Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 119

Government/Civics Domain

How do citizens participate


in different forms of
government?
SS6CG1b, SS6CG4b, SS6CG6b.
Explain how governments determine
citizen participation: autocratic,
oligarchic, and democratic

Fill in your Graphic Organizer


throughout the lesson

How Governments Determine Citizen


Participation:

Autocratic

One person has unlimited power


as the leader. The citizen has
limited, if any, role in
government.
Rule of ONE

How Governments Determine Citizen


Participation:

Autocratic
The oldest form of government.
One of the most common forms of
government.
Dictator maintains power through
inheritance
or ruthless use of military and
police power.
Examples: Adolf Hitler, Benito Mussolini,

How Governments Determine Citizen


Participation:

Oligarchy
Rule of a few. A small group has
control, and will do what it takes it to
keep it. Usually corrupt and selfish
with the power. The citizen has a very
limited role.

How Governments Determine Citizen


Participation

Oligarchy

The group gets its power from


military
power, social power, wealth,
religion or a
combination.
Political opposition is usually
suppressedsometimes violently.
Examples- Communist countries

How Governments Determine Citizen


Participation:

Democracy
Examples: United States,
Canada, Australia

Rule of ALL. A country or nation


where the people hold power
through voting.
Usually, people exercise their

Distributed Summarizing:
With someone at your table, determine which
diagram most likely represents each type of
government in terms of citizen participation.
Be ready to support your answer.

Distributed Summarizing:
With someone at your table, determine which
diagram most likely represents each type of
government in terms of citizen participation.
Be ready to support your answer.

Democracy

Rule of ALL. A country or


nation where the people
hold supreme power.
Usually, they exercise their

How do presidential
and parliamentary
governments differ?
SS6CG1c, SS6CG4c, SS6CG6c.
Describe the two predominant
forms of democratic
governments: parliamentary
and presidential

Use the Types of Democracy Notes Sheet


with the remaining slides

Democratic
Governments

Democratic governments usually


have three branches of government
often called the Executive,
Legislative, and Judicial.
Executive branch carries out and
enforces laws
Legislative branch makes laws
Judicial branch interprets laws
The main difference between the two
types of democracies is the
relationship between the legislative

Parliamentary
Democracy
Type of
government where the
legislative branch and executive
branch are combined giving
parliament (legislature) more power.
May have a Prime Minister elected
by the legislature.

Presidential
Democracy

Type of government in which the 3


branches of government have equal
power (checks and balances).
The executive branch exists separately
from the legislature (to which it is
generally not accountable).

Parliamentary Democracy
Legislature controls power
Separation of Powers
Prime Minister
President
Leader answers to the people
Leader answers to the legislature
Checks and Balances
Elections held if leader forced to resign
Leader elected by the people

Parliamentary Democracy
X Legislature controls power
Separation of Powers

X Prime Minister
President
Leader answers to the people

X Leader answers to the legislature


Checks and Balances

X Elections held if leader forced to resign


Leader elected by the people

Presidential Democracy
Legislature controls power
Separation of Powers
Prime Minister
President
Leader answers to the people
Leader answers to the legislature
Checks and Balances
Elections held if leader forced to resign
Leader elected by the people

Presidential Democracy
Legislature controls power

X Separation of Powers
Prime Minister

X President
X Leader answers to the people
Leader answers to the legislature

X Checks and Balances


Elections held if leader forced to resign

X Leader elected by the people

Summarizing Strategy:
List the Main
Ingredients of a
Parliamentary
Democracy and the
Main Ingredients of a
Presidential Democracy

Summarizing Strategy
Parliamentary

Presidential

Prime Minister
Leader chosen
by legislature

President
People elect
leader

Government
Citizen
Participation
Summarizer

How Governments Determine Citizen Participation

Low or No Participation

Autocrat
ic

Low or No Participation

Oligarchi
c

Citizen Participation

Government Power

High

General Citizen
Participation

Select Citizens
Participate

Government Power

High

Citizen Participation

Government Power

High

Low or No Participation

Democr
acy

How is power distributed


in different forms of
government?
SS6CG1a, SS6CG4a, SS6CG6a
Describe the ways government
systems distribute power: unitary,
confederation, and federal

Use your Graphic Organizer


to take notes during the
lesson.

HOW A GOVERNMENT IS SET UP


A government is
like a married
couple.
Sometimes the
husband can have
all the power
Sometimes a wife
can dominate
Sometimes they
share power

How a government is set up


The government
has two parts:
National
Government
(whole country
Local government
(just the area you
live in)
They work together
to decide who has
control

Ways Government Distributes Power:

Unitary
Power is held by one
central authority.
The central authority has all
the power to make laws and
decisions for the people.

Ways Government Distribute Power

Unitary

Circles represent the amount of power and the


arrows represent the direction the power flows

Regional
Authority

Regional
Authority

Central
Authority
Regional
Authority

Notice the Central Authority circle is much larger


than the Regional Authority circles and the arrows
go from the central out to the regional

Regional
Authority

List of Unitary States


Afghanistan
Chile
People's Republic
of China
Colombia
Cuba
Egypt
El Salvador
Equatorial Guinea
France
Greece
Guatemala
Guinea
Haiti
Honduras

Hungary
Iceland
Indonesia
Iran
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Jamaica
Japan
Kenya
New Zealand
Nicaragua
Niger
North Korea
Norway

Saudi Arabia
South Africa
South Korea
Spain
Sri Lanka
Sweden
Turkey
Uganda
United Kingdom
Vatican City
Vietnam
Yemen
Zambia
Zimbabwe

Be sure the Unitary part of


your Graphic Organizer is
completed

Ways Government Distributes


Power:

Confederation
Voluntary alliance of states or countries that
make their own laws and decisions, but the
alliance has limited power
Have some common purpose
Agree to certain limitations on their freedom
States maintain considerable independence

Ways Government Distribute Power

Confederation
Regional
Authority

Circles represent the amount of power and


the arrows represent the direction the
power flows

Regional
Authority

Central
Authority

Regional
Authority

Notice the Regional Authority circles are


much larger than the Central Authority
circle and the arrows go from regional to
central

Regional
Authority

List of Confederations- Today


Iroquois Confederacy (1090present)
European Union and OPEC

Historic confederations
New England Confederation (16431684)
United States of America under the Articles of Confederation (1781
1789)
Confederate States of America, (18611865)

Fictional confederations
Confederacy of Independent Systems (Star Wars)
Terran Confederation (Wing Commander)
Terran Confederacy (StarCraft)
Capellan Confederation (Battletech)
Confederation of Planet Omega (animated series
Once Upon a Time... Space

Be sure the Confederation


part of your Graphic
Organizer is completed

Ways Government Distributes Power:

Federal (Federation)
Power to make laws and
decisions for the people is
SHARED or divided
between one central and
several regional
authorities.

Federation / Federal
Ways Governments Distribute Power
Regional
Authority

Circles represent the amount of


power and the arrows represent the
direction the power flows

Regional
Authority

Central
Authority

Regional
Authority

Notice the circles of the


Central and Regional
Authorities are similar in size
and the arrows go both ways.

Regional
Authority

List of countries with Federal Governments (24)


Argentina
Mexico
Australia
Micronesia
Austria
Nigeria
Belgium
Pakistan
Bosnia and Herzegovin
Russia
a
St. Kitts and Nevis
South Africa
Brazil
Spain
Canada
Switzerland
Comoros
United Arab Emirates
Ethiopia
United States of Amer
Germany
ica
India
Malaysia
Venezuela

Countries in
Transition to
Federalism
Iraq
Sudan
Countries
Considering a
Federal System
Sri Lanka

Be sure the Federal part of


your Graphic Organizer is
completed

Video on Power
Distribution
http://www.youtube.com/w
atch?v=I9e4Nsd3rMQ
7min 23sec

Distributed
Summarizing
Government
Distribution of
Power Continuum
Labeling Task

Ways Government Distributes Power


All key powers
are held by the
central
government

Unitary
Strong central
government

State/regional
authorities
hold most of
the power

Federal

Confederati
on
Weaker central
government

Government
Distribution of
Power Summarizer

Essential Question: How


does the structure of
modern governments in
Europe impact its people?

Standards:

Standard: SS6CG5a. Compare the


parliamentary system of the United
Kingdom of Great Britain and
Northern Ireland (United Kingdom),
the federal system of the Federal
Republic of Germany (Germany), and
the federation of the Russian
Federation (Russia), distinguishing
the form of leadership and the role
of the citizen in terms of voting and

Form of
Leadership

Chief of State:

Head of
Government:

Leader of a country
who represents the
A countrys top
state at official and
administrative leader
ceremonial
functions, but who who is designated to
manage the day-tomay not be
involved with the
day activities of the
day-to-day activities
government.
of the government.

Form of
Leadership
Chief of State

Head of Government

Use the Governments of


Europe Chart

UNITED
KINGDOM
The United Kingdom
is a Parliamentary
Democracy.
How is power distributed?
How do citizens participate?

Structure of Government:
United Kingdom
X Legislature controls power
Separation of Powers

X Prime Minister
President
Leader answers to the people

X Leader answers to the legislature


Checks and Balances

X Elections held if leader forced to resign


Leader elected by the people

Form of Leadership: United


Kingdom
The monarch (Queen Elizabeth
II) is the ceremonial head
of state with very little power.
The prime minister is the head
of government (nominated
from the elected legislature).

Form of Leadership: United


Kingdom
The monarch is hereditary.
Following legislative elections by the
people, the leader of the majority
party is usually the prime minister.
The UK legislature has two houses
(bicameral). One house is elected by
popular vote.

Role of the Citizen: United


Kingdom

Citizens over 18 can


vote for members of
one of houses of the
legislature [House of
Commons].

Role of the Citizen: United


Kingdom

Citizens are granted


basic rights and
personal freedoms like
the right to vote and
freedom of speech,
press, religion, and

Turn to a seat
partner and identify
1-2 similarities and
differences
between the U.S.
government and
the United

GERMANY
Germany is a
Federal
Republic.
How is power distributed?
How do citizens participate?

Structure of Government:
Germany
A federal system of government in
which power is shared between
a central government and state
governments
Ultimate power rests with the
people who elect their
government representatives

Form of Leadership:
Germany
The president is the head
of state with very little
power.
The chancellor is the
head of government.

Form of Leadership:
Germany
The president is elected by a group
formed up of legislators.
The chancellor is elected by
one of the two houses
of Germanys Parliament .
One house of Germanys bicameral
legislature is elected [Federal
Assembly or Bundestag].

Role of the Citizen:


Germany
Citizens over 18 can vote.
Germanys constitution
guarantees basic rights and
personal freedoms, such as the
right to vote, equal rights, and
freedom of speech, religion,
and press.

Turn to a seat
partner and identify
1-2 similarities and
differences
between the U.S.
government and
the Germanys

RUSSIA
Russia is a
federation.
How is power distributed?
How do citizens participate?

Structure of Government:
Russia
In a federation (federal),
power is divided between a
central authority and a
number of districts.
The central government exerts
influence directly upon people
as well as upon the districts.

Form of Leadership: Russia

The president is the


head (chief) of state.
The Prime Minister
(Premier) is the head of
government.

Form of Leadership: Russia

Unlike in other
countries we have
studied, the head
(chief) of state in
Russia has considerable
executive power.

Form of Leadership: Russia


The President is elected by popular vote.
The Prime Minister (Premier) is
appointed by the President.
The bicameral legislature consists of a
lower house (State Duma) which is
elected and an upper house (Federation
Council) which is appointed.

Form of Leadership: Russia

The legislative branch is


far weaker than the
executive branch. The
President can pass
decrees without consent
from the legislature.

Role of the Citizen:


Russia
Citizens over 18 can vote.
Russias constitution
guarantees basic rights and
personal freedoms such as the
right to vote, equal rights, and
freedom of religion, speech,
and the press.

Role of the Citizen:


Russia
The constitution provides for
freedom of speech and of the press;
however, in practice government
pressure on the media persists,
resulting in numerous violations of
these rights.
The government uses its influence
to restrict access to information
deemed sensitive.

Turn to a seat
partner and identify
1-2 similarities and
differences
between the U.S.
government and
the Russias

Use your Government Chart to


Complete the Comparison Graphic
Organizer

Governments of Europe
Frames

Governments of Europe
Summarizer

Governments of Latin America


Activator
With an elbow partner,
compare the two types of
government below according
to how power is distributed
and citizen participation.

Federal
Republic

Dictators
hip

Essential Question: How is


a
federal-republican system
different from a
Standard:dictatorship?
SS6CG2a. Compare the federalrepublican systems of the Federative
Republic of Brazil (Brazil) and the
United Mexican States (Mexico) to
the dictatorship of the Republic of
Cuba (Cuba).

Governments of Latin
America
Before we begin our
studies of specific
governments of Latin
America, lets review some
important concepts.

Form of
Leadership
Chief of State:
Leader of a country
who represents the
state at official and
ceremonial
functions, but who
may not be
involved with the
day-to-day activities
of the government.

Head of
Government:

A countrys top
administrative
leader who is
designated to
manage the day-today activities of the
government.

Form of
Leadership
Chief of State

Head of Government

Governments of Latin
America
What is the Legislature?
The Law making body of
government. For the U.S.,
it is Congress [House of
Representatives and the
Senate].

Use your graphic organizer to


take notes

Governments of Latin
America

Brazil and Mexico


both have a Federal
Republic.

Governments of Latin
America
A Federal Republic shares power
between central and local
governments and allows the
people to vote. a state in which
the powers of the central
government are restricted and the
parts (states, colonies, provinces)
keep a degree of self-government.

FEDERATIVE
REPUBLIC OF
BRAZIL

Form of Leadership
in Brazil
Brazil has a President who
is both the chief of state
and head of government
The President is elected by
popular vote
The Bicameral National
Congress (legislature with
two houses) members are

Role of Citizens in
Brazil
Citizens vote to elect
both the President and
the members of the
Legislature
Voting is mandatory
between the ages of 18-

Personal Freedoms
in Brazil
People can work where they want
or
start a business [free trade and
free enterprise].
Citizens enjoy personal freedoms
like freedom of speech and
freedom of assembly.

UNITED
MEXICAN
STATES
(MEXICO)

Form of Leadership in
Mexico
Mexico has a President who
is both the chief of state
and head of government
The President is elected by
popular vote
The Bicameral National
Congress (legislature with
two houses) members are

Role of Citizens in
Mexico
Citizens vote to elect
both the President and
the members of the
Legislature
Voting is mandatory for
citizens over the age of

Personal Freedoms in
Mexico
People can work where they want
or
start a business [free trade and
free enterprise].
Citizens enjoy personal freedoms
like freedom of speech and
freedom of assembly.

TURN TO A PARTNER
AND DISCUSS HOW
LIVING IN BRAZIL AND
MEXICO IS SIMILAR TO
AND DIFFERENT FROM
LIVING IN THE U.S. [IN
TERMS OF

REPUBLIC OF
CUBA (CUBA)

Governments of Latin
America
Cuba is a dictatorship in
which the ruler has
absolute power (not
restricted by a constitution
of laws).

Form of Leadership in Cuba


Cuba has a President who is
both the chief of state and
head of government.
The President (dictator) is
elected by the Unicameral
National Assembly
(legislature with one

Form of Leadership in Cuba


Fidel Castro ruled Cuba from
1959 to 2008. When he
stepped down his brother
Raul became ruler.

Form of Leadership in Cuba

Cubas official name is


the Republic of Cuba.
Why is
this misleading?

Form of Leadership in Cuba


The members of the
Legislature are those
officially sanctioned
(approved) by Cubas
Communist Party. They run
for office unopposed.

Role of Citizens in
Cuba
Citizens can vote at
the age of 16 for
members of the
Legislature.
However, citizens can
only vote for candidates

Personal Freedoms in Cuba


Cubas citizens do not have
personal freedoms like
freedom of speech.
They can be put in jail for
criticizing the government.
People cannot just work
where they want to work or
open their own business.

TURN TO A PARTNER
AND DISCUSS HOW
CUBAS CURRENT
GOVERNMENT
CONTRADICTS THE
PURPOSE OF THE
CUBAN REVOLUTION.

Use your Government Chart to


Complete the Comparison Graphic
Organizer

Latin American Government


Summarizer

Australias
Governmen
t

Essential Question:
What is the structure
of the national
government of
Australia?

Standard:
SS6CG7a. Describe the federal
parliamentary democracy of
Australia, distinguishing form of
leadership, type of legislature,
and the role of the citizen in
terms of voting and personal
freedoms.

Discuss the questions below with a


partner.
How power is distributed in a federal
system of government?
Describe citizen participation in a
democracy.
Describe how leadership is determined
in
a parliamentary democracy.

Australia is a
federal
parliamentary
democracy.

Use your graphic organizer to


summarize the important
information.

Federal

Australia has a federal system of government


because it has individual states that share
authority with a central government.
http://www.peo.gov.au/multimedia/videos/snapshots-federation/snapshots-federation-popup.html

Australia is a democracy. Democracy


means the people have a say about
how they are governed.

In Australia the people have their say by


electing members of parliament to make
decisions for the whole country. These
members of parliament represent the people.

In Australia, voters are


required to vote in
elections. If they do not
vote, they can be fined.

Parliament
Prime Minister

Voters choose
representatives
to the governing
body, Parliament.
It is bicameral
(two houses) like
Great Britain.

Parliamentary Democracy

The party that


wins the majority
then selects the
Prime Minister
from one of its
members to serve
as the head of the
government.

Australia is governed under a parliamentary


system. It is a democratic form of government in
which voters choose representatives to a
governing body called
a parliament.
http://
www.peo.gov.au/multimedia/videos/about-parliament-what-is-parliament/about-par

Many of the functions


and practices of the
Australian Parliament
are based on British
Parliament. Why?

Examine the excerpt


from Australias
Constitution below [copy
also linked on the
curriculum map].
What is different about
Australias Parliament?
[Hint: Who makes up the
Parliament according to
the Constitution?]

Australia is also
known as a
constitutional
monarchy.

Australia has a monarch


(Queen Elizabeth II) as the
head of state.
The powers of the monarch
are set out in the
Constitution, along with the
powers of the parliament and
the courts.

Compare and contrast Australias


government to the government of
the
U.S. on the following:
Form of leadership (who has the
power and how did they get it)
Type of legislature
Role of the citizen in terms of
voting