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Society for Music Theory

Beat-Class Modulation in Steve Reich's Music


Author(s): John Roeder
Source: Music Theory Spectrum, Vol. 25, No. 2 (Autumn, 2003), pp. 275-304
Published by: University of California Press on behalf of the Society for Music Theory
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3595433
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PBeat-Class
Modulationin SteveReichsMusic
JOHN ROEDER

A beat-classmodel of rhythm,employedby Cohn and othersto analyzetexturalform in Steve


Reich'searlyphase-shiftingcompositions,is here enlargedto embracethe conceptsof beat-class
"tonic"and "mode,"defined formallyby analogyto pitch-classtonality.Using these concepts,
and TheFourSectionsanalysesof Reich'smorerecentmusic-Six Pianos,New YorkCounterpoint,
demonstratehow form-creatingprocessof pitch and rhythmresultfrom the specificmannerin
which repeatedpatternsarebuiltup,varied,andcombinedpolyphonically.

WIDELY

PERFORMED,

IMITATED,

AND

pattern.Noting the "formalresemblancesbetween the structures of metric cycles and the twelve-pitch-class universe,"
Cohn pursued the consequences of the idea that "muchof
the technology developed for atonal pitch-class analysis is
transferableto the rhythmicdomain."Adopting terminology
suggestedby Dan Warburton,4he representedeach repeated
patternas a beat-classset-a rhythmicanalogof a pitch-class
set-that denotes which beats are attacked in the pattern.
This model facilitatedanalysisof the varyingattackdensities
that result from the systematic phasing of beat-class sets;
specifically,Cohn analyzed how density in these pieces develops toward and away from saturation,or the "beat-class
aggregate,"in which every beat is attacked.Formally,generating the beat-class aggregateby phasing a particularbeatclass set against itself is analogous to generating the pitchclass aggregate by taking the union of transpositions of a
particularpitch-class set. Cohn's paper demonstrated how
the large-scale texturaldesign of these pieces could be understood,by consideringprocessesanalogousto the transpositional combination of pitch-class sets, to manifest properties of the small-scalebeat-classsets themselves.

anthologized,

Steve Reich's"minimal"music of the 1960s and


early 1970s proved surprisinglysusceptible to a
model of rhythm developed for very different music. It
was in the context of twelve-tone composition that Milton
Babbitt' first proposed conceiving rhythm analogously to
pitch by using the integer residues modulo 12 to represent
the metric location of event attacks (ratherthan the events'
durations,as did the Darmstadt composers).Later scholars
applied the concept of set to the rhythms of non-serial
music;Pressingand Anku, for instance,treatedworld musics
that were inspirations for Reich's compositions.2 But the
most detailed analyticalapplicationof this rhythmic model
was Richard Cohn's study of content and large-scale form
in Reich's Phase Patternsand Violin Phase.3 Each of these
"phase-shifting"pieces, like a canon, combines a repeated
patternwith a delayed statement of the same pattern in another voice. As the piece progresses,the temporal interval
of imitation between original and imitated voices varies
systematically,from one beat up to the whole length of the
I
2

Babbitt 1962.
Pressing 1983, Anku 1988.
Cohn 1992.

275

Warburton 1988.

1
277

BEAT-CLASS MODULATION IN STEVE REICH S MUSIC

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Iincipits on beat-class41
EXAMPLE I.

beat class sets that are not transpositionallyrelated.Patterns


change content during some pieces, and some pieces superimpose patterns of differing content and periodicities.Texture is also freer.Ensembles are largerand more diverse,and
individualparts fade in and out. Pulsing large chords, often
partitioned into overlappingand shifting components, appear simultaneously with phased patterns, or alternating
with them.
The form of these more recent compositionsis not simply
a matter of beat-class-aggregateformation. Reich himself
describesform in terms of changes of mode and key, developments of timbre and register, chord progression, tempo

[continued]

modulation, and metric fluctuation.7His abandonment of


phasingfor other formativeprocesses,while still maintaining
the repeatedpatternsof his earliermusic, raises some interesting questions about his currenttechnique.What function
do these patterns play in the more variegatedtextural and
harmonicdesigns?What motivates the particularchoices of
pitch-transposition and beat-class transposition, or, more
generally,how aretonal and metricprocessescoordinated?
This paperproposes some ways of answeringthese questions by developing a model that shows how both tonality
7

Reich 1977,1986, and 1991.

278

MUSIC THEORY SPECTRUM 25 (2003)

attacked. Nevertheless, the registrationand rhythm of the


pitch classes up until R60 establishD as a tonic or, at least,
as a persistentchord root.9 Specifically,the lowest pitch, D3,
and the highest, F#5, suggest the constant presence of a D
majortriad;both pitches are alwaysapproachedby leap, giving them stress and therebysuggesting that they function as
stable chord tones. The priorityof these pitch classes is also
enhancedby their metricalregularity:one of them is attacked
every quarternote due to the particularintervalof imitation
between pianos 3 and 4, and between pianos 1 and 5.
Starting at R60 the same diatonic collection is maintained,but a new tonalitybegins to be establishedby changes
that shift emphasis to different pitch classes in the collection. The changes are indicated by annotationson Example
1. First, at R60, the low-register patterns that accented D3
fade out. Then at R64 Pianos 1 and 3 begin patterns that,
although similarin contour to Ql and Q3 and use the same
collection,place Es at the registralextremesof the ensemble.
Accordingly,there is a modulationto E dorian,mediatedby
the unvariedQ2.
Some metrical ambiguity is evident especially during
R55-60, as the pianos engage in the imitation described
above.'l Two differentmetricalinterpretationsof the passage
are analyzedin Example2, which shows the combinationof
all voices at R59 and labels the eight eighth-note beats with
integers from 0 to 7, following the conventionsof beat-class
theory.Attending to the lowest notes in the texture,one can
hear pairs of D3s repeatedin a rhythm of 5+3 eighths. (The
fast tempo, quarter= 192, makes the second of each pair dif-

and meter depend on pitch, harmonic, and other accentual


featuresof the patternsas they are combined polyphonically.
First, an informal examinationof Reich'stransitionalmusic
of the early 1970's motivatesthe focus on accent. Formalism
is then developed to representhow accents combine, defining the percepts of beat-class "tonic"and "mode."Excerpts
from two of Reich'smatureworks from the 1980s will be analyzed to show how their patterncombinationsare designed
to produce large-scale modulations of pitch-class and beatclass tonics, and thus to createmusicalform.

The role of accent in large-scaleprocess is evident from


even a cursory listening to Reich's transitionalpieces. Example 1 shows a representative excerpt from Six Pianos
(1973). As it begins, at R55, all instrumentsare playing,and
the pitch relationsamong their materialsare clear.Pianos 1,
2, and 3 repeatdistinct eight-beat patterns,labeled Q1, Q2,
and Q3 respectively.Q1 is an exact pitch transpositionup a
perfect fifth of Q2. Q3 doubles the highest three pitches of
Q1 an octave lower,but substitutesD3 and A3 for Ql's F#4
and B4. Imitation is evident in two other parts.Piano 4 plays
the same pattern as Piano 3 (Q3) but one eighth-note beat
later.In terms of beat-classtheory,this canon can be symbolized as tl(Q3), where tn signifies "time transposition(delay)
by n beats."(This paperuses lower-caset to minimize confusion with pitch-class transposition,upper-caseT.) Similarly
the pattern played by Piano 5 can be expressed as t6(Ql),
that is, as the patternof Piano 1 delayedby 6 eighths.
As the music continues, some clear pitch processes
emerge from these specific time- and pitch-transpositional
relations. Although all parts draw their pitches from the
same diatonic scale,8the dense imitation might seem to forestall the emergenceof any one of the pitch classes as a tonic;
indeed, on any given beat most membersof the collection are
8

Since Q2 is a 5-23[02357] diatonic pentachord, its combination with


its T7 transpose, Ql, yields the diatonic heptachord [1,2,4,6,7,9,B).

g
Io

Reich names the tonalities analyzed here in his foreword to the score of
Six Pianos (1977).
Other analysts have noted similar metric fluctuations in other music by
Reich. Cohn (1992) remarks that the downbeat "floats"in some of the
phase-shifting pieces, and Gretchen Horlacher (1994) has documented
several intriguing instances of metrical ambiguity and process in Reich's
later works. The transitional Musicfor Pieces of Woodprovides another
clear example of how Reich's interest changed from phasing to the
build-up of canons involving ambiguities of downbeats.

BEAT-CLASS MODULATION IN STEVE REICH S MUSIC

Interonsetdurations
in the F#5 stream: - -beat class: 0 1

279

downbeat?
-. ---._
3 4 5

J2

---J.
6

--_
45

leaps to registral-boundarypcs

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3 #v
A registral-boundary

v y 'v vCp v

pc is attackedevery I
quarternote
Interonsetdurations J, ____-_,
in the D3 stream:-

EXAMPLE 2.

44

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v t

7v 77v P P
]

-J.
downbeat?

_.--.

------

. - _--

Pitch-classemphasis,
pulse,and competingdownbeats in Six Pianos,R59.

ficult to hear as a distinct event, and the first of each pair is


introduced by leap, making the onset of the first more
marked.) The greater regular accent, and so the sense of
downbeat,accruesto the onset of the longer of these two interonset durations,5, which always occurs on beat-class 0.
The second interpretation attends to the highest pitches,
where one could hear beat-class 4 as the downbeatsince the
longer member of the repeated interonset-duration series
2+6 regularlybegins then.
The downbeat ambiguityresolves abruptlyat R61, when
pianos 3 and 4 drop out. But the sense of beat-class 4 as an
alternativedownbeat returns soon after the modulation, as
shown in the latter half of Example 1. The build-up in pianos 4 and 5 startingin R67 regularlyaccentsbeat-class4 as
the beginning of a group of eighth notes, even though the
pattern when completed (in R74) turns out to be a beatclass-transpositionof piano 2 by one beat, not four.
This analysis suggests that the questions of rhythm and
pitch surroundingReich'srecent music may be addressedby
consideringthe function of accent in the repeatedpatterns.

To focus the inquiry further,and to establish a basis for a


more formal and precise model of accent, let us examine a
more recent composition.
The passage shown in Example 3 occurs during the first
movement of New YorkCounterpoint(1985). It begins with a
single clarinet presenting,without build-up, a repeatedpattern lasting 12 eighth notes. (Reich'sscore is written in Bb,
but for convenienceI will referto the pitches as they are notated, not as they sound.) As above,beat classes are labeled
conventionallyby integers,with beat-class (bc) 0 as the first
beat in each measure.(Since the zeros indicate notated measure beginnings, bar lines may be omitted for clarity in this
and subsequentexamples.)Thus the repeatedpatternplaces
attackson the set of beat classes [0,4,5,7,9,11), which I will
call Q1. In R8-R33 a six-voice texture develops that is
imitative but not exactly pitch-canonic. It proceeds in two
stages. During R9-R19 two more patterns,labeled Q2 and
Q3, are built up loudly, then faded and transferredto other
voices. Their build-ups are irregularand rapid, not gradual
and attack-by-attacklike those in Six Pianos.Although these

280

MUSIC THEORY SPECTRUM 25 (2003)

voices have the same pitch content, their pitches vary in


order and duration;for example, in Q1 the EL6is long and
followed by a short G5, while in Q2 it is short and followed
by a long B65.Nevertheless their beat-class sets are transpositionally related: Q2, {0,2,4,5,9,10}, is t5(Ql), and Q3,
[0,1,3,5,7,8}, is t8(Ql), that is, t3(Q2). The combination of
these transpositions,by the way, does not create the beatclass aggregate,for beat-class6 is never attacked.
In the second stage of this excerpt,R20-R33, three more
patternsenter,labeled Q4, Q5, and Q6 on Example 3. Each
patternrapidlyand irregularlybuilds up a beat-class set that
is identical to a pattern in the first stage-Q4 builds up the
same beat-class set as Q1, Q5 builds up Q2's set, and Q6
Q3's. So, the same beat-class sets are built up in the same
order,and, moreover,the beat-class aggregateis not attained
at the end of the second stage either. However, the pitch
content of these later patterns is different and generally
lower than that of the originals.These differencesarisefrom
a specific relation among the patterns:each pattern-pitchin
the second stage is a tenth below the pitch at the same beat
class in the correspondingfirst-stage pattern. (The few exceptions to this rule are necessitatedby the limited range of
the clarinets, and yet also contribute significantly to largescale process,as will be shown.)
Confronted with this evident compositional scheme, we
can focus the questionsraisedearlier.Since the ending combination is not the aggregate,what are appropriateways to
characterizethe rhythmic form, if not in terms of aggregates? And since the imitative processes are not strictly
canonic, what design regulates or results from the specific
ways that the patterns build up and vary their content and
their time- and pitch-transpositionalrelations?
As was the case with Example 1, it seems to me that all
these questions can be answeredby attending, in detail, to
the accentualpropertiesof the patterns and of their combinations, and by modeling them appropriately.Rather than
treating all attacks in a pattern as equally weighted, as in
previousbeat-class-set theory,the model should incorporate

the accentual distinctions that pitch and rhythm create


among them.
Although no previous research has attempted such a
model specificallyfor Reich'smusic, recent rhythmic theory
providesa sound basis for such an investigation,by clarifying
the nature and typology of accent.1l It defines accent as a
perceivedemphasis, at a point in time, that may arise in at
least three distinctways:from perceivedchangesin pitch, duration, loudness, and in more complex musical processes of
harmony,timbre,and texture;from expectationsof regularity
such as meter;and from the perceivedfunctionof the events
at that timepoint in the structureof melodic and harmonic
segments.This general conception suits Reich'smusic fairly
well, but it will be necessaryto define the various types of
accent much more specifically,in order to understandtheir
interactionsand contributionsto rhythmicprocess.
acTo begin this task, Example 4 defines "intrastream"
cents, meaning accents that arise within each individual
voice in a texture (more complex types of accent, such as
changesin registraldensity,which resultfrom the interaction
of all concurrentvoices, are also important,and will be discussed below). The definitions are expressed formally for
precision,and in orderto distinguishaccentsthat are specific
to Reich'smonophonic patterns from more general types.12
Each is instanced in Example 5(a), which analyzes the accentualstructureof Q1.
* An accent of climax appearsat the onset of an event
whose pitch exceeds those of the preceding and subsequent events. In Example 5(a), the first E&6does not take
such an accent, since no event precedes it, but all subsesince each is preceded and
quent El6s do. So do all B%gs,
followed by lower pitches.
11
12

Berry 1976, Lerdahl &Jackendoff 1983, Kramer 1988.


Some of these definitions formalize verbal descriptions such as those in
Lerdahl &Jackendoff 1983, 17.

THEORY

MUSIC

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~EXAMPLE

EXAMPLE
3.

* An accent of nadirappearsat each onset of each event


whose pitch is equal to or lower than the lowest pitch so
far,and that is lower than the immediatelyprecedingand
following events. Thus, in Example 5(a) an accent of
nadir appearsat each onset of F4, since it is the lowest
pitch in the passage. At higher troughs in the contour,
such as at the onsets of Al5, there is no such accent.

[continued]

* An accent of (interonset)durationappearsat the onset


of an event that is much longer than the precedingevent,
or when the time to the next onset is much greaterthan
the time since the last onset.13
13

The tenuto marks on the score are interpreted here simply as directing
the performer to hold the note for its entire notated value. Any dynamic

BEAT-CLASS MODULATION IN STEVE REICH'S MUSIC

285

Given a monophonic streamS presentinga series of n non-overlappingevents of the form (pitch, duration,timepoint of attack):
such that, for all i (1-i<n),

t+1

S = ((pl,dl,tl), (p2,d2,t2), (p3,d3t3)..


t.+d..

., (Pn,dn,t))

Quantifythe pitches Pi acordingto the integer model of pitch (Rahn 1980), and model pitch differences(intervals)as integers.
Find a durationof which every timepoint t. and durationd. can be expressedas an integer multiple. Quantify this durationas 1,
and quantifythe ti and di accordinglyas integers.
At t. there is
an accent of

symbolizedby

Climax

Nadir

(Interonset)Duration

Subcollectionshift

iff
Pi > Pi,_and Pi > pi+l
Pi < Pi-1and Pi < Pi+land pi < pj for 1 < j - i
d. >> d or ti - ti > t. - ti
There is an integer k < i such that 0 < Pi - Pi k I < 2 (semitones)
and there is noj: i-k < j < i such that 0 < I Pik - Pj I< 2 (semitones)

Pulse

ti - ti_ > 1, and there exists m > i such that for allj:i j < m, d. = 1
andt. =t. + 1
J+1 J
There is an accent of one of the types defined above at t. -T and at t.
-2T; or there is a pulse accent at t. - T and an accent of one of the
types defined above at t - 2T and at t. - 3T

Attack

Pi exists [an event (not silence) is attackedat ti]

Beginning of
connected series

B (local)

EXAMPLE

4. Typesof intrastream accent in Reichs music.

* Accents of subcollectionshift originate in the special


pitch context of Reich's music: diatonic scales organized
into rooted triads that are extended, as in jazz, by tertian
"tension tones." In the patterns Reich composes from
such collections,the change from a given pitch to an adja-

cent pitch in the diatonicscalemarksa changeof harmony,


more than do leaps, which often simply extend the prevailing tertian sonority without changing the root.14Example 5(b) illustratessuch a change within Ql: once the
14

emphasis added by the performer would, of course, increase the accent


on the note's onset.

The rooted subcollections I am positing to underlie Reich's music may


thus be understood, in William Benjamin's (1984) terms, to constitute
"images"whose "shift"create accent.

BEAT-CLASS MODULATION IN STEVE REICH S MUSIC

* Regularlyrepeatingdurationsmarkedby accentinduce
a pulse stream, which itself accents timepoints metrically.17

For instance,a series of equal durationsin Q1 quicklyestablishes a half-note pulse, as follows: First, the accents
on beat-classes0 and 4 projecta half-note duration,starting from beat-class 4, that is expected to be realized at
beat-class 8.18Although no event marksbeat-class 8, the
recurrencesof accent a half-note later, on the next beatclass 0, then again on the following beat-class 4, confirm
the half note as a repeatedduration,and so createsa pulse
stream.The stream is symbolized in Example 5(a) as a
horizontal line linking vertical strokes that denote when
pulse accents occur, according to the formal definition
given in Table 1. Isolated pulse accents may also be produced, under the given definition, without linking into
continuous streams;in Ql, pulse accent appearson beatclasses 9, 11, 1 (since 9 and 11 are accented), and 3, but
the accents needed to establisha continuousquarter-note
streamare cruciallylacking at beat-classes5 and 7.19
Although many of these definitions are consistent with
other theorists'treatmentof accent,I do not intend their formality to suggest that all these accents are aurallysalient in
all music. Nadir accent,for example,is arguablynegligiblein
the more usual styles of music that presents a given melody
only once or twice. These accents can be heard in Reich's

17

I8

19

(1983, 51-2). But in passages dominated by the build-up of patterns,


this makes a very minor contribution.
More on the nature of pulse streams can be found in Roeder 1994. The
concept of pulse "layers,"treated most thoroughly in Krebs 1999, is similar, although it is not usually construed as a source of metrical accent.
The conception of durational "projection"is taken from Hasty 1999,
although it is not part of his agenda to explain its connection to traditional notions of metrical accent.
Under this definition an event does not take accent simply because it
is notated on a strong beat. This seems consistent with practice: performances of Reich's music supervised by the composer do not stress
notated downbeats.

287

music, however.Indeed, it is preciselythe unusualfeaturesof


his music-its repetitivenessand redundancy-that permits
the listenerto focus on such accentualsubtletiesas nadir,and
then to considertheir participationin distinctive,large-scale
rhythmic processes.The formal definitions provide a basis
for a precise description of rhythmic form, as we shall see,
and also for the evaluationof such descriptions.
The analysisin Example 5 shows how the distributionof
accent among the beat classes in Ql varies in both quality
and quantity.Some beat classes take more types of accent
than others, as demonstratedby the tally in Example 5(c).
Beat-class accentuation also varies over time: some beat
classes in later repetitionsof Ql have different accents than
the correspondingbeat classes in its first statement,because
some accents, like climax and pulse, take time to establish.
Moreover,when a pattern is building up, the accent one attributes to its attack varies considerablywith the degree of
completeness of the pattern. When one attends to accent,
one hears hardly any exact repetition in this nominally
music.
"repetitive"
To express this diversity it is not sufficient to represent
rhythmsimply as the collectionof all attackedbeat classes,as
has been done for Reich'sphase music.A tally of accenttypes
on each beat class, as suggestedin Example5(c), is somewhat
better. It does not account well for differencesin accentual
quantity,because it does not weight the various types of accent, and because some accents of a given type are stronger
if, for instance, they involve greaterchange. But even without such weighting the tally facilitates a description of the
rhythm of Example 5(a): during that time span a distinctive
series of accent types consistently repeats, promoting the
perception of beat classes; at beat-classes 0, 4, and 11, the
most types of accent appear,while consistentbut fewer types
of accent appearat other beat classes.When we evaluateaurallythe strengthof these accents,beat-class0 clearlystands
alone as most accented, since it is the highest and longest
event, while beat-class 11 sounds weaker than beat-class 4
(and 0), but strongerthan others.

288

MUSIC THEORY SPECTRUM 25 (2003)

This description suggests a formal analogy between the


accentualorganizationof rhythm and modal organizationof
pitch, one that extends and enrichesthe analogyCohn made
between beat-class sets and "atonal"pitch-class sets. Music
may be understood as "modal"to the extent that its pitches
are heard as instances of pitch classes organized in a functional hierarchy.The structurallymost importantpitch class,
called the tonic,acts as a referencefor the collection, in that
the other pitches are named as "scaledegrees"accordingto
the intervalsthey form with the tonic. The ensembleof these
intervals,together with informationabout the relativestructural importance of the non-tonic pitch classes, constitutes
the mode.20For instance,the D-major section in Example 1
is distinguishedfrom the E-dorian section not by its pitchclass content, which is the same, but because a different
pitch class is presented as the tonic. Since the other pitch
classes form differentintervalswith E than they do with D,
and since they, too, are accented differently-for example B
is more prominent at R64 than at R55-the mode of these
two sections is different.
The conceptsof tonic and mode also seem appropriatefor
expressingthe consistent structuraldistinctions that Reich's
rhythms make among beat classes. I define the "beat-class
tonic"of a time span as the beat class that, in a given context,
acts as a referencefor the other accentedbeat classes, in the
sense that one perceives their temporal position in terms
of the interonset durations from it to them. Although the
meaning of "beat-class tonic" thus overlaps with that of
"downbeat,"I find the term "tonic"more apt. It avoids confusion with notated downbeats,which often have no audible
status in Reich's performances;it facilitates the description
of competing, even conflicting, tonics, and of changes and
20

This prescriptive,
orienteddefinitionof moderescompositionally
in musicpsychology.
Forinstance,
Butler&
onateswithrecentresearch
howtonality(thatis,tonicandmode)maybe
Brown1994demonstrate
intervals
withina givendiatonicset,intercognizedbylocating"rare"
valsthatareunderstood
to spanandtherefore
to markspecificscale
in a majororminorkey.
degreesmembers

ambiguities that the term "downbeat"may exclude; and it


emphasizes similaritiesin the way that Reich changes beatclass tonics and pitch-class tonics through the use of pivot
collections,which will be discussedbelow.
The distributionof differentlyweighted accents provides
a basis for characterizingwhat I call the "beat-classmode"of
the passage.It can be determinedby an analysislike that of
Example 5, which locates the most accented beat classestaking into accountboth the numberof differenttypes of accent on eachbeat classand the weight of each of those accents
-and labels each of them by the number of beats from the
tonic to it. Just as pitch-class mode is identified with reference to triadic or otherwise distinctive interval structures,
the beat-class mode is identified by matching the most accented beat classes with distinctive series of durations. If
these modally significant beat classes create a pulse stream,
then the "mode"of a pattern is tantamountto its meter,but
in many cases they do not, such as in the passage from The
FourSectionsdiscussedbelow.Usually,however,the tonic belongs to the beat-classset that characterizesthe mode,just as
the tonic pitch class belongs to the tonic triad.
Let us consider this analogy of rhythm and pitch more
specifically in the context of New YorkCounterpoint,Example 3. Rehearsals 8-9 project F as pitch-class tonic by
pitch-specific features of the pattern evident in Example
5(a). F recursregularlyas the lowest pitch, acting as a pedal
point. The other most accented pitch classes sound like
chord factorsof an F-rooted tertianharmony--ANis a minor
third over the root, El a minor 7th. Root movement, such as
it is (Example5[b]), leads towardF.The intervalsthat all the
pitch classes form with the tonic are consistentwith the distinctive structuresof the minor and dorianmodes.
Analogously,0 is projectedas beat-class tonic by intrinsically rhythmicfeaturesof the pattern.It is the first accented
beat class, and at its first two attacksit takes more types of
accent than does any precedingtimepoint. Although by R9
beat-classes 4 and 11 present as many accent types, beatclass 0 still takes the greatest accent of climax and duration,

BEAT-CLASS MODULATION IN STEVE REICH S MUSIC

and it contributesto two pulse streams.The other accented


beat classes relate to the tonic in a distinctive way. Beatclasses 4 and 8 belong to a tonic-including pulse streamthat
measures the time span of Q1 into three equal durations.
The beat class just preceding the tonic is strongly accented
and belongs to a set of beat-classes{11,1,3} that suggestsbut
does not quite sustain another pulse stream.This distinctive
ensemble of accents,and their temporalrelationto the beatclass tonic, constitutesthe beat-classmode.21
As a further illustrationof beat-class modality,consider
Example6, which analyzesaccent in the build-up of Q2, beginning at R9. Recall that the complete Q2, as a beat-class
set, is t5(Ql). If Q2 presented exactly Ql's series of pitches
and durations-as it would in Reich'sphase-shifting pieces
-then the beat-class tonic would shift to beat-class 5, conforming to the time transposition.Its mode (expressinghow
its time span is dividedby pulse and other accents)would remain the same. (Generally, exact time transposition, like
pitch transposition,changes tonic but not mode.) However,
even though Q2 contains the same pitches as Ql, the order
and durationof Ab5,Bb5,and El6 in it are different, and so
the distributionof accent in Q2 is different.This affects the
beat-class mode: in Q2, accent supportstwo half-note pulse
streams, one containing beat-classes {8,0,4}, and the other
{1,5,9}.22Beat-class 0 in Q2 has more accent than does the
21

22

Beat-class mode resembles theoretical constructs of tala in North


Indian classical music, which are distinguished by length and by the
beats that receive the most accent. See Clayton 2001. Tala, however, are
not usually built up or phased.
The coexistence of these two pulses can be characterized as the "displacement dissonance" D4+1 in terms of Krebs 1999. Such a description is certainly conceivable for minimal music; indeed Krebs'sanalysis
of form in Schumann's music, which narrates a succession of states of
metrical consonance and dissonance, resembles my accounts of form
in Reich's music. What especially distinguishes our approaches, however, is my focus on shifting beat-class tonics (which are not contemplated in Krebs's theory) and their correlation with changes of pitchclass-modality.

289

transpositionallycorrespondingbeat-class7 in Q1, and beatclass 9 in Q2 has less accent than does the transpositionally
corresponding beat-class 4 in Q1, so stream [8,0,4} is
strongerand stream{1,5,9} is weakerthan would be the case
under exact transposition.
The changes also affect the beat-class tonic. In the complete Q2, at R12, beat-class 4 takes as many types of accent
as does beat-class 5, so at first glance it might seem that either of them could act referentially.But the specific way in
which Reich builds up Q2-another crucial difference between it and Q--is decisive in establishingwhich of these
two beat classes is the tonic. Beat-class 4 is the first accented
beat class, and at its first three attacks there is more accent
than at any preceding timepoint. Although by R12 beatclass 5 presents as many accent types, beat-class 4 still takes
the greatestaccentof climax,and it contributesto more pulse
streams.Contraryto what one might have expectedfrom the
t5 relation of the beat-class sets, then, the pitch reordering
and the build-up of Q2 make beat-class4 referential.
Comparing the analyses of Ql and Q2 in Examples 4
and 5, it is evident that both patternsplace their climax on
their respective tonic, and both articulatea complete pulse
stream, including the tonic, that measurestheir time spans
into three equal durations. In terms of pulses and accent
of climax, then, Q2 (at R12) and Q1 have the same mode.
This is analogous to the similaritywe intuit between two
F-minor-seventh chords in which the chord factors are differentlyvoiced and doubled.
Moreover,these two examples of beat-class modality illustrate a process that is essential to the form of Reich's
music. Changes in tonic or mode-which I will call beatclass "modulation"-createlarge-scale contrast,progression,
and return, analogous to processes of pitch-class tonality.
These modulationsarisefrom changes in the membershipof
the beat-class collection itself, or from changes in the types,
strength, and placement of accent within a continuing collection. Sameness of mode, which is essential to formal
processesof closure,arisein patternswith differentbeat-class

MUSIC

290

bc:

25 (2003)

tonic
I D

C
S
s
B
10

0)

SPECTRUM

D
C

A %,9b V

THEORY

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4

IfI
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i21

6 6%,

7
'
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0 1 2
9 10
not quite a J stream

J streams

r_
I I

456

89

10

-------------I
L1
I

1I

IJ

N
0 1 2

V -1 V

o. stream I
EXAMPLE6. Accent in the build-up ofQ2.

sets and tonics, as long as the most accentedbeat classes relate to their respectivetonics in the same modally characteristic way.The variationsin Reich'spatterns exemplify these
theoreticalsituations,as we shall see.
With this model, however,I am not suggesting anything
more than a formal correspondencebetween rhythm and
pitch. Modality is perceived differently in these two domains, so I do not claim that the "distinctive"structuresthat
characterizepitch-class modes (triads,which are asymmetrical subsetsof the total chromatic)areperceptuallyequivalent
to those that characterizebeat-class modes (usually pulse
streams, which are symmetrical subsets of the beat-class
aggregate).Yet the correspondenceruns much deeper that
has been previouslydiscussed, and I will show that such a
"modal"conception of rhythm is essential to understanding
metrical and other large-scale processes in Reich's postphase music.
*

When patternscombine polyphonically,their accents interactrichly to affect beat-classtonic and mode. To a certain
extent the modality of a particularpolyphonic passage depends upon both the relativeprominence of the voices and
the context that precedesit. For example,during the build-

up of Q2, when it is loud, the accentualstructureanalyzed


in Example 6 dominates the texture, stressing beat-class 4.
But since the pulse stream characterizingthe mode of Q2,
[8,0,4), is beat-class-identicalwith the modal pulse stream
of Ql, and since beat-class 0 is accented in Q2 nearly as
much as beat-class 4, the combination of Q2 with Q_ does
not change the tonic or mode establishedby Q_. Q2 has a
differenttonic, as analyzedin Example 6, only if it is played
in isolation from its true context. At R13, as Q2 fades, its
prominence diminishes, so one becomes more aware of its
interactionswith Q1. Intrastreamaccents still may be heard,
but interferenceamong the streamsaffects their salience.At
R14, when Q1 and Q2 are equallyloud, their combination,
analyzed in Example 7(a), denies accent of contour and
durationto some beat classes that are accentedwhen either
is played alone. For example, in Q_ the Bb5at beat-class 9
took a pitch-contour accent because it was preceded and
followed by lower pitches, F4 and A15. However, the Bb5at
beat-class 5 in Q2 has a such a long durationthat it covers
the F4 in Q1 when the patternsare combined;consequently,
the Bb5at beat-class 9 no longer has pitch-contour accent,
becauseit no longer follows a lower note. The pitches added
by Q2 to Q1 also change the moments where we sense shifts
of subcollection:for example, beat-classes 2 and 5, which

292

MUSIC THEOR Y SPECTRUM 25 (2003)

beginning of the excerpt,we see that beat-class0 still has the


greatest variety of accent, and that beat-class 4 has also
gained variety.Moreover,beat-class 0 still predominatesin
the strength of its accents,and beat-classes0 and 4 together
reinforce the beat-class mode characterizedby the {8,0,4}
pulse stream.But the mode is now colored by another and
weaker pulse stream that arises from multiple accents on
beat-classes5 and 9.
In the following music, as Q3 is built up and combined
with Q1 and Q2, the accentualprofile adjusts again in an
apparentlycalculatedmanner.Like Q2, Q3 as a beat-class
set is a transpositionof Q1, and it contains the same pitches
as Q1 but in a slightly differentorder.Just as the build-up of
Q2 emphasizedbeat-class4, the build-up of Q3 emphasizes,
by means of durationaland metrical accents,beat-class 8 of
the pulse stream [8,0,4} establishedby Q1. Accents of subcollection shift within Q3 strengthenthe beat classes of this
mode. At R19, as Q3 fades to the loudness of Q1 and Q2,
the accent structureagain adjusts,as analyzedin Example 8.
Beat-class 0 is accentedstronglyand in nearlyevery possible
way, and although other pulse streamscan be discerned,the
one that includes beat-classes [8,0,4} is supported best by
the most number of accent-types. Across the other beat
classes,accent is spreadfairlyevenly,renderingthe tonic and
mode susceptibleto furtheralteration.Beat-class 6 stands as
the notable exception: it is not even accented by pulse.
Interpretedin context of the model of beat-class modality,
this lack of emphasisis designed to negate utterly the possibility of duple meter-that is, it clarifies the triple-meter
mode by denying the simplestalternative.
To summarize:duringthe first stage of New YorkCounterpoint, beat-class 0 has been established as tonic. Then, as
beat classes and accents multiply in the build-up of new
voices, first beat-class 4 then beat-class 8 become more
prominent. By R19 a texture is achieved in which nearly
everybeat class is similarlyaccented,exceptthose that define
the mode and tonic. This analysisrevealsa rhythmicprocess
essential to this movement, and to many of Reich's recent

pieces. As will be demonstratedbelow, the accentual focus


caused by the build-ups and by the interaction of repeated
patterns shifts from beat class to beat class, analogous to
changes of pitch-class tonic in a tonal composition. The
modulation of beat-class tonics has its own immanent logic
quite distinct from that of the pitch-class-modulatory
processesit resemblesformally.
To understandthis logic, let us returnto Example 3 and
examine its second stage. In this passage,as during the first
stage, the loud build-up of each patternadjuststhe types and
weights of accenton each beat class.As each patternmatures
and then fades into the accompanimentaltexture,it interacts
with the established patterns.Thus the resulting ensemble
does not remainconstant,but is subjectto changes of mode
and tonic. The pitch-class collection also undergoesformally
similarbut not exactlycoordinatedmodulation.
Specifically, although pattern Q4 builds up the same
beat-class set as the original pattern Q1, its particularpitch
series and build-up have a very different rhythmic impact,
even shifting the accentualfocus of the entire ensemble. It
begins in R20 by loudly stressing beat-classes 9 and 11,
distractingattention from the still referentialbeat-class0. At
R21 it marksbeat-class4 with an accent of beginning,while
still omitting beat-class 0. As three voices now accent beatclass 4 the same way, that beat class suddenlyand decisively
assumes the role of tonic. Meanwhile, the accents still sustain the pulse stream{8,0,4}, continuing to measurethe pattern's time span in the previously established manner.
Changing the tonic this way while maintainingthe mode is
analogous to changing the key from F minor to, say, Ab
minor, in which the new tonic is a member of the modedefining tonic triadof the originalkey.
Coincidentally,the same new pitches that cause the beatclass modulation also restructurethe ongoing pitch-class
collection. Since each pitch in Q4 is a tenth below the corresponding pitch in Q1, Q4's pitches at beat-classes 4 and 5
are lower than any precedingpitch. The lowest, Ab, insinuates itself as the new referentialpitch class, a change that

BEAT-CLASS MODULATION IN STEVE REICH S MUSIC

E19
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a20

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mf
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mfV
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bc: 0

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Lr1 al

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7

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293

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EXAMPLE8. Accent in the equal-loudnesscombination of Q3, Q2, and Q1.

is solidified as a modulation at R22 by the introduction of


a new pitch class, Dk.23Thus the beginning of the second
stage establishes both a new beat-class tonic and a new
pitch-class tonic via structurallysimilarmodulations.
Reich'sspecificchoices of patternand build-up in the following music can be similarly explained,with reference to
beat-class modality.The build-up of the next pattern, Q5,
introducesthe same beat classes in the same orderas did Q2
in R9-R12. The resulting stress on beat-class 4 functions
now to confirm its role as tonic. (See the annotations to
R24-R27 in Example3.) The build-up of Q5 (still mimicking that of 02) is designed to hold off its lowest pitch, F3,
until the very end, at R28. As the new lowest pitch, the F
will change the pitch-class tonic and reemphasizebeat-class
0, so delaying its entranceprolongs the previouspitch-class

23

Similarchangesof tonicoccurjust afterthe build-upshownin ExA twice-repeated


seriesof pulsingchords,drawn
ample3 is complete.
fromthe openingof the movement,
andeachlastingseveraliterations

of the repeated patterns, successivelypresents bbm7, DbM7, and


Fm(add6) chords.The seriesanimates
the unchanging
pitchclasses-

relanotablyEb andA--in the patternsby varyingtheirintervallic


tionsto thechanging
roots.

and beat-class tonics as long as possible. Once F3 enters,


R28-R31 project rhythmic ambiguity,as two different beat
classes sound equally accented and referential.(One might
characterizethis as a "doublebeat-classtonic complex".)The
final build-up in this section (of Q6) begins by stressing
beat-class 8, as did its beat-class-set homonym Q3. Because
the F4 attackedthen is not strongly accented, however,the
beat-classtonic stays on 4. However,at R32 a beginning accent on beat-class 0, reinforced by a grouping parallelism
with R21 and by the multiplicityof coincident accentsin the
other voices, changes the beat-class tonic. At the end of the
passage, then, formal closure is achieved as both the pitchclass and the beat-classmodes returnto their originalstates.
The theory of beat-class mode thus enables one to describerhythmicdirectionand goals.Accordingly,it providesa
means of answeringthe questions about Reich'spost-phase
music,raisedabove,which cannotbe addressedby an "atonal"
theory of beat-class sets. Through it we understandthat the
purpose of combining beat-class sets is not to achieve the
beat-class aggregate,but to createa progressionof beat-class
tonics across large spans of time, taking advantage of the
modes shared by the pattern combinations.The notion of
rhythmicclosuretakes on the precisesense of a returnto the

MUSIC THEORY SPECTRUM 25 (2003)

294
bc: 0

10

14 15 16

20

22 23

J = ca. 92

0
I

14 15 16
10
4 5 6
(measures24 beats into four equal durations)

D
C

B
D
C

22 23

SS

20

D
C

I
I(meas
24 b s s io t e eal
(measures24 beats into threeequal durations)

pstreams

Itonicl

Iton
EXAMPLE

9. Accent andpulse streams at R44 ofNew YorkCounterpoint.

original beat-class tonic and mode, as at a tonal cadence.


Variationsin patterns themselves are understood as part of
the modulatoryprocess, when combinations of exact beatclass transpositionsdo not provide the clarity of mode and
tonic requiredfor these large formalprocesses.So are the irregularbuild-ups; for example, Q5 and Q6 are built up in
the same way as Q2 and Q3 because they play similarroles
in shifting emphasis from beat-class 0 to beat-classes 4 and
8, respectively.Finally,the choice of pitch-transpositionof a
tenth from earlierto later patterns can be explained as the
best one to minimize interferencewith the establishmentof
subcollection-shiftaccents,while introducinga lower register in which accents can act to change both pitch-class and
beat-classtonics.

A remarkablefeature of the densely imitative web that


Reich weaves in this movement is the persistent clarity of
the {8,0,4} pulse streamand of the tripartitemode in which
it measuresthe patterns'time spans. However,the composer
does not alwayspreferto maintain a constant meter.Indeed,

the opening of the second movement of the same work,New


YorkCounterpoint,confrontsthe listener immediatelywith a
very dynamicmodality.Example 9 analyzesaccent and pulse
streams in the passage, which repeats a pattern lasting 24
sixteenth notes. The brackets above and below the score
show that two pulse streamswith differentdurationsare articulated concurrentlyby regularaccent.The dotted-quarter
pulse stream arises principallyfrom accents of subcollection
shift, while accents of durationand beginning (supportedby
slurs) coordinate to produce the half-note pulse stream.
Neither of these streamsincludes the tonic (0, accented intensely by duration, contour and pulse), but they are synchronized so that they measurethe pattern'stime span into
equal durations both triply and quadruply.The metrical
ambiguity created by the pattern'sartful accentual design
deepens as the movement develops.
Its largest-scale consequences are not manifested, however, until the last movement of New YorkCounterpoint,
when both pitch-class and beat-class modes and tonics undergo gradual asynchronouschanges. The modulations are
most striking in the excerpt shown in Example 10. At R70

MODULATION

BEAT-CLASS

IN STEVE

REICH

295

S MUSIC

Pitch-class collection 1

Pitch-class collection 9.

Pc contentofcanonicvoicepairsat R70 [soundingBb= 0]

at R71

live and 4:

[8,B,1,3}

[8,B,1,3}

2 and 5:
3 and 6:
9 and 10:

{B,1,3,5,7,8}
[B,1,3,5,7,8}{3,9}

[8,B,1,3,4}
f8,9,B,1,4,6}
[6,9,1}
'n

-------------------........

combined:

10

pivot.
collections
hold
[8,B,1,3}
and [9}
in common

iOf. . Y. H. I. D. 1*!/

/, Y,
Y,, I, , ,j

J= ca. 184
C
S
(rx~-na) ,K

C
S

L -.-

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-i

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J(,x3

live
2
3

4
5
6

^.
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2bl ^f,b i4f

e
K'
b' y9-

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10

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Ni

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r-

o. stream

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Beat-classmode1
EXAMPLE

IO.

Pitch-class and beat-class modulations in the third movement ofNew YorkCounterpoint.

a dux trio of clarinets (notated on the top staff) is chased in


canon by a comes trio (notated on the second staff) at the
quarter-note unison.24 On the lower staves, two bass clar24

A few addednoteslend someflairto the live clarinetpart,but this augmentationof the beat-classcollectiondoesnot affectthe modeor tonic.

inets synchronize their changes of pitch class but are nevertheless also in rhythmic canon, as will be shown below. The
low El in clarinet 10 acts as the pitch-class tonic, casting
the segment in the mode of an Eb7 chord with a raised fifth
and eleventh. The table above the score lists the pitch-class
content of each canonically related pair of instruments. At

BEAT-CLASS MODULATION IN STEVE REICH S MUSIC

71

t2(x)
I

7
45
4 5 6 7
4
67

9
9
9

2/3
live
4/5/6

0
0
0

2
2
2

9
10

0
0

45
3 4

8
8 9

1112
12

14

9
10
73
2/3
live
4/5/6
9
10

45

45

0
0

67
5 6
6

34

3 I I

11

6 7

1112

19

19
18 19

14
12

21 22
21 2223
23
21
20
20 21

1617
13 14

1011

8
89

i
6I
t12(Y)

16 17

12

1112

7
11 12
9
7 8 9 101112
7 8
10
12

0
45
2
0 1 2 3 45
0 1
5
3
0

16 17
1516
18
I

19
16 17
16 17 18 19
18 19

11 12
1112
11
13 14

2/3
live
4/5/6

297

1516

21 2

21 22
21

23

19
21 22
19 2021 22
22
19 20

16 17
1617
14 15
15

119

21

t8B
toB
toB n tgB = {0,4,8,12,16,203
(4-cyclic)

22 23
20
2021

1718
18

23

toA
toA U t6,18,23}
t2A

triple
meter

toA
toA U (6,18,23}
t2A
t2B U to}

toB
toB n (t2B U o}) = {0,6,8,18,201

Y.

transition

toA
toA U {1,3,8,10,203
t3A
23

t3B
toB
toB n t3B = 10,3,6,9,12,15,18,21}

quadruple
meter

(3-cyclic)
EXAMPLE

II.

How transposition of subsetscreatesthe beat-class modulation in R71-73.

10 continue those of R71, and only the temporal imitation


between the bass clarinets shifts, from t8 to t2, thus matching
the time delay in the upper-voice canon. But this slight
change affects the beat-class mode by breaking up the preceding half-note pulse stream. This is symbolized by the
dashed brackets under R72 in Example 10, and is also evident in Example 11, which shows that the intersection of the
beat-class sets of bass clarinets 9 and 10-the low-register

no longer be generated
accents of textural density-can
4.
9 adds an extra
beat-class
interval
(Clarinet
cyclically by
attack to its pattern, at beat-class 0, to keep the tonic clear.)
This modal uncertainty proves transitory. At R73, when
the pitch-class content reverts to that of R70, the beat-class
accentuation changes directly to another mode, again by
simply changing the interval of imitation. The outer voices,
clarinets 2/3 and 10, continue to present the same rhythms

298

MUSIC THEOR Y SPECTRUM 25 (2003)

as they have done since R70. However, the beat-class set of


clarinets4, 5, and 6 changesfrom t2 to t3 of clarinets2 and 3,
and the beat-class set of clarinet9 also changes from t2 to t3
of the clarinet 10-that is the comesvoices increase their
delay by one beat. Now the beat-class sets of the bass clarinets, whose intersectionwas a 4-cycle at R71 and a symmetricalbut noncyclicbeat-class set at R72, intersectin a 3cycle at R73. The audibleresultis a new dotted-quarter-note
pulse stream, symbolized by the bracket under R73 in
Example 10, that creates a 12/8 meter.Thus the beat-class
modulation from R71 to R73 is achieved with the utmost
minimum of means. It is mediated by the set of beat classes
at R72 that the two modes have in common, exactly analogous to the common-tone modulation between the pitchclass collections in the passage.
Other recent compositionsby Reich contain many similar
passages,in which slight but structurallytelling changes to
patternsand their imitative relationscreate formallysignificant modulations of pitch- and beat-class. They are most
impressivein his works for large ensemble thatjuggle several
different patterns at once. Consider, as a final example, the
opening of the last movement of The Four Sections(for orchestra, 1987). At different paces and times during this introductionfour differentpatternsare built up, each of which
is distinguishedby instrumentation,register,durationalcontent, and attack density. Example 12 displays their completed forms and analyzes their beat-class-combinational
structure.
Starting at Rill, middle register strings and mallet instrumentsbuild up a predominantlyeighth-note rhythminto
a two-line beat-class canon, fully completed at R122, in
which one voice lags three eighth-notes behind the other.
From R113-R120 trumpets 1 and 3 build up an apparently
unrelatedpattern,which features a variety of durations,yet
also suggestsan exactpitch and beat-classcanon,without ex-

plicitly stating it.25In the percussion,brass,and low instruments at R115 a build-up begins of a different,noncanonic
pattern,completedat R124. All three of these patternsare20
eighth notes long. Lastly,at R118 the high stringsand winds
build up a patterntwice as long-40 eighth notes-featuring
very long durations;this resolvesinto a t10 canon at R125.
Within this complex, asynchronousaggregation of discrete patterns,beat-class mode and tonic fluctuatein a controlled and progressive manner. The build-up starting at
Rill, analyzed in Example 13(a), has two principalformal
functions. First, it clearly establishes the beat-class tonic:
beat-class0 takes the most accent,and 0 is the firstbeat class
to mark a regularlyrecurringduration(20 eighths, the duration of most of the patterns).Second, this passagealso establishes a distinctive beat-class mode, but only after raising
several mutually incompatiblepossibilities. Initially, accents
on beat-classes 16, 0, 4, and 8 project a series of half-note
durations.However, this potential half-note pulse stream is
vitiated at R112 by the shifting of accent to beat-classes
{0,3,6,9}, which suggest a dotted-quarterpulse stream incommensuratewith both the half notes and the 20-eighth
durationof the patterns.At R113 the first trumpet'sattacks
measurethe 20 eighths into two equal durations,suggesting
a regular five-quarter pulse stream, likewise incompatible
with the previouslysuggested possibilities. Finally, at R114
the next stage in the string-vibraphonebuild-up establishes
consistent accent on beat-classes {0,6,10,16}-not a regular
pulse, but still distinctive and persistent enough to serve as
the beat-classmode.
As in New YorkCounterpoint,beat-class modulation begins as soon as mode and tonic are secured.At R115 (Example 13[b]) clusters in the pianos and trombones strongly
25

To see the canon, compare the two trumpet parts starting at the repeated, accented eighth-note Es. In each part, there follows a quarter
rest, then a half-note D#, then eighth-notes C# and F#, separated by an
eighth rest.

BEAT-CLASS MODULATION IN STEVE REICH'S MUSIC

Vib i ,

Vn.
2

{0,1,2,3,5,6,7,8,10,11,12,13,15,16,17,18} =X

'

Vib.2,

299

{0,1,3,4,5,6,8,9,10,11,13,14,15,16,18,19} = tl3(X)

120a

HXv

3
Tpt.i|,*

1no. ,

{2,4} u {6,7,10,14,16}

Tpt. 1

1 t6

t8 1

{8,10} u {14,15,18,2,4}

24

Brass,m.
Timp.

--if
: ___
v

{0,6,7,10,19}

Tpt. 1

{0,10,20,28,30} = Y

Tpt.3

{0,10,20,30,38} = to0(Y)

EXAMPLE 12.

Patternsin the openingof thefourthmovementof TheFourSections.

accent beat-class 10. As this beat class belongs to the established mode, and since the mode is transpositionallyinvariant at tlo, the tonicity of beat-class 0 begins to falter. By
R117 the furtherbuild-ups of the patterns cooperateto accent beat-class 10 far more than beat-class 0, making the
modulation definite. Thus, the entrance of the high strings
in R118 sounds metricallystrong, even though it is notated
on a different beat than the beginning of the pattern in
Rl11.

After this new beat-class tonic is established, however,


the completion of the build-ups in R120-R124 and the
pitch variations in the highest parts provide new accents.
The completed canon in the middle strings and mallet instruments emphasizes both beat-classes 0 and 10. The low
instrumentsalso accentboth of these beat classes. Startingat
R120, the high instruments place contour accents on two
different points of the 40-eighth-note spans, but up until
R125 (see the upper system in Example 13[c]), these always

THEORY SPECTRUM 25
302
~~~~~~~~~MUSIC

302

(2003)

Bc 1) persists as
124

D
.

C
T

C
T

19

Vn.,

w.w.
Vn.2, Va.,
Vib.1,2

Tpt.

Pno.,
Tbn.,
Hn.
D

N
Accent on bcs 0 and 10 equalizes

t-I-

Vn.,

w.w.

Tpt.

L7

Pno.,
Tbn.,
Hn.

(c) Modulation backto beat class 0.


EXAMPLE 13.

[continued]