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Network Elements .................................................................................. 3

Graph Theory .......................................................................................... 9

Circuit Theorems ................................................................................... 11

Transient Analysis ................................................................................. 15

Sinusoidal steady state analysis ............................................................ 19

Resonance............................................................................................. 23

Circuits analysis in Laplace domain ....................................................... 25

Two Port Network ................................................................................. 26

Magnetically coupled circuits................................................................ 29

Three Phase Circuits.............................................................................. 31

Electrical & magnetic fields ................................................................... 33

1

Why K-Notes?

Towards the end of preparation, a student has lost the time to revise all the chapters from his /

her class notes / standard text books. This is the reason why K-Notes is specifically intended for

Quick Revision and should not be considered as comprehensive study material.

What are K-Notes?

A 40 page or less notebook for each subject which contains all concepts covered in GATE

Curriculum in a concise manner to aid a student in final stages of his/her preparation. It is highly

useful for both the students as well as working professionals who are preparing for GATE as it

comes handy while traveling long distances.

When do I start using K-Notes?

It is highly recommended to use K-Notes in the last 2 months before GATE Exam

(November end onwards).

How do I use K-Notes?

Once you finish the entire K-Notes for a particular subject, you should practice the respective

Subject Test / Mixed Question Bag containing questions from all the Chapters to make best use

of it.

2

Network Elements

Active & Passive Elements

If any elements absorb, dissipate, waste, convert electrical energy it is called as passive element.

Eg. Resistor, Inductor, Capacitor.

If any elements energize, deliver, give out, drive the electrical energy it is called as active element.

Eg. BJT, MOSFET.

Network Technologies

Node : It is a point of interconnection or junction between two or more components.

Branch : It is an elemental connection between two nodes.

Mesh: A mesh is a close path which should not have any further closed path in it.

Loop : All possible close path.

Ohms law

At constant temperature and for uniform cross section of conductor.

J E

= conductivity,

1

resistivity .

V IR

l

R

A

l lenght of conductor

Circuit Symbol:

A = Area of conductor.

Conductance of circuit elements is

1

R

Sign Convention

To apply ohms law, we must apply following sign convention.

Voltage across terminals of a short circuit is always zero, regardless of the value of current which

could be any value. (R = 0)

The current through an open circuit is always zero, regardless of voltage across the terminals

which could be any value. R

Power of resistor

V2

I2R

R

Resistance always absorbs or dissipates power.

P VI

Kirchoffs laws

It states that any instant the algebraic sum of current leaving any junction (or node) in a network

is zero.

In other words, current entering a node is equal to current leaving the node.

n in t 0

ientering ileaving

i1 i3 i5 i2 i4

It states that any instant the algebraic sum of the voltage around any closed path (or loop) within

a network is zero. In other words, the sum of voltage drops is equal to sum of voltage rises.

V t 0

n

Vdrop Vrise

V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 0

Two or more circuit elements are connected in series means that current through all elements in

same. If N resistors, with resistance R1 ,R2 ,........Rn are connected in series

R eq R1 R 2 ...................RN

V1

V2

V R1

R1 R 2

V R 2

R1 R 2

Two or more circuit elements are connected in parallel means that voltage across all elements is

same. If N resistors are connected in parallel R1 ,R 2 ,............RN

1

1

1

1

...........

R eq R1 R 2

RN

I1

I2

I R 2

R1 R 2

I R1

R1 R 2

Start to Delta

Ra

R1R 2 R1R 3 R 2R 3

R1

Rb

R1R 2 R1R 3 R 2R 3

R2

Rc

R1R 2 R1R 3 R 2R 3

R3

5

R1

RbR c

R a Rb R c

R2

R aR c

R a Rb R c

R3

R aR b

R a Rb R c

Sources

Independent Voltage Source

An ideal independent voltage source maintains a specified voltage across its terminals. The

voltage is independent of current flowing through it.

Independent current source

An ideal independent current source maintains a specified current to flow through it. The current

through this is independent of voltage across it.

Dependent Source

Voltage controlled voltage source (VCVS) ; V AVX

Current controlled voltage source (CCVS) ; V AiX

Voltage controlled current source (VCCS) ; i AVx

Current controlled current source (CCCS) ; i Aix

Capacitor

A capacitor is a combination of a two conducting plates separated by a non-conducting material.

Capacitance is donated by C

A

C

d

= Permittivity of medium

A = Area of Plates

D = distance between the plates.

Charge on Plates,

Q = CV

i t

dq t

i t C

dt

dv t

dt

Sign Convention

Energy Stored in a capacitor

1

E cv 2

2

Q t

t

2C

1

Q t v t

2

If voltage across capacitor is constant (dc) then current through capacitor is zero & it acts as open

circuit.

dv t

dt

Ceq

1

1

1

1

.................

C1 C2

Cn

Ceq C1 C2 ....................... Cn

is infinite,

Inductor

It is a two terminals element consisting of winding of N turns.

N2 A

L 0 r

l

0 = Permeability of free space

r relative Permeability

N = number of turns

A = area of cross section of coil

l = length of inductor

Current voltage relationship

v t L

di t

dt

L is constant, called as inductance

Energy Stored

1

E L i t

2

Series & parallel Connection

If n inductors L1 ,L2 ,...............,Ln are connected in series then

Leq L1 L2 ............. Ln

1

1

1

1

.............

L eq L1 L 2

Ln

In series connection current in same, through all elements & in parallel connection voltage is same

across all elements.

Duality

Two circuits N1 & N2 are called dual circuit if the branches KCL, KVL & branch v - i relationship

becomes respectively KVL, KCL.

Resistance

Capacitance

Inductance

Open Circuit

Short Circuit

Voltage Source

Current Source

Dual Elements

Conductance

R

CF

LH

GR

L=CH

C=LF

VS

Inductance

Capacitance

Short Circuit

Open Circuit

Current Source

IS

Voltage Source

V IS

Series Connection

Parallel Connection

I VS

Parallel Connection

Series Connection

Eg.

Graph Theory

Network Graph:

If all elements of a circuits are replaced a line segment between 2 end points called as nodes.

Directed Graphs:

If the branches of a graph has directions then it is called as a directed graph.

Sub graph

It consists of less or equal number of verticals (nodes) & edges, as in its complete graph.

A connected sub-graph of a network which has its nodes same as original graph but does not

contain any closed path is called tree of network.

A tree always has (n - 1) branches.

Eg. The following trees can be made from graph shown before.

The set of branches of a network which are remove to form a tree is called co-tree of graph.

Twigs & Links

The branches of a tree are called as its twigs & branches of a co-tree are called as chords or links.

10

Incidence Matrix

The dimension of incidence matrix is (nxb)

N = no. of nodes

B = no. of branches

It is represented by A

aij = + 1 ,

If jth branch is oriented away from ith node

aij = -1 ,

aij = 0 ,

a b

c

d e f

0 0 1

1 1 0 1

A 2 1 1

0 1

0 0

1

0 0 1 1

3 0

4 0

0 1 1 1 0

If one of nodes is considered as ground & that particulars row is neglected while writing the

incidence matrix, then it is reduced incidence matrix. Order n 1 b

T

Number of trees of any graph det Ar Ar

Circuit Theorems

Linearity

A system is linear if it satisfies the following two properties.

1. Homogeneity Property

It requires that if input is multiplied by constant hen output is multiplied by same constant.

eg. V = IR

is I becomes KI

V = KIR = KV

So, resistance is a linear element & so are inductor & capacitor.

2. Additivity Property

It requires that response to sum of inputs is sum of response to each input applied separately.

V1 I1R

V2 I2R

If we apply

We get

V3 I1 I2 R V1 V2

I2

11

Superposition

It states that, in any linear circuit containing multiple independent sources, the total current

through or voltage across an element can be determined by algebraically adding the voltage or

current due to each independent source acting alone with all other independent source set to

zero.

Source Transformation

It states that as independent voltage source VS in series with a resistance R is equivalent to

independent current source IS Vs / R in parallel with a resistance R.

Or

An independent current source IS in parallel with a resistance R is equivalent to a dependent

source VS ISR in series with a resistance R.

Thevenins Theorem

It states that any network composed of ideal voltage and current source, and of linear resistor,

may be represented by an equivalent circuit consisting of an ideal voltage source VTH in series

with an equivalent resistance R TH .

Methods to calculate thevein equivalent

The therein voltage VTH is equal to open circuit voltage across load terminals.

Therein resistance is input or equivalent resistance at open circuit terminals (load terminals) when

all independent source are set to zero (voltage sources replaced by short circuit & current source

by OC)

Case 1 : Circuit with independent sources only

12

VTH

2

24 12V

22

To calculate Rth

Short I & V sources & open 6mA source

R th 1 2

1 1 2k

13

Methodology 1:

Remove load & put a test source Vtest across its terminals, let current through test source is Itest .

Thevenin resistance ,

R TH

Vtest

Itest

Methodology 2:

For R TH short circuit load terminals & leave independent sources as it is

Obtain ISC through load terminals.

R TH VOC ISC

Nortons Theorem

Any network composed ideal voltage & current sources, and of linear resistors, may be

represented by an equivalent circuit consisting of an ideal current source IN in parallel with an

equivalent resistance R N .

RN R TH

To calculate IN we short circuit load terminals & calculate short circuit current.

14

A load resistance RL will receive maximum power from a circuit when load resistance is equal to

Thevenins/ Nortons resistance seen at load terminals.

RL R Th

ZL Z*th

RL Z Th

2

RL R2Th XL X Th

XL XTh 0

Transient Analysis

Time Constant :

It is the time required for the response to delay by a factor of 1 e or 36.8 % of its initial value.

It is represented by .

For a RC circuit

RC

For a RL circuit

LR

R is the therein resistance across inductor or capacitor terminals.

15

t t

x t x x t0 x e o , t 0

x t0 initial value of x t at t t0

x final value of x t at t

Algorithm

1. Choose any voltage & current in the circuit which has to be determined.

2. Assume circuit had reached steady state before switch was thrown at t t0 . Draw the circuit at

t t 0 with capacitor replaced by open circuit and inductor replaced by short circuit. Solve for

3. Voltage

across

v C t0 & iL t0 .

capacitor

V t V t

i t i t i t

VC t

L

and

inductor

current

cannot

change

instantaneously.

4. Draw the circuit for t t with switches in new position. Replace a capacitor with a voltage source

of variable x t .

VC t0 VC t0 and inductor with a current source of value iL t0 iL t0 . Solve for initial value

Calculate time constant of circuit

6. =Rth C or =L/Rth

7. Substitute all value to calculate x(t).

Example

In the circuit shown below, V1 t for t > 0 will be given as

16

Solution

Step 1 :

For t < 0

30u t 0 & 3u t 0

V1 0 0V

For t

V1 3mA 10k

= -30 V

Step 2 :

At t 0

V1 0 30

20k

3mA

V1 0

3

V1 0 1.5mA

20k

V1 0 10V

10k

V1 t 30 10 30 e

V1 t 30 20e

0.3

u t V

Without Source

V 0

1

i t dt V0

C

i o I0

By KVL

Ri t L

di t

dt

1

i t dt 0

C

d2 i t

dt

R di t

1

i t 0

L dt

LC

17

Substitute i t Aest

Aest S2 R s 1

S1 R

LC

S2 R s 1 0

L

LC

2

R

R

S2

1

LC

2L

2L

R

1

,

2L

LC

2L

S1 ,S2 2 w 02 ; R 2L ; w 0

1

LC

i t Aes1t Bes2t

i t A Bt et

wd w20 2

Calculate A & B using initial conditions.

With a Source

v t VS Ae 1 Be 2 (Over-damped)

st

s t

v t VS A Bt et (Critically damped)

Without Source

i 0

1

v t dt

L

v 0 V0

By KCL

dv t

1

1

v t v d C

0

R

L

dt

t

18

Characteristics equation

s2

1

1

s

0

RC

LC

1

, w0

2RC

1

LC

S1 ,S2 2 w02

v t Ae 1 Be

st

S2t

over damped

v t A Bt et critically damped

v t et A cos wdt Bsinwdt under damped

With a step input

i t Is Ae 1 Be

st

S2 t

Over damped

i t Is A Bt et Critically damped

i t Is A cos wdt Bsinwdt et Under damped

Steps:

1. Write differential equation that describe the circuit.

2. From differential equation model, construct characteristics equation & find roots.

3. Roots of characteristics equation determine the type of response over-damped, critically damped

& under-damped.

4. Obtain the constant using initial conditions.

Lagging & Leading

We can compare the phases of two sinusoids provided that

Both V1 t & V2 t are expressed in form of either sine function or cosine function.

Both V1 t & V2 t are written with positive amplitude though they may not have same amplitude.

Both V1 t & V2 t have same frequency.

19

If V1 t A sinwt

V2 t Bsin wt ; 00

V2 t leads v1 t by an angle

V1 t lags v 2 t by an angle

PHASORS

A phasor is complex number that represents the amplitude & phase angle information of a

sinusoidal function.

v t Vm sin wt

magnitude Vrms

phase

Networks Elements

1. Resistor

V RI

2. Inductor

V jl I

2f ; f frequency of source

3. Capacitor

I j c V

Impedance , Z

V Vrms

v i

I Irms

Z R jX Z

R = resistive component

X = relative component

20

Z R2 X2

For Resistor ZR R

For Inductor ZL jL

For Capacitor Z C

1

j

c

j L

Inductive reactance, XL L

Capacitive reactance, XL

1

c

If X > 0, impedance is inductive; current lags voltage.

If X < 0, impedance is capacitive; current leads voltage.

Admittance, Y

1

G jB

Z

G = Capacitance

B = Susceptance

Impedance in AC circuits behave like resistance in DC circuits and all the laws remain same like

Series combination

Zeq Z1 Z2 ................ Zn

Parallel combination

1

1

1

1

......................

Z eq Z1 Z 2

Zn

Yeq Y1 Y2 ......... Yn

Circuits analysis in AC domain

2. Convert source to phasor form.

3. Represent each circuit element by its impedance.

4. Solve circuits using circuit techniques (nodal analysis mesh analysis etc.)

5. All circuits theorems are applicable here as well

21

Power analysis

Real Power

P VrmsIrms cos v i

In a resistance

P

2

Vrms

2

Irms

R

R

Complex Power

*

S VrmsIrms

Vrms Irms v i

Real part of S P Vrms Irms cos v i

Reactive Power = Q

Q = 0 for resistive loads.

Q < 0 for capacitive loads v i .

Q > 0 for inductive loads v i

If the current goes into an element, then it absorbs power and if current comes out it delivers

power.

Hence, a capacitor absorbs leading reactive power. We can also say it delivers lagging reactive

power.

Same way, inductor absorbs lagging reactive power & delivers leading reactive power.

Power Factor

pf

P

cos v i

S

If 0 , power factor is lagging

If 0 , power factor is leading

If 0 , power factor is unity

22

Resonance

Series resonance

For resonance

Im Z 0

Z R j L 1

L 1

LC

rad s

The frequency at which impedance of circuits is purely resistive is called resonant frequency.

LC

rad s

At resonance

I

VS

R

VR IR VS

VS

R

j

j VS

I

0c

oC R

VL joL I joL

Vc

At 0 ; XL XC , net reactance is zero, so circuits operates at unity pf.

At 0 ; XL XC , net reactance is inductive, so circuits operates at lagging pf.

Bandwidth: range of frequency for which power delivered to R is half of power at resonance.

Bw R L

Quality factor

1 2

1 2

I XL

I XC

Re active power 2

2

Q

1 2

1 2

Average power

I R

I R

2

2

XL

R

XC

R

1 L

R C

23

Parallel Resonance

Y1

1

j C

j L

At resonance

Im Y 0

LC

rad s

At resonance V IS R

IR IS

IL

IR

V

S

j0L j0L

Bandwidth

1

RC

Quality factor, Q

V

Q

2 XC

V

2R

2 XL

V

Re active Power

Average Power

R

R

C

R

XL

XC

L

2R

24

For basic of laplace transform, refer to signal & system k-notes. Laplace transform.

Resistor

V(s) RI(s)

Inductor

sL

Capacitor

Or I(s)

1

V(0 )

I(s)

sC

s

Methodology

1. Draw circuit in s-domain by substituting s-domain equivalent for each circuit element.

2. Apply circuit analysis to obtain desired voltage or current in s-domain.

3. Take inverse Laplace transform to convert voltage and current back in time-domain.

25

Impedance Parameters

V1 Z11 I1 Z12 I2

V2 Z21 I1 Z22 I2

In matrix form

Z11

Z12

Z 21

Z 22

V1

I1

V1

I2

V2

I1

V2

I2

V1 Z11

V2 Z 21

Z12 I1

Z 22 I2

I2 0

I1 0

I2 0

I1 0

Admittance parameters

I1 y11 V1 y12 V2

I2 y 21 V1 y 22 V2

In matrix form,

I1 y11

I2 y 21

y11

y12

I1

V1

I1

V2

y12 V1

y 22 V2

= short circuit input admittance.

V2 0

V1 0

26

y 21

y 22

y11

y

21

I2

V1

V2 0

I2

V2

V1 0

y12 Z11

y 22 Z 21

Z12

Z 22

Hybrid parameters

V1 h11 I1 h12 V2

I2 h21 I1 h22 V2

In matrix form,

V1 h11 h12 I1

I2 h21 h22 V2

h11

h12

h21

h22

V1

I1

V1

V2

I2

I1

V2 0

I1 0

V2 0

I2

V2 I

1 0

I1 g11

V2 g21

g11

g

21

g12 V1

g22 I2

g12 h11

g22 h21

h12

h22

27

Transmission parameters

V1 AV2 BI2

I1 CV2 DI2

V1 A B V2

I C D I

1

2

B

C

V1

V2

V1

I2

I1

V2

I2 0

V2 0

I2 0

I1

I2

V2 0

For a reciprocal 2-part Network:

Z12 Z21

Y12 Y21

h12 h21

AD BC 1

g12 g21

Z11 Z22

Y11 Y22

h11h22 h21h12 1

A=D

g11g22 g21g12 1

28

Z a & Zb

Z Z Z

eq a b

ya & yo

yeq ya yb

Y Parameter matrices are added.

For a cascade connection of two networks Na & Nb having transmission parameters matrices

Ta & Tb

Teq Ta Tb

Transmission parameter matrices are multiplied.

If change in flux of one coil induces a voltage in second coil then both coils are said to be

magnetically coupled.

v 2 t M21

v1 t M12

di1 t

dt

di2 t

dt

M12 M21 M

29

Dot convention

If a current enters the dotted terminals of one coil, then induced voltage in second coil has a

positive voltage reference at dotted terminal of second coil.

If a current enters undotted terminals of one coil, then induced voltage n second coil as a positive

voltage reference at undotted terminals of second coil.

Leq L1 L2 2M

Leq L1 L2 2M

L eq

L1L 2 M2

L1 L 2 2M

Coefficient of coupling k

L eq

M

L1L2

30

L1L 2 M2

L1 L 2 2M

T-equivalent circuit

La L1 M

Lb L 2 M

LC M

- equivalent circuit

LA

L1L 2 M2

L2 M

L1L 2 M2

LB

L1 M

LC

L1L2 M2

M

Balanced three phase system

A system in which all three voltage have equal voltage magnitude and are phase displaced by

1200 with respect to each other.

Positive Sequence (abc)

Van VP00

Vbn VP 1200

Vcn VP 240 VP1200

31

Van VP00

Vcn VP 1200

Vbn VP 2400 VP1200

For both phase sequence,

Van Vbn Vcn

Connections

Star Connection

VL 3VP 300

IL Ip

Vab = line to line voltage or line voltage

So, line voltage Vab , Vbc , Vca are 3 times the phase voltage & lead the respective phase voltage

by 30 0 .

Line currents Ia , Ib , Ic in this connection are equal to phase currents.

Phase current are the currents that flow in individual phases.

32

Delta Connection

VL VP

IL 3IP 300

Line current is 3 times phase current & lags respective phase current by 30 0 .

S 3VL IL * 3VP IP*

For power measurement, refer to electrical measurements k-notes, two wattmeter method.

Coulombs law

Coulombs law states that magnitude of force between two point charges is directly proportional

to square of distance between them & direction of force is along the line joining the charges.

Q1 Q2

4 R

aR

33

F

Q

aR

q 4 R 2

Electric field direction is away from a positive charge & towards negative charge.

Charge densities

1) Linear charge density

It is denoted by ' ' . It is equal to charge per unit length.

q

c m

l

2) Surface charge density

It is denoted by ' ' . It is equal to charge per unit area.

q

c m2

A

It is denoted by ' ' . It is equal to charge per unit volume.

q

c m3

V

1) Infinite line charge

Electric field intensity at a distance r from a line charge of linear charge density

a

2o r r

Electric field at a distance h from an infinite charged sheet with charge density

E

a ; a n Normal unit vector

2 n

3) Conducting sphere

If a conducting sphere of radius R is charged with a charge Q then electric field.

E Q

4 r2

r R

r R

34

is

Electrical potential

The amount of work done in bringing a unit positive charge from infinity to a certain point in an

electric field is called electric potential.

A

VA E.dL

E V

= represent gradiant

For vector operations, refer engineering mathematics k-notes.

Electric Flux Density

D E

Electrical flux

D.dS

S

Gausss law

It states that total electric flux through any closed surface is equal to charge enclosed by that

surface.

S D.dS b dV

By Gausss Divergence theorem

.D

Magnetic flux Density

Magnetic flux per unit area is called magnetic flux density. It is a vector quantity and denoted by

B & its unit is tesla (T).

Flux B. dS

35

Represented by H .

B H

= permeability.

or

r = relative permeability

o = permeability of free space

o 4 107 H m

d H

I

4 R

dL a

R

H

I

a

2

Amperes Circuital law

It states that line integral of magnetic field intensity H around any closed path is exactly equal to

net current enclosed by that path.

H . dL I

enclosed

H . dL J . ds

By stokes theorem

H J

36

Maxwell equations

d

B . dS

dt

B

t

1)

E . dL

2)

E . dS dv

3)

B . dS 0

4)

B . dL 0 J . ds o o dt E . ds

or

or

or

. E

.B 0

or

B o J o

37

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