Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 25

HowtoEstimatetheCostofLandscapePlantingandIrrigationforaTypicalUniversityCampus

Building
ByJaredWright
April10,2014

HowtoEstimatetheCostofLandscapePlantingandIrrigationforaTypicalUniversityCampus
Building

TABLEOFCONTENTS
Section1Introduction

Page3

Page4

Section3SpecificFactorstoConsiderAffectingTakeoffandPricing

Page9

Section2TypesandMethodsofMeasurements

Section4OverviewofLabor,Material,Equipment,IndirectCosts,
andApproachtoMarkups

Page11

Page13

Section6RatiosandAnalysisToolsUsedtoTesttheFinalBid

Page13

Section7MiscellaneousPertinentInformation

Page14

Section8SampleSketch

Page16

Section9SampleTakeOffandPricingSheet

Page21

Section10TerminologyandGlossary

Page26

Section11References

Section5SpecialRiskFactors

Page26

Section12CopyrightReleases

Page26

Section1Introduction
Thepurposeofthistechnicalpaperistoprovidethereaderwiththeinformationrequiredto
understandthefactorsinvolvedinperformingaquantitytakeoffandestimateforthe
landscapeplantingandirrigationscopeofworkofaUniversitycampusbuildingproject.
Landscapeplantingandirrigationprovideanintegralroleforthecharacterandoverall
architecturalappearanceofuniversitycampusprojects.Inadditiontothis,landscapingprovides
apracticalpurposefortheseprojectswhichincludescostsavingsinsitefinishes,natural
drainage,stormwaterpollutionprevention,andsolarheatreduction,justtonameafew
benefits.Thispaperwillexplorethefundamentalelementsoflandscapingandirrigationfora
universitycampusprojectanddiscusstheprocessforcreatingacostestimatebasedonthe
quantitytakeoffs,whichincludethelabor,material,equipment,indirectcosts,andother
influentialfactorsthataffectpricingforathisscopeofwork.
MainCSI(ConstructionSpecificationsInstitute2004MasterFormat)Division
Division31Earthwork
Division32ExteriorImprovements
MainCSI(ConstructionSpecificationsInstitute2004MasterFormat)Subdivision
Division312300ExcavationandFill
Division328400PlantingIrrigation
Division329000Planting
Division329400PlantingAccessories
3

BriefDescription
Inordertoproperlyestimatelandscapingandirrigation,onemusthaveathorough
understandingofthescopeofworkbeingestimatedasitrelatestotheprojectasawhole.Itis
importanttoconsiderthefollowingfactors:whoistheowner/client,whereistheproject
located,whatisthequantityofworkbeingperformed,whatistheavailabilityoflaborand
materials,andwhatadditionalfactorsareincludedsuchastaxes,insurance,bonds,and
prevailingwages.Thereareotherfactorsthatinfluencethelandscapeandirrigationofa
universityprojectaswell,includinggreenbuildingandsustainability.Someexamplesof
sustainabilityinlandscapingandirrigationincludereducedwaterusageforplantingandtheuse
ofreclaimedorgraywaterforirrigation.Theintentofthispaperisprovidethereaderwith
thefollowing:1.Abilitytorecognizewhichitemsareincludedinthelandscapeandirrigation
scopeofwork,2.Evaluatedifferentmethodsforperformingaccuratequantificationsfor
labor/material/equipmentknownastakeoffs,3.Determinewhichspecificfactorsaffect
costsandpricing,and4.Understandhowtotesttheestimateforqualitycontrolandaccuracy.
Section2TypesandMethodsofMeasurement
Performingquantitytakeoffsforalandscapeandirrigationprojectforauniversityrequiresa
combinationofmanydifferentunitsincludingthefollowing:squarefootage,quantitycounts,
linearmeasurements,andcubicfootagetakeoffs.Inadditiontothevariousunitsthatareused
inquantitytakeoffsforalandscapingproject,therearevariousmethodsforgatheringthese
quantities,includingmanualtakeoffsfromahardcopysetofdocumentsordigitaltakeoffs
performedelectronicallyutilizingonscreenestimatingsoftware.Whetherthequantitytakeoff

isconductedmanuallyordigitallyiscompletelyuptotheestimator.Themainobjectiveofthe
takeoffsistoextractandquantifytheinformationfromtheprojectdocumentsinalogical
sequencethatisbothcomprehensiveandaccurate.
Theestimatingprocessbeginswiththeinitialeffortsofcollectingalloftherelevant
information.Duringthisphase,theestimatorgathersallofthefactsthatareavailablefromthe
projectdocuments,owner,andconsultants.Thisincludesthelandscapingdesignplans,
specifications,anyaddendaissuedbythedesignarchitect,asitevisittotheprojectlocationif
feasible,andanyadditionalinformationdeemednecessarytoevaluatethecomprehensive
scopeofwork.Oncetheprojectinformationhasbeencollectedandreviewed,theestimator
determinesifthereissufficientinformationtoprovideacostestimateforthework.Ifthereis
anyquestionordoubtregardingthescopeofwork,theestimatormaysubmitarequestfor
informationtothedesignteamtoobtaintheclarificationsrequiredtoproperlyunderstandthe
workandbeabletoquantifyit.Keepinmind,however,whenprovidingaconceptualestimate
theestimatordoesnothavealloftheinformationavailableandthedocumentsaretypically
preliminaryindesign.Inthisexample,theestimatorreliesonexperienceandjudgmentto
provideassumptionstoaccountforthemissingdetailsandinformationandquantifiesthe
scopeofworkonmoreofaglobalscale.Theassumptionsarethenclarifiedwithinthebodyof
theestimatesothatthescopeofworkisclearlydefinedandthekeycomponentscanbe
budgeted.
Aftertheprojectinformationhasbeencollected,andtheestimatorfeelscomfortablewiththe
qualityandquantityoftheinformationavailable,thequantitytakeoffphasebegins.As
previouslydiscussed,theunitsmostutilizedusedinestimatinglandscapingandirrigation
5

includesquarefootage,asusedforsodandcoveredareas,quantitycountsforitemssuchas
trees,linearquantitiesinfeetforirrigationpiping,andcubicyardageforitemsincluding
earthworkandsoil.Thequantitytakeoffscanbeperformedeithermanuallyordigitally,and
shouldbeextractedinalogicalsequencetoensurethatallofthekeycomponentsarecaptured
andnoneoftheitemsaretakenoffmultipletimesordoubledup.
Theestimatortakesofflandscapingandirrigationquantitiesinalogicalsequencetoensure
thattheentirescopeofworkisaccountedfor.Thereareseveralwaysofaccomplishingthis.
Onemethodtheestimatorusestoquantifymaterialsinalogicalsequenceistotakeoffthe
workintheorderoftheanticipatedinstallation.Thisprocessrequirestheestimatortoconsider
theentireinstallationprocessfrombeginningtoend.Theestimatormayalsoutilizethe
groupingmethodwhichidentifiesthematerialsbytheirspecificprocesses.Forexample,the
irrigationworkwouldbetakenofffollowedbytheplantingwork.Forpurposesofthispaper,
bothofthesemethodswillbeutilizedtocreatethemostefficientprocessforaccountingfor
theitemswithinthelandscapeandirrigationestimate.
Thetakeoffforlandscapeplantingandirrigationbeginswithcontrolquantities.Acontrol
quantityisameasurementusedtoreferencetheworkfromaglobalperspectiveandasa
meansfordoublecheckingthequantities.Forexample,iftheoverallsiteis107,000gross
squarefeetandthetakeoffforlandscapingareaaccountsfor35,000squarefeet,itcanbe
inferredthatthelandscapingpotioncoversroughly33%ofthesite.Thisnumbercanbeusedin
severalways.Onewaythatthecontrolquantityisusedistoperformacostpersquareanalysis
ofthelandscapingarea.Byutilizinghistoricalcostdata,comparingthescopeofworktosimilar
projects,theestimatorcanpredictwhatthecostpersquarefootrangemaybe.Thisisauseful
6

toolforcrosscheckingtheaccuracyofthetakeoffandpricingagainstpreviousprojects.The
controlquantitycanalsobeusedtoconfirmthetotallandscapingarea.Forexample,ifthe
finishedlandscapingconsistsof20,000squarefeetofhydroseedand15,000squarefeetofsod,
thetotalwouldbe35,000squarefeetwhichequalsthecontrolquantitytakenoffforthe
plantedarea.Ifthetwonumbersdidnotequalthecontrolquantity,thiswouldbeanindication
thattheremaybeanerrorinthetakeoffs.
Oncethecontrolquantity(s)havebeenestablished,theestimatorbeginsthefirstmaterialtake
offinthelogicalsequencewhichincludesevaluatingthesoilconditions.Theroughgradingand
massexcavationofthesiteistypicallycompletedbythecivilcontractor,leavingthefinish
gradingandsoilimprovementstothelandscapecontractor.Thelandscapesubcontractoris
oftenresponsibleforthetopsoilplacementandsoilpreparationfortheinstallationofthe
plantingareas.Dependingonthespecificationrequirementsandavailabilityofsuitable
materials,thetopsoilistypicallyeitherimportedfromoffsiteorrecoveredfromtheexcavation
strippingcreatedbytheearthworkcontractoronsite.Thisquantitywilltypicallybetakenoffin
cubicyards,similarlyhowitispurchasedfromthematerialsupplier.Thiscalculationcanbe
accomplishedbytakingthecoveragearea(insquarefeet)andmultiplyingbythedepthofthe
soil(infeetorinches),andthendividingtheproductofthosenumbersby27toconvertthe
cubicfeetintocubicyards.Oncethetopsoilhasbeenplaced,theremaybesomefinishgrading
andsoilamendmentapplicationsrequired.Thisquantityistakenoffineithersquarefeetor
cubicyards,dependingontheunitusedintheestimatorshistoricalcostdata.
Oncethesoilpreparationisaccountedfor,theirrigationpipingandtrenchingtakeoffcan
begin.Irrigationpipingisrepresentedontheplansbysolidblacklinesandcorrespondingpipe
7

yards,orcubicfeet.Thereisntaspecificwaytoaccountfortheitemaslongastheunitcost
associatedwiththequantitymakessense.
Section3SpecificFactorstoConsiderAffectingTakeoffandPricing
SmallQuantitiesversusLargeQuantities
Oneimportantfactortoconsiderwhenapplyingpricingtothequantitiestakenoffiswhether
ornotthequantityisalargenumberorasmallnumber.Theveryclassificationasalargeor
smallquantityisambiguousbyitsownmerit;however,thisnumberhasadirectcorrelationto
thenumberusedasthebasisforthehistoricalcostdata.Forexample,ifthepricingusedfor
thehistoricalcostdataisbasedon100,000squarefeetoflandscapingandthecurrentproject
squarefeetonlycovers35,000squarefeet,therewillneedtobesomepriceadjustmentmade.
Thereasonforthisisthatthereareeconomiesofscaleinlargerprojectsandquantities,where
materialscantypicallybeboughtinbulkforcheaperthanthesmallerprojects.Inadditionto
this,greaterefficienciesinproductioncanbeachievedonlargerscaleprojects,asthecrewhas
moretimetoenhanceandincreaseworkflowbyachievingefficiencies.Onthesmallerprojects,
theworkcrewshavelessofanopportunitytocreateanefficientworkflowbecausetheir
constructiondurationismuchshorter.
GeographicLocation
Anotherfactorthataffectsthepricingofquantitytakeoffsisthegeographicallocationofthe
project.Thisfactorcanaffectthepriceoflabor,taxesandfreightchargesonmaterials,aswell
asindirectcostssuchasspecialinsurancesforhazardsandbuildersrisk.Thegeographyofthe
projectcanalsoaffecttheplantingirrigationwhereinsomeareasofthecountrythereisalot
8

ofprecipitationversusotherareaswherethereisextremelylimitedrain.Itisimportantforthe
estimatortoconsiderthelocationoftheprojectandtheimpactsofthatlocationonthe
estimate.
SeasonalEffectsonPricing
Thetimeofyearcanalsoplayaroleininfluencingcostsintheestimate.Landscapeplanting
andirrigationisoftencompletedattheendoftheproject,whichmeanstheestimatormust
knowwhattheprojectdurationisandhowthelandscapingscopeofworkfitsintotheproject
schedule.Theprojectscheduleaffectstheplanningforlabor,anticipatedmaterialprice
escalation,aswellasweatherthatcouldpotentiallydelayorinterferewiththeinstallationand
placementoflandscapeplanting.Forauniversityproject,itisalsoveryimportanttoconsider
theOwnersschoolscheduleandanyimpactsthattheconstructionprocessmayhaveon
studentsandcontinuingoperations.
SustainabilityinLandscapingandIrrigation
Agrowingtrendinmanyuniversityprojectsistheapplicationofsustainabilityandmore
specifically,LEEDprinciplesinthedesignoflandscapingprojects.LEED(LeadershipinEnergy&
EnvironmentalDesign)isaratingsystemandcertificationprogramcreatedbytheUSGreen
BuildingCouncilwhichrecognizesprojectsfortheirexcellenceinsustainabilityandutilizationof
environmentallyfriendlymaterialsandpractices.SomeofthekeyinfluencesofLEEDon
universitylandscapingprojectsincludetheuseofrecycledwaterfromeithercitysupplyor
onsitewatercollectionsystems.AnotherexampleofLEEDonwaterreductionistheuseof
smartirrigationcontrollerssuchasweatherstations,whichsimilartoathermostat,controlthe
9

watersupplyasopposedtothestandardcontrollerwhichworksonaparticularschedule.The
finalimpactofLEEDonuniversitylandscapingprojectstobediscussedistheacquisitionofLEED
pointsthemselves.CertainLEEDcreditswillrequireusingregionallyavailablematerials,
additionalmanagementandresourcestoobtainpoints,aswellasclosecoordinationwithother
tradeswhosescopesofworkareintegraltothelandscapingandirrigation.Allofthesefactors
willaffecttheestimatorspricing,soitisimportantfortheestimatortounderstand
sustainabilityandhowthebudgetisaffectedbyLEEDprinciples.(LEEDWebSite)
Section4OverviewofLabor,Material,Equipment,IndirectCosts,andApproachtoMarkups
Laboristheworkputinplaceontheprojectandiscalculatedinmanhours.Foralandscaping
project,theworkisalmostalwayscompletedinthefieldasthereisminimal,ifany,fabrication
required.Threeelementsthatinfluencethepricingforlaborarethetypeofcrew,the
productionrateforthespecifiedcrew,andthepaystructure.Acrewconsistsofspecializedand
nonspecializedworkerswhoperformtheworkinthefield.Atypicallandscapecrewcan
includelaborers,skilledworkers,andlightequipmentoperators.Additionalclassificationsof
workersmayberequireddependingonthecomplexityoftheproject.Eachtaskmayrequirea
differenttypeofcrew.Forexample,irrigationmayrequireacrewoftwoskilledworkers,
whereas,trenchingmayrequirealaborerandlightequipmentoperatortodigthetrench.Each
specifictaskwillrequireacertaincrew,andthatcrewwillhaveacombinedcrewratethatis
basedonanhourlyordailyrate.Whenapplyingthespecifiedcrewratetothequantityandunit
ofmeasurement,aproductionrateisusedtoindicatehowmuchorhowmanyofaspecified
taskisaccomplishedbythecrewinaspecifiedtime.Forexample,atrenchingcrewmayhavea
productionrateof30linearfeetoftrenchperhour.Theproductionratewouldthereforebe
10

0.500or1linearfootpertwominutes.Thepaystructurealsoaffectslaborpricing.Many
universityprojects,especiallythosefundedwithpublicmoney,willrequireprevailingwages
thataretypicallyhigherthanwagesfromopenshopcontractors.Theprevailingwagesinclude
thesetlaborratealongwiththefringebenefitsthatarerequiredfortheworkputinplacefora
specifiedlocation.
Materialcostsinfluencetheestimatepricinginanumberofways.Inadditiontothehardcosts
thatareassociatedwiththematerials,someofadditionalfactorsincludeavailability,freight
charges,especiallyifnotlocaltotheproject,utilizationofnativeversusnonnativeplants,as
wellaslocalandstatesalesorusetaxes.Anotherfactorthatoftenaffectsthematerialcostsis
escalationinpricing.Landscapeandirrigationprices,similartothoseinanyindustryare
affectedbythegovernmentseconomyincludinginflationandotherpoliticaloccurrences
beyondthecontrolofforesight.Ifaprojectisnotgoingtobegininthenearfuture,the
estimatorwilladdescalationcostsinadditiontothecurrentcoststoaccountforanticipated
materialpriceincreases.
Equipmentcostsaretypicallyaccountedforonanhourlyrate.Thegreatestdeterminantsof
equipmentcostsincluderentingorowningtheequipmentandfuel.Ifrentingtheequipment,
theestimatorwillhavetoaccountforthehourlycost,availabilityoftheequipment,andall
applicabletaxes.Ifthecompanyownstheequipment,theremaybemaintenanceandupkeep
chargesthatarebilledintothecompanysownequipmentcharges.Fuelcostsalsoimpactsthe
equipmentcostsdependingonthesizeandtypeofequipmentusedandpriceoffuelatthe
timeofconstruction.

11

Theindirectcostsforatypicallandscapeprojectcanincludecompanyoverheadcosts,specific
insurancesrequirementssuchasgeneralliabilityandworkerscompensation,paymentand
performancebonds,andthecontractorsfee.Onatypicaluniversityproject,specificallya
publiclyfundedproject,theinsurancerequirementsareoftenspecified.Itisimportantforthe
estimatortopayparticularattentiontothefrontenddocumentsandgeneralconditions.The
managementteamtypicallydeterminestheextentofoversightrequiredtoaccuratelyand
efficientlysupervisetheproject,whileaccountingforanyoverheadcompanycoststhatneedto
bespreadoneachproject.Oncetheoverheadchargeshavebeendetermined,afeewillbe
addedtotheoverallprojectwhichwillbeconsistentwithindustrystandardsandthesize,type
andcomplexityoftheprojectthatisestimated.
Section5SpecialRiskFactors
Estimatinglandscapingandirrigationprojectsforauniversitycampusbuildingincludeacertain
amountofrisk,asistypicalofanyproject.Thegreatestrisksonthesetypesofprojectsarethe
unknowns.Whiletheestimatorshouldmakeeveryattempttogatheradequateinformationto
serveasthebasisfortheestimatetheremaybeunforeseeableevents.Theseoccurrencescan
includeprojectdelays,unknownsiteconditionssuchasundocumentedmaterials,availabilityof
resources,etc.Theestimatoraccountsfortheseeventsthroughproperplanning,scheduling,
andprovidingcontingenciesforunknowns.
Section6RatiosandAnalysisToolsUsetoTesttheBid
Everyprojectisuniqueandhasitsownspecificrequirementsandchallenges,however,the
experiencedestimatorutilizesknowledgefrompreviousprojectsandhistoricaldatatofind
12

similaritiesandcomparetheprojects.Asdiscussedintheprocedureforperformingquantity
takeoffsforlandscaping,theestimatorusescontrolquantitiesasasanitycheckagainstthe
quantitiesobtained.Acontrolquantitycanbecreatedontheentireprojectsiteaswellasthe
landscapingpotion.Iftheratiooflandscapingtototalsiteareaappearstobetoohighortoo
low,itspossiblethatthereisanerrorinthescaleorthetakeoffitself.Thecontrolquantitycan
alsobeusedbymultiplyingthelandscapefinishedareabyaunitcostpersquarefootbasedon
historicaldata.Thecurrentcostoftheestimatedprojectshouldbeconsistentwiththe
historicalcostpersquarefootdatawithallirregularfactorsconsidered,accountedfor,and
withtherequiredadjustmentsmade.
Anothertoolthatisequallyasimportantasthecontrolquantitiesisthequalityandcontrol
process.Althoughtheestimatorhasseveralmoderntoolsathisdisposalincludingonscreen
takeoffs,advancedestimatingsoftware,etc.,themostimportanttoolisthequalitycontrol
process.Thiscanbeachievedthroughanumberofmeanssuchascalculationchecksappliedto
mathematicalfunctionsandproofreadingofestimatesbyotherindividuals.Despitethe
estimatorsgeneralreputationofbeingaccurateandprecisewiththenumbers,thefact
remainsthatallestimatesaresubjecttohumanerror,andafreshsetofeyesreviewingthe
finalestimateisalwayspreferred.
Section7MiscellaneousOtherPertinentInformation
Landscapingandirrigationestimatesforuniversityprojectsrequiremorethanjustquantity
takeoffsandtheapplicationofunitpricing.Theyrequireanoverallunderstandingofthe
completeprojectandhowthescopeofworkrelatestotheothertradesaswell.Itisalsohelpful

13

tohaveanunderstandingoftheclientandknowledgeoftheirexpectationsandspecific
requirements.Byhavingaglobalperspectiveoftheprojecttheestimatorensuresthatthe
scopeisinclusiveofalltheelementsofthelandscapingandirrigationpackage.Thekeyto
successforthesetypesofestimatesisgatheringsufficientinformation,askingasmany
questionsasmaybenecessaryandusingqualitycontroltoensurethatthefinishedproductis
accurateandcomplete.

14

Section8SampleSketchandPlans
ExhibitALandscapingIrrigationPlan

Thisplanrepresentsasampleirrigationplanforauniversitycampusbuilding.Theirrigation
planincludesthepointofconnection(s)tothewaterdomesticwatersupplyline,theirrigation
piping,andthesprinklersandothermiscellaneousequipmentlocationsandsizes.

15

ExhibitBLandscapingIrrigationDetails

Thissketchrepresentsthetypicalpipeandtrenchdetailfortheirrigationpiping.Additional
informationcanbefoundwithintheprojectspecificationsorfromthelandscapearchitectas
requiredtoclarifythescopeofwork.

16

ExhibitCLandscapingPlantingPlan

Thisplanrepresentsasamplelandscapeplantingplanforatypicaluniversitybuildingproject.It
includesthevariousplanttypes,locations,andquantitiesfortakeoffpurposes.Ittypically
includestrees,shrubsandgroundcovers,andplantingaccessoriessuchasheaderboard
locations.

17

ExhibitDLandscapingPlantingDetails

Thissketchrepresentsatypicaldetailfortreeplanting,whichincludesstaking,plantingdepth,
mulch,androotbarrier.Itsimportanttoknowifthereareanyunusualplantingcircumstances
thatmayrequireadditionallabororotherdirectcosts.

18

ExhibitELandscapingPlantingandIrrigationPlansUtilizingOnScreenTakeoffs

Thesesketchesrepresentthedigitaltakeoffsperformedbyonscreensoftwareforspeedand
accuracy.

19

Section9SampleTakeOffandPricingSheet
ControlQuantities:
GrossSiteArea
BuildingFootprintArea
FinishedSiteArea
GrossLandscapingCoveredArea

107,000SquareFeet
45,000SquareFeet
(107,000SF 45,000SF)=62,000SF
35,000Feet or56.45%ofFinishedSiteArea

QuantityTakeoffs:
ScopeofWork(CompleteDescriptions)
Earthwork
Importoftopsoilperspecificationrequirements
Finishgradelandscapingarea;roughgradingbycivilcontractor
Soilpreparationandamendments
TrenchingforIrrigation
Excavationoftrenches
Backfillandcompactionoftrenches
Offhaulspoilsfromtrenchexcavation
Irrigation
Pipesleeves,schedule40
Pipe,PVC,2main
Pipe,PVC,1
Pipe,PVC,1
Pipe,PVC,1
Pipe,
Connectiontoexistingwatermain;stubbedoutbycivilcontractor
Capendofpipeforfutureuse,includingvalvebox
Controlwiring
Sprinklers
Sprinklerhead,Type1
Sprinklerhead,Type2
Sprinklerhead,Type3
Sprinklerhead,Type4
Sprinklerhead,Type5
Sprinklerhead,Type6
Sprinklerhead,Type7
Sprinklerhead,Type8
Sprinklerhead,Type9

Quantity

650
35,000
35,000

290
200
70

480
860
60
410
400
4,450
4
2
857

31
3
109
65
39
88
25
14
4

Unit
cy
sf
sf
cy
cy
cy
lf
lf
lf
lf
lf
lf
ea
ea
lf
ea
ea
ea
ea
ea
ea
ea
ea
ea

20

QuantityTakeoffsContinued:
ScopeofWork(CompleteDescriptions)
MiscellaneousIrrigation
Mastervalve,solidbrass,electric
Irrigationvalve
Bronzegateshutoffvalve
Backflowpreventer
Watermeter,2
Controller,wallmounted,12stations,w/metalcabinet
Wirelesssolar,rainfreezesensor,w/outdoorinterface
Adjustexistingcontrollertonewgrade
Subcontractortoperformstaticanddynamictest
LandscapePlanting
Trees,15gallon,variousspecies
Vines,1gallon
Shrubs,5gallon,variousspecies
Shrubs,1gallon,variousspecies
Sod
Hydroseed
Roses,2gallon,at36oncenter
Rosemary,1gallon,at36oncenter
AsianJasmine,1gallon,at30oncenter
MiscellaneousLandscapingItems
Rootbarrier,perL3.0planandspecifications
Redwoodheaderboard,perdetail9onsheetL1.1
Barkmulch,3depth,persheetnote10onsheetL3.1
LandscapeMaintenance
Landscapemaintenance,90daysbeyondinitialinstallation,perspecs.

Quantity

1
8
4
1
1
1
1
2
1

80
8
198
489
12,135
4,971
90
320
760

100
288
170

242

Unit
ea
ea
ea
ea
ea
ea
ea
ea
ea
ea
ea
ea
ea
ea
ea
ea
ea
ea
lf
lf
cy
hours

LaborCosts:

LABOR COSTS
ScopeofWork(PartialDescriptions)

Quantity

Unit

Production

Productivity

Total

Rate(labor

Factor

Hours

hoursperunit)

Importoftopsoil
Finishgradelandscaping
Soilprep&amendments
Excavationoftrenches
Backfill/compacttrench
Haulexcessspoils
Pipesleeves,schedule40

650
35,000
35,000
290
200
70
480

cy
sf
sf
cy
cy
cy
lf

0.027
0.001
0.001
0.250
0.150
0.100
0.050

CrewRate

TotalLaborCost

$66.00
$66.00
$66.00
$66.00
$66.00
$66.00
$66.00

$1,158.30
$2,887.50
$1,604.17
$4,785.00
$1,980.00
$462.00
$1,584.00

Labor

1.00
1.25
1.25
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00

17.55
43.75
24.31
72.50
30.00
7.00
24.00

21

Pipe,PVC,2main
Pipe,PVC,1
Pipe,PVC,1
Pipe,PVC,1
Pipe,
Connecttoexistingpipe
Capendofpipe
Controlwiring
Sprinklerhead,Type1
Sprinklerhead,Type2
Sprinklerhead,Type3
Sprinklerhead,Type4
Sprinklerhead,Type5
Sprinklerhead,Type6
Sprinklerhead,Type7
Sprinklerhead,Type8
Sprinklerhead,Type9
Mastervalve,solidbrass
Irrigationvalve
Bronzegateshutoffvalve
Backflowpreventer
Watermeter,2
Controller,wallmounted
Rainfreezesensor
Adjustexistingcontroller
Staticanddynamictest
Trees,15gallon,various
Vines,1gallon
Shrubs,5gallon
Shrubs,1gallon
Sod
Hydroseed
Roses,2gallon
Rosemary,1gallon
AsianJasmine,1gallon
Rootbarrier
Redwoodheaderboard
Barkmulch,3
Landscapemaintenance
SubtotalLaborCosts

860
60
410
400
4,450
4
2
857
31
3
109
65
39
88
25
14
4
1
8
4
1
1
1
1
2
1
80
8
198
489
12,135
4,971
90
320
760
100
288
170
242

lf
lf
lf
lf
lf
ea
ea
lf
ea
ea
ea
ea
ea
ea
ea
ea
ea
ea
ea
ea
ea
ea
ea
ea
ea
ea
ea
ea
ea
ea
sf
sf
ea
ea
ea
lf
lf
cy
hrs

0.015
0.015
0.015
0.015
0.015
1.000
1.000
0.015
0.500
0.500
0.500
0.500
0.500
0.500
0.500
0.500
0.500
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
2.000
1.000
0.500
0.250
0.250
0.003
0.001
0.150
0.150
0.150
0.040
0.048
0.100
0.750

1.00 12.90 $66.00


1.00
0.90 $66.00
1.00
6.15 $66.00
1.00
6.00 $66.00
1.00 66.75 $66.00
1.00
4.00 $66.00
1.00
2.00 $66.00
1.00 12.86 $66.00
1.00 15.50 $66.00
1.00
1.50 $66.00
1.00 54.50 $66.00
1.00 32.50 $66.00
1.00 19.50 $66.00
1.00 44.00 $66.00
1.00 12.50 $66.00
1.00
7.00 $66.00
1.00
2.00 $66.00
1.00
0.50 $66.00
1.00
4.00 $66.00
1.00
2.00 $66.00
1.00
0.50 $66.00
1.00
1.00 $66.00
1.00
1.00 $66.00
1.00
0.50 $66.00
1.00
2.00 $66.00
1.00
2.00 $66.00
1.00 80.00 $58.40
1.00
4.00 $58.40
1.00 49.50 $58.40
1.00 122.25 $58.40
1.25 37.92 $58.40
1.00
4.37 $58.40
1.00 13.50 $58.40
1.00 48.00 $58.40
1.00 114.00 $58.40
1.00
4.00 $58.40
1.00 13.82 $58.40
1.00 17.00 $58.40
1.00 90.74 $58.40

$851.40
$59.40
$405.90
$396.00
$4,405.50
$264.00
$132.00
$848.43
$1,023.00
$99.00
$3,597.00
$2,45.00
$1,287.00
$2,904.00
$825.00
$462.00
$132.00
$33.00
$264.00
$132.00
$33.00
$66.00
$66.00
$33.00
$132.00
$132.00
$4,672.00
$233.60
$2,890.80
$7,139.40
$2,214.64
$255.47
$788.40
$2,803.20
$6,657.60
$233.60
$807.32
$992.80
$5,299.36
$70,176.79

22

MaterialCosts:

MATERIALCOSTS
ScopeofWork(PartialDescriptions)

Quantity

Unit

MaterialUnitCost

TotalMaterialCost

Importoftopsoil
650
cy
$32.25
Pipesleeves,schedule40
480
lf
$1.00
Pipe,PVC,2main
860
lf
$0.72
Pipe,PVC,1
60
lf
$0.55
Pipe,PVC,1
410
lf
$0.46
Pipe,PVC,1
400
lf
$0.38
Pipe,
4,450
lf
$0.32
Connecttoexistingpipe
4
ea
$100.00
Capendofpipe
2
ea
$50.00
Controlwiring
857
lf
$1.00
Sprinklerhead,Type1
31
ea
$30.00
Sprinklerhead,Type2
3
ea
$70.00
Sprinklerhead,Type3
109
ea
$10.00
Sprinklerhead,Type4
65
ea
$15.00
Sprinklerhead,Type5
39
ea
$15.00
Sprinklerhead,Type6
88
ea
$15.00
Sprinklerhead,Type7
25
ea
$10.00
Sprinklerhead,Type8
14
ea
$15.00
Sprinklerhead,Type9
4
ea
$15.00
Mastervalve,solidbrass
1
ea
$450.00
Irrigationvalve
8
ea
$100.00
Bronzegateshutoffvalve
4
ea
$60.00
Backflowpreventer
1
ea
$700.00
Watermeter,2
1
ea
$650.00
Controller,wallmounted
1
ea
$500.00
Rainfreezesensor
1
ea
$137.50
Trees,15gallon,variousspecies
80
ea
$80.00
Vines,1gallon
8
ea
$20.00
Shrubs,5gallon
198
ea
$25.00
Shrubs,1gallon
489
ea
$15.00
Sod
12,135
sf
$0.35
Hydroseed
4,971
sf
$0.10
Roses,2gallon
90
ea
$10.00
Rosemary,1gallon
320
ea
$8.00
AsianJasmine,1gallon
760
ea
$8.00
Rootbarrier
100
lf
$15.00
Redwoodheaderboard
288
lf
$4.00
Barkmulch,3
170
cy
$15.00
SubtotalMaterialCosts
*Note:MaterialUnitCostsincludessalestaxandfreightchargesasapplicable.

$20,962.50
$480.00
$618.21
$33.18
$188.93
$153.60
$1,424.00
$400.00
$100.00
$857.00
$930.00
$210.00
$1,090.00
$975.00
$585.00
$1,320.00
$250.00
$210.00
$60.00
$450.00
$800.00
$240.00
$700.00
$650.00
$500.00
$137.50
$6,400.00
$160.00
$4,950.00
$7,335.00
$4,247.50
$497.10
$900.00
$2,560.00
$6,080.00
$1,500.00
$1,152.00
$2,550.00
$72,656.26

23

EquipmentCosts:

ScopeofWork(PartialDescriptions)

EQUIPMENTCOSTS
Quantity

Unit

TotalHours

TotalDays

Dailyrate

Importandspreadtopsoil
650 cy
17.55
3.00 $500.00
Finishlandscapegrading
35,000 sf
43.75
6.00 $500.00
Soilpreparation
35,000 sf
24.31
4.00 $500.00
Excavatetrenches
290 cy
72.50
10.00 $400.00
Backfillandcompacttrenches
200 cy
30.00
4.00 $400.00
Offhaultrenchspoils
70 cy
7.00
1.00 $400.00
SubtotalEquipmentCosts
*Note:EquipmentUnitCostsincludessalestaxanddeliveryasapplicable.

TotalEquipmentCost

$1,500.00
$3,000.00
$2,000.00
$4,000.00
$1,600.00
$400
$12,500.00

TotalCostsIncludingMarkups
SubtotalLaborCosts
SubtotalMaterialCosts
SubtotalEquipmentCosts
DirectCostSubtotal
GeneralConditions&Overhead
GeneralLiabilityInsurance
WorkersCompensationInsurance
PaymentandPerformanceBond
GeneralContractorFee
TotalCostofWork

10.00%
0.25%
0.15%
1.50%
8.00%

$70,176.79
$72,656.26
$12,500.00
$155,333.05
$15,533.31
$427.17
$256.94
NotRequired
$13,724.04
$185,274.50

24

Section10TerminologyandGlossary
1. Weatherstations:compactsensorthatmonitorswind,rain,freezingtemperatures,and
shutstheirrigationsystemoffasweatherconditionsrequire
2. Crewrate:theaveragedirectlaborcostofagroupoftradesmenwhoexecuteaspecific
constructionactivityinaneighthourday.
3. Productionrate:theaveragedirectlaborhoursrequiredtoinstallaunitofmaterialbya
specifiedcrew,basedonaneighthourworkday
Section11References
LEEDU.S.GreenBuildingCouncilwebsite:http://www.usgbc.org
Section12CopyrightReleases
Notrequiredforthistechnicalpaper.

25