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Prepare for your dream job in the ever-changing music industry.

The following lesson material

is taken from Berklee Onlines Bachelor of Professional Studies degree program in Music
Business. Want to learn more about earning a degree online? Contact us at 1-866-BERKLEE
(USA) / +1-617-747-2146 (INTL) or advisors@online.berklee.edu.

3. The Three Ps
from Music Business 101 by John Kellogg

5. Working with PR, Radio, and Digital Media

from International Music Marketing: Developing Your Career Abroad
by Shain Shapiro

7. Demand Generation
from Online Music Marketing: Campaign Strategies, Social Media,
and Digital Distribution by Mike King

19. Meet Instructor John Kellogg

20. How Berklee Online Works
21. Get in Touch

The Three Ps

From Music Business 101

By John Kellogg
Is there any one thing that ensures an individuals success in this dynamic music business? Every profession has
its guiding principles. The medical field has adopted the Hippocratic oath from the ancients. Successful conduct
in sports is guided by ideas of sportsmanship, including fair play and losing with grace.
Being an amalgamation of art and commerce, the music business has no officially sanctioned guiding principles,
but I offer the Three Big Ps as a roadmap which I believe can help guide your success in this industry.

1. Powerful Product

2. Proper Perspective

A song, audio or video recording, live performance,

Creators of music must develop both an external

or technological advancement (e.g., app, site, etc.)

and internal perspective of the music business.

that has the ability to build and retain long-term

Externally, they must recognize that one of the

value and relevance.

primary jobs of their record company is to maximize

the companys value for the record company

An Example of a Powerful Product

owners. Even if the artist owns the company, one

In 1973, Atlantic Records producer Joel Dorn

of the companys goals should be to generate a

recorded the Grammy Award-winning, number-

profit so that the company can stay in business and

one hit single Killing Me Softly with His Song

be of benefit to the artist. Internally, an artist must

with artist Roberta Flack. The Charles Fox/Norman

recognize that any sustained success can only be

Gimbel-penned tune had a unique theme and a

achieved through long-term investment of time

strong hook. The final recording sounded great

and money to build valuable assets -- the powerful

-- Flacks emotive vocal delivery, a choir-like


background vocal chorus, and an infectious groove

created with a displaced kick drum added to the

An Example of Proper Perspective

pulse of the backbeat. By all measures this was

The Grateful Dead are the most successful touring

a truly powerful product. To underscore this fact,

band in history. Their creative improvisational

consider that the Flack record was covered in 1995

flights, top-shelf songwriting, and high-fidelity

by the Fugees and went to number two in America

sound reinforcement were heralded by legions of

on the Hot Airplay chart. It also became a number-

devoted fans. Recently, several books have been

one single in the UK, selling over one million

published that expound upon the Deads innovative


attitude toward the business of music and the

cultivation of their fanbase. As Brian Halligan, co-

The Three Ps

author of the book Marketing Lessons from the

Grateful Dead: What Every Business Can Learn
from the Most Iconic Band in History*, puts it:

The fundamental assumption in almost every

bands business model was that they were going
to make their money on album sales. The Grateful
Dead rejected that assumption. Their fundamental
business model was based on making money
from the concerts. Because of that change, there
was a cascade of decisions that fell from that. For

3. Professional Attitude

instance, each concert was completely unique nightafter-night, so there was a strong incentive to see

Participants in the music business must understand

them for several nights in a rowthis ultimately

that their everyday dealings with others must be

led to fans following them around the country. In

conducted in a professional manner that respects

addition, they allowed their fans to make tapes of

all people with which they come in contact.

the concerts and freely spread them to their fans

Whether the communication is a correspondence

the more concerts they played, the more tapes

with a president of a major label, his or her

there were, the more people were exposed to the

receptionist, or a tweet to a loyal fanbase, it should

music, the more people paid for concert tickets.

reflect proper knowledge of the subject and

deference to the recipient.

Today, the Grateful Dead release official versions

of their historic concert recordings to fans. This
has become a profitable enterprise because of
the thoughtful curation and superior sound quality
of the recordings (compared to many of the
recordings made by fans). Their constant focus on
the fans experience has paid off in ways that the
band couldnt even have anticipated when they
were in their prime.
*Meerman, Scott; Halligan, Brian. Marketing Lessons from the Grateful Dead:
What Every Business Can Learn from the Most Iconic Band in History. Wiley Publishing, 2010.

Working with PR, Radio, & Digital Media

From International Music Marketing: Developing Your Career Abroad

by Shain Shapiro
What comes to mind when you refer to one of
your favorite artists? Even if its their music, which
is the primary point of reference, there is always
a visual element that complements thatBjrks
extravagant outfits, Slashs long hair, hat, and
sunglasses, and Daft Punks futuristic costumes are
but a few examples.

Keep it real: include quotes.

Keep it concise!

It is a fact that, when trying to build a successful

career as a popular artist, your public imageyour

Be original.

brandplays a major role and ultimately defines

how you are going to be perceived by the public.

Assets, Assets, Assets

So what are the assets your media pack needs to

Any public performer has a public image associated

contain? Here are the most common ones,

with their art and its very difficult to separate

and remember, refer back to your checklist!

them from each other. So, every time that art

gets exposed, the public image gets exposed


too. Therefore, the public image becomes an

Press release

inseparable part of the artist and, in some cases,

Sales sheet (for the distributor)

becomes art itself.

Promo photos (max five)

The Golden Rules for Drafting an Artist Bio

Single cover

Write a captivating press story that grabs

Album cover

readers from the start.

Music videos (on average, three for every

Talk about the music. Describe it. Make it

album release)

sound exciting.

Avoid too many artist references/influences.

Video teaser

Adjectives: dont over-do it.

SoundCloud links

Nobody cares about the bands background,

YouTube links

such as how they met, etc.

Promo CDs

Working with PR, Radio, & Digital Media

All assets need to be the highest possible quality.

Golden Rules of Contacting a Journalist

You only get one chance to pitch something, so
you need to be able to impress quickly. Be very
careful with what you choose to include in your
communication. Here are a few things to consider:

Include the music link first.

Dont forget to mention release and tour
Understand that this is a two-way relationship.

Embed a spectacular artist photo.

Editors want page hits and visitors, so that their

Use an intuitive email subject.

website becomes popular and is able to generate

more advertising money. The content you are

Use a few press quotes.

offering needs to satisfy that need. Promo CDs

need to be sent to long-lead press (for example,

Always be polite.

monthly music magazines) at least three months

Dont demand coverage.

prior to an album release.

Ask for their opinion (they love that).

Give them time and pitch well in advance.
Understand the editors point of view.
Develop the relationship over time.

Make Your Mark: Careers in Music Business

Artist Manager

Music Supervisor

Public Relations Director

Booking Agent


Concert Promoter

Music Publisher

Independent Radio

Tour Accountant

Tour Manager

Entertainment Attorney


and more...

Demand Generation

From Online Music Marketing: Campaign Strategies, Social Media,

and Digital Distribution

by Mike King
Generating Demand and Building
Your Community

The first step in creating an effective online

presence is to get your own house in order by
creating an optimized website, which acts as a main
focal point for your online promotions. Your own
site gives you full control of the visitor experience
and provides you with the ability to optimize any

the uninitiated into fans and consumers of your

conversion opportunities.

products. As fans move through the funnel, they

are provided with additional incentives and higher

Once you have your site together, the next logical

rewards to increase their brand loyalty. But before

step in online music marketing is to engage in

consumers even enter the marketing funnel,

an external marketing campaign designed to

marketers have to create a reason for potential fans

create demand (i.e., web traffic, awareness, and

to enter the funnel in the first place. As Chris Stone,

attention) for your band and your products. While

accomplished marketer and cofounder of legendary

the majority of traffic you get to your site will likely

NYC- and LA-based recording studio The Record

come from direct traffic, links from email blasts,

Plant has said: [without marketing] if you build it,

and organic search (which is why search engine

they will not come, because they will not know you

optimization is so important!), the traffic generated

exist! Simply put, the Internet and home recording

from a combination of other third-party sources

technologies like Pro Tools have made supply

to your website is also significant. Taken together,

abundant and demand scarce. Building up demand

outlets like Facebook, Wikipedia, Twitter, YouTube,

for your product is more important than ever.

and other online third party outlets can also drive

significant traffic to your site, if you are optimizing

Demand Generation

these outlets effectively. Lets start by looking at

Demand Generation is a marketing concept used to

some general techniques to draw fans to your band

describe the act of creating a focused and targeted

from these external sites.

campaign that drives awareness and interest in a

companys products and/or services. As Chris Stone

Demand Generation: The Four Major

says, it is a crucial step in letting people know

Segments of Online Marketing

you exist. Based on this concept, but adjusted

Amarketing funnel is the concept of converting

to work specifically for online music marketing, it

Demand Generation

is recommended that artists organize their online

Viral/Social Marketing

marketing campaigns across the following four

Viral or social marketing is the utilization of a

marketing channels:

marketing tool that gets people to pass a message

along to each other. Viral marketing is considered

Permission Marketing

an earned channel, where the fan considers content

Viral/Social Marketing

worthy of sharing, on its own merits. Viral marketing

may require very little effort on the part of the


propagandist (thats you), as the recipients of the

Paid Placements

message become the primary agents who spread

it to other people. If it works, viral marketing can
be rapid and explosive. Viral marketing can also be

Permission Marketing
Permission marketing refers to the privilege (not

characterized as the Fan-to-Fan channel.

the right) of delivering anticipated, personal, and

Many of the same tools that a band can use for

relevant messages to people who actually want

permission marketing can also be used by your

to get them. This form of marketing accomplishes

friends, fans, and followers to help spread a viral

several positive things: 1) it reduces clutter

campaign online, such as:

and unwanted messages for consumers; 2) the

Forwarded Emails

messages received by the consumer contain higher


quality, more specific information; 3) it improves

targeting precision for marketers. In other words,

Facebook Posts / Shares / Likes

permission marketing can be considered the Artistto-Fan channel. Examples of permission marketing

YouTube Posts

outlets include:

Pinterest Pins

Email Lists
Discovery Marketing

Twitter Followers

Discovery marketing takes place when your music

Facebook Fans

is introduced to a completely new group of fans

through efforts that are not permission or viral-

Instagram Followers

based. Examples of discovery marketing outlets

Snapchat Friends

could include:

YouTube Subscribers

Search Engine Results

Fan Clubs or Street Teams

Online Radio
Interactive Streaming Services (like Spotify)

Demand Generation

Music Identification Apps (like Shazam)

blogs/music/lifestyle sites. Its also possible (though

not advisable for all but a few artists) to purchase

Film and TV

ads on both online and terrestrial radio stations.

Terrestrial Radio

A Framework for Marketing Across

Live Events

Different Channels

Print Publications

Lets take an in-depth look at some of the more

popular third party sites for band marketing and the
specific techniques we can use to increase visibility

Paid Placement
The last channel of demand generation occurs

and overall demand generation. While the concepts

when an artist pays for access to potentially

well discuss are particular to these specific online

qualified fans. Examples of paid advertising include

outlets, these overall marketing ideas can be

search engine marketing (purchasing keywords),

applied to a variety of other existing (and not yet

buying visibility on ad networks (such as those on

existing!) sites as well.

Google, Twitter, and Facebook), and banner ads on

How Social Media Works:

a Conversation with Ian Rogers

The first thing that you are trying to do is build

awareness, because no matter who you are, even
if you are Linkin Park, no one knows about your
new record until you tell them about it. So you

Ian Rogers has been a key player in the

are trying to build awareness on some level. The

development of the Internet for musicians since

blessing and curse of the Internet is that anyone can

founding the Beastie Boys website in 1993. Ian

build a website but its not a build it and they will

has worked as the GM of Yahoo Music, the CEO of

come world; just because you built it, doesnt mean

Topspin Media (a direct to fan marketing and sales

anyone is going to know its there. So the first thing

technology company), the CEO of Beats Music, and

that you are always trying to do is build awareness.

as a Senior Director at Apple Music.

If you are lucky enough to build awareness, then

you are trying to build fan connections. If you can

I try to break social media down into what the

build fan connections, then you are trying to build

actual physics of attention are. I think about

a fan relationship and fan trust and to do that, you

attention as this flow. Were sort of naturally

need to communicate in some authentic way. Only

we click on stuff right? And we move around the

when youve done all that, can you sell anyone

Internet in this way, and that to me is the overall


attention flow of the Internet. I try to put that

against what you are really trying to accomplish as

So if thats the model, lets look at how social media

an artist.

plays into that model. The interesting thing about

social media is that s kind of a catchall phrase

Demand Generation

that doesnt really talk about whats happening,

and whats happening is that flow of attention. The
interesting thing about Facebook and Twitter is
that they are not sort of inherently viral. They are
really two different forms of marketing. One is direct
marketing, and thats a relationship between an
artist and fan, and the other is what most people
call viral marketing, or fan-to-fan marketing. So I
would break it apart into those two things: so youve
got the artist to fan channel and then youve got the
fan-to-fan channel. If you are vending something
valuable, people want to share it with other people.
Its the nature of human interaction and sort of

really efficient channel of direct marketing. There

reciprocity among human beings.

is a not a gigantic value to the direct marketing on

Facebook. Its good but not great. There is a little

So thats kind of the physics of the space, and then

bit of a fear of lock in, I would say. Do you really

you ask, Well, what is it for? What is social media

want to hand all of your fan connections over to one

for? I think that what you really want do with social

company who will go through its changes over the

media, more than anything else, is be a part of the

coming years?

conversation. The most highly leveraged thing that

you can do is to put good content out there, have

Overall, with social media you want to be a part of

people care about you, have people actually follow

the conversation, you want people to share what it

and pay attention to what you have to say, because

is you are up to on Facebook and Twitter; thats the

then you have a way to talk directly to them.

most important thing. So using those channels to

build fan connections, to put your own content out

I think its hard, having lived through it, to not look

there, and to share your own content. You might just

at the example of MySpace and not want a little

be sharing a thought that you had but that kind of

more sovereignty beyond what Facebook offers.

authentic communication is what builds trust and

You know, if you spent a lot time building up

can add to your artist persona and brand. So I think

hundreds of thousands of followers on MySpace,

its most important to be a part of that conversation.

those people are unreachable to you at this point

Second to that is the homesteading part, where I

and thats really dangerous.

am going to have a really nice page on Facebook

and make sure people can hear my music. Im going

When I was at Topspin, we worked with Linkin

to make sure people know where they can buy my

Park. Linkin Park has tens of millions of fans on

music and all that. You definitely want to have all of

Facebook and hundreds of thousands of people

that in place, but I think the most valuable thing is

on an email list. We still sell more products by

being a part of that conversation. I certainly would,

sending a message out on an email list than we do

as much as possible, grab email addresses, grab

by putting a message on Facebook, even at that

mobile numbers, have my own website and be

scale. So there is no question that email remains a

a sovereign entity, which is going to live through


Demand Generation

whatever the Facebook of tomorrow is. There will

consensus on Facebook was, why would anyone

be one.

use Facebook when weve got MySpace? It always

changes; it is the one thing that is consistent, so you

Remember that once upon a time, Netscape was

want to own your fan outside of those entities first

infallible, Microsoft was infallible, Apple was a joke

and foremost.

that was for 5% of the population, the general

John Mayer on Social Media and

Focusing on Your Craft
John Mayer, former Berklee College of Music
student, has come back to Berklee several times
over the years to give informative clinics to current
Berklee students. In his clinics, John provides clear
and concise advice on a variety of other topics,
including his experience in the music business, the
craft of songwriting and guitar playing, and general
best practices that he has learned from his years in
he found himself asking questions like, Is this a

the industry.

good blog? or Is this a good tweet? When those

In one of his recent clinics, Manage the Temptation

questions used to be, Is this a good song title?

to Publish Yourself, John focused on social media

and Is this a good bridge?

and the potential pitfalls associated with it. In

John Mayer has a great point. Similar to other

Johns words:

marketing verticals like press, radio, and retail

This time is a really important time for you guys

visibility, social media at its core is simply a set of

because nobody knows who you are, and nobody

tools that are useful in amplifying existing efforts.

should. This is not a time to promote yourself. It

Of course the level of connection between artist

doesnt matter. This is the time to get your stuff

and fan can be much closer with social media, but

together. Promotion can be like that. You can have

without having great music, all the social media

promotion in 30 seconds if your stuff is good. Good

visibility in the world is not going to get potential

music is its own promotion.

fans of your music to become hardcore fans of your

music if the music itself isnt amazing.

John went on to say that in his own experience,


Demand Generation

As Ian Rogers mentioned, one has to
look no further than MySpace to see how quickly


Choose Your Band Name.


Click on Get Started


Upload an Image and Provide Descriptive

folks can lose interest in an online social networking

Copy and Link.

site, but at the present moment, Facebook holds


the crown as the largest social networking site in

Thats It!

the world, by far.

Online Marketing Opportunities on Facebook

The winds of change can move quickly, but

Facebook is a good example of a permission

Facebook is definitely the premier social networking

marketing channel, as well as viral/social marketing

site of the moment. 80% of all online social activity

channel. The single highest converting Facebook

happens on Facebook, and the average American

mechanism is the send update feature. Sharing

spends 40 minutes a day checking their Facebook

an update (particularly if this update is interesting

feed. Its also a popular destination outside of the

content, like a photo, audio file, or video) can be an

U.S., with more than 80% of daily active users living

effective way to reach fans that want to hear from

outside the U.S. and Canada.

you. Its also a good way to get the valuable fanto-fan channel happening. Through the permission

For all the reasons above, its important for

marketing channel, research shows that Facebook

artists to understand how Facebook works from a

generally accounts for low to mid single-digit

marketing standpoint. The first step in developing

percentages of revenue for an artists campaign.

a Facebook music marketing campaign is to create

your Facebook Artist Page as opposed to a

Best Practices for Marketing on Facebook

standard Facebook Profile. A Facebook Artist

Similar to the rest of the Internet, Facebook is

Page provides bands with more communication and

working hard on curation finding ways to deliver

interactivity options than a standard profile page,

the best possible content to its users. Because

as well as the opportunity to introduce third-party

it would be completely overwhelming for most

marketing and visibility tools.

Facebook users to see all comments from all of

their friends all of the time, the Facebook news

Facebook Artist Page accounts are relatively simple

feed is curated by Facebook in a very data driven

to create. A quick how to:

way, not unlike the way that Google returns search


results. On average, 1,500 stories float through

Go to the Create a Page area on Facebook:

the news feed of each user. Each user is seeing



an average of about 100 of those stories per day,

Choose Artist Band or Public Figure, then

which are controlled by Facebooks engagement

select Musician / Band from the drop


down menu.
For several years, Facebooks algorithm for


Demand Generation

determining what content you see in your news

feed when you log into your account was called
EdgeRank, which looked at three main things when
analyzing a post:


Affinity: the relationship between the creator

of the post, and the recipient. If there is a
two-way communication street between
the creator and the recipient, meaning
that these two folks routinely comment on
each others posts, share content from one
another, and are generally more involved
with each other online, EdgeRank looked
algorithm advantages, but because content
is a better way to engage your fanbase. On
average, content-rich posts see 200% more
engagement than non-visual posts.

at this relationship, and would more likely

place content from one of these parties into
the stream of the other party.


Weight: determined by the type of content

Encourage fans to post photos of you. Being

that is being produced. Posts that contain

tagged increases visibility.

video, photo, and audio were more likely

Stay Aware! Hardly a week goes by without

to be delivered into a recipients stream

Facebook making changes to their service.

There are a number of online services that
are good resources for Facebook updates,

than a simple comment or like. Facebook

rewarded meatier content postings.


including Adweeks blog, Forbes, Mashable,

and many more. For information from the
horses mouth, check out facebook.com/press

Time Decay: simply a measure of how long

a post has been out there. Recent postings
appeared in a feed more often than older

Additional Best Practices on Facebook

Wherever possible, embed a click-through link

Although EdgeRank is no longer the term used

to a marketing campaigns primary landing page.

to describe Facebooks engagement algorithm,

Use a static call to action in the about area

the above criteria (excepting time decay, which

of your profile to drive traffic to your primary

campaign landing page.

Facebook has de-emphasized) still provide a great

point of reference for marketers when determining

Utilize your cover photo to help promote your

what content to post to their community. Best

tour dates or music release information.

practices still include:

Use link tracking services like Bitly to see how

Creating posts rich in photo, audio, and

your links are shared making social media a

more measurable marketing channel.

video content. Not only because of the


Demand Generation

You can monitor your fan activity through the


Facebook Insights analytics. Reviewing your

insights can let you know when you should
spike the activity or increase engagement
with more content (songs, videos, remixes,
etc.). Additional third party analytics services
like Quintly can help you to measure what is
working for other similar bands, in terms of
types of posts, time of posting, and more.

Twitter (a tool for microblogging
creating online updates using less than 140
characters) can be highly misunderstood. To many,
Twitter can simply seem like a time-wasting tool
that the self-absorbed use to discuss what they had
for lunch. And while there are certainly folks that
use Twitter in that fashion, enlightened marketers

OF NOTE: Facebook is constantly changing their

have found Twitter to be a very useful and effective

algorithms, which has recently resulted in less

tool. While not at the scale of Facebook, Twitter

organic reach for marketers. What this means is that

currently has over 300 million monthly active users,

Facebook is incentivizing their paid options, to reach

with 100 million of these users using the service

fans that you have acquired organically! Not the best


situation for creators and marketers, but perhaps

another cautionary tale against utilizing properties

Twitter has also been found to be a tool that music

you dont control as your sole online visibility.

consumers tend to use. An NPD Group study

found that active Twitter users buy 77% more

Helpful Third Party Services for

digital music downloads on average than non-

Facebook Marketing

users. 12% of those who have bought music in the

Facebook itself currently does not provide a great

last three months also report having used Twitter,

native homesteading option for bands that want to

versus 8% of overall Web users. They are far more

highlight their music, tour dates, videos and more

comfortable spending time online, buying online,

in a really user friendly way. A number of third party

and communicating online. As we will discuss,

options have popped up to fill the gap. Again,

when best practices are followed, Twitter has a

technology is advancing on a near daily basis,

lot of potential to cheaply and effectively increase

but there are several helpful third party services


that bands can use to help increase visibility

and engagement (as well as sell direct from your

Twitter is an example of a marketing tool that

Facebook profile, if you want) on Facebook. The

falls into three of our defined marketing channels:

most widely used option is BandPage, which allows

Permission, Viral/Social, and Discovery.

artists to share their music, bio, photos, videos, tour

dates, and more, as well as collect email addresses

Perhaps the most interesting facet of Twitter is how

from potential fans.

quickly messages can be spun into the viral realm

via the retweet function. A retweet (usually noted
by starting your tweet with RT) is when one fan
resends a message (a tweet in Twitter-speak) from
someone in their network and shares it with their


Demand Generation

entire network. Its perhaps the highest degree of

interesting content will not only keep folks

content approval and means that the content was

happy and involved, it is also the basis of any

so valuable and important that they were willing

viral Twitter campaign. Give folks a reason to

to share it with their network causing it to spread

talk about you!

from one community to the next. Retweets of good

Consistency in Posting. Breaks in posting

content are not unusualall the more reason to

could cause a drop in followers. Consider

focus on writing something of substance.

using a service that can schedule future

tweets. HootSuite, Sprout Social, and many

Twitter Best Practices

other third party services can be used to

Some tips to consider when getting started with

schedule tweets.


Engage your Fans. Consider asking more

Build Up Your Base. Like any other

questions of followers to connect more

communication method, the more engaged

personally and get everyone engaged (e.g.,

people you have to communicate with,

ask followers what they think of a recently

the better your results will be. Certainly

posted demo).

communicating with your fan base via site

Connect Your Blog to Your Twitter

visibility and emails to let them know you are

on Twitter is a good first step. But the most

Account. WordPress makes it easy to send

effective way to build up your Twitter following

announcements to your Twitter feed from your

at the moment is to simply follow individuals

blog. Of course the 140-character limit will

that have mentioned your band, or are fans of

not allow the entire blog post to appear, but

similar bands. If you have great content, more

followers will be directed back to your blog/

often than not, folks you follow will follow you

site from the tweet.

back. Additionally, Twitter users can view, and

Connect Twitter to Your Facebook Account.

often follow, the folks that their friends follow.

The Selective Tweets app lets you selectively

Twitter also makes suggestions of other,

update your Facebook status from Twitter

similar, Twitter users that fans should follow.

simply by ending a tweet with #fb.

There may not be a mathematical equation

Use Hashtags for Trending. Hashtags are

that explains it all perfectly, but the bottom

line is that following key folks in your particular

a way of adding additional context to your

niche in the Twitter community will very likely

tweets. You create a hashtag simply by

result in an increase in the number of followers

prefixing a word with a hash symbol, like this:

you have, which will provide you with a larger

#hashtag, in any of your tweets. Services like

base to communicate with.

Hashtracking can help to provide analysis on

trending Hashtags.

Quality Posts. While its incredibly easy to

follow folks on Twitter, it is just as easy to UN-

Hashtags were developed as a means to create

follow too. Providing your community with

groupings (otherwise known as trending topics)


Demand Generation

on Twitter, without having to change the basic

service. For example, folks at the SXSW music
festival has used the hashtag #sxsw to categorize
any SXSW posts under this heading, which makes
for easy review by folks interested in news on
SXSW. Effective use of hashtags by bands might
include tweets on upcoming festival dates (such as
#glastonbury, for example).

Collaborative Marketing Outlet

your site in a way that fits the context of the page.


Taking the time to blend the content and the link

According to Alexa.com, Wikipedia is currently

to your site in such a way that it naturally fits and

the sixth most visited site on the entire Web. With

enhances the content on the page will ensure that

hundreds of thousands of other sites currently

your link does not get deleted. Research shows that

linking to it, Wikipedia is also one of the most

proper implementation of links on these pages can

optimized sites on the Web. As such, a band entry

account for low to mid single-digit increases to the

on Wikipedia often appears higher in search results

overall revenue in a campaign.

than a bands official site.

Best Practices for Marketing on Community-

Wikipedia is a collaboratively edited site, with tens

Generated Content Sites:

of thousands of editors responsible for adding


and maintaining the content. While a potentially

Add the link in the top third of the page for


excellent traffic generator for bands, it is also

somewhat tricky to set up a Wikipedia page for


developing bands. Wikipedia frowns on self-

Ensure that your link ts in naturally with the

page content.

promotion (its goal is to be an impartial communitydeveloped encyclopedia of sorts, not a promotion

Paid Marketing Opportunities on Third Party

vehicle), and one has to take certain steps in setting

up a Wikipedia page as to not have the page

Social Networking Sites

deleted by the sites editors. Making your entries

Of the four defined marketing channels weve

and edits as notable, relevant, and non-promotional

identified, our previous examples have focused on

as possible will help avoid this, as anything added

organic (i.e., free) opportunities: Permission, Viral/

that remotely resembles a sales tool will surely get

Social, and Discovery. The fourth defined marketing

deleted by Wikipedias editors post-haste.

channel is Paid placement. While its certainly

advisable to exploit all organic opportunities first,

Another key to marketing and generating

online paid placements allow artists to target

conversions on community-edited sites like

specific psychographic and demographic criteria

Wikipedia is to add specific targeted links back to

of potential fans, which can provide additional


Demand Generation

visibility to support your organic efforts.

through shopper loyalty programs to individual

There are a number of paid visibility opportunities

Facebook profiles. What this means is that as an

available online. Lets take an in-depth look at one

advertiser, you can target folks on Facebook not

particular option: Facebook.

only based on what they say in their profiles, and

what they say in their posts, you can target them

Facebook Advertising Options

based on past activity on a variety of other online

One of the problems with traditional advertising

and offline activities and interests. To put it another

is that it is impossible to pinpoint a message

way: Facebook knows A LOT about you, and is

specifically for someone who actually wants to hear

using that information to help advertisers target

it. While print (and some online) publications can

their products more effectively.

provide general demographic information on their

subscribers and readers (such as annual income,

Based on the psychographic and demographic

how much money they spend on music per year,

information you are looking for in your campaign,

age, etc.), most advertising models do not allow

Facebook trawls its user base for members who

you to target your fan with laser-like precision.

meet this criteria, provides you, as an advertiser,

with an estimate of the number of folks you will

Facebook is an example of an online outlet that

reach with your ad, and provides you with pricing

does provide this sort of highly targeted advertising

options based on an ever growing palate of

opportunity, one in which you can pinpoint the

advertising options including clicks to your site,

exact characteristics of your target fan, and deliver

promoting your page, boosting your post, and

them a specific message for a specified period of

much more. The ad creation process is simple:

time. If done properly, this sort of online targeting


is an evolution from ads being annoying intrusions,

Get Started: Assuming you have an account

into helpful, meaningful recommendations. As

set up in Facebook, go to facebook.com/

mentioned earlier, Facebook generates billions

advertising and log in.

of dollars a year from their advertising efforts,


and they are currently the second largest web

Create and Target your Ad: Say you are

interested in placing an ad with the goal

advertising vehicle in the world, behind Google.

of driving potential fans to your site to

experience your music, or learn about

Facebook advertising traditionally relied on the

your tour dates. After choosing the send

information that users had uploaded into their

people to your website option, you will

profiles, from age, geography, favorite music,

be asked for specific targeting information

booksbasically any personal information that

on who you want to reach, how much you

folks have added to their profile page. But in recent

want to spend, and what you want your

years, Facebook has partnered with some third

ad to look like. You will also be asked for

party data giants including Epsilon, Acxiom, and

specific text and an image or video to

Datalogix to allow brands to match data gathered

accompany your ad.


Demand Generation


Target Your Ad: Set up your target

easy way to implement Twitter advertising is their

demographic and psychographic

promoted tweets option. With promoted tweets,

information. Lets assume you are targeting a

you can select specific tweets to promote to your

local demographic for a record release show

fans. Similar to Facebook you can target your

taking place in Cambridge, MA. If your band

audience (your fans and/or fans of other bands

sounds similar to the iconic Cambridge-

youve toured with, perhaps?), and set budget

based low-rock trio Morphine, you might

restraints in much the same way as you can with

want to consider targeting Morphine fans


in this ad. Facebook will provide you with

additional potential targets as well. In this

A final note of caution with regards to paid

example, Facebook is suggesting targeting

advertising for musicians: paid advertising can get

Andrew Birds Bowl of Fire fans (not a bad

expensive, and is not the best place to start when

suggestion), as well as Nirvana (not quite

youre a developing band. There are a variety of

right). Facebook ads could just as easily

free or inexpensive options that musicians should

be used to announce new releases, free

start with first that often tend to have better results.

singles, etc., with your personal website

Paid ads should be considered only for more

being the destination for the click-through

established bands that want to expand their reach

on the ad. Facebook ads are also flexible;

and who understand that music marketing is a

it makes sense to experiment with different

comprehensive system that needs to be continually

campaigns to see what kind of traffic volume

monitored, assessed for success, and fine-tuned.

you might get from your alternate settings.


Determine Your Pricing: Set up a daily

budget and choose your pricing model
(CPM, CPC, Clicks to Website, or Daily
Unique Reach).


Place your order and enter your payment


Additional Advertising Options

Facebook advertising is just one option available
to marketers. Depending on your psychographic
and the tools that your fans are more predisposed
to using, your advertising campaigns can be
expanded to focus on other outlets, including
Twitter. Twitters advertising options are currently
less robust than Facebook, but one relatively


John Kellogg
Assistant Chair of the Music Business
& Management Department at
Berklee College of Music

Music Business 101 Online Course

Author and Instructor

Licensed Entertainment Attorney

Licensed to practice in the states of New
York and Ohio, John P. Kellogg, Esq. has
represented recording artists The OJays,
Eddie Levert, Sr., LSG, Stat Quo of Shady/
Aftermath Records, and G-Dep of Bad Boy
Records. He also serves as a member of the
management team for the late R&B
recording star Gerald Levert, whom he
represented throughout his career.

Kellogg is President-Elect and a member

of the Board of Directors of the Music and
Entertainment Industry Educators Association
(MEIEA), in addition to being a former board
member of the Black Entertainment and
Sports Lawyers Association (BESLA) and a

2005 inductee into the BESLA Hall of Fame.

A music business degree puts you in the

He is the author of the book Take Care of

position to be a leader in the music industry.

Your Music Business: The Legal and Business

Youre going to study with other students

Aspects You Need to Know to Grow In the

who have experience in the business as well

Music Business, as well as numerous legal

as instructors that are skilled at incorporating

articles and editorials. A former vocalist with

music with the business principles you need

the group Cameo, Kellogg has been profiled

to know in order to be successful.

in Billboard, Ebony, Black Issues, and In the

- John Kellogg,

Black magazines.

Music Business Online Course instructor


How Berklee Online Works

Renowned Faculty
Berklee Online instructors have managed, produced, and engineered hundreds of artists
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have the opportunity to participate in a live chat with your instructor and receive one-onone instruction and feedback on assignments.

Award-Winning Courses
Instantly access assignments, connect with your instructor, or reach out to your classmates
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Online. Earn your degree at a cost thats 60% less than campus tuition and graduate with a
professional portfolio that will prepare you for a career in the music industry.

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Offering courses for beginners and accomplished musicians alike, our student body
comes from over 140 countries and includes high school students getting a jump-start on
college, working professionals, executives at industry-leading technology and business
firms, and members of internationally known acts like Nine Inch Nails and the Dave
Matthews Band.

Experienced Support
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