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Offshore Pipeline Installation

and Repair

Span Mitigation Methods

Clamp-on Supports with Telescopic Legs

Clamp-on Supports with Auger Screw Legs

Alteration of Seabed Terrain

Buoyancy module

Pipeline installation

Before the actual operation of subsea

pipelines the system is installed on the
To ensure mechanical integrity, the pipeline
should be able to withstand both static and
dynamic stresses involved during the
Installation of subsea pipelines is commonly
done according to one of the following three
installation methods:
J-lay (intermediate to deep water);
S-lay (shallow to intermediate-deep

J lay
A method for installing subsea pipelines in deepwater is
by J-lay installation. Pipe stalks consisting of six with a
total length of 72m are upended and welded to the
seagoing pipe in a near vertical ramp.
The ramp angle is chosen in such a way that it is in line
with the pipe catenary to the seabed. The J-lay method is
very suitable for deepwater as the pipe leaves the lay
system in an almost vertical position. The pipeline is only
bent once during installation (at the seabed) which is
advantageous for installing pipelines that are sensitive
to fatigue.
Compared to other lay methods, J-lay has a relatively low
production rate due to the single welding station. The Jlay method is less suitable for shallow waters as this
requires a departure angle close to horizontal.

S lay
When using the S-lay installation method, pipe joints
welded onboard leave the vessel horizontally and are
guided by a "stinger" - a structure on the back of the ship
that supports the seagoing pipe string to control its bend
Due to its high production rate and the possibility to
install concrete coated pipe, S-lay is extremely suitable
for pipe installation in shallow and intermediate waters.
Larger water depths are equally possible but require a
very long stinger, turning S-lay into a less practical and
efficient solution.

Reel lay

A method for installing flexible and rigid subsea pipelines

is by Reel-lay. Long pipe segments are welded, tested and
coated onshore and then spooled onto a large vertical
pipe reel in one continuous length.
Once the Reel-lay vessel is in position, the pipe is
unspooled, straightened and over boarded as the vessel
moves forward.