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CATALOGUE

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Nous esprons pouvoir tablir lavenir un partenariat ne pouvant que nous tre bnfique!

K. Schfer, ingnier diplm, Grant

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le beurre, le lait en poudre, etc

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Sujet prioritaire de Funke - Dr. N. Gerber Labortechnik GmbH
K. Schfer, ingnieur diplm, W. Spindler, Physicien diplm

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Anne de fondation: 1904


Grant:
Konrad Schfer, ingnieur diplm
Fond de pouvoir:
Georg Hrnle, diplm dconomie

Funke-Dr.N.Gerber Labortechnik GmbH


Ringstrae 42
12105 Berlin
Tl.: (+49-30) 702 006-0
Fax: (+49-30) 702 006-66
E-mail: kontakt@funke-gerber.de
Site internet: www.funke-gerber.de

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LA DETERMINATION
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DAPRES LA METHODE GERBER
Par Alfred Tpel, chimiste diplm

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YZegdiZXi^dcXdchi^ijZYZe]dhe]da^e^YZh!YZegdi^cZhZi
YZVjY]nYgViVi^dc#AZckZadeeZYZhWdjaZhYZa^e^YZhZbe"
X]ZXZaaZh"X^YZhZgZ[ZgbZghjgZaaZh"bbZhXdVaZhXZcXZ!
hiVW^a^hVciV^ch^aiViYbjah^dc#

AV heVgVi^dc XdbeaiZ YZh a^e^YZh Zm^\Z aV YZhigjXi^dc YZ


aZjgZckZadeeZegdiZXig^XZ#8ZX^ZhiZ[[ZXij|aV^YZYVX^YZ
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]nYgdanhZ aZh eVgi^Zh dg\Vc^fjZh YZ aZckZadeeZ egdiZXig^XZ
YZh a^e^YZh! aZh [gVXi^dch YZ egdi^cZh aVXiZh! V^ch^ fjZ aZ
aVXidhZ# :c eajh YZ aV X]VaZjg YZ Y^hhdX^Vi^dc! ^a VeeVgVi
\VaZbZci jcZ X]VaZjg YZ gVXi^dc ^bedgiVciZ [V^hVci hZ
gX]Vj[[Zgigh[dgiZbZciaZWjingdbigZ#AZhdmnYVcihXd"
adgZciaVhdaji^dcYZY^hhdaji^dcZcWgjc#AZha^e^YZha^Wgh
hdciZchj^iZheVghZcXZcig^[j\ZjhZ#JcZVY_dcXi^dcYVa"
XddaVbna^fjZ[VX^a^iZXZiiZdegVi^dcZiXgZjcZheVgVi^dc
ighcZiiZZcigZaZha^e^YZhZiaVhdaji^dcVX^YZ#DceZjiZc"
hj^iZa^gZhjgaX]ZaaZYjWjingdbigZaZedjgXZciV\ZYjiVjm
YZa^e^YZhXdciZcjhYVchaZaV^i#

CHAMP DAPPLICATION
8ZegdXYeZjiigZji^a^hedjgaZaV^iXgjZiYZXdchdbbVi^dcXdjgVciZVnVcijcZiZcZjgZcbVi^gZh\gVhhZhYZ%|&+!
edjgaZaV^iVjfjZadcVjgVV_djijcXdchZgkViZjgVYfjVi!V^ch^fjZedjgaZaV^i]dbd\c^h#

8ViVad\jZYZaVWdgVid^gZYVcVanhZYZaV^i

&(

PRODUITS CHIMIQUES NECESSAIRES


&# 7Y_Z[ikb\kh_gk[">(IE*

:m^\ZcXZh/
9Zch^i|'%8
&!-&-%!%%(\ba &

HnbWdaZYZYVc\Zg/

8aVhh^[^XVi^dcYZYVc\Zg/
8'G(*
H'"'+"(%

incolore ou trs faiblement


teint et sans composants
pouvant influencer
le rsultat
>cY^XVi^dch/
La densit exige correspond une concentration de 90 / 91 %. Eviter toute
concentration diffrente. De lacide sulfurique plus concentr attaque 65C
lalcool amylique et cre par dshydratation de lolfine influant le rsultat final.
Des concentrations moins leves diminuent leffet doxydation. La destruction
de lenveloppe de protection des lipides est donc incomplte, ce qui risque de
provoquer la formation de grumeaux.

'# 7bYeebWcob_gk[

edjgaVYiZgb^cVi^dcYVeghaVbi]dYZ<ZgWZg
Mlange isomre de Mthyle butane 2- 1- ol et Mthyle butane 3 1-ol
:m^\ZcXZh/
9Zch^i|'%8
%!-&&%!%%(\ba &
Limites dbullition: 98 %
(quantit volumtrique) doivent
distiller entre 128 et 132C
une pression dun bar.

HnbWdaZYZYVc\Zg/ 8aVhh^[^XVi^dcYjYVc\Zg/
McG&%"'%
H')$'*
KW;6>>

Lalcool amylique ne doit


renfermer aucun composant
pouvant influencer le rsultat.
Au lieu dalcool amylique, on pourra
utiliser des matires de remplacement dans la mesure o ces dernires mnent au mme rsultat.
>cY^XVi^dch/
Les alcools amyliques isomres prsentent des points dbullition diffrents :
Mthyle butane 2- 1- ol = 128C et Mthyle butane 3 1-ol = 132C.
Seul ce mlange parmi les alcools isomres connus convient pour la mthode de
Gerber.
Des impurets dues aux autres alcools isomres, en particulier lalcool amylique
tertiaire Mthyle butane 2-2ol faussent les rsultats de lanalyse en rvlant un
contenu en lipides trop lev.

&)

8ViVad\jZYZaVWdgVid^gZYVcVanhZYZaV^i

APPAREILS NECESSAIRES

&#8kjohecjh[ijWbeddiVkZXWdjX]dchVYfjVih
 9>C&'-(+"6)!9>C&'-(+"6+!9>C&'-(+"6-!9>C&'-(+"6*
'#F_f[jj[|aV^i9>C&%'-(djf_f[jj[}bW_j9>C&'-(,"6
(#F_f[jj[9>C&'-(,"7djZ_ijh_Xkj[khYZ&%baYVX^YZhja[jg^fjZ
)#F_f[jj[9>C&'-(,"8YZ&baedjgVaXddaVbna^fjZ
*# 9[djh_\k][ki[ fekh Zj[hc_dWj_ed Z[i b_f_Z[i bWYji fj^eZ Yjc XdbeiZ"idjgh Zi
X]Vj[[VWaZ#8ZiiZXZcig^[j\ZjhZYd^iedjkd^gegdYj^gZZcX]Vg\ZeaZ^cZ!Vegh'b^cjiZhYZ
[dcXi^dccZbZcibVm#!jcZVXXagVi^dcYZ(*%*%\hjgaVeVgd^^cig^ZjgZYjWdjX]dc
YjWjingdbigZ#8ZiiZVXXagVi^dchZgVViiZ^ciZ|&&%%-%b^c&edjgjcgVndcYZgd"
iVi^dcYZ'+%!*XbeVgZmZbeaZ_jhfj|aVeVgd^^cig^ZjgZYjWdjX]dcYjWjingdbigZ!
XZhi"|"Y^gZaZheVXZXdbeg^hZcigZaZXZcigZYZgdiVi^dcZiaZWdjX]dcYjWjingdbigZ#
+# :_ifei_j_\Zgk_b_XhW][Z[j[cfhWjkh[fekhXkjohecjh[ieVgZmZbeaZ/WV^c"bVg^Z
|+*'8#:cgZaVi^dcVkZXjcZXZcig^[j\ZjhZX]Vj[[Z!dcedjggVji^a^hZgjcZYdj^aaZ
edjgmZgaZWjingdbigZYVchaZWV^c"bVg^Z#AViZbegVijgZajZYZkgVV[X]ZgVjbd^ch
+*'8#

PREPARATION DE LECHANTILLON
GX]Vj[[Zg aZ aV^i YVch jcZ WdjiZ^aaZ YX]Vci^aadccV\Z | '%8 Zi baVc\Zg egjYZb"
bZciVcYdWiZc^gjcZgeVgi^i^dc]dbd\cZYZha^e^YZhidjiZck^iVciaV[dgbVi^dcYZ
bdjhhZZifjZaVhdaji^dccZidjgcZVjWZjggZ#
Les matires grasses lactes sont plus lgres que leau et tournent la crme. Une
couche de graisse paisse se forme la surface. En mlangeant et en renversant prudemment, on revient ltat initial de la solution.
H^adccZeVgk^ZcieVh|geVgi^gjc^[dgbbZciaVXdjX]ZYZXgbZYZXZiiZ[Vdc!aZaV^i
YZkgVigZgX]Vj[[aZciZbZci|(*)%8ZcWVaVcVciYa^XViZbZciXZYZgc^Zg_jhfj|
XZfjZaZha^e^YZhhZhd^ZcigeVcYjhYZ[Vdc]dbd\cZ#AV^hhZgZchj^iZgZ[gd^Y^gaZaV^i
_jhfj|'%8VkVciYZhZhZgk^gYZaVe^eZiiZ#
La mousse fait souvrir lenveloppe des boules de lipides. Il est ensuite possible que cette
solution ait tendance tourner au beurre. Il est alors impossible de rpartir les lipides de
faon homogne. Les matires grasses se liqufient aux environs de 3540C, favorisant
ainsi la juste rpartition.
6eghaZg\aV\ZYZaViZbegVijgZ!dcaV^hhZgZedhZgaZaV^iZck^gdc(|)b^cjiZhVc
Ya^b^cZgaZh^cXajh^dchYV^g#
Les appareils de mesure volumtriques sont chelonns sur 20C. Les diffrences
de tempratures influent sur le volume. Les inclusions dair diminuent la densit et donc
la masse de la quantit de lait mesure.

8ViVad\jZYZaVWdgVid^gZYVcVanhZYZaV^i

&*

EXECUTION DE LANALYSE = PRESCRIPTION DE TRAVAIL


>a[VjYgVZ[[ZXijZgjcZYdjWaZYiZgb^cVi^dcYjbbZX]Vci^aadccV\ZYZaV^i
&# EaVXZg ' WjingdbigZh hjg jc hjeedgi hiVi^[# KZghZg Zchj^iZ
&% ba YVX^YZ hja[jg^fjZ hVch bdj^aaZg aZ Xdj Yj WjingdbigZ
^aa#&#
'# GZckZghZgegjYZbbZci(dj)[d^haVWdjiZ^aaZYX]Vci^aadccV"
\Z#6jhh^iiVegh!kZghZg&%!,*baYZaV^iYVchaZWjingdbigZ|
aV^YZYjcZe^eZiiZhVchZcbdj^aaZgaZXdjVcfjZaZaV^icZhZ
baVc\ZeVhVkZXaVX^YZhja[jg^fjZ#6XZiZ[[Zi!edhZgaVigVaZ"
bZci aV ed^ciZ YZ aV e^eZiiZ YVch aV edh^i^dc dWa^fjZ bVm^bVaZ
hjgaZWdgYYjWjingdbigZZigZXdjkg^gaVX^YZhja[jg^fjZYZaV^i
^aa#'#
Avec la mthode de Gerber, on injecte 11,0 ml de lait. Grce la rduction de la quantit de lait 10,75 ml, la quantit de lipides obtenue correspond mieux aux rsultats de la mthode de rfrence. Des rsidus de
lait peuvent subsister si le cou du butyromtre a t mouill. Une ligne
de sparation nette entre lacide et le lait sans bord bruntre est le signe
dun recouvrement correct.

(# & ba YVaXdda Vbna^fjZ Zhi Yedh hjg aZ aV^i | aV^YZ YjcZ
e^eZiiZ#
>aa#&

EdgiZgYZh\VcihZiYZhajcZiiZhYZegdiZXi^dcadghYj
gZbea^hhV\ZYZaVX^YZhja[jg^fjZ

En raison de la densit moindre de lalcool amylique, les liquides ne se


mlangent pas.

)# ;ZgbZg aZ WjingdbigZ | aV^YZ Yj WdjX]dc hVch baVc\Zg aZh
a^fj^YZh#
En rgle gnrale, lextrmit infrieure du bouchon entre alors en
contact avec le liquide.

*# EaVXZg aZ WjingdbigZ YVch jcZ Ydj^aaZ VkZX aV ed^gZ Zc WVh Zi
V\^iZgcZg\^fjZbZci_jhfj|adWiZci^dcYjcbaVc\ZidiVaYj
a^fj^YZ Zc VeejnVci [ZgbZbZci VkZX aZ edjXZ hjg aZ WdjX]dc#
GZckZghZg eajh^Zjgh [d^h aZ WjingdbigZ hZgi | W^Zc geVcYgZ
aVX^YZhja[jg^fjZgZhiVciYVchaVed^gZ^aa#(#
Une forte chaleur se dgage pendant
le mlange des liquides. Le bouchon
peut tre ject en raison de la formation de gaz ou le butyromtre peut
ventuellement se briser.
La douille du butyromtre est un dispositif de scurit. On peut galement
utiliser une simple serviette au lieu de
la douille du butyromtre.

>aa#'

&+

&%!,*baYZaV^ihdci^cigdYj^ihYVchaZWjingdbigZ|
aV^YZYjcZe^eZiiZ

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>aa#(
AZWjingdbigZhZigdjkVciYVch
aVYdj^aaZZhihZXdjedgiZgYZh
ajcZiiZhZi\VcihYZegdiZXi^dc

Un secouement trop irrgulier ou le


fait de tenir le butyromtre loblique
trop longtemps empche un mlange
rapide et donc leffet doxydation dans
tout le liquide ce qui anantit la mise
en couches.

>aa#)

GZbea^hhV\ZYZaVXZcig^[j\ZjhZ

>aa#*

AZhWjingdbigZhhdciVbZch|aViZbegVijgZYZ
aZXijgZZmVXiZYVchaZWV^c"bVg^Z

>aa#+

6aV^YZYjcZaVbeZYZaZXijgZYZhXjg^i!aZhkVaZjgh
bZhjgZhedjggdciigZhajZhYZ[VdcegX^hZ

+# >bbY^ViZbZci Vegh Vkd^g iZgb^c YV\^iZg Zi YZ gZckZghZg aZh
WjingdbigZh!fj^hdciZcXdgZighX]VjYh!^ahhdcieaVXhVkZXaZjg
WdjX]dc|aZckZghYVchjcZYdj^aaZYZaVXZcig^[j\ZX]Vj[[Z<ZgWZg
^aa#)!XZZcfjd^aZhWjingdbigZhYd^kZciigZeaVXhZmVXiZbZci
[VXZ|[VXZ#AVXdadccZYZa^e^YZhYZkgVigZg\aZVjegVaVWaZ|aV
]VjiZjgYjiVjmYZa^e^YZhViiZcYjZcidjgcVciaZWdjX]dc#AVXZc"
ig^[j\ZjhZ Zhi YbVggZ Vegh fjZ aZ iZbeh YZ XZcig^[j\Vi^dc V^i
ig\a#FjVcYaVXZcig^[j\ZVjgVViiZ^ciaVXXagVi^dcYZ(*%
*%\!XZfj^hZegdYj^i]VW^ijZaaZbZciVjWdjiYjcZb^cjiZ!\VgYZg
aZ cdbWgZ YZ i$b^c &&%%  *% eVg b^cjiZ eZcYVci jcZ YjgZ YZ
)b^cjiZh#
AVXZcig^[j\ZjhZYd^iigZfj^eZYjckZggdj^aaV\ZYZXdjkZgXaZ#
AZgdidgZhiVjidbVi^fjZbZci[gZ^cYhfjZaVYjgZYZXZcig^[j\V"
i^dcViViiZ^ciZ#
,# AZhWjingdbigZh hdciZchj^iZgZi^ghYZaVXZcig^[j\ZhVchigZ
eZcX]h!ej^heaVXhWdjX]dcZcWVhYVchjcWV^c"bVg^Z|+*8
eZcYVcijcZYjgZYZ*b^cjiZh#^aa#*
Il est particulirement important de maintenir la temprature pour lexactitude des rsultats. Seule la lecture 65C garantit un rsultat exact. Si
la temprature est infrieure 65C, le volume de la colonne de lipides
diminue en consquence. Un taux de matires grasses moindre est alors
indiqu.

8ViVad\jZYZaVWdgVid^gZYVcVanhZYZaV^i

&,

RESULTATS ET EXACTITUDE DES MESURES


-# 6egh Vkd^g ZcaZk aZ WjingdbigZ Yj WV^c"bVg^Z! iZc^g XZaj^"X^ | aV kZgi^XVaZ YZ
hdgiZfjZaZbc^hfjZYZaVXdadccZYZha^e^YZhhZigdjkZ|aV]VjiZjgYZhnZjm
YZaji^a^hViZjg#6aV^YZYjWdjX]dc!g\aZgaVa^\cZYZheVgVi^dcYja^fj^YZYZY^h"
hdaji^dc$a^e^YZhhjgjcigV^iYZaX]ZaaZYjWjingdbigZZigZaZkZgaV]VjiZjgYZaV
XdadccZYZha^e^YZhVjed^ci^c[g^ZjgbVm^bVaYjbc^hfjZ#H^aVaZXijgZegZcY
eajhadc\iZbeh!^a[VjYgVgZbZiigZaZWjingdbigZYVchaZWV^c"bVg^Z#^aa#+Zi,

 H^aZhnZjmZiaZbc^hfjZYZaVXdadccZYZa^e^YZhcZhZigdjkZcieVh|]VjiZjg
\VaZ!aVaZXijgZhZgVhdjb^hZ|jcZZggZjgYZeVgVaaVmZ#

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edhh^WaZYdWiZc^gjcZaZXijgZeajhegX^hZVkZXaZhWjingdbigZhedjgaV^iZci^Zg#
AZghjaiViajZhikVaVWaZadghfjZaZbc^hfjZidjX]ZaV\gVYjVi^dc#^aa#,V
H^aZbc^hfjZXdjeZaVbVgfjZ\gVYjZ!aVkVaZjg^c[g^ZjgZZhiVadgh^cY^fjZ#
^aa#,W
AZhYiZgb^cVi^dchYdjWaZhcZedjggdciV[X]ZgjcZY^[[gZcXZhjeg^ZjgZ|%!&%
ZcigZZaaZh#8ZiiZkVaZjgXdggZhedcYYdcX|aZjggei^i^k^i#
AZh ghjaiVih dWiZcjh YZkgdci igZ Xdbeaih eVg a^cY^XVi^dc IVjm YZ a^e^YZh
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%!&%0^cY^fjZgVadghaVkVaZjgbdnZccZYZXZaj^"X^#
:X]Vci^aadc&/)!'%q:X]Vci^aadc'/)!(%qGhjaiVi/)!'*YZa^e^YZh
H^ aZh kVaZjgh YZ )!'%  Zi )!'*  iV^Zci ajZh! X]d^h^g Vadgh aV kVaZjg ^c[g^ZjgZ
)!'%YVeghaZeg^cX^eZYZegjYZcXZ#

&-

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:j[hc_dWj_edZkjWknZ[b_f_Z[iZWdib[bW_j^ece]d_iZWfhibWcj^eZ[Z[=[hX[h
A]dbd\c^hVi^dcYjaV^iYZXdchdbbVi^dcZhi[V^iZedjgZbeX]ZgaV[dgbVi^dcYZ
XgbZ#AZhWdjaZhYZa^e^YZhYZiV^aaZhY^[[gZciZhhdciVadghgYj^iZh|jcY^VbigZ
^YZci^fjZVaaVciYZ&|'b^Xgdch#AVheVgVi^dcYjZ|aVXZcig^[j\Vi^dcZhieVgXdch"
fjZci[dgiZbZciY^b^cjZ#6cYZheVgZgXdbeaiZbZciaZha^e^YZhV^ch^a^Wgh!^a
ZhicXZhhV^gZYZaZhXZcig^[j\Zgeajhadc\iZbeh#
Dc ZcigZegZcY aZh e]VhZh & | - Yj egdXY XdbbZ adgh YjcZ VcVanhZ YZ aV^i cdc
]dbd\c^h#DccdiZZchj^iZaZghjaiVi#
AZWjingdbigZZhiZchj^iZYZcdjkZVjgX]Vj[[VjWV^c"bVg^Z|+*8eZcYVciVj
bd^ch*b^cjiZh!ej^hXZcig^[j\\VaZbZcieZcYVci*b^cjiZhVkVciYZa^gZaZghja"
iViXdbbZYXg^iVjeVgVkVci#
H^aVkVaZjgYZaVhZXdcYZXZcig^[j\Vi^dciV^ihjeg^ZjgZYZ%!%*|XZaaZdWiZcjZ
adghYZaVegZb^gZXZcig^[j\Vi^dc!geiZgaZgX]Vj[[ZbZciZiaVXZcig^[j\Vi^dc'[d^h
VjbVm#
H^aVkVaZjgVVj\bZciYZ%!%*VjbVm#eVggVeedgi|aVegZb^gZ!aVkVaZjgaVeajh
aZkZZhieg^hZZcXdbeiZ#
:mZbeaZ/
Lchantillonnage double affiche 3,55 % et 3,60 % aprs la premire centrifugation.
3,60 % et 3,65 % aprs la seconde centrifugation. Le rsultat du taux de lipides contenu
dans le lait homognis sera 3,65 %.
Si une diffrence suprieure 0,05 % persiste toutefois aprs les deux dernires
oprations, cest--dire aprs les quatrime et cinquime centrifugations, le rsultat de
cette dtermination ne pourra tre utilis.

8ViVad\jZYZaVWdgVid^gZYVcVanhZYZaV^i

&.

DETERMINATION BUTYROMETRIQUE DES LIPIDES


DANS DIFFERENTS PRODUITS LAITIERS
AVANT-PROPOS:

la dtermination butyromtrique des lipides contenus dans le lait est progressivement remplace par dautres mthodes danalyses de routine (effectues
avec des appareils tels que LactoStar). Cependant, les produits laitiers tels que
le fromage, la crme glace, etc. ne peuvent pas tre mesurs par ces appareils ou seulement aprs une prparation trs longue des chantillonnages.
Les procds butyromtriques reprsentent alors une excellente alternative
pour les analyses de routine concernant ce genre de produit.

1.0 CHAMP DAPPLICATION


9iZgb^cVi^dcYZha^e^YZhYVchaZaV^iZiY^[[gZcihegdYj^ihaV^i^Zgh#

2.0 VOLUME
HVj[egZhXg^ei^dcXdcigV^gZ!dcji^a^hZgVidj_djghaZhfjVci^ihhj^kVciZhedjgaZhegd"
Yj^ihX]^b^fjZhZiaZhX]Vci^aadccV\ZhYVcVanhZ/
6X^YZhja[jg^fjZ/
&%!%ba'%8 '8
6aXddaVbna^fjZ/
&!%ba'%8 '8
AV^idjegdYj^iaV^i^Zg/ &%!,*ba'%8 '8

3.0 BREVES DESCRIPTIONS DE LA DETERMINATION


BUTYROMETRIQUE DES LIPIDES:
3.1 ... DANS LE LAIT (DAPRES GERBER):
9ZhWjingdbigZh|aV^ieVg[V^iZbZcicZiidnh!hVchVjXjcgZhiZYZYX]Zih\gVh!hdci
gZbea^hYVchadgYgZhj^kVci/&%baYVX^YZhja[jg^fjZYZch^i/&!-&- $"%!%%(\$ba!
&%!,* ba YZ aV^i Zi & ba YVaXdda Vbna^fjZ# GZbea^g aZ aV^i Zi aVaXdda Vbna^fjZ Zc
XdjX]ZhYZhdgiZfjVjXjcbaVc\ZcZhZegdYj^hZVkVciYV\^iZg#6egh[ZgbZijgZ!aZ
XdciZcjZhiW^ZcV\^iZigZidjgceajh^Zjgh[d^h#:cg\aVciaZWdjX]dcVkZXegXVj"
i^dc! dc kZ^aaZgV | gZbea^g aX]ZaaZ bV^h eVh aV ed^gZ# 8Zcig^[j\Zg Zchj^iZ aZ Wjingd"
bigZ|X]VjYZiiZbegZgVjWV^c"bVg^Z|+*8eZcYVci*b^cjiZh#G\aZgZchj^iZ
aVa^\cZYZheVgVi^dcZcigZaZbaVc\ZYVX^YZhja[jg^fjZZiaX]ZaaZYZha^e^YZhhjg
jc XgVc YZ \gVYjVi^dc Zi a^gZ aZmigb^i hjeg^ZjgZ YZ aV XdadccZ YZ a^e^YZh hjg aZ
bc^hfjZ^c[g^Zjg#

3.2 ... DANS LE LAIT HOMOGENEISE


Ji^a^hZg aV egdXYjgZ ^cY^fjZ X^"YZhhjh bV^h XZcig^[j\Zg igd^h [d^h YZ hj^iZ eZcYVci
*b^cjiZh#:cigZX]VfjZXZcig^[j\Vi^dc!gX]Vj[[ZgaZhWjingdbigZheZcYVci*b^cjiZh
VjWV^c"bVg^Z|+*8#(Dtails, page 19)

3.3 ... DANS LE LAIT ECREME ET LE PETIT-LAIT


Utilisation de butyromtres pour lait crm avec chelle rduite daprs Sichler.
8Zcig^[j\ZgYZjm[d^hZieadc\ZgaZhWjingdbigZhZcigZ"iZbehVjWV^c"bVg^Z|+*8
eZcYVci*b^cjiZh#

3.4 ... DANS LE LAIT CONDENSE (NON SUCRE)


AZaV^igX]Vj[[VjegVaVWaZ|*%8ej^hgZ[gd^Y^ZhibaVc\|jckdajbZ^YZci^fjZ
YZVj#8ZiiZY^aji^dcZhiZchj^iZVcVanhZXdbbZaZaV^iYVeghaVbi]dYZ<ZgWZg#
IVjmYZa^e^YZh2kVaZjgajZm'#

'%

8ViVad\jZYZaVWdgVid^gZYVcVanhZYZaV^i

3.5 ... DANS LE BABEURRE (MODIFIE SELON MOHR ET BAUR)


BZiigZ &% ba YVX^YZ hja[jg^fjZ YZch^i/ &!-(% $" %!%%( \$ba YVch aZ WjingdbigZ#
6_djiZg|aV^YZYjcZe^eZiiZ&%baYZWVWZjggZVja^ZjYZ&%!,*baZi'!%baYVaXdda
Vbna^fjZ# 7^Zc hZXdjZg aZ WjingdbigZ Vegh aVkd^g [Zgb Zi XZcig^[j\Zg ^bbY^ViZ"
bZcieZcYVci&%b^cjiZh!XZfj^ZbeX]ZaV[dgbVi^dc\cVciZYZXV^aadih#AVaZXijgZhZ
[V^iVeghVkd^giZbeg|+*8 $"'8#IVjmYZa^e^YZh2kVaZjgajZm&!%,*#

3.6 ... DANS LE LAIT EN POUDRE DAPRES TEICHERT


Utilisation de butyromtres pour lait en poudre daprs la mthode de Teichert.
AZWjingdbigZZhigZbea^YZ&%baYVX^YZhja[jg^fjZYZch^i/&!-&- $"%!%%(\$baZi
gZXdjkZgiYZ,!*baYZVjZi&baYVaXddaVbna^fjZ#EZhZg'!*\YZaV^iZcedjYgZ|aV^YZ
YjcZcVXZaaZYZeZhZZi^cigdYj^gZYVchaZWjingdbigZVkZXjcZcidccd^gZijce^cXZVj
|ed^ah#HZXdjZgZchj^iZcZg\^fjZbZciaZWjingdbigZZcigZaVb^hZVjWV^c"bVg^Zge"
iZeajh^Zjgh[d^h|+*8#8Zcig^[j\Zg|X]VjYZchj^iZ'[d^hZia^gZVeghVkd^gYZcdjkZVj
b^hVjWV^c"bVg^ZeZcYVci*b^cjiZh#

3.7 ... DANS LA CREME DAPRES ROEDER (METHODE DE PESEE)


Utilisation de butyromtres pour crme daprs la mthode de Roeder.
EZhZg*\YZXgbZYVchaZWdjX]dcYjgX^e^ZciZckZggZZi^cigdYj^gZYVchaZWjingdb"
igZ#>cigdYj^gZZchj^iZaVX^YZhja[jg^fjZYZch^i/&!*'' $"%!%%*\$baeVgadjkZgijgZ
hjeg^ZjgZYjWjingdbigZ_jhfjVj"YZhhjhYjWdgYYjgX^e^ZciZckZggZ#6eghaVkd^g
[Zgb!V\^iZgaZWjingdbigZcZg\^fjZbZci_jhfj|XdbeaiZY^hhdaji^dcYZaVaWjb^cZ
ZiaZeaVXZgYVchjcWV^c"bVg^Z|,%8#6_djiZgaVX^YZhja[jg^fjZ_jhfj|]VjiZjgYjY"
WjiYZaX]ZaaZZi&baYVaXddaVbna^fjZ#6\^iZgZchj^iZaZWjingdbigZ[ZgbZibZiigZ
VjWV^c"bVg^Z|,%8eZcYVci*b^cjiZh#8Zcig^[j\Zg*b^cjiZhej^hiZbegZgVjWV^c"
bVg^Z|+*8#A^gZ|+*8#G\aZgaVXdadccZYZa^e^YZhVjed^ciogdZia^gZVjbc^hfjZ
^c[g^Zjg#

3.8 ... DANS LA CREME DAPRES SCHULZ-KLEY (METHODE DE PESEE)


Utilisation de butyromtres pour crme daprs la mthode de Schulz-Kley.
GZbea^gYVchadgYgZhj^kVciaZWjingdbigZVkZX/&%baYVX^YZhja[jg^fjZYZch^i/
&!-&- $"%!%%(\$ba!*baYZVj!Zck^gdc*\YZXgbZeZhZeVgY^[[gZcXZVjbdnZc
YjcZe^eZiiZdjhZg^c\jZYZeZhZbdciVWaZhjgaVWVaVcXZ!&baYVaXddaVbna^fjZ#
6egh[ZgbZijgZYjWdjX]dc!aZXdciZcjYjWjingdbigZZhibaVc\ZciVciV\^iZi
gZckZghej^haZWjingdbigZZhieaVXYVchaVXZcig^[j\ZjhZX]Vj[[ZeZcYVci*b^"
cjiZh#AVaZXijgZZhiZ[[ZXijZVeghjceVhhV\ZYZ*b^cjiZhVjWV^c"bVg^Z|+*8#
6iiZci^dc/:cgV^hdcYZakZcijZaaZedhh^W^a^iYZY^b^cji^dcYZaVX]VaZjgYZgVXi^dc
YjZ|aVY_dcXi^dcYZVj!eVheajhYZ&*b^cjiZhcZYZkgdcihXdjaZgZcigZaZgZXdj"
kgZbZciYZaZVjZiaZhZXdjZbZci#AVY^hhdaji^dcYZkgVigZVX]ZkZZc+%hZXdcYZh
VjbVm^bjb#IVjmYZa^e^YZh2kVaZjgajZm*$eZhZYZaVXgbZ#

3.9 ... DANS LA CREME DAPRES KHLER (METHODE DE DOSAGE)


Utilisation de butyromtres pour crme daprs la mthode de Khler.
GZbea^gaZWjingdbigZedjgXgbZYVchadgYgZhj^kVciVkZX/&%baYVX^YZhja[jg^fjZ
YZch^i/&!-&- $"%!%%(\$ba!*!%*baYZXgbZ!*baYZVj!&baYVaXddaVbna^fjZ#
:cXVhYji^a^hVi^dcYjcZhZg^c\jZ|XgbZ!XZaaZ"X^YZkgVigZg^cXZeajh^Zjgh[d^h
|aZVjVkVcifjZcZhd^ZciVhe^ghaZh*baYZVjegZhXg^ih#;ZgbZgaZWjingdbigZ!
V\^iZg!XZcig^[j\ZgeZcYVci*b^cjiZhZia^gZVeghVkd^giZbegeZcYVci*b^cjiZhVj
WV^c"bVg^Z|+*8#AVaZXijgZhZ[[ZXijZ|eVgi^gYjed^ciogd#

8ViVad\jZYZaVWdgVid^gZYVcVanhZYZaV^i

'&

3.10 ... DANS LE FROMAGE DAPRES VAN GULIK (METHODE DE PESEE)


(Voir norme ISO 3433) Utilisation de butyromtres fromage daprs van Gulik.
>cigdYj^gZ ( \  $" %!' \ YZ [gdbV\Z | aV^YZ YjcZ cVXZaaZ YZ eZhZ Zi Yjc e^c"
XZVj | ed^ah YVch aZ WjingdbigZ kVc <ja^` [Zgb | aZmigb^i YZ aX]ZaaZ Vegh
aVY_dcXi^dc YZ &* ba YVX^YZ hja[jg^fjZ YZch^i/ &!*'' $" %!%%* \$ba# ;ZgbZg
Zchj^iZadjkZgijgZYZgZbea^hhV\Z#AZhX]Vci^aadchYZ[gdbV\Ze}iZjmYd^kZciZc"
hj^iZigZeZhhYVchaZ\dYZiZckZggZeZgXYjWjingdbigZYZkVc<ja^`Zi^cigd"
Yj^ih YVch aZ WjingdbigZ# AZ WjingdbigZ [Zgb Zhi eaVX VkZX aX]ZaaZ Y^g^\Z
kZghaZ]VjiYVchjcWV^c"bVg^Z|,%-%8ZiV\^i|eajh^ZjghgZeg^hZh_jhfj|aV
Y^hhdaji^dcXdbeaiZYj[gdbV\Z#6_djiZgZchj^iZeVgadjkZgijgZYZaX]ZaaZ&ba
YVaXddaVbna^fjZZiYZaVX^YZhja[jg^fjZ_jhfj|aVbVgfjZYZh&*YZaX]ZaaZ#
;ZgbZg!baVc\Zg!iZbegZgVjWV^c"bVg^Z|+*8eZcYVci*b^cjiZh!XZcig^[j\Zg
* b^cjiZh# GZeaVXZg Vj WV^c"bVg^Z | +*8! g\aZg aV XdadccZ YZh a^e^YZh Vj ed^ci
ogdZia^gZaZiVjmYZa^e^YZhVWhdaj|aZmigb^i^c[g^ZjgZYjbc^hfjZ#IVjmYZ
a^e^YZh2kVaZjgajZm($eZhZYj[gdbV\Z#

3.11 ... DANS LA CREME GLACEE PAR KHLER (METHODE DE DOSAGE)


Utilisation de butyromtres crme glace daprs Khler.
:caZkZgaZ\aVX^hdjaZheVgi^XjaZhVhhZo\gdhhZheVgZm#[gj^ih!ZiX##AVXgbZ
\aVXZgX]Vj[[Z|aViZbegVijgZVbW^VciZYZkgVigZW^ZcbaVc\Z!aV^gniVci
XdciZcjYZkgVigZkZcijZaaZbZciVhe^g#
GZbea^gaZWjingdbigZ|XgbZ\aVXZYVchadgYgZhj^kVciVkZX/&%baYVX^YZ
hja[jg^fjZYZch^i/&!-&- $"%!%%(\$ba!*baYZXgbZ\aVXZ!*baYZVj!&ba
YVaXdda Vbna^fjZ# :c XVh Yji^a^hVi^dc YjcZ hZg^c\jZ! XZaaZ"X^ YZkgV igZ g^cXZ
eajh^Zjgh[d^h|aZVjVkVcifjZcZhd^ZciVhe^ghaZh*baYZVjegZhXg^ih#H^ahVk"
gV^ifjZaZWjingdbigZciV^ieVhhj[hVbbZcigZbea^!dcedjggVV_djiZg_jhfj|
' ba YZVj# ;ZgbZg aZ WjingdbigZ! V\^iZg! XZcig^[j\Zg eZcYVci * b^cjiZh Zi a^gZ
VeghVkd^giZbeg*b^cjiZhVjWV^c"bVg^Z|+*8#

3.12 ... DANS LA CREME GLACEE PAR ROEDER (METHODE DE PESEE)


Utilisation de butyromtres crme la glace daprs Roeder.
*\YZXgbZ\aVXZW^ZcbaVc\hhdcieZhhYVchaZgX^e^ZciZckZggZhZigdjkVci
YVchaZWdjX]dcZiYedhhYVchaZWjingdbigZ#AVX^YZhja[jg^fjZYZch^i/&!*''
$"%!%%*\$baZhiZchj^iZ^cigdYj^ieVgadjkZgijgZhjeg^ZjgZYjWjingdbigZ_jh"
fjVj"YZhhjhYjWdgYYjgX^e^ZciZckZggZ#6eghVkd^gi[Zgb!aZWjingdbigZ
ZhiV\^icZg\^fjZbZci|eajh^ZjghgZeg^hZh_jhfj|Y^hhdaji^dcXdbeaiZYZaVa"
Wjb^cZZieaVXYVchjcWV^c"bVg^Z|,%8#DcV_djiZ&baYVaXddaVbna^fjZZi
YZaVX^YZhja[jg^fjZ_jhfj|aV\gVYjVi^dcYZh&%#;ZgbZgaZWjingdbigZ!V\^iZg
ZieaVXZgVjWV^c"bVg^Z|,%8eZcYVci&%b^cjiZh#8dci^cjZgYV\^iZgXZjm"X^|
^ciZgkVaaZhg\ja^ZgheZcYVciaZWV^c"bVg^Z#8Zcig^[j\ZgZchj^iZeZcYVci,b^cjiZh
ZiiZbegZg|+*8VjWV^c"bVg^Z#A^gZ|+*8#AVXdadccZYZha^e^YZhZhig\aZ
Vjed^ciogdZiaVaZXijgZhZ[[ZXijZ|aZmigb^i^c[g^ZjgZYjbc^hfjZ#

3.13 ... DANS LE BEURRE DAPRES ROEDER (METHODE DE DOSAGE)


Utilisation de butyromtres beurre daprs Roeder.
*\YZWZjggZhdcieZhhYVchaZgX^e^ZciZckZggZhZigdjkVciYVchaZWdjX]dcZi
Yedhh YVch aZ WjingdbigZ# AVX^YZ hja[jg^fjZ YZch^i/ &!*'' $" %!%%* \$ba Zhi
Zchj^iZ^cigdYj^ieVgadjkZgijgZhjeg^ZjgZYjWjingdbigZ_jhfjVj"YZhhjhYjWdgY
YjgX^e^ZciZckZggZ#6eghVkd^gi[Zgb!aZWjingdbigZZhiV\^icZg\^fjZbZci
| eajh^Zjgh gZeg^hZh _jhfj| Y^hhdaji^dc XdbeaiZ YZ aVaWjb^cZ Zi eaVX YVch jc
WV^c"bVg^Z|,%8#6_djiZgZchj^iZYZaVX^YZhja[jg^fjZ_jhfj|]VjiZjgYjYWjiYZ
aX]ZaaZZi&baYVaXddaVbna^fjZ#;ZgbZgaZWjingdbigZ!V\^iZgZieaVXZgVjWV^c"
bVg^ZeZcYVci*b^cjiZh|,%8#8Zcig^[j\Zg*b^cjiZh!iZbegZgVjWV^c"bVg^Z|
+*8Zck#*b^cjiZhZia^gZ|+*8|aZmigb^i^c[g^ZjgZYjbc^hfjZ#

''

8ViVad\jZYZaVWdgVid^gZYVcVanhZYZaV^i

3.14 ... DANS LA MAYONNAISE DAPRES ROEDER (METHODE DE PESEE)


Utilisation de butyromtres beurre daprs Roeder.
& \ YZ bVndccV^hZ Zhi eZh YVch aZ gX^e^Zci Zc kZggZ hZ igdjkVci YVch aZ WdjX]dc
ZiYedhYVchaZWjingdbigZ#AVX^YZhja[jg^fjZYZch^i/&!*'' $"%!%%*\$baZhi
Zchj^iZ^cigdYj^ieVgadjkZgijgZhjeg^ZjgZYjWjingdbigZ_jhfjVjYZhhjhYjWdgY
YjgX^e^ZciZckZggZ#6eghVkd^gi[Zgb!aZWjingdbigZZhiV\^icZg\^fjZbZci
_jhfj|Y^hhdaji^dcXdbeaiZYZaVaWjb^cZZieaVXYVchjcWV^c"bVg^Z|,%8eZc"
YVci(%b^cjiZh#DcV_djiZYZaVX^YZhja[jg^fjZ_jhfj|]VjiZjgYjYWjiYZaX]ZaaZ
Zi & ba YVaXdda Vbna^fjZ# 6\^iZg Zchj^iZ aZ WjingdbigZ [Zgb Zi gZbZiigZ Vj WV^c"
bVg^ZeZcYVci*b^cjiZh#8Zcig^[j\Zg&%b^cjiZh!iZbegZgYVchaZWV^c"bVg^Z|+*8
Zck#*b^c##:[[ZXijZgaVaZXijgZ|+*8Vjc^kZVjYjbc^hfjZ^c[g^Zjg#Bjai^ea^ZgaV
kVaZjggZaZkZeVg*edjgdWiZc^gaZiVjmYZa^e^YZhXdggZhedcYVci#

3.15 DETERMINATION BUTYROMETRIQUE DAPRES GERBER


(VAN GULIK) DE LA VIANDE ET DE LA CHARCUTERIE
Daprs la mthode recommande par Pohja et collaborateurs.
7ffWh[_bi0

FheZk_jiY^_c_gk[i0

'$8kjohecjh[i

'$7Y_Z[ikb\kh_gk[

 7jingdbigZh|[gdbV\ZYVeghKVc<ja^`

9Zch^i|'%8&!-&- $"%!%%(\ba"&^cXdadgZdjigh
[V^WaZbZciiZ^ciZihVchXdbedhVcihedjkVci^cjZcXZg
aZghjaiVi#

($9[djh_\k][ki[
 8Zcig^[j\ZjhZ|aV^iVkZX68GVXXagVi^dcYZ
XZcig^[j\Vi^dcgZaVi^kZYZ(*%\ $"*%\#
eVgZm#HjeZgKVg^d"CdjCdkVHV[Zin#

($7bYeebWcob_gk[
9Zch^i|'%8%!-&& $"%!%%(\ba"&

)$8W_d#cWh_[
 7V^c"bVg^ZV\^i|jcZiZbegVijgZYZ
+*8 $"'8#
*$8WbWdY[ZWdWboi[
+$;gk_f[c[djWkn_b_W_h[fekhbWfhfWhWj_edZ[iY^Wdj_bbedi
 EdjggYj^gZZi]dbd\c^hZgaX]Vci^aadc!^aZhi
gZXdbbVcYYji^a^hZgjcb^mZjgdjidjiVjigZ
fj^eZbZcih^b^aV^gZ
;nYkj_ed0
AegdjkZiiZ Zc kZggZ eZgXZ WX]Zg | [gdbV\Z Yj Wjingd"
bigZ | [gdbV\Z Zhi idji YVWdgY ^chgZ YVch aZ WdjX]dc
Yj WjingdbigZ XZ WdjX]dc Zhi eZgX Yjc igdj# :chj^iZ!
dcehZVkZXegX^h^dc'*%%\YZaX]Vci^aadc]dbd\c^h
VkVciYZaZheaVXZgYVchXZiiZegdjkZiiZZckZggZWX]Zg
|[gdbV\Z#AZWX]Zg|[gdbV\ZZiaZWdjX]dchdci^chgh
YVch aZ Xdgeh Yj WjingdbigZ# 6 igVkZgh aV eZi^iZ djkZgijgZ
h^ijZ | aZmigb^i hjeg^ZjgZ Yj WjingdbigZ! dc V_djiZ
&% ba YVX^YZ hja[jg^fjZ! Y^ajh VkZX jcZ fjVci^i \VaZ
YZVj# AV eZi^iZ djkZgijgZ Zhi [ZgbZ | aV^YZ Yj eZi^i Wdj"
X]dcegkj|XZiZ[[ZiZiaZidjiZhieadc\YVchjcWV^c"bVg^Z
V\^i|+*8edjg(%|)%b^c#_jhfj|Y^hhdaji^dcXdbeaiZ
YZ aVaWjb^cZ# 6 aV^YZ YjcZ e^eZiiZ! dc V_djiZ Vadgh & ba
YVaXddaVbna^fjZ|igVkZghaVeZi^iZdjkZgijgZ!ej^hdcV\^iZ
cZg\^fjZbZciVegh[ZgbZijgZ#DcV_djiZZchj^iZYZaVX^YZ
hja[jg^fjZ _jhfj| XZ fjZ aZ c^kZVj a^fj^YZ idiVa hZ igdjkZ
| (%  YZ aX]ZaaZ# 8Zcig^[j\Zg Vadgh aZ WjingdbigZ VkZX

(*%\eZcYVci*b^c#6iiZci^dc/aVX]Vg\ZYZaVXZcig^[j\ZjhZ
cZ Yd^i eVh igZ igde a\gZ# 8ZaV h^\c^Z fjjc Wjingdb"
igZcZeZjieVhigZXZcig^[j\hZja/XZX^egdkdfjZjcZmXZc"
igV\Z! fj^ g^hfjZ YZcigVcZg jc Wg^h YZ kZggZ# AZ Y^hedh^i^[
YZk^WgVi^dchZhiVadghVggiZiaZhWjingdbigZhhdciiZb"
eghYVchjcWV^c"bVg^Z#AVaZXijgZYd^iigZZ[[ZXijZgV"
e^YZbZci Vegh aZ gZigV^i Yj WV^c"bVg^Z! XVg aV XdadccZ YZ
a^e^YZhY^b^cjZ[dgiZbZcibbZadghYZigh[V^WaZhWV^hhZh
YZiZbegVijgZhZiaZghjaiViV[X]ZgVYdcXjcZkVaZjgYZ
a^e^YZhigde[V^WaZ#AZhWjingdbigZhhdciY^bZch^dcchedjg
aZhX]Vci^aadchYZ(%%%\!XZfj^[V^ifjZaZhkVaZjghYiZg"
b^cZhYd^kZciigZXVaXjaZhhjgaVWVhZYZXZiiZfjVci^iYZ
hjWhiVcXZ|Vj\bZciZgYZ&+!+++#

8ViVad\jZYZaVWdgVid^gZYVcVanhZYZaV^i

'(

BUTYROMETRES
AZ egdXY <ZgWZg hVeej^Z hjg aji^a^hVi^dc YZ Wjin"
gdbigZh#AZWjingdbigZdg^\^cVaYdiYjcXdjgdcY
b^h Vj ed^ci eVg aZ 9g#C#<ZgWZg V i gZYkZadee
hdjhaV]djaZiiZYZEVja;jc`ZZiVkZXhdchdj[Zjg
YZ kZggZ edjg VWdji^g Vj [VbZjm WjingdbigZ eaVi#
6adgh fjZ aZ WjingdbigZ YZ <ZgWZg dg^\^cVa igdj"
kZ eZj YVeea^XVi^dc! aZh WjingdbigZh EH?=?D7KN
<KDA; =;H8;H | Xdj \gVYj eaVi hdci egZhfjZ
ZmXajh^kZbZciji^a^hh#AZXdj\gVYjeaViVj\bZciZaZ
Xdc[dgiYZaZXijgZZiVba^dgZaVegX^h^dc#AVfjVa^i
YZXZhWjingdbigZheaVihZhi^c\VaZZiaZjg[VWg^XV"
i^dcZhihdjb^hZ|YZhXdcigaZhYZegdYjXi^dchig^Xih#
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FONCTIONNEMENT LABRI DES VIBRATIONS


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VERROUILLAGE DU COUVERCLE
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*%8#

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FONCTIONNEMENT ET MAINTENANCE
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aVYjgZYZhZgk^XZYZaVbVX]^cZ#

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Z[[ZXi^[#AZgVndcZ[[ZXi^[ZhiYiZgb^ceVgaZheVXZXdbeg^hZcigZaZed^ciXZcigVaYj
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fjZaVXZcig^[j\ZjhZigVkV^aaZZcX]Vg\ZbVm^bVaZdjeVgi^ZaaZ#

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R = Rayon horizontal effectif en mm;
N = Nombre de tours la minute [min1].

TABLEAU RECAPITULATIF DES RAPPORTS ENTRE LE NOMBRE DE G ET LES TOURS/MIN


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**

DETERMINATION DE LAZOTE DAPRES KJELDAHL


Anna Politis, technologue en denres alimentaires diplme, biotechnologue diplme
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DETERMINATION DE LAZOTE DAPRES KJELDAHL


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'X]Vj[[ZgaX]Vci^aadc|'%%8eZcYVciZck#(%b^c#
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 Y^hhdaji^dc|jcZej^hhVcXZYZ&%8$b^c#
6YVeiZgaZiZbehYZY^hhdaji^dcYZbVc^gZ|dWiZc^gYZh
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igdeXdjgiheZjkZciYdccZgYZhghjaiVihigde[V^WaZh#
6eghaVY^hhdaji^dc!gZi^gZgaZhX]Vci^aadchYjWadX
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Ladjonction de sulfate de potassium sert faire monter la temprature


dbullition de lacide sulfurique et ladjonction de sulfate de cuivre de catalyseur
doxydation. Existent galement sous forme de tablettes Kjeldahl (n dart.:
4230/4231). Lorsque le procd impliquant les tablettes est effectu, 5 0,1 g de
lait sont mlangs avec 20 ml dacide sulfurique et 2 tablettes Kjeldahl, puis on
laisse reposer 5 min. Le programme de temprature peut ensuite tre excut.
Lacide sulfurique est introduit de telle manire quil est possible que la
solution de sulfate de cuivre, le sulfate de potassium ou le lait coulent sur
le cou de la fiole. Si la fiole est ferme hermtiquement, elle peut tre
conserve pour une dissolution ultrieure.
Lcume qui se forme pendant la chauffe de lchantillon doit toujours se
trouver au moins 4 5 cm sous louverture de la fiole.
Pour dterminer le temps de dissolution spcifique, il est conseill
deffectuer des tests prliminaires avec des chantillons haute teneur
en protines et riches en graisses.
Une cristallisation importante indique une quantit dacide sulfurique
trop faible et peut conduire des valeurs de protines moindres.
Cest pourquoi il est conseill de rduire la perte dacide sulfurique en
diminuant laspiration.
Avant de retirer la fiole de dissolution chaude de lunit de dissolution, il
faut sassurer quaucun liquide de condensation ne sest form dans le
dispositif daspiration. Le cas chant, augmenter la puissance daspiration
avant de dmonter la fiole et liminer le liquide de condensation.
La dissolution non dilue ne doit en aucun cas tre conserve longtemps
(pour la nuit) dans la fiole. Il existe un risque de solidification de
lchantillon et il sera alors difficile de lui faire retrouver son tat de
solution. Si lchantillon est dilu avec 70 ml deau aprs refroidissement,
il peut sans problme tre conserv longtemps.

8ViVad\jZYZaVWdgVid^gZYVcVanhZYZaV^i

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VY_dcXi^dc YZ aZhh^kZ YZ hdjYZ VkZX YZ aV kVeZjg# GZXjZ^aa^g aZ Y^hi^aaVi
YVch aV hdaji^dc YVX^YZ Wdg^fjZ '#+# GZi^gZg aZ gX^e^Zci YZ Y^hhdaji^dc
VeghaVcYjegd\gVbbZYZY^hi^aaVi^dc!g^cXZgaZijnVjYkVXjVi^dcYj
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*-

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CZeVhidjX]ZgaZhabZcihYjY^hedh^i^[
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Le distillateur deau doit tre plac sur une


table de laboratoire stable surface plane
et horizontale se trouvant proximit immdiate dun raccord deau froide et dun
coulement. La pression de leau doit
slever 0,5 bar au moins.
Avant la mise en service, tous les tuyaux
doivent tre raccords et leau de refroidissement doit fonctionner. Les rservoirs
doivent tre positionns correctement et
le niveau test. Le tuyau dintroduction de
vapeur deau doit tre insr dans la fiole
de dissolution. Le distillateur deau est
quip dune porte de protection.
Lors de la premire distillation, la vapeur
deau chaude est encore en contact avec
les conduites froides et les lments en
verre, ce qui entrane une formation accrue
de condensat risquant de conduire une
dilution de lchantillon et un volume de
liquide excessifs dans le rcipient de dissolution. Il est de ce fait ncessaire de raliser un essai tmoin. Lintrodution de vapeur deau une temprature denv. 106C
provoque des bruits plus ou moins forts. Il
ny a aucune raison de sen inquiter.
Continuer la distillation jusqu ce que le
volume de distillat atteigne 150 ml.
Environ 2 minutes avant la fin de la distillation, faire descendre la fiole dErlenmeyer
de manire ce que lextrmit du tube de
trop-plein ne trempe plus dans la solution
dacide. Rincer le tube avec un peu deau
et recueillir leau de rinage dans une fiole
dErlenmeyer.

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XdjaZjg|aVcYji^igV\Z#

Le mlange de rouge de mthyle et de vert de bromocrsol


(voir 2.5, 2.6) sert dindicateur. Lindicateur est responsable
du changement de couleur et signale la fin du titrage.
Le fond neutre amliore la prcision et la reproductibilit
des rsultats. Par consquent, les titrages sont toujours
raliss dans des conditions optiques aussi identiques que
possible.

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Le test en aveugle est important pour le calcul du taux


dazote de lchantillon.

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VkZj\aZ
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hjgfjVigZYX^bVaZh
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bjai^ea^ZgaVkVaZjgLceVgaZ[VXiZjg+!(-
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La dissolution daprs Kjeldahl nest pas spcifique aux


acides amins et aux protines et concerne tout lazote de
composition organique. Dautres composs non protiques
sont galement ouverts et compris (NPN: azote non protique). Cependant, leur pourcentage de lait et de produits laitiers est faible et nest pas pris en compte dans ce calcul.
Sil faut galement valuer lazote non protique (NPN),
la mthode doit tre applique conformment la norme DIN EN ISO 8968-4. Si seul lazote protique doit tre
valu, il faut dabord sparer les protines de lait. 5 0,1 ml
de lait dilu avec 50,1 ml deau sont lavs progressivement selon la norme DIN EN ISO 8968-5 avec en tout
60 ml dacide trichloractique 15 % (w/v), les protines
sont prcipites, puis filtres travers un filtre en papier
rigide. Le filtrat contient les composants de lazote non
protique et le prcipit filtr contient lazote protique.
Dposer le filtre avec le prcipit dans le rcipient de
dissolution et raliser la dtermination de lazote daprs
la mthode de Kjeldahl tel que dcrit prcdemment. Le
taux de protines est calcul avec une multiplication par
le facteur 6,38.
La valeur 6,38 est spcifique au lait et aux produits laitiers
et a t dfinie ainsi car les protines du lait ont une teneur
en azote de 15,65 % (100:15,65 = 6,38)

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Attention, ladjonction de peroxyde dhydrogne


entrane une vive raction.
Lessai en valeur aveugle est ralis avec 2 ml
deau et 0,25 g de saccharose. Lefficacit de la
dissolution est tudie avec 0,08 g de tryptophane
ou 0,06 g de chlorhydrate de lysine.

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Pour contrler le rendement de la dissolution, on


utilise un chantillon de 0,18 g de tryptophane ou
0,16 g de chlorhydrate de lysine et 0,67 g de saccharose. On doit retrouver 98 % de lazote. Dans
le cas contraire, la temprature de dissolution ou
la dure est insuffisante, ou bien lchantillon est
carbonis.

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EZi^i"aV^i/
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MESURE DE LA VALEUR pH
Anna Politis, technologue en denres alimentaires diplme, biotechnologue diplme

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En cas de dpt de graisse ou dhuile, dgraisser la membrane laide de coton imbib
dactone ou de solution savonneuse.
En cas de dpt de protine sur le diaphragme, tremper llectrode dans une solution de
HCl/ pepsine pendant env. 1-2 heures.
Dans le cas dune contamination au sulfure dargent, placer llectrode dans une solution
de thio-ure et laisser tremper.
En cas de dpts inorganiques, plonger llectrode dans 0,1 M HCl ou 0,1 M NaOH pendant
quelques minutes. On obtient un meilleur nettoyage avec des solutions chaudes 40-50C.
Aprs chaque procdure de nettoyage, placer llectrode dans une solution 3M KCl pendant
environ dheure pour renouveler le conditionnement, puis la recalibrer.

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DETERMINATION DU POINT DE CONGLATION


Hj_Zieg^dg^iV^gZYZ;jc`Z"9g#C#<ZgWZgAVWdgiZX]c^X`<bW=
K. Schfer, ingnieur diplm et W. Spindler physicien diplm

HISTOIRE
Ds 1895, le chimiste allemand Beckmann, connu pour le thermomtre portant son
nom, commena se servir du point de conglation du lait afin de dceler la prsence
deau dapport. En 1920, lAmricain Hortvet a travaill intensivement avec cette mthode
et a pu en amliorer certains points importants. Les premiers cryoscopes thermistance furent introduits sur le march dans les annes soixante. Cependant, leur utilisation tait encore totalement manuelle. Les cryoscopes thermistance automatiques,
permettant de dterminer automatiquement le point de conglation en appuyant sur un
simple bouton, sont apparus pour la premire fois au dbut des annes soixante-dix.
La foire FoodTec de 1984 a rvl un progrs
important concernant le cryoscope thermistance:
Funke-Gerber prsentait pour la premire fois un
appareil calibrage automatique. Ces travaux intensifs, qui ont permis de faire voluer considrablement lappareil, ont connu un autre tournant cette
mme foire FoodTec, en 1988, o Funke-Gerber
prsentait un dispositif de dtermination du point
de conglation entirement automatique avec une
capacit de 220 chantillons/h.
Avec lintroduction dune mesure indirecte du point
de conglation (par exemple LactoStar) pour lanalyse de routine, laccent fut principalement plac
sur des appareils de rfrence capables de dterminer le point de conglation conformment
aux exigences des normes en vigueur. Ces appareils doivent satisfaire des exigences trs strictes concernant lexactitude des mesures, car elles
servent ensuite calibrer les appareils danalyses
de routine. Cest dans ce but que Funke-Gerber a
dvelopp un cryoscope programmable prsentant
une capacit de dissolution de 0,1 mC. Cet appareil
a dj fait montre de sa prcision et de sa fiabilit
dans de nombreux laboratoires du monde entier.
Entre-temps, un appareil multi-chantillonnages
(CryoStarautomatic) est venu largir la gamme de
produits. Depuis janvier 2007, ces appareils sont quips dun affichage couleur graphique qui permet dafficher lcran la courbe de conglation dans son ensemble, en
particulier le processus de recherche de plateau, avec une reprsentation brevete.

.%

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SOURCES DERREURS POSSIBLES PENDANT


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9050

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9080

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9120

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9211

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9255

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9256

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9257

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9300

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9360

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9361

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9362

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9363

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9364

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9365

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9400

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9401

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9405

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9406

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9407

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9410

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9440

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9470

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9484

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9485

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9489

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9495

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9511

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