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# Contents

## Manual for K-Notes ................................................................................. 2

Network Elements .................................................................................. 3
Graph Theory .......................................................................................... 9
Circuit Theorems ................................................................................... 11
Transient Analysis ................................................................................. 15
Sinusoidal steady state analysis ............................................................ 19
Resonance............................................................................................. 23
Circuits analysis in Laplace domain ....................................................... 25
Two Port Network ................................................................................. 26
Magnetically coupled circuits................................................................ 29
Three Phase Circuits.............................................................................. 31
Electrical & magnetic fields ................................................................... 33

1

## Manual for K-Notes

Why K-Notes?
Towards the end of preparation, a student has lost the time to revise all the chapters from his /
her class notes / standard text books. This is the reason why K-Notes is specifically intended for
Quick Revision and should not be considered as comprehensive study material.
What are K-Notes?
A 40 page or less notebook for each subject which contains all concepts covered in GATE
Curriculum in a concise manner to aid a student in final stages of his/her preparation. It is highly
useful for both the students as well as working professionals who are preparing for GATE as it
comes handy while traveling long distances.
When do I start using K-Notes?
It is highly recommended to use K-Notes in the last 2 months before GATE Exam
(November end onwards).
How do I use K-Notes?
Once you finish the entire K-Notes for a particular subject, you should practice the respective
Subject Test / Mixed Question Bag containing questions from all the Chapters to make best use
of it.

2

Network Elements
Active & Passive Elements
If any elements absorb, dissipate, waste, convert electrical energy it is called as passive element.
Eg. Resistor, Inductor, Capacitor.
If any elements energize, deliver, give out, drive the electrical energy it is called as active element.
Eg. BJT, MOSFET.
Network Technologies
Node : It is a point of interconnection or junction between two or more components.
Branch : It is an elemental connection between two nodes.
Mesh: A mesh is a close path which should not have any further closed path in it.
Loop : All possible close path.
Ohms law
At constant temperature and for uniform cross section of conductor.
J E

= conductivity,

1
resistivity .

V IR
l
R
A
l lenght of conductor

Circuit Symbol:

A = Area of conductor.
Conductance of circuit elements is

1
R

Sign Convention
To apply ohms law, we must apply following sign convention.

## Short circuit & open circuit

Voltage across terminals of a short circuit is always zero, regardless of the value of current which
could be any value. (R = 0)
The current through an open circuit is always zero, regardless of voltage across the terminals
which could be any value. R
Power of resistor

V2
I2R
R
Resistance always absorbs or dissipates power.
P VI

Kirchoffs laws

## Kirchoffs current law(KCL)

It states that any instant the algebraic sum of current leaving any junction (or node) in a network
is zero.
In other words, current entering a node is equal to current leaving the node.

n in t 0

ientering ileaving
i1 i3 i5 i2 i4

## Kirchoffs voltage law (KVL)

It states that any instant the algebraic sum of the voltage around any closed path (or loop) within
a network is zero. In other words, the sum of voltage drops is equal to sum of voltage rises.

V t 0
n

Vdrop Vrise
V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 0

## Series resistance or voltage division

Two or more circuit elements are connected in series means that current through all elements in
same. If N resistors, with resistance R1 ,R2 ,........Rn are connected in series
R eq R1 R 2 ...................RN

V1
V2

V R1

R1 R 2
V R 2

R1 R 2

## Parallel resistance or current division

Two or more circuit elements are connected in parallel means that voltage across all elements is
same. If N resistors are connected in parallel R1 ,R 2 ,............RN
1
1
1
1

...........
R eq R1 R 2
RN

I1
I2

I R 2

R1 R 2
I R1

R1 R 2

## Star Delta Conversion

Start to Delta

Ra

R1R 2 R1R 3 R 2R 3
R1

Rb

R1R 2 R1R 3 R 2R 3
R2

Rc

R1R 2 R1R 3 R 2R 3
R3
5

## Delta to start conversion

R1

RbR c
R a Rb R c

R2

R aR c
R a Rb R c

R3

R aR b
R a Rb R c

Sources
Independent Voltage Source
An ideal independent voltage source maintains a specified voltage across its terminals. The
voltage is independent of current flowing through it.
Independent current source
An ideal independent current source maintains a specified current to flow through it. The current
through this is independent of voltage across it.
Dependent Source
Voltage controlled voltage source (VCVS) ; V AVX
Current controlled voltage source (CCVS) ; V AiX
Voltage controlled current source (VCCS) ; i AVx
Current controlled current source (CCCS) ; i Aix

Capacitor
A capacitor is a combination of a two conducting plates separated by a non-conducting material.
Capacitance is donated by C
A
C
d
= Permittivity of medium
A = Area of Plates
D = distance between the plates.
Charge on Plates,

Q = CV

## Voltage Current relationship

i t

dq t

i t C

dt
dv t
dt

Sign Convention
Energy Stored in a capacitor

1
E cv 2
2

Q t
t
2C

1
Q t v t
2

## Properties of ideal capacitor

If voltage across capacitor is constant (dc) then current through capacitor is zero & it acts as open
circuit.

dv t
dt

## In n capacitors are connected in series C1 ,C2 ,.............Cn

Ceq

1
1
1
1

.................
C1 C2
Cn

## If n capacitors are connected in parallel, C1 ,C2 ,..........................Cn

Ceq C1 C2 ....................... Cn

## In series connection, charge is same whereas in parallel connection voltage is same.

is infinite,

Inductor
It is a two terminals element consisting of winding of N turns.
N2 A
L 0 r
l
0 = Permeability of free space
r relative Permeability

N = number of turns
A = area of cross section of coil
l = length of inductor
Current voltage relationship

v t L

di t

dt
L is constant, called as inductance
Energy Stored

1
E L i t
2

## Like, Capacitor, inductor also stores energy but in electro-magnetic terms.

Series & parallel Connection
If n inductors L1 ,L2 ,...............,Ln are connected in series then
Leq L1 L2 ............. Ln

## In n inductors are connected in parallel L1 ,L2 ,.............Ln

1
1
1
1

.............
L eq L1 L 2
Ln

In series connection current in same, through all elements & in parallel connection voltage is same
across all elements.
Duality
Two circuits N1 & N2 are called dual circuit if the branches KCL, KVL & branch v - i relationship
becomes respectively KVL, KCL.

Resistance
Capacitance
Inductance
Open Circuit
Short Circuit
Voltage Source
Current Source

Dual Elements
Conductance
R
CF
LH

GR

L=CH
C=LF

VS

Inductance
Capacitance
Short Circuit
Open Circuit
Current Source

IS

Voltage Source

V IS

Series Connection
Parallel Connection

I VS

Parallel Connection
Series Connection

Eg.

Graph Theory
Network Graph:
If all elements of a circuits are replaced a line segment between 2 end points called as nodes.

Directed Graphs:
If the branches of a graph has directions then it is called as a directed graph.

Sub graph
It consists of less or equal number of verticals (nodes) & edges, as in its complete graph.

## True & Co-tree

A connected sub-graph of a network which has its nodes same as original graph but does not
contain any closed path is called tree of network.
A tree always has (n - 1) branches.
Eg. The following trees can be made from graph shown before.

The set of branches of a network which are remove to form a tree is called co-tree of graph.
The branches of a tree are called as its twigs & branches of a co-tree are called as chords or links.

10

Incidence Matrix
The dimension of incidence matrix is (nxb)
N = no. of nodes
B = no. of branches
It is represented by A
aij = + 1 ,
If jth branch is oriented away from ith node
aij = -1 ,

aij = 0 ,

## If jth branch is not connected to ith node

a b
c
d e f

0 0 1
1 1 0 1
A 2 1 1
0 1
0 0

1
0 0 1 1
3 0
4 0
0 1 1 1 0

If one of nodes is considered as ground & that particulars row is neglected while writing the
incidence matrix, then it is reduced incidence matrix. Order n 1 b
T
Number of trees of any graph det Ar Ar

## Ar = reduced incidence matrix

Circuit Theorems
Linearity
A system is linear if it satisfies the following two properties.
1. Homogeneity Property
It requires that if input is multiplied by constant hen output is multiplied by same constant.
eg. V = IR
is I becomes KI
V = KIR = KV
So, resistance is a linear element & so are inductor & capacitor.
It requires that response to sum of inputs is sum of response to each input applied separately.
V1 I1R

V2 I2R
If we apply

We get

V3 I1 I2 R V1 V2

I2

11

Superposition
It states that, in any linear circuit containing multiple independent sources, the total current
through or voltage across an element can be determined by algebraically adding the voltage or
current due to each independent source acting alone with all other independent source set to
zero.
Source Transformation
It states that as independent voltage source VS in series with a resistance R is equivalent to
independent current source IS Vs / R in parallel with a resistance R.
Or
An independent current source IS in parallel with a resistance R is equivalent to a dependent
source VS ISR in series with a resistance R.

Thevenins Theorem
It states that any network composed of ideal voltage and current source, and of linear resistor,
may be represented by an equivalent circuit consisting of an ideal voltage source VTH in series
with an equivalent resistance R TH .
Methods to calculate thevein equivalent
The therein voltage VTH is equal to open circuit voltage across load terminals.
Therein resistance is input or equivalent resistance at open circuit terminals (load terminals) when
all independent source are set to zero (voltage sources replaced by short circuit & current source
by OC)
Case 1 : Circuit with independent sources only

12

## Using sources transformation

VTH

2
24 12V
22

To calculate Rth
Short I & V sources & open 6mA source

R th 1 2

1 1 2k
13

Methodology 1:

## For R TH set all independent sources to zero.

Remove load & put a test source Vtest across its terminals, let current through test source is Itest .

Thevenin resistance ,

R TH

Vtest
Itest

Methodology 2:

## VTH is calculated in same way.

For R TH short circuit load terminals & leave independent sources as it is
R TH VOC ISC
Nortons Theorem
Any network composed ideal voltage & current sources, and of linear resistors, may be
represented by an equivalent circuit consisting of an ideal current source IN in parallel with an
equivalent resistance R N .

RN R TH

To calculate IN we short circuit load terminals & calculate short circuit current.

14

## Maximum Power Transfer Theorem:

A load resistance RL will receive maximum power from a circuit when load resistance is equal to
Thevenins/ Nortons resistance seen at load terminals.
RL R Th

ZL Z*th

RL Z Th

2

RL R2Th XL X Th

## For maximum power transfer

XL XTh 0

Transient Analysis
Time Constant :
It is the time required for the response to delay by a factor of 1 e or 36.8 % of its initial value.
It is represented by .
For a RC circuit
RC
For a RL circuit
LR
R is the therein resistance across inductor or capacitor terminals.
15

## General method of analysis

t t
x t x x t0 x e o , t 0

## If switching is done at t=t0

x t0 initial value of x t at t t0
x final value of x t at t

Algorithm
1. Choose any voltage & current in the circuit which has to be determined.
2. Assume circuit had reached steady state before switch was thrown at t t0 . Draw the circuit at
t t 0 with capacitor replaced by open circuit and inductor replaced by short circuit. Solve for

3. Voltage

across

v C t0 & iL t0 .
capacitor

V t V t
i t i t i t
VC t
L

and

inductor

current

cannot

change

instantaneously.

4. Draw the circuit for t t with switches in new position. Replace a capacitor with a voltage source

of variable x t .

VC t0 VC t0 and inductor with a current source of value iL t0 iL t0 . Solve for initial value

## 5. Draw the circuit for t , in a similar manner as step-2 and calculate x .

Calculate time constant of circuit
6. =Rth C or =L/Rth
7. Substitute all value to calculate x(t).
Example
In the circuit shown below, V1 t for t > 0 will be given as

16

Solution
Step 1 :
For t < 0
30u t 0 & 3u t 0

V1 0 0V
For t
V1 3mA 10k

= -30 V
Step 2 :
At t 0

V1 0 30
20k

3mA

V1 0

3
V1 0 1.5mA
20k
V1 0 10V

10k

V1 t 30 10 30 e

V1 t 30 20e

0.3

u t V

Without Source

V 0

1
i t dt V0
C

i o I0
By KVL

Ri t L

di t
dt

1
i t dt 0
C

## Difference both sides

d2 i t
dt

R di t
1

i t 0
L dt
LC

17

Substitute i t Aest

Aest S2 R s 1

S1 R

LC

S2 R s 1 0
L
LC
2

R
R
S2
1
LC
2L
2L

R
1
,
2L
LC
2L

S1 ,S2 2 w 02 ; R 2L ; w 0

1
LC

i t Aes1t Bes2t

i t A Bt et

## i t et A cos wdt Bsinw dt

wd w20 2
Calculate A & B using initial conditions.
With a Source

v t VS Ae 1 Be 2 (Over-damped)
st

s t

v t VS A Bt et (Critically damped)

## Parallel RCL Circuit

Without Source

i 0

1
v t dt
L

v 0 V0

By KCL

dv t
1
1
v t v d C
0
R
L
dt
t

18

Characteristics equation
s2

1
1
s
0
RC
LC

1
, w0
2RC

1
LC

S1 ,S2 2 w02
v t Ae 1 Be
st

S2t

over damped

v t A Bt et critically damped
v t et A cos wdt Bsinwdt under damped
With a step input

i t Is Ae 1 Be
st

S2 t

Over damped

i t Is A Bt et Critically damped
i t Is A cos wdt Bsinwdt et Under damped
Steps:
1. Write differential equation that describe the circuit.
2. From differential equation model, construct characteristics equation & find roots.
3. Roots of characteristics equation determine the type of response over-damped, critically damped
& under-damped.
4. Obtain the constant using initial conditions.

We can compare the phases of two sinusoids provided that

Both V1 t & V2 t are expressed in form of either sine function or cosine function.

Both V1 t & V2 t are written with positive amplitude though they may not have same amplitude.
Both V1 t & V2 t have same frequency.

19

If V1 t A sinwt

V2 t Bsin wt ; 00

V2 t leads v1 t by an angle

V1 t lags v 2 t by an angle
PHASORS

A phasor is complex number that represents the amplitude & phase angle information of a
sinusoidal function.

v t Vm sin wt

## Phasor representation, V Vrms

magnitude Vrms
phase

Networks Elements
1. Resistor

V RI
2. Inductor

V jl I

2f ; f frequency of source

3. Capacitor

I j c V

Impedance , Z

V Vrms

v i
I Irms

## Unit of impedance ohm

Z R jX Z

R = resistive component
X = relative component
20

## Phase angle, tan1 X

Z R2 X2

For Resistor ZR R
For Inductor ZL jL
For Capacitor Z C

1
j

c
j L

Inductive reactance, XL L
Capacitive reactance, XL

1
c

## If X = 0, impedance is resistive; current & voltage are in same phase.

If X > 0, impedance is inductive; current lags voltage.
If X < 0, impedance is capacitive; current leads voltage.

1
G jB
Z

G = Capacitance
B = Susceptance
Impedance in AC circuits behave like resistance in DC circuits and all the laws remain same like
Series combination

Zeq Z1 Z2 ................ Zn

Parallel combination

1
1
1
1

......................
Z eq Z1 Z 2
Zn

Yeq Y1 Y2 ......... Yn

## Star-delta conversion also remain same here.

Circuits analysis in AC domain

## 1. Identify the sinusoidal source & note the excitation frequency.

2. Convert source to phasor form.
3. Represent each circuit element by its impedance.
4. Solve circuits using circuit techniques (nodal analysis mesh analysis etc.)
5. All circuits theorems are applicable here as well

21

Power analysis
Real Power

P VrmsIrms cos v i
In a resistance
P

2
Vrms
2
Irms
R
R

Complex Power
*
S VrmsIrms

Vrms Irms v i

## Real part of S Q Vrms Irms sin v i

Real part of S P Vrms Irms cos v i

Reactive Power = Q
Q = 0 for resistive loads.
Q < 0 for capacitive loads v i .
Q > 0 for inductive loads v i

If the current goes into an element, then it absorbs power and if current comes out it delivers
power.
Hence, a capacitor absorbs leading reactive power. We can also say it delivers lagging reactive
power.
Same way, inductor absorbs lagging reactive power & delivers leading reactive power.
Power Factor

pf

P
cos v i
S

## v i power factor angle

If 0 , power factor is lagging
If 0 , power factor is leading
If 0 , power factor is unity

22

Resonance
Series resonance
For resonance

Im Z 0

Z R j L 1
L 1

LC

The frequency at which impedance of circuits is purely resistive is called resonant frequency.

LC

At resonance
I

VS
R

VR IR VS
VS
R

j
j VS
I

0c
oC R

VL joL I joL
Vc

## At 0 ; XL XC , net reactance is capacitive so circuits operates at leading pf.

At 0 ; XL XC , net reactance is zero, so circuits operates at unity pf.
At 0 ; XL XC , net reactance is inductive, so circuits operates at lagging pf.
Bandwidth: range of frequency for which power delivered to R is half of power at resonance.
Bw R L
Quality factor
1 2
1 2
I XL
I XC
Re active power 2
2
Q

1 2
1 2
Average power
I R
I R
2
2

XL
R

XC
R

1 L
R C
23

Parallel Resonance
Y1

1
j C
j L

At resonance

Im Y 0

LC

At resonance V IS R

IR IS
IL

IR
V
S
j0L j0L

## IC V j0C ISR j0C

Bandwidth

1
RC

Quality factor, Q

V
Q

2 XC
V

2R

2 XL
V

Re active Power
Average Power

R
R
C

R
XL
XC
L

2R

24

## Circuits analysis in Laplace domain

For basic of laplace transform, refer to signal & system k-notes. Laplace transform.
Resistor
V(s) RI(s)

Inductor

sL

Capacitor

## I(s) C sV(s) V(0 )

Or I(s)

1
V(0 )
I(s)
sC
s

Methodology
1. Draw circuit in s-domain by substituting s-domain equivalent for each circuit element.
2. Apply circuit analysis to obtain desired voltage or current in s-domain.
3. Take inverse Laplace transform to convert voltage and current back in time-domain.
25

## Two Port Network

Impedance Parameters
V1 Z11 I1 Z12 I2
V2 Z21 I1 Z22 I2

In matrix form

Z11
Z12
Z 21
Z 22

V1
I1
V1
I2
V2
I1
V2
I2

V1 Z11

V2 Z 21

Z12 I1

Z 22 I2

I2 0

I1 0

I2 0

## open circuit output impedance

I1 0

I1 y11 V1 y12 V2
I2 y 21 V1 y 22 V2

In matrix form,
I1 y11

I2 y 21

y11
y12

I1
V1
I1
V2

y12 V1

y 22 V2

V2 0

V1 0

26

y 21
y 22
y11
y
21

I2
V1

V2 0

I2
V2

## = short circuit output admittance.

V1 0

y12 Z11

y 22 Z 21

Z12
Z 22

Hybrid parameters
V1 h11 I1 h12 V2
I2 h21 I1 h22 V2

In matrix form,
V1 h11 h12 I1

I2 h21 h22 V2

h11

h12
h21

h22

V1
I1

V1
V2
I2
I1

V2 0

I1 0

V2 0

I2
V2 I

1 0

## Inverse hybrid parameters

I1 g11

V2 g21

g11
g
21

g12 V1

g22 I2

g12 h11
g22 h21

h12
h22

27

Transmission parameters
V1 AV2 BI2
I1 CV2 DI2

V1 A B V2
I C D I
1
2

B
C

V1
V2

V1
I2
I1
V2

I2 0

V2 0

I2 0

I1
I2

V2 0

## Symmetrical & Reciprocal N/w

For a reciprocal 2-part Network:
Z12 Z21
Y12 Y21
h12 h21

g12 g21

Z11 Z22
Y11 Y22
h11h22 h21h12 1

A=D
g11g22 g21g12 1

28

Z a & Zb

Z Z Z
eq a b

## For a parallel connection of two networks Na & Nb having y-parameter matrices

ya & yo

yeq ya yb

For a cascade connection of two networks Na & Nb having transmission parameters matrices

Ta & Tb
Teq Ta Tb
Transmission parameter matrices are multiplied.

## Magnetically coupled circuits

If change in flux of one coil induces a voltage in second coil then both coils are said to be
magnetically coupled.

v 2 t M21

v1 t M12

di1 t
dt

di2 t
dt

M12 M21 M

29

Dot convention
If a current enters the dotted terminals of one coil, then induced voltage in second coil has a
positive voltage reference at dotted terminal of second coil.
If a current enters undotted terminals of one coil, then induced voltage n second coil as a positive
voltage reference at undotted terminals of second coil.

Leq L1 L2 2M

Leq L1 L2 2M

## Parallel connection of coupled coils

L eq

L1L 2 M2
L1 L 2 2M

Coefficient of coupling k

L eq
M
L1L2

30

L1L 2 M2
L1 L 2 2M

## Equivalent circuits of linear transformers

T-equivalent circuit

La L1 M
Lb L 2 M
LC M

- equivalent circuit

LA

L1L 2 M2
L2 M

L1L 2 M2
LB
L1 M
LC

L1L2 M2
M

## Three Phase Circuits

Balanced three phase system
A system in which all three voltage have equal voltage magnitude and are phase displaced by
1200 with respect to each other.
Positive Sequence (abc)

Van VP00

Vbn VP 1200
Vcn VP 240 VP1200
31

## Negative Sequence (acb)

Van VP00

Vcn VP 1200
Vbn VP 2400 VP1200
For both phase sequence,
Van Vbn Vcn

Connections
Star Connection

VL 3VP 300
IL Ip
Vab = line to line voltage or line voltage

## Vab Van Vbn 3VP 300

So, line voltage Vab , Vbc , Vca are 3 times the phase voltage & lead the respective phase voltage
by 30 0 .
Line currents Ia , Ib , Ic in this connection are equal to phase currents.
Phase current are the currents that flow in individual phases.

32

Delta Connection

VL VP

IL 3IP 300

Line current is 3 times phase current & lags respective phase current by 30 0 .

## Q 3VL IL sin 3VP IP sin

S 3VL IL * 3VP IP*
For power measurement, refer to electrical measurements k-notes, two wattmeter method.

## Electrical & magnetic fields

Coulombs law
Coulombs law states that magnitude of force between two point charges is directly proportional
to square of distance between them & direction of force is along the line joining the charges.

Q1 Q2

4 R

aR

33

## Electric field intensity

F
Q

aR
q 4 R 2

Electric field direction is away from a positive charge & towards negative charge.
Charge densities
1) Linear charge density
It is denoted by ' ' . It is equal to charge per unit length.
q
c m
l
2) Surface charge density
It is denoted by ' ' . It is equal to charge per unit area.
q

c m2
A

## 3) Volume charge density

It is denoted by ' ' . It is equal to charge per unit volume.

q
c m3
V

## Electric field due to continuous charge distribution

1) Infinite line charge
Electric field intensity at a distance r from a line charge of linear charge density

a
2o r r

## 2) Infinite sheet charge

Electric field at a distance h from an infinite charged sheet with charge density

E
a ; a n Normal unit vector
2 n
3) Conducting sphere
If a conducting sphere of radius R is charged with a charge Q then electric field.

E Q

4 r2

r R
r R

## Electric field inside conducting sphere is zero.

34

is

Electrical potential
The amount of work done in bringing a unit positive charge from infinity to a certain point in an
electric field is called electric potential.
A

VA E.dL

E V

For vector operations, refer engineering mathematics k-notes.
Electric Flux Density
D E

Electrical flux

D.dS
S

## SI unit of electric flux is coulomb.

Gausss law
It states that total electric flux through any closed surface is equal to charge enclosed by that
surface.

S D.dS b dV
By Gausss Divergence theorem

.D
Magnetic flux Density
Magnetic flux per unit area is called magnetic flux density. It is a vector quantity and denoted by
B & its unit is tesla (T).

Flux B. dS

35

## Magnetic field intensity

Represented by H .

B H

= permeability.
or
r = relative permeability
o = permeability of free space
o 4 107 H m

d H

I
4 R

dL a
R

H

I
a
2

## a = Unit vector in cylindrical co-ordinates.

Amperes Circuital law
It states that line integral of magnetic field intensity H around any closed path is exactly equal to
net current enclosed by that path.

H . dL I

enclosed

H . dL J . ds
By stokes theorem

H J

36

Maxwell equations
d
B . dS
dt

B
t

1)

E . dL

2)

E . dS dv

3)

B . dS 0

4)

B . dL 0 J . ds o o dt E . ds

or

or

or

. E

.B 0

or

B o J o

37