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# PRECISION POINT

Engineering
Fundamentals

BEAM THEORY

1/3
z

Introduction
Beam theory is such a common engineering fundamental; it is
impossible to be omitted from almost any engineeringspecialism. However this sheet incorporates stress and stiffness
as well.

2
.

Stress
Stiffness

A = 0

RA = F

|x | =

B =

FL2

R B = N. A.

2EI

MRx = F(x L)

6EI
FL3
3EIy

@x =L

B =

RA = 0

MRx = M

2EIy

@x =L

zmax =

4
0xa

8EIy

Fab(L+b)

B =

Fab(L+a)
6EIy L
6EIy

zmax =

A =
B =

Fab(L+b)

B =

Fab(L+a)

6EIy L
6EIy L
L

zx = 6EI [(1 + a)
y

A =
B =

q
x

93EIy L

abL

@x= L

6EIy L

Dx =

Fb

ML2
93EIy

@x=

qL
24EIy
x 3

x 4

[ 2( ) + ( ) ]
5

qL4

384 EIy

L
2

@ x = const.
L

u=

|q|L2 u
2Iy

zmax

@x=L

|q|u(Lx)
2Iy

@x = 0

|=

8EIy
L4

@x = L

Fbx

u=

|F|bau
Iy (a+b)
F

zx(F)

|=

|F|bxu
Iy L

@x = a
3EIy L

@x = a

ab

a+b
Fba

MRmax =
RA =

Fb

RB =

Fa

Dx =

Fb

@x =a

a+b

|x | =

L
L
L

|MRx |
Iy

|max | =

|F|bau

|Cz | = |

Iy L

MRx = (

Fbx

) F(x a)

MRmax =

Fba
L

u=

zx(F)

|(

Fbx
)F(xa)|
L

Iy

@x = a

|=

3EIy L

@x = a

ab

@x=a

|x | =

L
M

|MRx |
Iy

|max | =

u=

|M|u
Iy

LIy

@x = L

3EIy

|Cz | = | | =

|M|xu

@x=L

qL

24EIy L

Iy

EIy

Iy

MRx = ( ) x

24EIy

qL4 x

|M|u

u=

@x=L

L3

|MRx |

|Cz | = |

3EIy

|max | =

MRx =

Dx =

[ ( )]

|x | =

Fa

Iy

@x = 0

RB =

ML x

Fb

RB =

RA =

3EIy

zmax =

(Lx)3

ML

zx =

Fa(L2 a2 )3

ML

zmax =

Lx

6EIy

zx =

@x=

93EIy L

(L2

abL

Fb(L2 b2 )3

A =

zmax =

b L

[(1 + )

Fa2 b

axL

L x

x3

a+b=L

RA =

6EIy L

qL2

|F|u(xL)

|=

Iy

Iy

ns

@x= 0

|M|u

|MRx |

|Cz | = |

MRmax =

A =

Fab2

q(Lx)

MRx =

@x=L

zx =

qL4

Iy

|max | =

Dx = q(L x)

## zx = 24EI (6L2 4Lx + x 2 )

|x | =

R B = N. A.

6EIy

zx(F)

|Cz | = | | =

R A = qL

qL
qx2

MRmax = M @ = .

A = 0
B =

|Cz | = |

Iy

|MRx |

o
c ti
se

u=

|max | =

|max | =

Dx = N. A.

Mx2

2EIy

Iy

ss

|F|Lu

|x | =

R B = N. A.

EIy

ML2

|MRx |

MRmax = FL @ x = 0

ML

zmax =

Dx = F

(Fx2 )(3Lx)

A = 0

zx =

ex

Reaction force
Shear force
Reaction moment

zmax =

cro
ple
am

Curvature
sag

zx =

## u = extreme fiber distance

A = cross section area
I = Area moment of inertia

MRmax = M @ x = L
RA =

qL

RB =

qL

Dx =

qL

|x | =

MRx =

Iy

|max | =

2
2

|MRx |

qx

|Cz | = |

qx(Lx)

MRmax =

|q|L2 u
8Iy
q

zmax

|qx(Lx)u|

@x =

2Iy

@x =

L
2

|=
5|q|L4

2
qL2

u=

384EIy

@x =

L
2

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PRECISION POINT
Engineering
Fundamentals

BEAM THEORY

2/3

A =

B =

0xa

FbL

RA =

6EIy
FbL

zx =

Fba2

6EIy a

Fb
a

|MRx |
Iy

Fbx

MRx =

a
3

u=

|max | =

|F|au

|Cz | = |

Fb

@x=

93EIy

|x | =

Dx = ( )

[ ( )]

Fba2

Stress
Stiffness

Fb

RB = F +

3EIy

zmax =

F
z

Reaction force
Shear force
Reaction moment

Curvature
sag

Iy

zx(F)

|F|bxu
aIy

@x = a

|=

3EIy

@x = L

bL

MRmax = Fa @ x = a

a+b=L
C =

Fb(2a+3b)

zx =

axL

RA =

3EIy
F((x)+a)

## [ab 3bx + x 2ax + a]

2

6EIy

zmax =

Fb2 L
3EIy

Fb

|x | =

a
Fb

RB = F +

Dx = F

@x= L

MRx = F[(x) + a + b]

|MRx |
Iy

u=

|max | =

|F|au

|Cz | = |

Iy

zx(F)

|F|[(x)+L)
Iy

@x = a

|=

3EIy

@x = L

bL

MRmax = Fa @ x = a
A =

B =
0xa

qba

6EIy

zx =

C =

RB =

qba
qba2

12EIy a

RA =
a xa

zx = 24EI [4 b
y

+ 6(

xa 2
b

) 4(

zmax =

|Cz | = |

2a
2a

) +

RB =

) ]

qb3 (4a+3b)
24EIy

@x =L

qb2
2

A =

|x | =

2a

qb(b+2a)

zx =

0xa

a+b=L

FLb ax
4EIy

zmax =

x 3

[ L 3 (1 + 2L) (L) ]

abF

a
2L+a

6EIy

@x = L

a
2L
a
1+
2L

Only if a 0,414L

qb2
2

A =

a 2

2L

b 2

R B = F ( ) (1 +
Dx = F ( ) (1 +
L

axL

EIy

zmax = zx (xmax )
2aL+bLba

@ xmax = L [2aL+3bL+ba]
Only if a 0,414L

|Cz | = |

2a

|=

Iy

|max | =

u=

a
2L

2L

|Cz | = |

|F|xb2 u(2L+a)
2LIy
a
2L

|F|abu(1+ )
LIy

F
zx(F)

@x=L

a 0,414L

|=
12EIy L3

| @x = a

b2 a2 [3L2 2aLa2 ]

a 0,414L
a
2L

a 2

2L

R B = F ( ) (1 +

+
b

2L

Dx = F ( ) (1 +
b 2

|x | =

a 2

3b
2a

2a

Iy

2LIy

|max | =

ab
L

(1

b
2L

0,414L

u=

3b

|MRx |

## MRx = Fx (L) (1 + 2L) F(x a)

@x = L

zmax

@x=a

(1 +

3b

@x = a

2Iy
q

|MRx |

MRmax = F

|q|b2 u

24EIy

|x | =

MRx = Fx ( ) (1 +

## Fa(Lx) 2La2 3L2 x+ax

12L

2L

R A = F ( ) (1 +

B = 0

a
3

u=

b(4a+3b)

b 2

b 2

Fab
4EIy L

zx =

a
2L

@x=a

Iy

@x =a

L2

@x =

2Iy

q(b2bx+2ba+x 2 2xa+a2 )

Fab2

|MRx |

|max | =

MRx =

MRmax =

|=

|qu(b2bx+2ba+x 2 2xa+a2 )|

2a

R A = F ( ) (1 +

B = 0

@x =a

b 2

Fab

@x =a

2Iy

zmax

2aIy

b2 a

4EIy L

|q|b2 u

|q|b2 xu

183EIy

qb

MRmax =

u=

)x

Dx = qb q(x+a)

xa 4

axL

xa 3

Iy

|max | =

2a

MRmax =

6EIy

|MRx |

qb2

MRx = (

qbL

qb4

|x | =

2a

qb2

@x =

183EIy

qb

qb(b+2a)

Dx =

[ ( )]

qba2

zmax =

a+b=L

RA =

12EIy

b
2L

|Fabu(1 )|
LIy

@x = L
|Cz | = |

F
zx(F)

0,414L

|=
12EIy L3

| @x = a

b2 a2 [3L2 2aLa2 ]

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PRECISION POINT
Engineering
Fundamentals

BEAM THEORY

3/3

A = 0
B = 0

10
0xa

6EIy

zmax =

2 Fa2 b3

3 EIy L2 1+2b
L
1

axL

FLa2
6EIy

b 2

2a

Dx = F ( ) (1 +
MRx =

1
2a
L

1+

Iy

L
Fab
L

|F|uab

|Cz | = |

2a

a 2

2b

R B = F ( ) (1 +

2b
L

## F[b2 xL+2b2 xa+b2 aLL3x+La]

L

=L

|Cz | = |

24EIy

[( ) 2 ( ) + ( ) ]

qL4
384EIy

@x =

Fx(3L2x)

zmax =

12EIy
FL
12EIy

qL
2

MRx =

q(6x2 +6LxL2 )
12

MRmax =

@x = L

qL
12

LIy
F

zx(F)

@x = L

|=

Iy

u=

|max | =

|q|Lu

3EIy L3
b2 a3 (La)

|Cz | = |

q
zmax

|MRx |
Iy

|max | =

x=0
x=L

384EIy
L4

@x=

|x | =

FL

12Iy

|=

x=L

MRmax =
resp.
2
@ x = 0 resp. L

|qu(6x2 +6LxL2 )|

12Iy

x=0

RA = F
RB = 0
Dx = F
FL2Fx
Mx =
FL

u=

|F|uba

qx

A = 0
B = 0
zx =

Dx =

Iy

|MRx |

x 4

|MRx |

|max | =

|x | =

R B = qL
x 3

b2 a3 (La)

@x=a

x 2

3EIy L3

|=

LIy

a 2

qL4

@x = 0

## |Fu[b2 xL+2b2 xa+b2 aLL3 x+La]|

Fba
@x
L

Iy L

@x=a

|x | =

LI

zx(F)

@x = 0

b 2

|F|b2 u(xL+2xa+aL)

u=

|max | =

Fb2 (xL+2xa+aL)

MRmax =

B = 0

|MRx |

R A = qL

zmax =

12

x
L

A = 0

zx =

)( ) ]

MRx =

@x = L 1+L/2a

x 3

R B = F ( ) (1 +

|x | =

Dx = F ( ) (1 +

L
yL

(L x)2

L3

2b (Lx)

zmax = 3 EI

11

[3

2 Fa3 b2

a>b

L
2b

R A = F ( ) (1 +

zx =
L

2a

L
a 2

MRmax =

1+L/2b

B = 0

(1 +

2a

A = 0

a x 2

L L

[3 ( ) (1 +

@x = L L

a+b=L

FLb

Stress Stiffness

b 2

R A = F ( ) (1 +

zx =

a<b

Reaction force
Shear force
Moment

Curvature
sag

|Cz | = |

u=

|F|Lu
2Iy
F

zmax

L
2

|u(FL+2Fx)|
2Iy

|=

x=0
x=L

12EIy
L3

@x = L

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