifollowing
phrase.)
preposition plus its objectis calleda prepositional

a noun

ally

word

is a

A preposition

pronoun
tion. The

IS

WHAT

36.

shows

that

to another

or pronoun)

IN ENGLISH

Prepositions
.

normally indicate

Paul was in
Mary

car.

the

put the

books on the table.


direction

showing

prepositions

Mary

went to

The students

school.
came

. prepositionshowing
French

people

class.

go on

vacation in August.
to eat.

went

prepositions are singlewords:

because

of

due to
IN

from

directly
time

Beforeclass,they
Not all

position

showing

prepositions

position, direction,ortime.

in front

of

in

of

spite

instead of
on account

of)

FRENCH

will have
and use must

You

to memorize prepositionsas vocabulary.


be carefully studied.Thereare two

Their

meaning

things

important

to

remember:

1. Prepositions areinvariable.Thismeansthat
form. (They never becomeplural,nordo they
2. Prepositions
ently. Do not

are tricky. Every


assume that the

in English,or even

oneis used

in

English

that

a preposition
(and

uses

language

same

vice

preposition

will be

versa).)))

never

they
have

their

change

a gender.

prepositions

is used in

)
differ-

French as

used in French when

IS A PREPOSITION?

WHAT

French

English

Change
to be

angry

of

preposition
etre

with

ition

No

to wait/or

(in)

preposition

regarder)

No Preposition

Preposition

to telephone

t\037l\037phoner

to ask

will

demander a

(someone)

dictionary

(against)

I 'avion)

attendre

to look at)

fach\037 contre

etredans

to be on the plane
Prepos

115)

give you

usually

the verb plus the preposition


when

is required.)

one

Careful

Do not translate an Englishverb


French equivalent. (Seep. 24.))

\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037REVIEW

Circle

the

1. The

prepositions

The

had

teacher
to

Contrary

The

the

following

students didn't understand

2. His family

3.
4.
5.

in

garden

come

from

with

preposition

a word-for-word

\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037

sentences.)
what

Paris the

the

lesson

was about.

year before we had.

walked

around

the room

as she talked.

popular

opinion

he was

a good student.

between

the two

houses was

very

small.)))

WHAT ARE

116

OBJECTS?)

Every sentenceconsists,at
is calledthe sentence
base.
Children

ARE OBJECTS?)

WHAT

37.

the

very

of a

least,

subject and a verb.This

play.

Work stopped.

The subjectof the

or pronouns

or pronoun.Many
which are relatedto the

to a preposition. These nouns

verb or

of the

action

nouns

other

a noun

is usually

base

sentence

contain

sentences

or

are

pronouns

called objects.

Paul writes a letter.


I

He

verb

subject

to Mary.

speaks
I

object)

verb

subject
Paul

out with

goes

object)

Mary.

verb

subject

preposition

object

study the threetypes of objects


rect object,and object of a preposition.)
We will

direct object,

separately:

indi-

Direct Object)
ENGLISH

IN

A direct

is a

object

noun or pronoun

verb directly, without

lowing
what?

Paul

or

noun

the verb.

writes
a letter.
Paul writes what?
A letter is the direct

They
They

see Paul
see

this section,

Voice?,p. 85.))))

we will

the

receives

It answers

the verb

of the
and the fol-

action

the question whom?or

1)

A letter.

object.)

and Mary.

whom?

Paul and Mary

1In

object.

pronoun

after

asked

or

that

between

a preposition

consider

Paul and Mary.


the two direct

are

objects.)

active sentences only (see What is Meant

by

Active

and Passive

WHAT

Paul sees

well.

sees

what?

Paul

Paul sees

117)

No answer.
answer.)

No

whom?

which comesright
the
direct
It
the
matically
object. must answer
Do not

ARE OBJECTS?

assume that any word

after

a verb

question

is autowhat? or

whom?

There is no directobjectin the sentence.


Well is an adverb; it answers
the question:Paul sees how?
Verbs can be classified as to whether or not they
take
a direct object.
. a transitive
verb
is a verb which takes a direct object.It is indicated
V.t. (verb

abbreviation

the

by

The boy

ball.

the

threw
I

direct

transitive
\302\267
an

is a

verb

Intransitive

is indicatedby

transitive) in dictionaries.

object)

verb that

does

not

v.i. (verb

abbreviation

the

require

a direct

intransitive)

object. It

in the

dictio-

nary.

is

Paul

sleerillg.
intransitive)

IN

FRENCH

As in

English,

action of the verb


tion qui? (wIuJm?)

lis

a direct object is a
without

directly,

rencontrent

or

or pronoun
a preposition.
It

noun

asked after

(what?)

quoi?

that receives the


answers the ques-

the verb.

et Marie.

Paul

No preposition separates\"Paul
from the verb \"rencontrent.\"
meet Paul and Mary.
They

et Marie\"

Paul prend Ie livre.


No

from

separates

preposition

the verb

\"Ie

livre\"

\"prend.\"

Paul takes the book.


As

with

depending

verbs,
English
on whether

French verbs can be transitiveor intransitive


or not they are followedby a direct object.)))

WHAT ARE

118

OBJECTS?)

Indirect

IN

ENGLISH

indirect

An

the verb

indirectly,

the

with

indirect

painting

after

the

verb.

object.)
museum.

the

to

The museum.
object.)

what?

to

painting

The museum

indirect

is the

FRENCH

an indirect

in English,

As

the action of

the verb

the

Paul parlefA son


Paul

fA

receives

relating it

a qui?

are always

(to whom?) or a quoi(to


indirect objectsareeasy to
preceded

by. the

preposi-

brother.

)'examen.

about the exam.)

is thinking

Sentences
sentence

which

a (to)

or

frere.

speaks to his

II pense
He

pronoun

the preposition

Nouns that are

because they

in French

identify
.
,
tlon a.

with

question

the verb.

after

asked

what?)

object is a noun

indirectly,

to the verb. It answers

IN

what? asked

of

the verb. It

Her friends.

to whom?

Her friends is the

it to

her friends.

She spoke to

He gave the
He gave a

or to

action

the

receives

to relating

preposition

whom?

to

question

Shespoke

or pronounwhich

is a noun

object

answersthe

IN

Object)

both a

contain

may

With

Direct

and

Indirect

direct object and

an

Object
indirect

object.)

ENGLISH

a sentence has both a direct and an indirect


object, the following
two word ordersarepossible:
1.subject (S) + verb (V) + indirect object (10)+ directobject(DO)
When

Paul

Who gave

Paul is the
Paul

DO

10

A gift

a gift.

his sister

gave

a gift? Paul.
subject.

gave what?

is

the

direct

gift.

object.)))

WHAT ARE

Paul gave a gift


H is sisteris the
2. subject

+ verb

Paul

to whom?
indirect

there

identify its function


questions

IN

than

the

establish

to

object

sister
10

first structure, under


is no \"to\"
preceding

The

His sister.

+ directobject+ to+ indirect


DO

119)

object.)

a gift to his

gave

OBJECTS?

1, is the mostcommon.
However,

because

more difficult to
in the second structure. Be sure to ask the
function of words in a sentence.)
the

indirect

object,

it is

FRENCH

There

one word

is only

direct and an
word

indirect

Paul a

donne un

S
Paul

+ verb

subject

order):

gave his

+ direct
a sa

contains
both a
objects follow a different

a sentence

(pronoun

object + it

+ indirect

object

soeur.
10

sister a gift.

a gift

gave

cadeau

noun

DO

Paul

order possiblewhen

object

to his

sister.)

Object of a Preposition)
IN

ENGLISH

of a preposition is a noun or pronounthat


receives
the
the verb through a preposition otherthan to. (Objects
of the
indirect
It answers
above.)
preposition to are discussedunder
objects
An

object
action of

the question whom? or what?


Paul works for
Paul
Mary

asked

after

the preposition.

Mary.

for whom? For Mary.


the object of the preposition

works
is

for.)

The baby eats with


a spoon.
The baby eats with what?
With a spoon.
A spoon is the object
of the preposition
IN

with.)

FRENCH

or pronoun
that receives
the
object of a preposition is a noun
action of the verb througha preposition
other
than
a (to). It answers
the question qui? (whom?)
or quoi?
asked after the preposi(what?)

An

tion.)))

WHAT ARE

120

OBJECTS?)

travaille

Paul

Marie.

pour

Paul worksfor Mary.


Le

eats with

spoon.)

Careful

a verb and its object is often

The relationship
between
and French. For
English

example, a verb may

preposition in English but


in

that

French
when

some of the

1. objectof
I am

that

differences

in English

preposition

object

of a

or a direct object

you
\037

are likely

direct

object

indicate

p. 24).

to encounter.
in French

lookingfor the book.

I am

Object of a preposition
The book.
of the preposition for.)

in English:

Function

what?

looking/or

The book is the


Je

an

take

in French,

object

Your textbook, as well as dictionaries,will


verb needs a preposition beforean object
(see

verbs.
a French

Here are

close

pay

you

a direct

in

different

object in French. For this reason,it is imporattention to such differenceswhen


learn
you

an indirect

but

English

tant

cuillere.

une

avec

b\037b\037 mange

The baby

object

cherche IeIivre.
Direct

in French:

Function

object

J e cherche quo;?Le livre.


Le livre
is a direct object since chercheris not

by a

followed

preposition.)

Many common verbs require an indirect object


in English but a direct objectin French.
preposition

ecouter

to

to listen

to lookat

regarder

to wait

for

attendre

for

payer

to pay

2. directobjectin

\037 indirect

English

She phones herfriendsevery


Function

Shephones

or

in English:

Her friends

whom?

is the

object
day.

Direct object

Her
direct

friends.
object.)))

in French

an

object

of

WHAT ARE

ses amis tous

t\037lephone a

Elle

Indirect

in French:

Function

les jours.

object

Elle telephonea qui? A ses amis.


The verb is telephoner a and takes

an indirect

object.

common verbs requirea directobjectin


rect object in French.
A few

to obey

obeir

to resemble

ressembler a

3. directobjectin

of a

the
Mary'sparentsremember

in English:

Function

Mary'sparents

Function

direct

in

is se

verb

prepos iti
Here

is another

lish and

an

la guerre.

de

souvenir

de and it

De la guerre.
for the

an object

requires

common verb whichrequiresa


of a

preposition

direct

in Eng-

object

in French.

entrer

dans)

the function

identify

Always

se souviennent

de.)

on

object

to enter

The war.

what?

of preposition
Object
se souviennent
de quoi?

French:

Les parents de Marie


The

war.

object.)

de Marie

Les parents

preposition in French

Direct object

remember

The war is the

an indi-

and

English

\037 object

English

121)

OBJECTS?

you are working; do not

mix

of a

word within
patterns

English

the

language

in which

into French.)

Summary

The different types of objectsin


looking to seeif they are introduced

by a

can

be identified

preposition

and, if so,

by
by

one.

which

Direct

object
without

directly,

- An object which receivesthe actionoftheverb


a preposition.

Indirect object - An
through

rectly,

Object
verb

a sentence

the

a preposition

receives

the action

of the verb indi-

to.

preposition

of a preposition -

through

which

object

object

which

other than

to.)))

An

receives

the action

of the

WHAT ARE

122

OBJECTS?)

to recognize the three types


Your
ability
French
pronouns, for instance, a different

lish

him

pronoun

indirect

an

depending

Find

the

objects

\302\267
Next
\302\267
Circle

the

objectof

is used

for the

Engdirect object(Ie) or

(Iui).)

object

to Q,
to A,

With

is essential.

objects

him is a

on whether

\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037REVIEW

\302\267
Next

of

pronoun

in

the

sentences

below:

write the question you


write the answer to the
kind of object it is: direct

a preposition

\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037.\037

need

to ask

question

object

to

find

the

object.

asked.
(DO), indirect object (10)or
you just

(OP).

children took a shower.)

1. The
Q:

A:

2. They

ate the

meal with

their

DO)

10)

OP)

DO)

10)

OP)

DO)

10)

OP)

DO)

10)

OP)

DO)

10)

OP)))

friends.

Q:

A:

Q:
A:)

3. He

sent a present to his brother.)

Q:

A:

Q:

A:)

WHAT

WHAT IS AN

38.

123)

PRONOUN?)

OBJECT

pronoun is a pronoun usedas an

An object

PRONOUN?

IS AN OBJECT

of a

object

verb or

a prepo-

sition.)

IN

ENGLISH

Pronouns

used as
We

Verb
noun
tion.
The

use

according to their

change

subjects are studiedin

Conjugation?,
is either a direct

What

is a

the

Subject

we conjugate

when

pronouns

subject

in

function

sentence.

Pronouns

p. 32.

Pronoun?,

verbs (see What

is

p. 36). Object pronounsareusedwhen

a pro-

object,indirectobject,or object a preposiObjects?, p. 116.)


the object pronoun is different from the form of
subbut the same form pronoun is usedas direct
object,
of

(See What are


of

form

the

pronoun,
indirect
object,

ject

or an object of a preposition.)
Subject)

Object)

Singular
1 st person
2nd person)
3rd

person)

me

you

you

he

him

she

her

it)

it)

Plural
1 st person
2nd person
3rd

person)

She

saw

we

us

you

you

they)

them)

me.
I

direct

I lent

Iny

object
car

\037

object

pronoun)

to him.
I

indirect

They

object

went out

\037

with

pronoun)

object
her.
I

object

In English,

of a preposition

the object

\037

object

pronoun is always

pronoun)
placed

after

the verb.)))

124

IS AN OBJECT

WHAT

PRONOUN?)

IN FRENCH

As in English, the pronouns used as


ones used as objects. Unlike English,however,

subjects

ferent object pronounis used

and object of a preposition.


of
analyze the function

each

You

will

object

in

pronoun

have

you

that

Remember
type

of

objects

can choosethe

placed

the

before

verb.

French DirectObjectPronouns
to establish
that the French verb takesa directobject.
and French verbs don't always takethe same
English
and

the type of

establish

direct, indirect,
to learn how to

so that you

In French, the object pronouns are usually


Consult your textbook for the rules.)

First,

a dif-

cases

many

of object:
therefore
have
kind

form.

French

correct

an

for

the

from

different

are

working in French

that when

object taken by

French

the

verb

you

have

will

(see p.

to

120).

Let us look at the Frenchdirectobjectpronouns


to see how
they are
selected. Since the rulesfor the selection
of 1 st and 2nd persondirect
are
different
from the rules for the selectionof 3rd
objectpronouns
direct
we have divided the Frenchdirect
object
person
pronouns,

object

pronouns

into

these

two

categories:

1 st and 2nd PersonsSingular


and
Plural
(me, you, and us)
1 st or 2nd person are merely
The direct objectpronoun
of the
a question of memorization. Select the form
need
from the chart below
you
and place it beforethe verb.)

Direct

Subject

object

je

me

tu

te)

DOUS

nons

VOUS)

vons)

Si ngular

1 st

person

2nd person

PIural
1 st

person

2nd person)

our examples, we have chosena verb which


in
English and in French, the verb to see (voir).)))
object both

To simplify

takes

a direct

WHAT

Paul sees

1.Identify
2. What

IS AN OBJECT

125)

PRONOUN?

you.
to see

verb:

the

French

is the

3. Doesthe

French

4. Function

of pronoun

equivalent: voir
require a preposition before an
in French:
direct object

verb

No.

object:

5. Selection:te or vous
te voit.

Paul

Paul vons

voit.

in a
nous
and vous can be either the subject or the
object
and
is sometimes confusing, particularly since both
subject
before
the
verb
in
are
French.
It
is
object pronouns
placed
important
that you do not think
of nous
and vous only as subjects. In case of
look
at the verb. Remember that verbs agree with
their
doubt,
subject.
If nous is the subject, the verb will end in .ons;
if it doesn't,
nous is
an object of somekind.Thesame is true with vous. If it is the subject
of the verb, the ending of regular verbs will be.ez.)

The fact that


sentence

nons

Vous

Nous cannot

voyez
be

tous

les jours.
because the verb voir

the subject

of voyez can only


object pronoun.

The

subject

3rd Person

Therefore,

doesn't end in
DOUS

must

-ODS.

be an

us everyday.

see

You

vous.

be

Singular and Plural

(him,

The French directobjectsof the

depending on the genderand

3rd

number

her,

It and

them)

have a different
person
of the pronoun.)

form

Direct

Subject

object

masculine

iI

Ie

feminine)

elle

la)

masculine

ils

les

feminine)

elles)

les)

Singular

Plural

following sentences, in which we have usedeachof


object pronouns, will enable us to selectthe
form from the chart above. We have
used the
proper
again
verb to see (voir)becauseboth the English
and the French verbs take
An

analysis

the

3rd

person
French

a directobject.)))

of the

direct

WHAT IS AN

126

HIM -

Always

Do you
Voyez-vo'us

HER

PRONOUN?)

OBJECT

masculine singular.
see
Paul?
Yes, I see him.
Paul?
Qui, je Ie vois.
feminine

Always

singular.

I see her.
Do you see Mary?
Yes,
Marie?
Qui,je la vois.
Voyez-vous
IT

noun

gender will dependon the genderof the


antecedent).
but the

singular,
Always
it refers
to (its

Do you

livre?

Ie

Voyez-vous

1. Antecedent:
2. Gender:

Le
masculine

3. Selection:'
Do

Ie)

table? Yes,I see it.


table?
Qui, je la vois.
La table
(the table) is feminine.

see the

you

Yes, I see it.


Qui, je Ie vois.
livre (the book) is masculine.

book?

the

see

la

Voyez-vous

1. Antecedent:
2. Gender:feminine

3.

THEM

Selection:

Always

la)

plural

and the

same form

is

used

for both

genders.

Do you see the girls? Yes, I see them.


Voyez-vous les jeunes filles? Qui,je lesvois.
Doyou see the boys? Yes, I see them.
les gar\037ons? Qui, je les vois.)
Voyez-vous

French Indirect ObjectPronouns

First,

you

object.

have

Remember

that the

establish

to

that English

objects and that


to establishthe type of object
same type of

French verb takes an

and French verbs


when

working

don't

in French

always

indirect

take

the

you will have

French verb (see p. 120).


In French
it is easier
to distinguish between direct and indirect
objects
with nouns rather than with pronouns because nounsthat
are
indirect
indirect
are always preceded by the prepositiona whereas
objects
object

pronouns

are

not.)))

taken

by the

WHAT

IS AN OBJECT

PRONOUN?

127)

look at the French indirectobjectpronouns


to see how
they are
selected. Since the rulesforthe selectionof 1stand 2nd persons
indirect object pronouns are differentfromthe rulesfor the selection
of
divided
the French
indi3rd person indirect object pronouns, we have
rect object pronouns into thesetwo categories:
1 st and 2nd Persons Singularand Plural
(me,
you, and us)
The indirect object pronoun of the 1stand 2nd persons
is the same as
Select
the form you need from the chart
the direct objectpronoun.
Let us

below.)

and

Direct

indirect

objects)

Subject)

Singular
1st person

je

me

2nd

tu)

te)

nous

noDs

vous)

vons)

person

Plural
1 st

perso

2 nd
To

person)

we have

our examples,

simplify

rect object both in

English

and

in

chosen a verb

French,

the verb

which

takes

to speak to

an indi-

(parler

it).)

Paul

to us.

speaks

1. Identify
2. What

the
is the

to speak

verb:

French

equivalent: parler

3. Is the French verb followed by a: Yes.


in French: indirect object
4. Function
of the pronoun
Paul nons parle.
I

indirect

Person

3rd

Since
are

object

and Plural (him, her, It and them)


for the selectionof 3rd personindirectobjectpronouns
for pronouns referring to a \"person\"
(this category
and pronouns referring to a
and live animals)
beings
includes
category
objects and ideas), we have divided

Singular

the rules

different

includes

human

\"thing\"

pronoun)

(this

3rd personpronouns

into

these

two

categories.)))

128

IS AN OBJECT

WHAT

PRONOUN?)

- antecedent is a
person(him, her, and them)
are two forms of the indirectobjectpronoun,
plural form.)
\"Person\"

There

Direct

Indirect

object

object

Ie
la

lui)

masculine

les

leur

feminine)

les)

leur)

and a

a singular

Singular
masculine

feminine)

lui

Plural

HIM

OR HER
Are

Always singular.
to Paul? Yes, I
to speak
the French equivalent:

speaking

you

1.

Identify

2.

What

is

3. Doesthe

verb

French

5. Function
of the
6. Selection:lui

Qui, je lui

Are you speaking to Mary?

The only

THEM

refers

you

way

Always

to (its

Are

you

1-

tell if

You will

plural.

indirect

to Paul

speaking
of

antecedent:

to her.

is

have to determine whetherthe


thing.

If it

from

and Mary? Yes,I am

person

(Paul

fa

Paul

et a

Marie?

refers

noun

and

speaking

Mary)

Qui, je

leur parle.)))

it

to a person,

leur.

leur

7. Selection:

Parlez-vous

speaking

lui refers to a male or female

object pronoun

5. See above.

6. Type

object

parle.

antecedent) is a personor a

the

use

always

can

Yes.

object?

said before.)

has been

what

J am

Qui, je lui

a Marie?

before an

parle.

Yes,

1 - 6. Seeabove.

Parlez-vous

parler

in French: indirect

pronoun

fa Paul?

Parlez-vous

to him.

speaking

a preposition

require

preposition? a

4. What

am

verb:

the

to them.

WHAT

\"Thing\"

- antecedentis

There is only

one

(it and them)


indirect object

a thing

of the

form

Direct

pronoun y.

Indirect

Object

Object

Person

Antecedent:

129)

PRONOUN?

IS AN OBJECT

Thing)

Singular

masculine

Ie

lui

feminine)

la)

lui)

y)

masculine

les

leur

feminine)

les)

leur)

y)

Plural

Are

the letter? Yes,I am answering


you answering
1. Identify the verb: to answer
2. What is the French equivalent: repondre

3. Doesthe
4. What

French

verb

5. Function
of pronoun
6. Type of antecedent:
7. Selection:y
a la

Repondez-vous

Do
1.

you

obey

is the

3. Doesthe
4. What

the
the

Identify

2. What

in French:

lettre?

before an

object?

Yes

object:

Yes

indirect object
letter)

reponds.
Yes, I obey them.

laws?

Qui, j'y

to obey

verb:

French

French

a preposition

thing (the

equivalent: obeir
require a preposition

verb

before an

preposition: a

of pronoun
5. Function
6. Type of antecedent:
7. Selection:y
Qbeissez-vous

require

preposition? a

it.

aux
I

lois?

in French:
thing (the

Qui, j 'y

indirect object
laws)

obeis.

a + les)

of a

Preposition
First, you have to establish that the French verb takes an object of a
Remember that English and Frenchverbs don't always
preposition.
take
the same
you
type of objects and that when workingin French
verb (see
will have to establish the type of objecttaken
by the French
p. 120).
Pronounsthat are objects of prepositions other than to (a in French)
which
have
certain
forms
are different from the forms usedas direct)))
French

Pronouns

as

Objects

WHAT IS AN

130

OBJECT

objects

and indirect

usually

placed

PRONOUN?)

objects. Unlike other objectpronouns

which

are

are
before the verb, pronounsas objectsof prepositions
In
like
the
verb.
this
are
with
after
the
they
usually
placed,
preposition,
en is an exception
nounsusedas objectsofprepositions.
(The
pronoun

under
to this rule, seebelow
2.)
Let us look at the Frenchpronouns
they

of a preposition
to see how
for the selectionof objectsof a

objects

the rules

Because

selected.

are

1st and 2nd personsaredifferent


the
from
of
of
the
3rd
the objectof a preposition
rules for the selection
pronoun
ofa preposition
pronouns
person, we have divided the Frenchobject
into these two categories:
1st and 2nd Person Singular and Plural (me, you, and us)
are
a
The
1st and 2nd person object of a preposition
merely
pronouns
form
need
from
the
chart
of
memorization.
Selectthe
you
question
after the verb.
below and place it, with the preposition,
of the

pronouns

preposition

Direct &
of

ind irect

Object

Subject)

object

preposition)

Singular
1st person

je

me

prep.

2nd

tu)

te)

prep. + toi)

nous

nous

prep. + nons

vous)

vous)

prep.

person

+ moi

Plural
1 st person
2nd person)
Here

is an

vons)

example.

No,it'sfor

Is the bookfor Paul?

No,

1.

Identify

2.

What

3. Is the
4. What

it's for

No, it's for


the
is the

verb:

French
verb

French
preposition?

5. Function of

pronoun

me.

you.

us.

to be

equivalent: etre
by a preposition? Yes.

followed
pour

(for)

in French:

toi (vous), nous


6. Selectit>n:
moi,
Est-ce que Ie livre est pour Paul?

object of

preposition

il est pour moi.


Non, il est pour toi (or vous).
Non,
Non,

il est

pour

nons.)))

WHAT

PRONOUN?

IS AN OBJECT

131)

her, It and them)


(him,
Singular and Plural
Since the rules for the selectionof 3rdpersonobjectofa preposition
are different for pronouns referring to a \"person\"
(this catepronouns
live
includes
human
and
and
animals)
gory
beings
pronouns referring
to a \"thing\"
includes
(this
category
objects and ideas), we have
divided
3rd
into these two categories.)
person
pronouns

3rd Person

\"Person\"- antecedent

person (him, her and them)


the object of prepositionpronouns
referring
number
of
the
on
the
and
gender
pronoun.
person depending
Indirect Objectof
Direct
are

There

is a

forms of

four

object

Subject

Person &

Antecedent

Thing

object

preposition

Person

Person

to

Singular

masculine

il

Ie

lui

prep. + lui

feminine

elle

la

lui

prep.

masculine

ils

les

leur

prep.+

feminine)

elles

les

leur

prep. + eux)

+ elle

PI ural

An

analysis

the

3rd

enable

HIM

masculine

Always

Is the
1.

following sentences, in which we have usedeachof


object of a preposition referringto persons,
pronouns
to select the proper French form from the chart above.

of the

person
us

will

book

for
the

Identify

2. What

is the

3. Is the
4. What
5.

singular.

Paul?

Yes,

verb:

to be

French
verb

French

(for)
in French:

of antecedent:

HER

Always

Is the
1-

Ie livre

feminine

book

for

5. See above.

6. Gender
7. Selection:

Est-ce que

him.

equivalent: etre
by a preposition? Yes.

of pronoun

que

is for

followed

lui
7. Selection:

Est-ce

it

pour

preposition?

Function

6. Gender

eux

object of preposition
masculine (Paul)

est pour Paul?

\037ui,

il est

pour

lui.

singular.

Mary?

Yes,

of antecedent:
elle

Ie livre est pour

it

is for

feminine
Marie?

her.
(Mary)

Qui,

il est

pour

elle.)))

WHAT IS AN

132

OBJECT

PRONOUN?)

Always plural. You will


refers to is a personor a thing.
THEM

antecedentis

have

Is

the

1-

If the

or thing.

person

the gender of the

to determine

the

bookfor

5. See above.

6. Gender

Yes

girls?

7. Selection:elles

Est-ce

que

Ie

est pour

livre

is used if the
antecedent is a person,you will
them.

is for

it

whether the noun it

object pronoun

antecedent.

feminine

antecedent:

of

to determine

have

A different

(the girls)

les filles?

Qui, il est pour

elles.

bookfor the boys? Yes it is for them.


1 - 5. Seeabove.
of antecedent: masculine (the boys)
6. Gender

Is the

7. Selection:
eux
Est-ce

que

Ie livre

- antecedent

\"Thing\"

In French,

est pour

is a

les gar\037ons?

(it and

thing

a noun referring to a

when it is the objectof


preceded by any other

the

Qui,

pour eux.)

il est

them)
is only

thing

de.

preposition

replaced
by
(A noun referring

a pronoun
to a thing

is not replaced. For instance, in


to the table;
book is on it\" referring
When
it or them is the
instead one says \"Thebookis onthe table.\")
and the pronoun are
object of the prepositionde,both the preposition
l)
the
en
is
before
verb.
which
placed
replaced by

French

you

preposition

say \"The

cannot

Antecedent

Person

Object of

Ind irect

Direct

object

Subject objects
& Thing

Person

Thing

preposition

Person Thing

Singular

masculine

il

Ie

lui

lui

en

feminine

elle

la

lui

elle

en

masculi ne

ils

les

leur

eux

en

feminine

elles

les

leur

elles

en)

Plural

1Your

textbook

may cover

the few

cases in

which the

pronoun

en can be used to

refer

to persons.)))

(after

dt)

WHAT

Here are

PRONOUN?

133)

some examples:

[liked

the

1.

2. What

3. Is the
4. Function

speak about it.

to speak

verb:

the
is the

French

French

followed by de: Yes


in French: object of preposition
pronoun

of

de

(book)

thing

en
je vais

alors

livre

Ie

equivalent: parler

verb

antecedent:

5. Type of
6. Selection:
aim\037

going to

so I am

book

Identify

J'ai

IS AN OBJECT

[likedthesebookssoI
1 - 6. See

am

en parler.

going

to speak

about

them.

above.

]'ai

alors je

Iivres

aim\037 ces

vais en parler.)

(Stressed)

Disjunctive

Pronouns

The set of pronouns usedas objectsof


another
has
tion. These pronouns,
without the preposition, are
In this function, they are calleddisjunctive
or contrast.
emphasis

prepositions

stressed

Disjunctive

pronouns.
Who

Him.

there?

is

pronouns often

Her.
I

standing alone)

pronoun

personal

Qui est lh?

Lui.

Elle.
I

pronoun)

disjunctive

Me.

Who called?

personal

Qui a

pronoun

tel\037phone?

standing alone)
Moi.
I

disjunctive

pronoun)))

func-

alsoused

stand alone.

for

or

WHAT IS AN

134

PRONOUN?)

OBJECT

Summary

is ,a flow

Below

French

equivalent

you.

do

the

steps

chart of
of

each

the

steps

you

have

to follow

to find the

object pronoun. It is important

English

because each step dependsonthe

in sequence,

that

pre-

VIOUS one.

DO

\037

Direct

10

\037

Indirect

OP

\037

Object

in the

object

in the

French sentence

preposition

or disjunctive

object
of a

French sentence

pronoun in the French

sentence)

mOl)

me)

vous)

toi)

Ie)

la)

lui)

lui)

elle)))

WHAT

What is
gender

135)

PRONOUN?

IS AN OBJECT

the

of its

antecedent?)

Ifno

If yes

\037

If masculine

If feminine

noun

+
la)

Ie)

y)

is not

replaced

en

pronoun)

by

\037

nous)

Is the

If a person
\037

les)

leur)

Is the

antecedent

a person

de?)

preposition

or a thing?)
If a thing

Ifno)

I f yes)

\037

Is

y)

Is

the

a person

a personor

or

a thing?)

a thing?)
If a

What

of its

is the

gender

antecedent?)

If masculine
en)

If a thing)

If a person)

thing)

the

antecedent

antecedent

If feminine

eux)

elles)

noun is

not

replaced

by

pronoun)))

WHAT IS AN

136

PRONOUN?)

OBJECT

\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037REVIEW

below.
object pronoun in the sentences
French
direct
chart on pp. 134-35, circle the correct
equivalent:
or
of
a
indirect
object
(OP),person(P),
(DO),
object
(10)
preposition
the

Underline
\302\267

the

Using

object

or thing

(T)

likes the

1. Mary

to take

\037

FUNCfION

OF

PRONOUN

IN ENGLISH:

00

10

OP

FUNCfION

OF

PRONOUN

IN FRENCH:

00)

10)

OP)

GENDER

to

ENGLISH:

spoke to

to

speak

FRENCH:

Ie livre et elle)

teacher

The

IN

OF ANTECEDENT
IN

Marie aime

\037

masculine)
prend.)

them aboutthe examyesterday.


a)

parler

FUNCfION

OF

PRONOUN

IN ENGLISH:

00

10

OP

FUNCfION

OF

PRONOUN

IN FRENCH:

00

10

OP)

p)

T)

TYPE
Le

book and she takes it.

prendre)

ANTECEDENT

2.

\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037

OF

ANTECEDENT:)

a parle

professeur

3. Go with

to go with

de I' examen hier.)

her.
\037

avec)

aller

FUNCfION

OF

PRONOUN

IN ENGLISH:

00

10

OP

FUNCfION

OF

PRONOUN

IN FRENCH:

00)

10)

OP)

Va avec)
4. Is

the present for your

to be

for

\037

etre

parents? Yes, it's forthem.

pour)

FUNCfION

OF

PRONOUN

IN ENGLISH:

00

10

OP

FUNCfION

OF

PRONOUN

IN FRENCH:)

00)

10)

OP)))

WHAT

Is

IT

OBJECT OF

THE

ANTECEDENTIN

DE:

PREPOSITION

Le cadeau

est-il pourtesparents?

5. Did you

answerhis letters?No,we

to answer

\037

No

masculine

IN FRENCH:

ANTECEDENT

GENDER

YES

PRONOUN?

ENGLISH:

OF ANTECEDENT:

TYPE

IS AN OBJECT

Oui,

il est
will

pour

answer

them

today.

a)

repondre

FUNCflON

OF

PRONOUN

IN ENGLISH:

DO

10

OP

FUNCTION

OF

PRONOUN

IN FRENCH:

DO

10

OP

IN ENGUSH:

ANTECEDENT

TYPE

OF

ANTECEDENT:

repondu a ses lettres?Non,nous

Avez-vous
aujourd

'hui.

6. Paul

doesn't like exams.Heis afraid

to be

afraid of

\037

avoir

of

repondrons

them.

de

peur

FUNCTION

OF PRONOUN

IN

ENGLISH:

DO

10

OP

FUNCTION

OF PRONOUN

IN

FRENCH:

DO

10

OP

YES

No

Is

IT

THE

OBJECT OF

ANTECEDENTIN
TYPE OF

DE:

PREPOSITION

ENGLISH:

ANTECEDENT:

Paul n'aime pas lesexamens.

II

peur.)))

137)

WHAT IS AN

138

INTERROGATIVE

PRONOUN?)

INTERROGATIVE

pronoun

Interrogative
duces a question.

intro-

ENGLISH

IN

Different

interrogative

live
Also,

pronouns

to a

are used dependingon

whether

you

and
\"person\"(this category
beings
and
animals) or a \"thing\" (this categoryincludesobjects
ideas).
the form of the interrogative pronoun referringto persons

are referring

includes

to its

according

changes

function

in the

human

sentence.)

FRENCH

A different

interrogative
pronoun is used dependingon whether
a person or a thing. Also,the interrogative
pronoun
to its function in the sentence.
according

the

replaces

pronoun
changes

In

AN

is a word that replaces a noun


and
Interrogative comes from interrogate,to question.)

An

IN

IS

WHAT

39.

PRONOUN?)

in French,
an indirect

and

English

direct

object,

study eachtype

an interrogative

object, or

an

object

pronoun can be a subject,a


of a preposition.
We shall

separately.)

Subject)
IN ENGLISH

subject pronoun is always

An interrogative

verb.

different

interrogative

the subjectinterrogative

pronoun

pronoun
refers

\"Person\"

Who

for the

is used
Who

speaks
I

subject of the sentence.

French?

verb)

subject

\"Thing\"

What is

used for the subject of the sentence.

What
I

subject

is

on

I
verb)))

the table?

followed

directly

is used depending
to a person or a thing.)

by the

on whether

WHAT

IN

IS

AN

INTERROGATIVE

PRONOUN?

139)

FRENCH

As

an interrogative

in English,

subject pronoun is always

followed

Also, a different interrogativepronoun is used


whether
the subject
interrogative pronoun refers to a

by a verb.

directly

on

depending

personor

thing.

\"Person\"

Qui

+ verb

or Qui est.ce qui + verb

Qui

parle

Qui

est-ce

are

interchangeable.

fran\037ais?

qui parle

fran\037ais?

verb

subject

speaks French?

Who
I

of

su bject

speaks)

\"Th I ng\"

qui +

Qu'est-ce

verb is the only


qui est

Qu'est-ce

form.

sur la table?

verb

subject

is on

What

the table?

of

subject

is)

Direct

Object)

IN ENGLISH

A different interrogative
direct object interrogative

on
pronoun is useddepending
refersto
a
or
pronoun
person a

whether

the

thing.

\"Person\"

is used

Whom

do

Whom

for the object of the sentence.


know

you

here?

direct

object

(You is the
Because
(ex:

\"Who

subject.))

English who is often usedinsteadof whom


know here?\,") it is difficult to recognizethe interas a direct object. Make sure that
the
analyze
you

in conversational
do you

rogative

adjective

sentence

to establish the

function

of

the

interrogative

pronoun.)))

140

IS AN INTERROGATIVE

WHAT

PRONOUN?)

\"Thing\"

for the objectof the

is used

What

do you

What
I

direct

sentence.

want?

object)

IN FRENCH

a different interrogativepronoun
direct objectinterrogative
pronoun

As in English,

whether the

is

used

refers

depending
to a person

on

or a

thing.)

\"Person\"

are intersubject + verb or Qui + verb + subject


Notice
that
form
the
with
\"est-ce
takes
the
normal
que\"
changeable.
word order,subject+ verb, whereas
the other form takes an inversion,
Qui

que +

est-ce

namely, verb + subject.(SeeWhat


tive Sentences?, p. 46.)

Qui est-ce

que

are

Declarative

and

Interroga-

ez?

9us
\037o(

subject

us?

v0

Qui

verb)

1ez;v\037
+ subject

verb

do you see?

Who(m)
I

direct

of see

object

(You is

the

subject.))

\"Thing\"

are intersubject + verb or Que + verb + subject


Notice
form
that
the
with
\"est-ce
takes
the
normal
changeable.
que\"
word order,subject+ verb, whereas
the other form takes an inversion,

que +

Qu'est-ce

namely, verb

Qu'est-ce

subject.

que vous voulez?


I

subject

voulez-vous?

Que

I
I

verb

What do
I

direct

object

(You is

the

+ subject

you want?
of want
subject.))))

verb)

WHAT IS

Indirect
IN

INTERROGATIVE

and Object of a

Object

141)

PRONOUN?

Preposition

ENGLISH

is no difference between the form of the interrogative


indirect object or as an objectof a preposition.
However,

There
as an

ferent

pronoun is used dependingon

interrogative

a person
by

AN

the

or a thing.When
an

considered

It is often difficult to identify

rated

the

from

tion

of

interr.

interr.

you get the

of the sentenceso
will
This
that

restructuring

pronoun,

the

not

indirect

identify

will

you

object pronouns and


to change the structure

is placed before the pronoun.


make it easier for you to identify the

preposition

only

but it will

The following sentenceshave

also establish the word


restructured

been

preposition.
are

giving

you

the book

to?
I

preposition

pronoun

To whom
I

indirect

are you giving the

book?

object)

are you

What
I

contributing to?
I
preposi tion

pronoun

To what are
I

indirect

have

order

for

sentence.

the French

Who
I

preposition.

preposition)

easier for you to


of
a
object
prepositionpronouns,
the

is linked. This separa-

bookfrom?
I

To make it

of

to which it

object is calleda dangling

preposition)

pronoun

function

of a pronoun because, in
end of the sentence, sepa-

pronoun

Who did

to

speak to?

did you

Who

placed

from its

a preposition

at the

pronoun

interrogative

it refers

whether

indirect object, it is preceded


by any other preposition,it is

function

the

English, a prepositionis often

a dif-

as an

serves

it

to; if it is preceded
of a preposition.
object

preposition

pronoun

object)))

you contributing?

to avoid

a dangling

WHAT IS AN

142

are you

Who
I

going out with?


I

preposition

pronoun

With

PRONOUN?)

INTERROGATIVE

of the

object

What

are

going out?

are you

wh,ot;n

preposition

with)

with?

you writing

preposition

pronoun

are you writing?

With what
I

of the

object

preposition

with)

\"Person\"

Who

is used

(whom)

Who did you


I

indirect

speak to? (To

did

whom

of a

objects

preposition.

you speak?)

object)

Who did you


I

object

for indirect objectsand

get the book from? (From whom

did

you

get the

book?)

of preposition from)

\"Thing\"

What is used for indirectobjectsand


What do
I

object

IN

you cook with?

of preposition

(With

of a

objects

what

do you

preposition.

cook?)

with)

FRENCH

between
the
form
of the interrogaAs in English, there is no difference
or as an object of a preposition.
tive pronoun as an indirect
object

Also, as in English,

different

interrogative

depending on whether it refersto a personor a


rogative pronoun serves as an indirect
object,

preposition a (to);if it is
sidered an

object

of a

preceded

preposition.)))

by

any

other

pronoun

is used

When

the inter-

thing.

it is

preceded

preposition,

by the
it is

con-

WHAT

IS AN INTERROGATIVE

PRONOUN?

143)

\"Person\"

The preposition + qui + est-ceque + subject+ verb


qui + verb + subjectareinterchangeable.
A

preposition

preposition

donnez Ie livre?

que vous

est-ce

qui

or

I
I

+ verb

subject

donnez-vous Ie livre?

A qui

I
I

+ subject

verb

are

To whom

book?

the

giving

you

indirect

object

(Book is the
Avec

direct

object.))

sortez?
que vous
I
I

qui est-ce

+ verb

subject

sortez-vous?

Avec qui

I
I

+ subject

verb

are you going out?

With whom
I

of preposition

object

\"Thing\"

The

with)

+ quoi + est-ce que + subject+ verb


+ subjectareinterchangeable.

preposition

quoi + verb
A

que vous

est-ce

quoi

contribuez?
I

subject

+ verb

contribuez-vous?

A quoi

I
I

+ subject

verb

To what are

you contributing?

indirect

Avec

object)

quoi est-ce

ecrivez?
que vous
I
I
I

subject

Avec quoi

+ verb

ecrivez-vous?
I

I
I

verb

With what are


I

object

of the

+ subject

you writing?

preposition

with)))

or

WHAT IS AN

144

INTERROGATIVE

PRONOUN?)

remind you that

some

Careful

Once

again we

verbs

French

while the equivalentEnglish verbs takean indirect


versa (see p. 120).Makesure that you determine

pronoun

in

take direct

objects,
vice-

and

object

of the

the function

French.)

Summary

the correct form,

To choose

1. Determine

proceed with

the functionof the

the

interrogative

sentence (subject, directobject,indirect

three

following

object,

in
pronoun
or object

steps:
the French
of a prepo-

sition).

2. Establish

the

whether

3.

Refer

to

the

chart

to a

refers

pronoun

below.)

Indirectobjectand
of a prepositon

Direct

person

thing

person or a thing.

Subject

object

object

who

who(m)

preposition

+ who(m)

prep. + qui

est-ce

qui

est-ce

qui

qui est-ce

que

qUI

qui (+ inversion)

prep.

what

what

preposition

qu'

est-ce

qui

qu' est-ce
que

+ qui

prep.+ quoi
(+ inversion) prep. + quoi
que

que

(+ inversion)
+ what
est-ce-que
(+ inversion))))

WHAT IS AN

There is
interrogative
pronoun
separately becauseit doesnot

we will

which

another

the

follow

145)

ones\"

one, which

\"Which

PRONOUN?

INTERROGATIVE

same

pattern

now examine
as the ones

above.)

IN

ENGLISH

and things;
one, which ones can referto both
persons
they are
used in questions that request the selectionof one(which
sinone,
or more than one (whichones,plural)
from
a group
that has
gular)
one
and ones are often omitted.
already been mentioned.Thewords
be
These interrogativepronouns
used
as a subject, direct object,
may

Which

indirectobject,

and

of a

object

preposition.

teachers are here.Which

All the

I have

mentioned

group

singular subject)
Which

cars.

two

one do

The

books.

has many

library

their

do you

ones

Which

want to

read?

mentioned

plural direct

object)

FRENCH

These
tion.

object)

group

IN

you want to take?

singular direct

mentioned

group

French?

teaches

one

pronouns do not change accordingto theirfuncto the gender of theirantecedent,and


change
according
one
on whether you want to say which
(sindepends

interrogative
They
number

gular) or

which ones (plural).


Singular

Plural

masculine

lequel

lesquels

feminine

laquelle

lesquelles

To choosethe proper form, follow these steps:


1. Determinethe antecedent.

2.

the

Determine

3. Do you
ones
4. Select

wish

\037

gender
to say

of the antecedent.
which one \037 singular

or which

plural?

the correct

French

form

from

the

above

chart.)))

146

Let US apply

Tous

these steps to someexamples.


are here. Which one
soot ici. Lequel

teachers

the

All

PRONOUN?)

IS AN INTERROGATIVE

WHAT

les

professeurs
1. Antecedent:
the

teaches French?
enseigne Ie fran\037ais?

teachers

2. Gender:Un professeur(aprofessor)
3. Number: One is singular.
Selection:

4.

I have two

is masculine.

lequel)

cars.

do you

one

Which

want to

J'ai deux voitures.Laquelleveux-tu

take?

prendre?

the cars

1. Antecedent:

2. Gender:Une voiture

is feminine.

car)

(a

3. Number: One is singular.


Selection:

4.

laquelle)

has

The library

Which

books.

many

La bibliothequea beaucoup
1. Antecedent:

do you want to read?


veux-tu lire?
Lesquels

ones

livres.

de

books

Les livres (the books)is masculine.


Ones is plural.

2. Gender:
3. Number:

4. Selection:lesquels)

Here arefour girls;which

do you

ones

before

the preposition

Place

RESTRUCTURE:

want to

speak to?

interrogative

pronoun.
to speak?

the

girls; to which ones do you


Voici quatre filles;
voulez-vous
aux\037uelles
are four

Here

a + lesquelles
1. Antecedent:

Selection:

There are two

girls

There
II y

books.

Iivres.
de

1. Antecedent:

one

Which

the preposition

are two books.

a deux

Selection:

are

before

you speaking
the

interrogative

About which one are you

DU1ueiparlez-vous?

+ lequel

\037

duquel

books

2. Gender:Un livre (a book)


3. Number: One is singular.
4.

is feminine.

lesquelles)

Place

RESTRUCTURE:

parler?

auxquelles

\037

2. Gender:Unefille (a girl)
3. Number: Ones is plural.
4.

want

lequel)))

is masculine.

about?
pronoun.

speaking?

IS

WHAT

the

Underline

interrogative
pronouns
chart on p. 144, circlethe

the

Using

direct object (DO),indirect

1.

PRONOUN?

in

the

correct

(10)

questions
French

or object of

subject (8)

a preposition(OP).

FUNCTION

OF PRONOUN

IN

ENGLISH:

DO

10

OP

FUNCTION

OF PRONOUN

IN

FRENCH:

DO

10

OP

DO

10

OP

DO

10

OP

DO

10

OP

DO

10

OP

DO

10

OP

DO

10

OP

est entre dans la piece?

2.

did

Who

speak

you

to?

RESTRUCTURE:

to

to

speak

\037

parler

FUNCTION

OF

FUNCTION

OF PRONOUN

PRONOUN

IN ENGLISH:
IN

est-ce que vous


is she

3. What

to do \037

FRENCH:
avez

parle?

doing tonight?

faire

FUNCTION

OF

FUNCTION

OF PRONOUN

PRONOUN

IN ENGLISH:
IN

FRENCH:

fait-elle ce soir?

4.

Who

are

you

calling?

RESTRUCTURE:

to call

\037

telephoner

FUNCTION

OF

FUNCTION

OF PRONOUN

PRONOUN

a
IN ENGLISH:
IN

147)

below.
equivalent:

the room?

into

came

Who

object

INTERROGATIVE

\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037.\037

.\037...\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037REVIEW

\302\267

AN

FRENCH:

telephonez-vous?)))

148

IS A POSSESSIVE

WHAT

IS

WHAT

40.

PRONOUN?)

pronoun is a word that

A possessive

possessor of that

Mine is a pronounthat

possesses

the

It's mine.

is that?

house

Whose

a noun and indicates


from possess, to own.

replaces

comes

Possessive

noun.

PRONOUN?)

POSSESSIVE

the

replaces

words

my house

and shows who

house.)

the

IN ENGLISH

Here is

a list of the possessivepronouns:


possessor

Singular

1 st

mine

person

2nd person)

yours

3rd person)
Plural

1 st

masculine

his

feminine

hers

neuter)

its)

possessor

ours
yours
the irs)

person

2nd person

3rd person)
Possessive

never

pronouns

possessed;

only

they

Is that your house?


Are those your keys?

Yes, it
Yes,

The same possessivepronoun

sessedare

in

different

John's

car

blue.

is

their form,
possessor.
is mine.
they are mine.

change

regardless of the thing

to the

refer

number

His is

(mine)

although the objects


is singular, keys is plural).

is used,

(house

pos-

blue.

Mary's car is blue.Hersisblue.


the

Although

is

noun

Mary

singular,

IN

different

possessed
the
because

object

feminine

same (car), the possessive


propossessor is different (John masculine
is the

singular).

FRENCH

but
pronoun refersto the possessor,
in
all
French
and
English,
pronouns, gender
number
with its antecedent, that is, with the personor objectposIn
sessed.
the possessive
addition,
pronoun is preceded by a definite
in
article which
also
agrees
gender and number with the objectpos-)))

Like

unlike

English,

a French possessive
it must agree, like

IS A POSSESSIVE PRONOUN?

WHAT

sessed.

there are

Therefore,
the

and

singular

In the

149)

masculine and feminine forms in both the

plural.

example below, in the phraselesmiens

the possessive pronounm- refersto the


(mine), while the ending-iensand the
which
the noun possessed livres (books)
Where are your

fIrst

1st person
singular
les
definite
article

is masculine

books?Mine are in
masc. pi

the

(mine),

the

living

letter of

possessor

agree with

plural.
room.

endings

\037

Ou sont

vos livres? Lesmienssont

dans

Ie salon.

1 st

pers. sing.

possessor)

Let us look at the Frenchpossessive


pronounsto seehow they
Since the rules for the selectionof a singular
formed.
possessor
we
different from the rules for the selectionof a plural
possessor,
two groups:)
divided the French possessive pronounsinto these
Possessor:

Singular

mine, yours

(tu

his,

form),

hers,

are

are
have

its

hasfour forms
each of these possessivepronouns
number
of
the
noun
and
gender
possessed:the masdepending
the
the
feminine
masculineplural
culine
form,
form,
singular
singular
To
the
and
feminine
form.
choose
the
form,
properformfollow
plural
In French,

on the

these

steps.

1. Indicate

the possessor.

This will be shown

possessive pronoun.(They

siveadjectives,
see

What

mine
yours
(tu

the

are
is a

same

Possessive

by

the

first

initial letters
Adjective?,

letter

of the

as the possesp. 96).)

mt-)

fonn)

his

hers
its }

s-)))

2. Establish the genderand

the definite articleand

numberof

that

noun.)

number
the

ending

of the

object

according

possessed. Choose
to the gender and

150

WHAT IS A

Noun

possessed

POSSESSIVE

.
sessor+ -Ien
book

Whose

PRONOUN?)

is masculine

singular

is that?)

It is

of the

+ first

letter

+ first

letter of

Ie

\037

pos-

mine.
It is yours

It is his/hers.
A qui est

ce livre?
I

noun
masc.

sing.)

sessor
+

feminine

mien.

Ie tien.

C' est
p\037ssessed

is
Noun possessed
.

C'estIe

C'est Ie sien.)
\037 la

singular

the pos-

-Jenne

Whose

is that?)

house

It is mine.
It is yours.

It is his/hers.

qui

est

cette

mai,son\037
I

noun

I?ossessed
fern. sing.)

C'est

mienne.

la

la tienne.

C' est

C'est la sienne.)

Noun
plural
. possessedis masculine

les

\037

+ fIrst

letter of

+ -lens
Whose

are

books

those?)

mine.

They are
are

They

yours.

his/hers.

They are

A qui sootceslivres?
I

noun

p<?ssessed

masc. sing.)

Ce soot les miens.

Cesootlestiens.
Ce

les

soot

is feminine plural \037

Noun possessed
.

les

siens.)

+ first

letter of

-Jennes

Whose

letters

are those?)

They are

mine.

They are yours.


They
A

qui

soot

ces lettres?
I

noun

possessed)

the posessor

are

Ce soot

his/hers.

les miennes.

Ce sootlestiennes.

Cesootles

siennes.)))

the possessor

IS A POSSESSIVE PRONOUN?

WHAT

fonn accordingto the two steps


us apply these steps to someexamples.
the proper

3. Select

Let

is

Mary

at her

looking

photos. He

Marieregardesesphotos.II

above.

is lookingat yours.
les

regarde

tiennes.

t.

1. Possessor:

2. Noun

151)

Les

possessed:

(the photos)

photos

is feminine

plural.

les + .iennes)

3. Selection:

Lend me your book.No,I' 11lend you hers.


Ie
Pr@tez-moi
votre livre. Non, je vous
pr@terai
1. Possessor: s.
2. Noun possessed:
Le livre (the book) is masculine

sien.
singular.

Ie + .ien)

3. Selection:

Plural Possessor:

theirs
ours, yours
form),
each of these possessive pronouns has threeforms
French,
of the noun possessed: the masculine
on the number
sinfeminine
and
the
same
the
form
form,
(the
plural
singular form,
To choose the proper form, follow thesesteps:
both
genders).

In

(vous

depending
gular
for

1.

the

Indicate

possessor.

notre

ours

2.

yours

votre

theirs

leur
the

Establish

and number

gender

defmitearticle
sessed.

according

noun

possessed

noun

possessed

noun

possessed

3. Select

proper

Let

these

the

us

apply
Whose
A

qui

the

is masculine

is feminine
is plural \037
fonn

steps

singular

\037

singular
les

and

\037

Ie

la

add an \"-s\"

to the

according

to some

of the noun possessed. Choosethe


and number of the noun posgender

to the possessor

two steps above.

examples.

It is ours.
maison? C'est

is it?

house

est

to

cette

1.Possessor:

la notre.

n6tre

2. Noun

possessed:

3. Selection:

la)))

La maison (the

house) is feminine

singular.

152

WHAT IS A

PRONOUN?)

POSSESSIVE

J will

not lend

Je ne

vous

you my

pr@terai

1. Possessor:

[' 11

cards.

pas

lend you

theirs.

Je vous pr@terai

mes cartes.

les

leurs.

leur

2. Noun possessed:
3. Selection:les +

Les

(cards) is plural.

cartes

\302\267
s)

Summary

Here

is a

chart you can useas a reference.

Possessor

Noun

Singular

possessed

Singular

Plural

rnasc.

Ie mien

les

fern.

la mienne

les miennes

yours

rnasc.

Ie

les

(\"tu\" form)

fern.

la tienne

les tiennes

mine

his, hers,

its

ours

yours
(It vous\"

the irs

form)

tien

miens

tiens

masc.

Ie sien

les siens

fern.

la sienne

les

les n6tres

rnasc.

Ie n6tre

fern.

la

rnasc.
fern.

Ie v6tre
la v6tre

rnasc.

Ie

leur

fern.

la

leur)))

siennes

n6tre

les v6tres
les

leurs

WHAT

\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037REVIEW

Underline
\302\267
Draw
\302\267
Circle
\302\267

Using

below.
pronouns in the sentences
from the possessive pronoun to its antecedent.
whether
the antecedent is singular (8) or plural
(P).
fill in the
the charts in this section,
French possessive
the

possessive

ANTECEDENT

2.

I'm

prendrai

3. Are

vais pas

with

IN

his

livre?

P)

s)

I'm

parents.

going

masculine)

book?

IN FRENCH:

mon

feminine)

voiture. Ie prendrai)

FRENCH:

my

pronoun.)

mine.)

No,

I'm

masculine)

Non, je

hers.)

with

s)

avec ses parents.Ie vais

you taking

ANTECEDENT

Prends-tu

FRENCH:

pas sa

not going

ANTECEDENT
Ie ne

IN

prends)))

153)

\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037

an arrow

1. I won't take his car.I'll take

Ie ne

IS A POSSESSIVE PRONOUN?

P.)

avec)

taking

yours (familiar).)
s)

P)

WHAT IS A

154

RELATIVE

WHAT IS

41.
A relative

PRONOUN?)

PRONOUN?)

RELATIVE

pronoun is a word that

two

serves

purposes:

a pronoun it stands for a noun or another pronoun previously


mentioned. The noun or pronounreferredto is called
the

1. As

antecedent.

is the

This

who brokethe window.


boy
I

an teceden

t)

It introduces
a subordinate clause, that
a subject and verb, separatefrom the

2.

of words having
verb of the main
A main
thought.

a group

is,

and

subject

sentence, which doesnot expressa complete


clause can stand aloneas a complete
sentence,

clause

a subordinate

cannot.)
I

I
I

is the

This

clause

subordinate

clause

main

boy who
I

subject

Who broke the

broke the window.

window

verb
is not

sentence.)

a complete

The above subordinate clauseis alsocalleda relative


it starts with a relative pronounwho.Therelative
additional information about the antecedentboy.

very common. We use them in our everyday


much thought to why and how we construct
giving
relative
allows us to combine in a singlesentence
pronoun
common
which
have a
element.

without

speech

The

them.
two

thoughts

sentencea

I metthe teacher.

sentence

He

combined

I met the teacherwho

teaches

the subject,

direct

the

preposition.

its function

arately.)))

Since

object,

your

in the

selection

the

school.

in my

French

When sentences are combinedwith


pronoun can havedifferentfunctions

on

us

gives

are

clauses

Relative

because

clause
clause

teaches
a relative
in

the

French

in my

the
pronoun,
relative
clause.

school.
relative
It can be

object or the object of a


relative pronounwill depend

indirect

of the

relative clause, weshallstudy

each

function

sep-

WHAT IS A

IN

RELATIVE

PRONOUN?

155)

ENGLISH

In an

relative pronoun is often omitted.

sentence, the

English

Thebook

I'm

that

is interesting.

reading

relative

pronoun)

I'm reading

The book
I

is interesting.

relative

omitted)

pronoun

of most relativepronouns
relative pronounin the relative clause,

of the
on the function
depends
and on whether the antecedent
human beings and animals) or a

The selection

is a

\"Person\"

IN

includes

category

(this

\"Thing\"

and ideas).

objects

FRENCH

Relative

timesbe

unlike
at

omitted

must

noun

just as they

are used

pronouns

ference is that,

always

where

English

of

the

beginning
be expressed.)

Subject
IN

includes

category

(this

in English.

are

The main

dif-

pronoun can somea relative clause, the relativeprothe relative

of the Relative Clause)

ENGLISH

There
ative

are three
clause,

sonsor
\"Pers

Who

relative pronouns

depending

can

that

on whether

be

used

the relative

as subjects

things.

on\"

or that
She

is used for the subjectof the

is the

only student

who

answered

sentence.

all

the time.

all

the time.

antecedent

Who

She

is the

is the

subject of answered.)

only student

that

antecedent

That

is the

subject of answered.)))

answered

of a rel-

pronoun refersto per-

WHAT IS A

156

\"Thing\"

Which

PRONOUN?)

RELATIVE

is usedfor the

or that

The movie which

is playing

is

sentence.

of the

subject

in French.

an teceden

Which is the
This

subject of

book that

is the

is

is playing.)

so popular.

antecedent

IN

subject of is.)

is the

That

FRENCH

There

relative pronoun that

is one

clause.

Qui isused

the

as

the antecedent
is
This is the

of a

subject
a

or a

person

student who

can

as subject

used

be

relative clause,

of a relative

regardless of whether

thing.

answered.

antecedent

Who

is the

subject of answered.

I '\037tudiant

Voici

is the

This

qui

book which
I

an teceden

r\037pondu.

is so interesting.

Which is the subject of is.


Ie livre qui est si int\037ressant.

Voici
Notice

that

is always

qui

Sentences

Combining
IN

followed by a verb.)
With

a Relative

Pronoun Subject)

ENGLISH

sentence

sentence

The students
They studied.

1. Identify the element the two


The students and they; both

passed the

exam.

sentences

have

words

refer

in common.
to the

same

persons.)))

WHAT

2. The

relative pronounalways

element

common

the

replaces

157)

PRONOUN?

IS A RELATIVE

in the

second sentence. (Don't forgetthat a pronoun


must refer to someor
someone
that
has
been
mentioned.)
thing
already
will
relative
be
a
They
replacedby
pronoun.
(The students is the antecedent.)

3.Therelative
They is the

clause

will have the

same func-

of studied.

subject

The relative

relative

it replaces.

word

the

as

the

in

pronoun

tion

pronoun will be the subjectof studied.

4. Choose relative
a personor thing.
the

according

pronoun

its antecedent is

to whether

5.Select

relative

the

Who or

6. Place

the

Therefore, its antecedentis a person.

to students.

refers

They

pronoun.
the

is

that

relative

right

pronoun

The students
who
The studentsthat

studied
studied

pronoun referring to a person.


after its antecedent.

relative

subject

passed

the exam.

passed

the exam.

clause)

relative

antecedent

IN FRENCH

Follow

sentence a

Les

sentenceb)

lis

the

Les

same

\037tudiants

under In English above,skipping

ont

relative

Direct
IN

\037tudi\037
I

ont

step

4.

r\037ussi a I 'examen.

antecedent

a I' examen.

\037tudi\037.)

steps as
qui

ont reussi

\037tudiants
ont

clause)

Object

of the Relative Clause)

ENGLISH

are three relative pronouns that


a relative clause,dependingon whether

There

persons or things.We
because they are often

have

indicated

omitted.)))

be

can

the

relative

used
relative

objects of
pronoun refers to

as direct

pronouns

in parentheses

WHAT IS A

158

RELATIVE

PRONOUN?)

\"Person\"

is used as a directobjectof a

or that

Whom

is the

This

student (whom) I saw

sentence.

yesterday.

antecedent

is the direct object of


the subject of the relative

Whom
(I is

This

is the

saw.

clause.))

student (that) I saw

yesterday.

an teceden

That is the direct object of saw.


(I is the subject of the relative
\"Thing\"

or that

Which

is usedas a directobjectof a

is the

This

clause.)

book (which) Paul


I

sentence.

bought.

antecedent

is the direct object of bought.


is the subject of the relative
clause.))

Which
(Paul

This

book (that) Paul bought.


I

is the

antecedent

is the direct object of


is the subject of the
(Paul
That

bought.
relative

clause.))

IN FRENCH

one relativepronoun
a relativeclause.

There is only

can

that

be used

as direct

object of

direct objectof a relative


of whether
the antecedent
is a person or a thing.
clause,regardless
the relative pronouns in the English sentences
We
have
included
to show
below
you what the French relative pronounrelatesto;howthe relative
sensince
ever,
pronoun is often omitted in an English
tence, we have put them between parentheses.

Que(orqu'

This

is

a vowel)

before

the

book
I

(which)

is used

as the

I bought.

antecedent

is the direct object of


the subject of the relative
Voici Ie livre que j'ai achet\037.)))
Which

I is

bought.

clause.

IS A RELATIVE

WHAT

159)

PRONOUN?

(whom)he saw.

This is the student


I

antecedent

He is

Voici

Notice

the subject

1'\037tudiant

that que

of the

saw.

clause.

relative

a VUe

qu'il

is always followedby

Sentences

Combining
IN

direct object of

is the

Whom

Object)

ENGLISH

teacher is nice.

The French

sentence

sentence

him today.

I met

1. Common element:French teacher


2. Element to be replaced:him
of him: direct object
3. Function

4. Antecedent:
the
S. Selection:whom
6. Placement:

or

French teacher
today, is nice.
today, is nice.

after the

that

I met
I met

I
I

making it more difficult

clause)

relative

antecedent

In spoken English,
nice.\"
Notice that

is a person.

that

or

whom

him

and

teacher

French

The Frenchteacher,whom
The French teacher,that

IN

Direct

Pronoun

Relative

With

or pronoun.)

a noun

you would say: \"TheFrenchteacherI met today is


or that
is left out,
the relative pronoun whom
to

the two

identify

clauses.

FRENCH

Follow

Je l'ai

sentence

de fran\037ais

Le professeur

sentence

rencontr\037

est

gentil.

aujourd'hui.

steps as under In Englishabove,skipping

the same
Le professeur

de

fran\037ais
I

que
I

j 'ai rencontr\037

est gentil.

clause)

and Object of a

Object
In

Both the relative


noun as an object

aujourd'hui

4.

relative

antecedent

Indirect

step

Relative

Preposition

Clause

pronoun as an indirect objectand

of a preposition involve

prepositions.)))

the

relative

pro-

WHAT IS A

160

RELATIVE

to identify the function of a


a preposition is often placed
at

often difficult
in English

It is

PRONOUN?)

because

tence, separated
separationof preposition
from

relative

the

(see

p.

to which it

pronoun
its object

from

tion

sen-

is linked. This

is called a danglingpreposi-

to identify a relative pronounas an indirect


a preposition,you will have to change the

structure of the sentencesothat

the

is placed

preposition

pronoun. This restructuringwill not only


identify the function of the pronoun, but it
order for the Frenchsentence.)

make
also

will

it easier
establish

before the

for you to
the word

ENGLISH

are two relative pronouns usedas indirect


you are referring to a person or a thing.

objects,

There
whether
\"

pronoun

of the

141).

To make it easier for you


or as an object of
object

IN

relative

the end

depending

on

Person\"

as

is used

Whom

Hereis

indirect

an

I was

student

the

or as an

object

speaking

object of a preposition.

to.

an teceden
This

for

structure

English
two

t)

cannot

be translated

word-for-wordinto French

reasons:

French

1. The

language does not

permit danglingprepositions,

and

2.

relative

The

pronoun

omitted in English

in
must be expressed

the French structure, you must restructure


the
the preposition within
the
sensentence,
English
placing
tence and adding a relative pronoun.If you
are
not sure where
to place the preposition and the relative
remember
pronoun,
that they follow immediately after
the
antecedent.
establish

French.

To

Spoken

English

Here is the student


I was speaking to.
W

horn

is the

--+

Restructured
Here

is the student

to

whom

indirect object

of was

I was
speaking.)))

speaking.

WHAT

Here is the student

I was

A RELATIVE

IS

PRONOUN?

161)

about.

talking

antecedent)

As

case of the indirectobject,spokenEnglish


pronoun and places the prepositionat the

in the

relative

Again, you will have to restructurethe


English

Spoken

the

often

omits

of the

sentence.

sentence.

Restructured

\037

Here is the

is the student

Here

end

student

about whom I was speaking.


speaking about.
is
of
the
Whom the object
preposition about.

I was

\"Thing\"

is used

Which

as an indirect

object or as an

Here is the museum he gave the

of a

object

painting

preposition.

to.

antecedent)

English
is the museum

Spoken
Here

the painting

he gave

is the

Which

Restructured

to.

Here is the museum


to which he gave the painting.

object of gave.)

indirect

museum

is the

Here

\037

to which he gave the painting.


I

IN

clause)

relative

antecedent

FRENCH

used as indirect objects and as objects


of a preposipronouns
below:
tion are dividedinto two main groups
discussed
separately
de (of), and relaother
relative pronouns objectsof a preposition
than
tive pronouns objects of the preposition
de. Moreover,
the first of
to
whether
the
these groupsis subdivided
as
relative pronoun refers to
Relative

a personor a

de
objects of a preposition otherthan
also
covers
indirect
becauserelative
objects
group
pronouns
of the preposition it (see p. 118).

Relative
This
objects

pronouns

Sometimes

there is

in French.We
you

thing.

to

your

have

French

more than
only

one

given

textbook

way

for the

the relative pronoun


common form and refer

to express

you the most


others.)))

are

WHAT IS A

162

RELATIVE

PRONOUN?)

\"Person\"

+ qui

Preposition

This is the man

J am

(that)

about.

thinking

antecedent)

This

English
is the man

I am

thinking about.

Spoken

This is the
about whom

man
I am

thinking.

a qui je pense.

Voici I 'homme

about is penser a.)

to think

that

Remember

Restructured

\037

\"Thing\"

Preposition

+ lequel

Lequel

must agree with

it

and

in gender

antecedent

the

following the preposition

(to)

and number.

Ie- and

initial

the

Also,

les- become au-

aux-.

are the

These

I write

pens (that)

with.

antecedent)

English

Spoken

are

These

I write

the pens

avec

antecedent
objects

pronouns

Thereis one

relative

pronoun

de. We

preposition

which

with

st\037los

are the

These

with.)

Void les

Relative

Restructured

\037

pens

I write.)

j'eeriS.

les\037uels

masc.pI.)

of the

preposition de
is most

which

refer you to your

commonly used

after

the

French textbookforotherless

forms.

common

or thing\"

\"Person

Dont stands for the

preposition de and

the

relative

most commonform.
This

is

the

man

(that)

I am speaking

pronoun.

about.

antecedent)

Spoken
This

English
is the man

\037

speaking about.
Voici I 'homme dont je parle.)))
I am

Restructured

This is the
about whom

man
I am

speaking.

It is

the

IS A RELATIVE

WHAT

Sentences

Combining

Object
IN

With

of a

Relative

PRONOUN?

163)

Pronoun

Preposition)

ENGLISH

Mary read

sentence

sentence

I was

1. Common

the book.
about it.

speaking

and

the book
element:
to be replaced: it
of it: object of the

2. Element
3. Function

it

preposition

about

4. Antecedent: The book is a thing.


5. Selection:
which

6. Placement: about

the book

after

which

Mary read the bookabout which


I

I was

speaking.
I

In spoken

you

would

Notice

that

English,

speaking

about.\"

clause)

relative

antecedent

read
the book I was
say: \"Mary
the preposition is at the end and that

there is no relative pronoun.)


IN

FRENCH

Marie a lu

sentence

sentence

Je

Marie a lu

livre

Ie

Ie livre.

du livre.

parlais

dont

je parlais.)

Possessive
IN

The

Modifier \"whose\

ENGLISH

modifier whose is a relative pronounwhich


or antecedent.
regardless of its function

possessive

its form

change

Find

the woman

whose car was

does

stolen.

antecedent

Whose

is a

at the

Look

possessive

car.)

modifying

house whose roof

burned.

antecedent

Whose

is a

possessive

roof.)

modifying

IN FRENCH

equivalent of the possessive modifierwhoseis dont.


the student
whose mother came.

The French
This
Voici

is
I

'etudiant

dont

la mere

est

venue.)))

not

WHAT IS A

164

PRONOUN?)

RELATIVE

Summary

Here is

a chart you can useas reference:


Antecedent)

in

Function

Person

clause:

relative

Thing)

subject

qui

direct object

que

object

of

dont)

object

of preposition

(other

de

than

qui

pr\037p.

+ lequel)

de))

relative pronoun you

the correct

To find

pr\037p. +

must

through

go

the fol-

lowing steps.

1.Findthe relativeclause.
dangling preposition
omitted.

the

Restructure

2. Establish
tence:
If

SUBJECT:

tence,it

OBJECT OFTHE

the French verb


DE: If

PREPOSITION

de

preposition

\037

lowed

\302\267
if a

other

a preposition

by

\302\267
if a

person
thing

\037
\037

French sen-

of

the

from

relative

chart

de

form of

to the

above

following

sentences:

is late.

Paris

Paris
in French:

from

comes

pronoun
Paris

lequel

above.)

qui

qui arrive

verb is fol-

than de?

preposition

clause: that

the French

+ qui

apply the stepsoutlined


The plane that comesfrom
1. Relative
2. Function

DE: If

+ appropriate

Let us

L' avion

in the

takes a directobject\037 que or


the French verb is followedby

THAN

preposition

3. SelecttheFrenchform

3. Selection:

pronoun

dont

OF A PREPOSmONOTHER

OBJECT

pronoun

if there is a
if it has been

pronoun is the subject of the Englishsenof the French sentence \037 qui
subject

the

be

OBJEer: If

DIRECT

clause

relative

the

will

the relative

of

function

the

English

relative

the

add

and

est en

retard.)))

subject of relative

clause

qu'
the

WHAT

Here are the books (that) I bought


clause:

1. Relative

2.

of relative

Function

165)

PRONOUN?

yesterday.

I bought

that

IS A RELATIVE

yesterday
in French:

pronoun

Direct object of

acheter

(to buy)

3. Selection:

que

achetes with

of past participle
que referring to livres - seep. 64).
les livres que j 'ai achet\037s
Voici
hier.
the

(Notice

is the

Where

1.

2. Function

of

(to need
Ie livre)
Selection:

\037

Where is the
Where

1. Relative

2. Function

That is the

she

penser

\037

laquelle
fA

is playing

with

of preposition

singular
elle

laquelle

pense?

boy (that) she is playing

(to play

is thinking?

thinking

in French: Object
it) + thing (university

feminine

\037

with.
Restructured

\037

That is the boy

with.

1. Relativeclause:with
2. Function
of relative
un

university

about which
she is

which

Spoken
English
is the boy
That
she

Where is the

pronoun

\037

universite)

about?

thinking

Restructured

\037

about?

clause: about
about

she is

(that)

English
is the university

I 'universit\037

est

de

besoin?

avez

vous

dont

3. Selection:a
Ou

of prepositon

singular

of relative

(to think

object

dont

is thinking

she

une

you need
relative
pronoun in French: Object
avoir
besoin
(book
de) + thing
\037

university

Spoken

direct

that

masculine

Ie livre

Ou est

the

need?

book (that) you


clause:

Relative

3.

agreement

jouer

gar\037on) masculine

whom

with

she is

whom

pronoun
avec)

she

is playing.

playing

in French: object
+ person (boy \037

of preposition

avec

singular

3. Selection:qui
Voici

Ie

gar\037on avec

qui elle

Relative pronounsare tricky


only a simple outline.Refer
rules.)))

to
to

joue.
handle
your

and
French

this handbook
textbook
for

provides
additional

WHAT IS A

166

RELATIVE

PRONOUN?)

There are relativepronouns

noun.Instead
expressedorto

know

I don't

not refer to a specific noun or prowhich has not been


antecedent

an

and which.

what

- not referringto any

What

an

relative pronouns that can be usedwithout

are two

antecedent:

to

Antecedents

idea.)

whole

IN ENGLISH

There

do

that

refer

they

Without

Pronouns

Relative

specific

noun

or pronoun.

what happened.
I

no antecedent

subject)

is what I

Here

read.

no antecedent

direct object)

Which

- referringbackto a

whole

not to

idea,

a specific noun

or pro-

noun.)

You

many
speak
of
Antecedent

do well,

didn't

She

Antecedent

IN

languages, which is an asset.


which: the fact that you speak

languages)

many

which is a pity.

of which:

the fact

that

she

didn't

do

well)

FRENCH

When
noun

a relative
ce is

relative
antecedent.)

ever

the
pronoun does not have a specificantecedent,

It is followed
as the antecedent.
been
therehad
would
have
usedif
pronoun

added to function

by
been

pro-

whata noun

that which) should not be confused with other uses of what; as an


IThe relative pronoun what (O'1eaning
(What do you want? Qu'est-ceque vous voulez?, see p. 138),and as an interrogainterrogative pronoun
tive adjective (What book do you want? Quellivre
see p. 101).)))
voulez-vous?,

IS A RELATIVE

WHAT

Let us

apply theserulesto the

167)

PRONOUN?

examples:

following

is what happened.

Here

Voici ce qui est arriv\037.


clause:

1. Relative

2. Function

what happened

of relative

3. Selection:

4. No antecedent:add
me what

Show

pronoun

subject of relative

clause

ce)

you bought.

Montrez-moice que vous


1. Relative
2. Function

in French:

qui

achet\037.

avez

clause: what you


of relativepronoun

bought
in French:

direct object

of acheter

(to

buy)

3. Selection:

que

4. No antecedent:add

ce)

know what he is talking about.


pas ce don t il parle.
he is talking about - Restructured:
1. Relative clause: what
about
what he is talking
in French:
2. Function
of relative pronoun
object of preposition

I don't

Je ne

sais

about

speak

II

ne

add ce)

antecedent:

He doesn't
parle

1. Relative

de)

parler

dont

3. Selection:

4. No

\037

speak French, which will be a problem.


ce qui
sera un probleme.
pas fran\037ais,
which will be a problem
clause:
of relative
pronoun in French: subject

2. Function
3. Selection:qui
4.

add ce
whole phrase

No antecedent:

to the

refers

(Which

\"he

doesn't

speak

French.\

I want.
To speak French well, that's what
Bien parler fran\037ais,
voila
ce que je veux.

1. Relative

2.

Function

I want

what

clause:

of relative

pronoun

in French:

direct object of

(to want)

3. Selection:

4. No

que
add ce

antecedent:

(What refers to

the

whole

phrase

\"to speak

French well.\))

vouloir

de (to

168

IS A RELATIVE PRONOUN?)

WHAT

\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037

\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037\037REVIEW

Underline
\302\267
Circle
\302\267
Circle

relative pronoun in the sentences


below.
antecedent.
the function of the relative pronoun: subject
the

the

(5),

of a

object

preposition(OP),objectof

sive modifier
\302\267

Using

received the letterthat

to send

\037

IN

FUNCfION

IN FRENCH:

re\037u

la

sent

you

vous

lettre

pronoun

in

the

French

DO

OP

OPDE

PM

DO

OP

OPDE

PM

envoyee.

speaks

French.

FUNCfION

IN ENGLISH:

DO

OP

OPDE

PM

FUNCfION

IN FRENCH:

DO

OP

OPDE

PM

Here

travel

man

is the

\037

with

parle

fran\037ais.

with

whom

avec

voyager

FUNCfION

IN

FUNCfION

IN FRENCH:

I travelled.

ENGLISH:

DO

OP

OPDE

PM

DO

OP

OPDE

PM

OP

OPDE

PM

Voici l'homme avec


This

j'ai

book whose title

is the

DO

j'ai oublieIe

Voici Ie livre
Paul

voyage.

I had forgotten.

IN ENGLISH:

FUNCfION

5.

(DO),

or posses-

me.

m'avez

who

woman

Voici la jeune fule

4.

relative

French

the

ENGLISH:

2. That is the young

3.

object

envoyer

FUNCfION

J'ai

164, fill

on p.
below.)

sentences

1. I

direct

( OPde),

(PM).

chart

the

de

preposition

titre.

student I spoke of.

is the

Restructure:
to speakof

\037

parler

FUNCfION

IN

FUNCfION

IN FRENCH:

Paul est I'etudiant

ENGLISH:

de
S

DO

OP

OPDE

PM

DO

OP

OPDE

PM

je

parlais.)))

WHAT IS A

WHAT IS A

42.

PRONOUN?

mentioned,

comes

169)

PRONOUN?)

DEMONSTRATIVE

is a word that replaces a noun


as if pointing to it. Theword
from demonstrate, to show.)

A demonstrative
tive

DEMONSTRATIVE

pronoun

previously

the antecedent,

demonstra-

\"This one, that one\"and \"these,those\


IN

ENGLISH

demonstrative
singular
the plural forms are these

The

pronouns
and

are this (one) and

are two suitcases. This one is big and


Choose a book. Thesearein French,
those

Here

that
one is small.
in English.

or an

person

person or an

the speaker.

from

away

object

FRENCH

Demonstrative
but

(one);

to a
the demonstrative adjectives,this (one),theserefer
refer
to a
near
the
and
that
those
(one),
speaker,
object

As with

IN

that

those.

agree

they

is added

objects

do not change regardless of theirfunction,


and number with their antecedent.
Also,

pronouns

in gender

to indicateobjectscloserto the

farther

and

-Ia to

indicate

away.)

Sing

Plural

lar

masculine

celui

ceux

feminine)

celie)

celles)

To choose the correctform,follow


1. Determine the

antecedent.

2. Determine

gender

3. Based

4. Add
Look

speaker

the

this

or

at the following

steps:

and number of the antecedent.


the correct form from
and those.)
these and -18 for that

on steps 1 and

-ci for

these

2 choose

the

chart.

examples.

Give me the book.This one.


Donne-moi

Ie

livre.

1. Antecedent:

2. Gender
3. Selection:

4. This \037

& number:

celui
-ci)))

Celui-ci.

book
Le livre

(the book) is masculine

singular.

-ci

170

WHAT IS A

Give

PRONOUN?)

DEMONSTRATIVE

letter. That

me the

one.

Donne-moila lettre.Celle-Ia.

1.

letter

Antecedent:

& number:

2. Gender

La lettre

is feminine

letter)

(the

singular.

3. Selection:celIe

4.
Give

That

-18

\037

books. These.

me the

Donne-moileslivres.Ceux-ci.

1.

books

Antecedent:

& number:

2. Gender

Les Iivres (the

books)

is masculine

plural.

is feminine

plural.

3. Selection:ceux

4. These
Give

-ci)

\037

letters. Those.

me the

Donne-moiles lettres.Celles-Ia.

1.

letters

Antecedent:

& number:

2. Gender

Les lettres (the

letters)

3. Selection:celles

4.

Those

-18)

\037

\"The

the ones\"

one,

\037

celui

qui,

celui

que

French demonstrativepronouns
-ci or -lit) followed
(without
be
the beginningof a
the
can
used
at
relative
or
qui
que
by
pronoun

The same

relativeclause.(See

What

IN

is a

Relative

Pronoun?,

p. 154).

ENGLISH

pronouns the one and the ones, unlikethis one and


not
do
introduce
a
one,
point out a specific object,but instead
additional information
clause that helps us identify an object
by giving
form
the one and a plural form the ones.
about it. There is a singular
can
be followed
but
the
They
by the relative pronoun that or which,
relative
is
often
omitted.
pronoun
The

demonstrative

that

book

What

I am

are

you reading?

reading the one (that) I bought

Clause:

the one

that

J bought

gives us additional information


Number: The one is singular.)
Which

do you

dresses

I prefer the

ones

(that)
ones
that

yesterday.

yesterday
about

the book.

prefer?
are in front.

Clause: the
are in front
about
gives us additional information
Number: The ones is plural.)))

the dresses.

WHAT

IS A

171)

PRONOUN?

DEMONSTRATIVE

IN FRENCH

ve pronouns correspondingto the

The demonstrati

agree in gender and number with the antecedent.


that or which is selectedaccording
toits function
in
be
French.
and
must
stated
(see pp. 164)

To choosethe correctform,follow
Demonstrative

(the one, the

pronoun

1.

the

Find

these

the ones

pronoun

the

relative

clause

steps:

ones)

antecedent.

the gender and number


the correct French form
from

2. Determine
3. Select

in

and

relative

one

The

of the

antecedent.

the

chart on

Relative pronoun (that, which-add it to the English

p. 169.
if it

sentence

been omitted)

1. Determinethe

of the

function

relative

pronoun

in

the

relative

clause.

correct Frenchform:

2. Select the

the

Let

us apply

are

Quellivre

& number:

Selection:

celui

hier.

object

sing.

Le

livre

(the book)

is masculinesingular.

pronoun

that is

1. Function:

question:

\"I

2. Selection:

bought

the

object

what

relative clause. (Answers the


yesterday?\" I is the subject.)

robes

of the

que)

Which dresses do you prefer?


the ones (that) are in

[ prefer
QueUes

achet\037

book

2. Gender
Relative

j'ai

pronoun

1. Antecedent:

3.

que
I

masc.

qui
que

bought yesterday.

Celui

Iisez-vous?

Demonstrative

\037

following examples:

you reading?
one (that) [

the

reading

clause

relative

the relative clause \037

these rules to the

book

What

[' m

of the

subject

object of

. the

front.

pr\037ferez-vous? Celles
I

fern.

pI.

sont devant.
qui
I
subject)))

has

WHAT IS A

172

DEMONSTRATIVE

Demonstrative

pronoun

1. Antecedent:

2. Gender

dresses

question:

that is

the

\"W hat

is

2. Selection:

by

to Show Possession
-ci or lit), followed

(without

pronouns

show possession(seeWhat

For the samereasonthat

house

\"the

structure

be used
to say the equivalent form \"my
must
case, the word-for-word English translationof the
In French,
the one agrees
ture is \"the one of my father.\"

this

To

the

house\" can only be expressed in


of my father,\" a similar French

father's

\"my

structure

the

by

here

its antecedent,

with

number

is

p. 18).

Possessive?,

French

the

front?)

be used to

de can

preposition

relative clause. (Answers

qui)

demonstrative

French

same

of the

subject
in

Celui de

the

plural.

celles

pronoun

1. Function:

The

(the dresses) is feminine

Les robes

& number:

3. Selection:

Relative

PRONOUN?)

In

father's.\"
French

struc-

in gender and

house.\"

\"the

form, follow thesesteps:


1.Find the antecedent of the one or the ones.
2. Determine
the gender and number of the antecedent.
3. Select the form of the demonstrative
(see chart p. 169).
pronoun
the correct

choose

4. Add
Let us

the

de (of).

preposition

apply theserulesto the


house are you

Which

father's.
selling? My
I
I
\"

the one of

my

Celie de

vendez-vous?

maison

QueUe

examples:

following

feln.

1. Antecedent:

4.
Which

Add

moo pere.

sing.)

house

2. Gender& number:
3. Selection:

father\"

La

(the house)

maison

is feminine

celie

de)

books

are you reading?

The young man's.


I

\"the
Quels

Iivres

Iisez-vous?

Ceux du
I

masc.

pI.)))

ones of the young

man\"

jeuDe homme.

singular.

WHAT

IS A DEMONSTRATIVE

Les Iivres

(the books)is masculine

PRONOUN?

1. Antecedent:books

2.

& number:

Gender

4.

Add

de)

\037\037........\037\037..\037.\037.

\037...\037.\037..\037..\037\037..REVIEW

Circle the the demonstrative pronouns in the sentences


an arrow from the demonstrative pronoun to its
\302\267
if the antecedent
Circle
is singular (8) or plural
(P).
\302\267
Fill in the French demonstrative pronoun in the
French
\302\267
Draw

1. She

did not buy my

Elle

2.

pas achete

n'a

courses

My

ANTECEDENT
cours

Mes

3. What

IN

book

FRENCH:

are

IN FRENCH:

lis-tu?)

p)

parce qu' elleveut)

interesting

than

masculine)

you reading?

sentences.)

s)

feminine)

plus interessants

below.
antecedent.

this one.)

she wants

because

ma maison,

are more

sont

ANTECEDENT

Quellivre

house,

IN FRENCH:

ANTECEDENT

plural.

ce

3. Selection:

those.)

p)

s)

que)
The one

masculine)
que j'ai

I bought today.)
s)

achete

p)

aujourd'hui.)))

173)

ANSWER

KEY)

ANSWER

1. What

Noun?

is a

3. Mary,

cover

1. boy, classroom, teacher


Evans, Paris, class 4. lion,

6. kindness, understanding,
What is Meant by Gender?

175)

KEY

2. textbook,

painting,

5. truth,

children

fiction

world

2.?
3. F 4.?
5.? 6. F 7.?
The first letter correspondsto Column
A,
the second to Column B. 1.P P 2. P? 3.SS 4. S S 5. P P 6. P?
4.What are Articles? 1. C, les 2. C, I' 3.C,des 4. C, une 5. N, de I'
6. N, Ie 7. C, un 8. N, de la 9. C, Ie 10.N, de la
2. the color of
of some children
S. What is the Possessive?1.the parents
of a car 5. the
the
dress
3. the entrance of the school 4. the speed

2.

3.

covers of the books


is a Verb? 1. purchase

6. What

ished,

went

7. What

is an

5. to

1. M

by Number?

is Meant

What

2.

3. enjoyed,

were

see, struggle, get out

5. was,

1. to

Infinitive?

do 2.

study

6.
3. to

preferred 4. ate, fincelebrate

attended,

learn

4. leave

travel

are Auxiliary Verbs? 1. did 2. will 3. do 4. - (to have,


avoir,
is an auxiliary verb in French)
the bell \037 sing.
What is a Subject? 1. Q:\"What
Q: \"Who ran
rang?\"
\037
\037 pI.
out?\"
the children
2. Q: \"Who took the order?\"one waiter
\037
\"Who
the
food?\"
another
\"Who
3.
Q:
Q:
sing.
sing.
brought
\037 pI.
4. Q: \"What is
voted?\" the first-year students (or the students)
\037
is
difficult?\"
it \037
French
\"What
a beautiful
Q:
sing.
language?\"

8. What

9.

sing

is a Pronoun?
him (Peter) 2. they

10. What

5.

it

11. What

dress)

(coat,

1. she

parentheses.

3. herself

(Mary),

(Mary) 4. we (Paul,I)

(bed)

is a

3. nous
2nd,

The antecedent is in

pI.

Subject Pronoun? 1.je \037

\037

1st,

7. Us

pI.
\037

4. tu
3rd,

\037

2nd,

sing.

1st,

2. vous

sing.

5. elles

\037

3rd,

pI.

\037

2nd,

6. vous

pI.
\037

pI.

is a Verb Conjugation? STEM: port-.


CONJUGATION:
je porte, tu
i1s
iI
nous
vous
(ell e) porte,
(or elles) portent.
portes,
portons,
portez,
13. What
and Negative
Words that indicate
Sentences?
a\037e Affirmative
the negative
are in italics.
Words
around which to place ne...pas are
underlined.1.We do not (don't) \037 to speak English in class. 2. He
does not (doesn't)!J.Q his homework. 3. Helenwas n ot (wasn't) home
this
4. Paul cann ot (can't) go to the restaurant
with us.
morning.
14. What
are
Declarative
and Interrogative
Sentences? Words that indicate the interrogative
are in italics I. 1. Did Paul and Mary study
all
his
2.
Does
eat
lot?
brother
a
3.Do
the
evening?
girl's
speak
parents
French? II. 1. Est-ceque would
my mother and father went)))
precede:

12. What

ANSWER

176

KEY)

the movies.
2. N' est-ce pas would
and father
follow:
my mother
\037
mother
and
verb \037
went to the movies. 3. noun
father;
subject
\037
\037
that
to
the
ils
went;
they
pronoun
corresponds
subject
\037 lit
3. does read
What is the Present Tense? 1.reads 2.isreading
to

17.

--+Iit
18.

2. Let's go to the
Imperative? I. 1. Study
every
evening.
2. Let's not speak in
a week. ll. 1. Don't sleepin class.
1. P 2. I 3. P 4. I
1. am speaking 2. werestudying
3. are
Participle?

is the

What

once

movies

Ill.

class.

19.

is a

What

4.

bringing
20. What is

be

will

trying

the Past Tense?IMPARFAIT:


PASSE
COMPOSE:
was
was,
leaving

21.
22.

arrived, ran, dropped,

went,

went
comforted,
ducked,grabbed,brought,
What is the Past PerfectTense?1.(-1)\037
\037

(-2)

\037

(-2)

P;

tried,

2. (-1)

PP

\037

P;

PP.

is the

What

was crying,

handled,

checked,

Future Tense? 1.ENGLISH:

FRENCH:

future

present,

future
2. ENGUSH:
future, future
future,
future, present FRENCH:
In French,
23. What is the Future PerfectTense?1.(2),
(2).
the verbs marked (I) take the.future
the verbs marked (2) take
perfect;

(1) 2.(1),

the

24.

future.

is the

What

25. What
26.

29.

is

Conditional? 1. C, I 2.PP, PC
Verb? 1. themselves \037

a Reflexive

\037
3. yourself
What is Meant

4. ourselves

te

\037

\037

se

nous

(music) 5. tired (Paul), long (walk)


is a PossessiveAdjective? The noun

parentheses. 1. my (books),
(mother), sing. \037 notre
What
is an Interrogative
parentheses.
que

\037

pI.
4. your

mes

Adjective? The noun

1. which (courses), pl. --+

quels

(car), sing.

\037

ta

3. our

\037vos

modified

2. what

is between

(city), sing.

\037

lie

is a DemonstrativeAdjective?
parentheses.1.that (restaurant),
3. these

What

is between

described

2. your

(clothes), pI.

32. What

33.

se

I 4. F, P

2. herself

by Active and PassiveVoice?1.cow, cow \037 Ac, PP


2. bill, parents \037 Pa, PP
3. bank, bank \037 Ac, P 4. everyone,
\037
F
5.
Ac,
everyone
spring break, all \037 Pa, F
is
What is a DescriptiveAdjective?The noun
or pronoun
described
2.
between parentheses. 1. young
French
(man),
(newspaper)
pretty
red (dress) 3. interesting
4. old (piano), good
(she),
(it)
long (dress),

30. What

31.

3. I,

(houses),

pl.\037

\037

ee

noun modified
2. this

is between

(test), sing.

\037

eet

ces

Comparison of Adjectives?I. The noun modified


\037 C+
2. less intelligent (he))))
parentheses. 1. older(teacher)

is Meant by

is between

I. The

sing.

ANSWER

3. as tall

C-

\037

(student)
is an

\037

as (Mary)

\037

C=

4. the

worst (boy)

\037

KEY

177)

5. better

Adverb? The word modified is between


parentheses.
3. too (tired)
(arrived) 2. really (quickly),quickly
(learned)
4. reasonably (secure) 5. well (speaks),
very (well)
35. What is a Conjunction? (Thewords
to be circled
are in italics; the
words to be underlined
are plain.)
1. Mary and Paul, French or
Spanish.2. She did not study because she was too tired. 3. Not only
had he forgotten his ticket, but he had forgotten
his passport as well.
36.What is a Preposition?
1. about 2. from
3. around
4. contrary to
5. between
37. What are Objects?
1. Q: \"The children took what?\"
--+ DO.
a shower
2. Q: \"They ate what?\"
\037 DO.
the meal
whom?\"
Q: \"They ate with
34.

What

1. early

friends

their

sent a
38.

What

10, P \037
\037

\037

OPt

3. Q:

\"He sent

eux

leur

5. them,

3. her,

OP, OP

DO, 10,

\037

a present

what?\"

his brother \037


present to whom?\"
is an Object Pronoun? 1.it, DO,
elle

letters, T \037

\037

DO.

Q: \"He

10.

book

\037 Ie
2. them, 10,
OP, OP, no, parents,P
them, OP, OP, yes, exams,

DO,

4. them,
Y

6.

T\037en

39.

40.
41.

42.

is an Interrogative Pronoun? 1. who,


S, S \037 qui or qui est-ce
2.
to
whom
did
\037
a qui
3. what, DO, DO
who,
qui
you speak, 10, 10
\037 que
4. who, whom are you calling, DO, 10 --+ a qui
What is a PossessivePronoun?1.mine
(car),
sing. \037 la mienne
2. hers (parents), pI. \037 les siens
3. yours, (book) sing. \037 Ie tien
What is a Relative
Pronoun?
The antecedent
is between parentheses.
1. that (letter), DO \037 que 2. who (woman), S \037 qui 3. whom (man),
OP \037 qui 4. whose (book), PM \037 dont 5. Paul is the student of
whom I spoke.Paul (student),
\037 dont
OPde
What is a Demonstrative Pronoun? 1.this one (house),
sing. \037
eelle-ci
2. those (courses), pI. \037 eeux-/d
3. the one (book),
What

sing. \037

eelui)))

179)

INDEX

INDEX)

14
active voice

a, an

commonnoun
93-4

attributive

conditional

interrogative 101-2

110

or adjective

seeall headings

under

noun and article


participle

verb

-al

with

antecedent

seeall

see all

declarative 46
object

direct

statement

verb) 25-7,

(helping
and

in

intelTogati

in

negative

ve sentence

46

43-4

sentence

dont 162, 163)

\037tre

26, 63-5)

(to have)

64

116-9,
78

46-7, 54-5, 63

do/does/did

15-6

verb

direct

23
121, 139-40, 157-9

of verb

fonn

dictionary

14-5

seealsoavolr
avolr

79-80)

statement

19

de

28, 36,41-2

12-3

auxiliary

43

contrary-to-fact

article 12-6

partitive

112

subordinating

pronoun

subject

indefinite

112

contraction

30, 154, 169-70


under pronoun
headings

definite

present)

coordinating 112

10

words

36-42

conjunction

13

pronoun and antecedent


under

conjugation

adjective

64-5

headings

79-80

78-9

agreement 12

past

(Ie condltlonnel

present

43-4

85

agent

78

statement 78
hypothetical
condJtJonnel
(Ie
past
passe)

predicate 93
affirmative,

statement 79-80

future-in-the-past

possessive 96-100
adverb

78-9

form

contrary-to-fact

as 94-5

used

noun

77-81

(Ie condJtlonnel)

as polite

93-5

descriptive

105-6

compound tense 26,52,63

103-4

demonstrative

comparative

comparison of 105-7

56-7

fonn

command

92

adjective

cognate

85-8

13

elision

en 132-3

be (to)

64)

26,

(Ia term

ending

41

InaJson)

est-ce que 47
ce 103-4

celul de
celul

\037tre

170-71

que

clause 77
clause

relative
resul

familiar

26, 64)

77

154-8

t 77,

80-1

subordinate 77,154)

fonnal
function

tu

fonn

33, 37

6-7

feminine

if-clause 77, 80-1


main

(to be)

172-3
form vous

33, 39

future-in-the-past
future

perfect

future

tense

78
(Ie futur

(Ie rutur)

anterJeur) 75-6
72-3)))

180

INDEX)

(Ie futur

future

immediate

Immed

10 go

with

masculine 6-7

me 124,127,130

at) 73-4
73-4)

(aller)

meaning

148-51

mine

gender

6-8

(masculine/feminine)

mood 50-1

biological

conditional

grammatical

7)

51,77-81

50-1, 56-7
50-1,
54, 63, 72

imperative
indicative

13

\"h\" (aspirate/mute)

have (to)

96-9

my

myself 82-3)

69

had

51,90

subjunctive

26, 63-5

have 63

ne...pas 44

he 32
verb

helping

her,

43-4

negative

125-8,131-3

neuter

96-9, 148-51

noun(conuno\037oper) 4-5

him

hers, his

64

25-7,

herself,himself

82-3

collective 9

78)

conunon

I 32
id

used as adjective 94-5

if-clause
77, 80-1
1mparfait (I') 65-6
vs.
Ie passe com pose 66-7

English vs.

78

statement

23-4

interrogative 46-9
invariable

112, 114

110,

adverb 110
preposition

114

88
ones 170-1

the

one,

our

96,

the

99-100

151-2
ourselves 82-3)
ours 148,

of speech

1-2

participle (Ie partlclpe) 59-62


passe) 60-2
past (Ie particlpe

129,131-3

148-51

present

vs.I'lmparfalt

let's
-ly

pronoun

162

present

of adverb

59-60
63

66-7

in French

avoiding

56-7
ending

indefmite)

(past

passive voice 85-8

145-6

relative

present)

(Ie partlclpe

Ie passecompose

82-3)

lequel

120-1

French

on construction

parts

inversion 46-7

itself

119-21,

112

conjunction

33-4,

118-9,121,141-4,159-62

object of a preposition
129,33,141-4,159-65

infInitive (l'lnftnltif)
verb ending
59
-ing

its 96-9,

116-9,121,139-40,157-9

indirect

159-62
indirect

116-22

direct

121, 141-4,

118-9,

object

9-10)

(singular/plural)

object

50-1

indicative (I'lndlcatlf)
indirect

number

56-7

(I'lmperatif)

imperative

it

compound

iom

12-7

article

with

agreement

statement

hypothetical

109-10)

passive

87-8

vs. passe

86,88
past

tense

(Ie passe)

63-7)))

compose

181)

INDEX

and Ie passe

see l'lmparfalt
past

past perfect (Ie plus-queparfait)

63-4

base 116
32

(grammatical)

com

object 124-6

interrogative

133

negative

as object

of a

as subject

129-33

preposition

perfect)

singular

69 -71

15-6

some

fonn

stem (Ia raclne) 40-1

39

33,

18-9

possessive
to change

meaning of verb

dangling

141

object of a preposition

115

114,

119-21,

subjunctive

90-1

superlative

106-7)

114
prepositional phrase
tense
(Ie present) 54-5
present
emphatic

see all

present

personal

that

disjunctive (Ie pronoun


133
tonlque)

personnel

them

preposition

with

relative

without

subject

32-5, 37-40

96,

past

under

present

antecedent

99-100

148, 151-2
125-9,

131-3

82-3

these 103-4, 169-70


they

154-65
166-7

this

34-5

103-4

this one 169-70

those 103-4,169-70
tu

familiar

fonn

tense

under

158

155-6,
169-70

themselves

129-33

antecedent

relative

4)

one

theirs

possessive 148-52
reflexive 82-4

propernoun

that

103-4,

their

138-46

object 123-37

objectof

headings
54-5

the 12-3

31

interrogative

75-6

see all headings

pronoun

169-73

demonstrative

indefinite

perfect
63-7

past

54-5

30-1

see also

72-4

future

future

54-5

present progressive

48-9

tag question

tense 52-3

129-33,141-4,159-65

present

138-9, 155-7

37-40,

28,

subject

114-5

preposition

pronoun

32

simple tense 26, 52

Ie plus-que-parfalt (past
polite

46-9

43-4

72

shall

she

32-5

9-10

plural

46

sequence of tenses80-1

object 126-9

as indirect

21

plete

declarative

32-5

pronoun

as disjunctive

43-4

affumative

63

as direct

21

sentence

past 63

simple

87-8)

63

perfect

used to

139

156)

82-4

verb

to avoid passive

past progressive

personal

pronoun

reflexive

69-71

person

154,

63

emphatic

present

pronoun)

(interrogative

que

qu\037
relative

compose

33,

37)))

tense

182

INDEX)

130

us

66-7

used to

21-2

verb

25-7, 64

auxiliary

see alsoavoir

and

dictionary

\037tre

52

tense

compound

23

fonn

23-4
intransitive 117

groups

37

irregular

25

main

reflexive 82-4
36

regular

117

transitive

voice (active/passive)22, 85-7


vous
formal form 33, 39)
56, 123-5

we

101-2

what

what

(that which)

which

which

166-7

101-2,156,158,161,166-7

one (ones)

145-6

155

who

158-60

whom

whose 163
72

will

75

will have
would

77

see also
would

have

conditional
79)

129, 132

you 33,56,124-5,130
your

yours

96-100

148-52

yourself

82-3)))

present