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Ch04HW
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Newton's1stLaw
LearningGoal:
TounderstandNewton's1stlaw.
Newton'sPrincipiastatesthisfirstlawofmotion:
Anobjectsubjecttononetforcemaintainsitsstateofmotion,eitheratrestoratconstantspeedinarightline.
Thislawmaybestatedasfollows:Ifthevectorsumofallforcesactingonanobjectiszero,thentheaccelerationof
thatobjectiszero.Mathematicallythisisjustaspecialcaseofthe2ndlawofmotion,F = mawhenF = 0,
promptingscholarstoadvancethefollowingreasons(amongothers)forNewton'sspellingitoutseparately:
1.Thisexpressiononlyholdsinaninertialcoordinatesystemonethatisnotacceleratingandthislaw
reallysaysyouhavetousethistypeofcoordinatesystem(i.e.,Newton'slawswon'tworkinsidean
acceleratingrocketship.)
2.ThiswasadirectchallengetotheImpetustheoryofmotion,describedasfollows:
Amover,whilemovingabody,impressesonitacertainimpetus,acertainpowercapableofmovingthis
bodyinthedirectioninwhichthemoversetitgoing,whetherupwards,downwards,sidewaysorina
circle.Bythesameamountthatthemovermovesthesamebodyswiftly,bythatamountistheimpetus
thatisimpressedonitpowerful.Itisbythisimpetusthatthestoneismovedafterthethrowerceasesto
moveitbutbecauseoftheresistanceoftheairandthegravityofthestone,whichinclinesittomovein
adirectionoppositetothattowardswhichtheimpetustendstomoveit,thisimpetusiscontinually
weakened.Thereforethemovementofthestonewillbecomecontinuallyslower,andatlength,the
impetusissodiminishedordestroyedthatthegravityofthestoneprevailsoveritandmovesthestone
downtowardsitsnaturalplace.
A.C.Crombie,MedievalandEarlyModernScience</>
ThistheoryissometimescalledtheAnimistictheoryofmotionsinceitenvisionsa"lifeforce"being
associatedwithmotion.
Newton's1stlawisoftenverydifficulttograspbecauseitcontradictsvariouscommonsenseideasofmotionthatmay
havebeenacquiredfromexperienceineverydaylife.Forexample,unaccountedforforceslikefrictionmightcausea
ballrollingontheplaygroundtoeventuallystop,eventhoughnoobviousforcesseemtobeacting.
WhenstudyingNewtonianmechanics,itisbesttorememberthisastwolaws:
1.Ifthenetforce(i.e.,vectorsumofallforces)actingonanobjectiszero,theobjectwillkeepmovingwith
constantvelocity(whichmaybezero).
2.Ifanobjectismovingwithconstantvelocity(notspeed),thatis,withzeroacceleration,thenthenetforce
actingonthatobjectmustbezero.
Completethefollowingsentencestoseeifyoucanapplytheseideas.

PartA
Ifacarismovingtotheleftwithconstantvelocity,onecanconcludethat
ANSWER:

Typesettingmath:99%
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theremustbenoforcesexertedonthecar.
thenetforceexertedonthecarisdirectedtotheleft.
thenetforceexertedonthecariszero.
thereisexactlyoneforceexertedonthecar.

Correct

PartB
Anobjectcannotremainatrestunless
ANSWER:
therearenoforcesatallexertedonit.
thenetforceexertedonitiszero.
thenetforceexertedonitisconstant.
thereisonlyoneforceexertedonit.

Correct

ABookonaTable
Abookweighing5Nrestsontopofatable.

PartA
Adownwardforceofmagnitude5Nisexertedonthebookbytheforceof
ANSWER:
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thetable
gravity

inertia

Correct

PartB
Anupwardforceofmagnitude_____isexertedonthe_____bythetable.
ANSWER:
6N/table
5N/table
5N/book
6N/book

Correct

PartC
DothedownwardforceinPartAandtheupwardforceinPartBconstitutea3rdlawpair?

Hint1.Theforceofgravity
Theforceofgravityisanothernamefortheforceexertedbytheearth(oranyastronomicalobject)on
objectsnearitssurface.

Hint2.ExploringNewton's3rdlaw
IndicatewhetherthefollowingstatementsaboutNewton's3rdlawaretrue,false,orindeterminate.
1.AccordingtoNewton's3rdlaw,everyrealforcehasauniquepairforce.
2.Thepairforceiscalleda"fictitiousforce."
3.Theforceandpairforcemustactondifferentpointmasses.
4.Theforceandthepairforcemustalwayshavethesamemagnitudeandmustalsoactin
exactlyoppositedirections.
Entertfortrue,fforfalse,oriforindeterminateforeachstatement,separatingtheanswerswith
commas(e.g.,ifallbutthefirststatementweretrue,youwouldenterf,t,t,t).
ANSWER:
, , ,

t f t t

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ANSWER:
yes
no

Correct

PartD
ThereactiontotheforceinPartAisaforceofmagnitude_____,exertedonthe_____bythe_____.Itsdirection
is_____.

Hint1.Theforceofgravity
Theforceofgravityisanothernamefortheforceexertedbytheearth(oranyastronomicalobject)on
objectsnearitssurface.
ANSWER:
5N/earth/book/upward
5N/book/table/upward
5N/book/earth/upward
5N/earth/book/downward

Correct

PartE
ThereactiontotheforceinPartBisaforceofmagnitude_____,exertedonthe_____bythe_____.Itsdirection
is_____.
ANSWER:
5N/table/book/upward
5N/table/earth/upward
5N/book/table/upward
5N/table/book/downward
5N/earth/book/downward

Correct

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PartF
WhichofNewton'slawscouldwehaveusedtopredictthattheforcesinPartsAandBareequalandopposite?
Checkallthatapply.
ANSWER:
Newton's1stlaw
Newton's2ndlaw
Newton's3rdlaw

Correct
Sincethebookisatrest,eitherNewton's1stor2ndlawcantellusthatthenetforceonitmustbezero.This
meansthattheforceexertedonitbytheearthmustbeequalandoppositetotheforceexertedonitbythe
table.

PartG
WhichofNewton'slawscouldwehaveusedtopredictthattheforcesinPartsBandEareequalandopposite?
Checkallthatapply.
ANSWER:
Newton's1stlaw
Newton's2ndlaw
Newton's3rdlaw

Correct

VideoTutor:SuspendedBalls:WhichStringBreaks?
First,launchthevideobelow.Youwillbeaskedtouseyourknowledgeofphysicstopredicttheoutcomeofan
experiment.Then,closethevideowindowandanswerthequestionatright.Youcanwatchthevideoagainatany
point.

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PartA
Aheavycrateisattachedtothewallbyalightrope,asshowninthefigure.Anotherropehangsofftheopposite
edgeofthebox.Ifyouslowlyincreasetheforceonthefreeropebypullingonitinahorizontaldirection,which
ropewillbreak?Ignorefrictionandthemassoftheropes.

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
Becauseyouslowlyincreasetheforceyouexertontherope,theblocksinertiadoesnotaffectthe
outcome.
Whyisthatthecase?Asyoupullharder,theropesstretchabit,sotheblockslidesslightlytowardyou.
Butthechangesaresogradualthattheaccelerationsoftheblockandropesarepracticallyzeroatany
instant.
Shownherearefreebodydiagramsfortheropesandblock:

WhatdoesNewtonsthirdlawsayaboutthetensionforcesexertedbytheblockonthetworopes?

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ANSWER:
Theropethatyouarepullingonwillbreak.
Theropeattachedtothewallwillbreak.
Bothropesareequallylikelytobreak.

Correct
Sincetheattachedropedoesnthavetosupportanyweight(asitdidintheverticalcase),thetensionisthe
sameinbothropes.

TensioninaHangingMassiveRope
Consideraropewithlengthl,massperunitlength ,experiencingagravitationalaccelerationg andhangingvertically
asshown.LetyrefertotheheightofapointPabovethe
bottomoftherope.

PartA
Theforceexertedontheropebytheceilingisinthe_____direction.

Hint1.Considertheweightoftherope
Tosupporttherope,theceilingmustexertaforceoppositetotheweightoftherope.
ANSWER:
upward
downward

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Correct

PartB
FindF ,themagnitudeoftheforceexertedontheropebytheceiling.
ExpressF intermsofquantitiesgivenintheproblemintroduction.

Hint1.UseNewton's2ndlaw
TakeW tobetheweightoftherope.ApplyNewton's2ndlawtofindanexpressionforW

ANSWER:
W F

= 0

Hint2.Findtheweightoftherope
Whatistheweightoftherope,W ?
Expressyouranswerintermsof ,l,andg .

Hint1.Findthemassoftherope
WhatisthemassM oftherope?
ANSWER:
M

ANSWER:
W

lg

ANSWER:
F

lg

Correct

PartC
WhatisthetensionTP atpointPintherope?
ExpressTP intermsofquantititesgivenintheproblemintroduction.
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Hint1.Howtoapproachthisproblem
ThetensionatpointPisthemagnitudeoftheforceexertedbythepartoftheropeabovePonthepartof
theropebelowP.RememberthatpointPislocatedadistanceyabovethebottomoftherope.

Hint2.FindtheweightoftheropebelowpointP
WhatistheweightW P ofthepartoftheropebelowpointP?
Expressyouranswerintermsofquantitiesgivenintheproblemintroduction.
ANSWER:
WP

yg

ANSWER:
TP

yg

Correct

PullingTwoBlocks
Inthesituationshowninthefigure,apersonispullingwithaconstant,nonzeroforceF onstring1,whichisattached
toblockA.BlockAisalsoattachedtoblockBviastring2,asshown.
Forthisproblem,assumethatneitherstringstretchesandthatfrictionisnegligible.Bothblockshavefinite(nonzero)
mass.

PartA
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WhichoneofthefollowingstatementscorrectlydescibestherelationshipbetweentheaccelerationsofblocksA
andB?

Hint1.Relativemovementoftheblocks
Thetwomassesareconnected(bystring2),whichmeans,iftheyarebeingpulled,theymustmove
together.
ANSWER:
BlockAhasalargeraccelerationthanblockB.
BlockBhasalargeraccelerationthanblockA.
Bothblockshavethesameacceleration.
Moreinformationisneededtodeterminetherelationshipbetweentheaccelerations.

Correct
Sincethetwoblocksareconnected,theywon'tmoveindependentlywhenstring1ispulled.AsblockAis
accelerated,itsmotionwillimpartthesameaccelerationtoblockB.

PartB
Howdoesthemagnitudeofthetensioninstring1,T1 ,comparewiththetensioninstring2,T2 ?

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
SupposethatblockAhasamassm.DrawafreebodydiagramforblockA,thenwritedownNewton's2nd
lawforblockA'shorizontalmotion.WhatisthetensionT1 ?
ExpressthetensionintermsofT2 ,m,andtheblock'saccelerationa .

Hint1.FreebodydiagramforblockA
Takingthepositivedirectiontobetotheright,whatisthenethorizontalforceactingonblockA?
(Notethat,inthefigure,forcesarenotdrawntoscale.)
ExpressyouranswerintermsofT1 ,T2 ,n A ,andw A .

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ANSWER:
F = ma

T1 T2

ANSWER:
T1

ma + T2

ANSWER:
T1 > T2

T1 = T2

T1 < T2

MoreinformationisneededtodeterminetherelationshipbetweenT1 andT2 .

Correct
Theforcetransmittedthroughstring1(proportionaltoT1 )mustbeenoughtoacceleratebothblocks,butthe
forcetransmittedthroughstring2onlyneedstoaccelerateblockB.ConsiderthecasewhereblockAisvery
heavyandblockBisverylight:Inthiscase,string2wouldonlyneedtosupplyatinyamountoftensionto
keeptheblocksconnectedasblockAispulledaround.

EnhancedEOC:Exercise4.10
Adockworkerappliesaconstanthorizontalforceof72.0Ntoablockoficeonasmoothhorizontalfloor.Thefrictional
forceisnegligible.Theblockstartsfromrestandmovesadistance10.0minatimeof5.20s .
Youmaywanttoreview(

pages112117).

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Forgeneralproblemsolvingtipsandstrategiesforthistopic,youmaywanttoviewaVideoTutorSolutionof
Determiningforcefromacceleration.

PartA
Whatisthemassoftheblockofice?

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
Startbydrawingasketchoftheblockoficeanditsmotionacrossthesmoothhorizontalfloor.Createa
standardcoordinatesystem,anddrawalltheforcesontheblock.
Doyouneedtoworryabouttheverticalforces(gravityandthesurfacesnormalforce)ontheblock?Why?
Youknowtheforceappliedhorizontallyontheblock.Todetermineitsmass,whatotherquantitymustyou
find?Howcanyouusetheinformationprovidedabouttheblocksmotiontohelpyoudeterminethatother
quantity?
ANSWER:
m

= 97.3 kg

Correct

PartB
Iftheworkerstopspushingafter5.20s ,howfardoestheblockmoveinthenext5.50s ?

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
Tofindouthowfarsomethingmovesinatimeperiod,youneedtoknowitsinitialvelocityandacceleration.
Howcanyoudeterminethesequantitiesfortheblockinthesecondtimeinterval,whentheworkerisno
longerpushing?
Duringthatsecondintervalofmotion,thereisnoforceontheblockoficefromthedockworker.Whatcan
besaidabouttheaccelerationontheblockinthistime?
Usethisinformationtofindthedistancetravelledduringthesecondtimeinterval.
ANSWER:
x

= 21.2 m

Correct

ApplyingNewton's2ndLaw
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LearningGoal:
TolearnasystematicapproachtosolvingNewton's2ndlawproblemsusingasimpleexample.
OnceyouhavedecidedtosolveaproblemusingNewton's2ndlaw,therearestepsthatwillleadyoutoasolution.One
suchprescriptionisthefollowing:
Visualizetheproblemandidentifyspecialcases.
Isolateeachbodyanddrawtheforcesactingonit.
Chooseacoordinatesystemforeachbody.
ApplyNewton's2ndlawtoeachbody.
Writeequationsfortheconstraintsandothergiveninformation.
Solvetheresultingequationssymbolically.
Checkthatyouranswerhasthecorrectdimensionsandsatisfiesspecialcases.
Ifnumbersaregivenintheproblem,plugtheminandcheckthattheanswermakessense.
Thinkaboutgeneralizationsorsimplficationsoftheproblem.
Asanexample,wewillapplythisproceduretofindtheaccelerationofablockofmassm2 thatispulledupa
frictionlessplaneinclinedatangle withrespecttothehorizontalbyaperfectstringthatpassesoveraperfectpulley
toablockofmassm1 thatishangingvertically.

Visualizetheproblemandidentifyspecialcases
Firstexaminetheproblembydrawingapictureandvisualizingthemotion.ApplyNewton's2ndlaw, F = ma,to
eachbodyinyourmind.Don'tworryaboutwhichquantitiesaregiven.Thinkabouttheforcesoneachbody:Howare
theseconsistentwiththedirectionoftheaccelerationforthatbody?Canyouthinkofanyspecialcasesthatyoucan
solvequicklynowandusetotestyourunderstandinglater?
Onespecialcaseinthisproblemisifm2
gravity:a1

^
= g j

= 0

,inwhichcaseblock1wouldsimplyfallfreelyundertheaccelerationof

PartA
Consideranotherspecialcaseinwhichtheinclinedplaneisvertical(
wouldtheaccelerationofthetwoblocksbeequaltozero?

= /2

).Inthiscase,forwhatvalueofm1

Expressyouranswerintermsofsomeorallofthevariablesm2 andg .
ANSWER:

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m1

m 2 sin(

Correct

Isolateeachbodyanddrawtheforcesactingonit
AforcediagramshouldincludeonlyrealforcesthatactonthebodyandsatisfyNewton's3rdlaw.Onewaytocheckif
theforcesarerealistodetrminewhethertheyarepartofaNewton's3rdlawpair,thatis,whethertheyresultfroma
physicalinteractionthatalsocausesanoppositeforceonsomeotherbody,whichmaynotbepartoftheproblem.Do
notdecomposetheforcesintocomponents,anddonotincluderesultantforcesthatarecombinationsofotherreal
forceslikecentripetalforceorfictitiousforceslikethe"centrifugal"force.
Assigneachforceasymbol,butdon'tstarttosolvetheproblematthispoint.

PartB
Whichofthefourdrawingsisacorrectforcediagramforthisproblem?

ANSWER:
a
b
c
d

Correct

Chooseacoordinatesystemforeachbody
Newton's2ndlaw, F =

,isavectorequation.Toaddorsubtractvectorsitisofteneasiesttodecomposeeach

ma

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vectorintocomponents.Whereasaparticularsetofvectorcomponentsisonlyvalidinaparticularcoordinatesystem,
thevectorequalityholdsinanycoordinatesystem,givingyoufreedomtopickacoordinatesystemthatmostsimplifies
theequationsthatresultfromthecomponentequations.
It'sgenerallybesttopickacoordinatesystemwheretheaccelerationofthesystemliesdirectlyononeofthe
coordinateaxes.Ifthereisnoacceleration,thenpickacoordinatesystemwithasmanyunknownsaspossiblealong
thecoordinateaxes.Vectorsthatliealongtheaxesappearinonlyoneoftheequationsforeachcomponent,rather
thanintwoequationswithtrigonometricprefactors.Notethatitissometimesadvantageoustousedifferentcoordinate
systemsforeachbodyintheproblem.
Inthisproblem,youshoulduseCartesiancoordinatesandyouraxesshouldbestationarywithrespecttotheinclined
plane.

PartC
Giventhecriteriajustdescribed,whatorientationofthecoordinateaxeswouldbebesttouseinthisproblem?
Intheansweroptions,"tilted"meanswiththexaxisorientedparalleltotheplane(i.e.,atangle tothe
horizontal),and"level"meanswiththexaxishorizontal.
ANSWER:
tiltedforbothblock1andblock2
tiltedforblock1andlevelforblock2
levelforblock1andtiltedforblock2
levelforbothblock1andblock2

Correct

ApplyNewton's2ndlawtoeachbody
PartD
Whatis F2x ,thesumofthexcomponentsoftheforcesactingonblock2?Takeforcesactinguptheinclineto
bepositive.
ExpressyouranswerintermsofsomeorallofthevariablestensionT ,m2 ,themagnitudeofthe
accelerationofgravityg ,and .

Hint1.Decomposetheforceofgravityonblock2
Inthisproblem,thehardestforcevectortoexpressintermsofitscoordinatesistheforceofgravityon
block2.Themagnitudeoftheweightism2 g.Findtheforceofgravityintermsofitscomponents,usinga
tiltedcoordinatesystemwhosexaxisisparalleltoandpointinguptheinclinedplane.

Expresstheforceofgravityonblock2,F g2
,intermsofsomeorallofthevariablesm2 ,g ,and .
^
Expressyouranswerasavectorintermsoftheunitvectors^
i and j .

ANSWER:

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F g2

^
^
m 2 g(sin() i + cos() j )

ANSWER:
m 2 a 2x =

F 2x

T m 2 gsin()

Correct

PartE
Nowdeterminem1 a 1y = F1y ,thesumoftheycomponentsoftheforcesactingonblock1.Takeforces
actingupwardaspositive.
ExpressyouranswerintermsofsomeorallofthevariablesT ,m1 ,andg .
ANSWER:
m 1 a 1y =

F 1y

T m1 g

Correct

PartF
Writeequationsfortheconstraintsandothergiveninformation
Inthisproblem,thefactthatthelengthofthestringdoesnotchangeimposesaconstraintonrelative
accelerationsofthetwoblocks.Findarelationshipbetweenthexcomponentoftheaccelerationofblock2,a 2x ,
andtheaccelerationofblock1.Paycarefulattentiontosigns.
Expressa 2x intermsofa 1x and/ora 1y ,thecomponentsoftheaccelerationvectorofblock1.

Hint1.Visualizethemotion
Ifblock2hasanaccelerationa 2x uptheincline,musttheaccelerationofblock1beupwardordownward
tokeepthestringtaut?
ANSWER:
a 2x

a 1y

Correct

PartG
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Solveandcheck
Inthepreviousparts,youobtainedthefollowingequationsusingNewton's2ndlawandtheconstraintonthemotion
ofthetwoblocks:
m 2 a 2x = T m 2 g sin(),
m 1 a 1y = T m 1 g,

(1)

(2)

and
a 2x = a 1y .

(3)

Solvetheseequationstofinda 1y .
Beforeyouenteryouranswer,makesureitsatisfiesthespecialcasesyoualreadyidentified:
ifm2 = 0 and
0 if m 1 = m 2 and

a 1y = g
a 1y =

= /2

Alsomakesurethatyouranswerhasdimensionsofacceleration.
Expressa 1y intermsofsomeorallofthevariablesm1 ,m2 , ,andg .

Hint1.Howtosolvetheequations
SubstituteforT fromequation(1)intoequation(2)andthenusea 2x fromequation(3)inthenewequation
(2).Thiswillyieldalinearequationina 1y thatiseasytosolve.
ANSWER:

a 1y

(m 2 sin()m 1 )g
m 1 +m 2

Correct
Canyouseehowasimplegeneralizationoftheproblemcouldbesolvedwithalittleextraworkorhowyou
couldsolveanontrivialproblemthatisasubsetofthisone?
Forexample,imaginethatthereisfrictioninthisproblembetweentheplaneandblock2.Thiswouldleadto
anadditionalforceonblock2:Ff 2 = N ,wherethenormalforceN isgivenbyN = m2 g cos().
Thisadditionalforcewouldleadtoanewtermintheexpressionfortheaccelerationofblock1:
a1y =

Now,bychoosingwhetherornot
frictionlessornot!

= 0

m 2 sin()m 2 cos()m 1
m 1 +m 2

g.

,youhavearesultthatcanbeappliedwhethertheplaneis

EnhancedEOC:Exercise4.5
Twodogspullhorizontallyonropesattachedtoaposttheanglebetweentheropesis56.0 .DogAexertsaforceof
290N,anddogBexertsaforceof306N.
Youmaywanttoreview(

pages105108).

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Forhelpwithmathskills,youmaywanttoreview:
VectorMagnitudes
DeterminingtheAngleofaVector
VectorAddition
Forgeneralproblemsolvingtipsandstrategiesforthistopic,youmaywanttoviewaVideoTutorSolutionof
Superpositionofforces.

PartA
Findthemagnitudeoftheresultantforce.

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
Imagineyouweresittinginatreedirectlyabovethepost,sothatyouwerelookingdownonthedogsand
theropestyingthemtothepost.
Startbydrawingasketchofthetwodogspullingontheirropesasseenbyyoufromabove,andchoosea
coordinatesystemsothatthepostisattheoriginandtheropetiedtodogAisalongthexaxis.
InwhatdirectionwoulddogBbeseenpullingitsrope?
Now,findtheresultantforce.Howisthemagnitudeofavectorrelatedtoitscomponents?
ANSWER:
F

= 526 N

Correct

PartB
FindtheangletheresultantforcemakeswiththeropeofdogA.

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
Howcanyoufindtheangletheresultantforcevectormakeswiththexaxis(theropeofdogA)fromthe
componentsofthatvector?
ANSWER:

= 28.8

Correct

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Newton's3rdLawDiscussed
LearningGoal:
TounderstandNewton's3rdlaw,whichstatesthataphysicalinteractionalwaysgeneratesapairofforcesonthetwo
interactingbodies.
InPrincipia,Newtonwrote:
Toeveryactionthereisalwaysopposedanequalreaction:or,themutualactionsoftwobodiesuponeachotherare
alwaysequal,anddirectedtocontraryparts.
(translationbyCajori)
Thephraseafterthecolon(oftenomittedfromtextbooks)makesitclearthatthisisastatementaboutthenatureof
force.Thecentralideaisthatphysicalinteractions(e.g.,duetogravity,bodiestouching,orelectricforces)cause
forcestoarisebetweenpairsofbodies.Eachpairwiseinteractionproducesapairofoppositeforces,oneactingon
eachbody.Insummary,eachphysicalinteractionbetweentwobodiesgeneratesapairofforces.Whateverthe
physicalcauseoftheinteraction,theforceonbodyAfrombodyBisequalinmagnitudeandoppositeindirectionto
theforceonbodyBfrombodyA.
Incidentally,Newtonstatesthattheword"action"denotesboth(a)theforceduetoaninteractionand(b)thechangesin
momentumthatitimpartstothetwointeractingbodies.Ifyouhaven'tlearnedaboutmomentum,don'tworryfornow
thisisjustastatementabouttheoriginofforces.
Markeachofthefollowingstatementsastrueorfalse.Ifastatementrefersto"twobodies"interactingviasomeforce,
youarenottoassumethatthesetwobodieshavethesamemass.

PartA
Everyforcehasoneandonlyone3rdlawpairforce.
ANSWER:
true
false

Correct

PartB
Thetwoforcesineachpairactinoppositedirections.
ANSWER:
true
false

Correct

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PartC
Thetwoforcesineachpaircaneitherbothactonthesamebodyortheycanactondifferentbodies.
ANSWER:
true
false

Correct

PartD
Thetwoforcesineachpairmayhavedifferentphysicalorigins(forinstance,oneoftheforcescouldbedueto
gravity,anditspairforcecouldbeduetofrictionorelectriccharge).
ANSWER:
true
false

Correct

PartE
Thetwoforcesofa3rdlawpairalwaysactondifferentbodies.
ANSWER:
true
false

Correct

PartF
Giventhattwobodiesinteractviasomeforce,theaccelerationsofthesetwobodieshavethesamemagnitudebut
oppositedirections.(Assumenootherforcesactoneitherbody.)

Hint1.F = ma
RememberF =
magnitude?

:Iftheforcesareequalinmagnitude,musttheaccelerationsalsobeofequal

ma

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ANSWER:
true
false

Correct
Newton's3rdlawcanbesummarixedasfollows:Aphysicalinteraction(e.g.,gravity)operatesbetweentwo
interactingbodiesandgeneratesapairofoppositeforces,oneoneachbody.Itoffersyouawaytotestfor
realforces(i.e.,thosethatbelongontheforcesideofF = ma)thereshouldbea3rdlawpairforce
operatingonsomeotherbodyforeachrealforcethatactsonthebodywhoseaccelerationisunder
consideration.

PartG
AccordingtoNewton's3rdlaw,theforceonthe(smaller)moonduetothe(larger)earthis
ANSWER:
greaterinmagnitudeandantiparalleltotheforceontheearthduetothemoon.
greaterinmagnitudeandparalleltotheforceontheearthduetothemoon.
equalinmagnitudebutantiparalleltotheforceontheearthduetothemoon.
equalinmagnitudeandparalleltotheforceontheearthduetothemoon.
smallerinmagnitudeandantiparalleltotheforceontheearthduetothemoon.
smallerinmagnitudeandparalleltotheforceontheearthduetothemoon.

Correct

EnhancedEOC:Exercise4.24
Theupwardnormalforceexertedbytheflooris620Nonanelevatorpassengerwhoweighs650N.
Youmaywanttoreview(

pages112117).

Forgeneralproblemsolvingtipsandstrategiesforthistopic,youmaywanttoviewaVideoTutorSolutionof
Determiningaccelerationfromforce.

PartA
Whatisthemagnitudeoftheacceleration?

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
Startbydrawingasketchwithanappropriatecoordinatesystemandincludingalloftheforcesactingonthe
elevatorpassenger.
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Whyinthisproblemisthenormalforcenotequaltothepassengersweight?Whatmustbehappening?
Findtheresultantnetforceactingontheelevatorpassenger,andusingtheappropriateequations,calculate
thepassengersacceleration.Whatadditionalquantitydoyouneedtofindtocalculatetheacceleration?
ANSWER:
a

= 0.452 m/s 2

Correct

PartB
Whatisthedirectionoftheacceleration?

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
Supposeyouwereinthiselevator.Whatwoulditfeellikeifthenormalforce(fromtheelevatorfloor)acting
onyouintheupwarddirectionwerelessthantheforceofgravityactingonyouinthedownwarddirection?
Supposethenormalforcewaslargerthangravitywhichwaywouldyoumove?
Inwhichdirectionistheresultantforceactingontheelevatorpassenger?
ANSWER:
upward
downward

Correct

VideoTutor:TensioninStringbetweenHangingWeights
First,launchthevideobelow.Youwillbeaskedtouseyourknowledgeofphysicstopredicttheoutcomeofan
experiment.Then,closethevideowindowandanswerthequestionatright.Youcanwatchthevideoagainatany
point.

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PartA
Considerthevideotutorialyoujustwatched.Supposethatweduplicatethisexperimentalsetupinanelevator.
Whatwillthespringscalereadiftheelevatorismovingupwardatconstantspeed?

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
Whatdoesthephrase"atconstantspeed"implyabouttheaccelerationofthesystem?
ANSWER:
0N
18N
Morethan18N
Lessthan18Nbutgreaterthan0N

Correct
Sincetheelevatorisnotaccelerating,thereadingonthescaleisthesameasinthevideo.

MotionofaBlockwithThreeForces
Thediagrambelowshowsablockofmassm = 2.00 kgonafrictionlesshorizontalsurface,asseenfromabove.
ThreeforcesofmagnitudesF1 = 4.00 N ,F2 = 6.00 N ,andF3 = 8.00 N areappliedtotheblock,initiallyatrest
onthesurface,atanglesshownonthediagram.Inthisproblem,youwilldeterminetheresultant(total)forcevector
fromthecombinationofthethreeindividualforcevectors.Allanglesshouldbemeasuredcounterclockwisefromthe
positivexaxis(i.e.,allanglesarepositive).

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PartA
CalculatethemagnitudeofthetotalresultantforceF r

= F1 + F2 + F3

actingonthemass.

ExpressyouranswerinNewtonstothreesignificantfigures.

Hint1.Definitionofresultantforce
Whenseveralforcesareappliedtoanobject,thevectorsumisoftencalledtheresultantortheresultant
force.

Hint2.Howtofindtheresultant
Whenworkingwithvectors,thegeneralruleistothinkgeometricallybuttocalculateusingcomponents.
Thustoaddvectorsoneestimatesthesumbyimaginingthetailofthesecondvectortobeplacedatthe
pointofthefirst,thetailofthethirdtobeplacedatthesecond,etc.Buttocalculatethevectorsumeach
vectorisrepresentedbycomponentsinaconvenientcoordinatesystemandthesecomponentsareadded
tofindthecomponentsofthesum.

Hint3.FindthecomponentsofF 1
WhatarethexcomponentandycomponentofF 1 ?
Expressyouranswerasanorderedpairofnumbers,separatedbyacomma,tothreesignificant
figures.

Hint1.xcomponentofF 1
ThexcomponentofF 1 isF1 cos(),where istheanglebetweenthepositivexaxisandthe
vector'sdirection.
ANSWER:

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F 1x

,F1y = 3.63,1.69 N

Hint4.FindthecomponentsofF 2
FindthexandycomponentsofthevectorF 2 .
Expressyouranswerasanorderedpairtothreesignificantfigures.
ANSWER:
F 2x

,F2y = 4.91,3.44

Hint5.FindthecomponentsofF r
Nowfindthexandycomponentsoftheresultant(sum)vector,F r .(Don'tforgettoincludeF 3 .)
Expressyouranswerasanorderedpairtothreesignificantfigures.
ANSWER:
F rx

,Fry = 0.540,1.75

Hint6.MagnitudeofF r
ThemagnitudeofF r intermsofitsxandycomponentsFrx andFry isgivenby

2
2

|F r | = F rx
+ F ry

ANSWER:

|F r |

= 1.83 N

Correct

PartB
WhatangledoesF r makewiththepositivexaxis?
Expressyouranswerindegreestotwosignificantfigures.

Hint1.Findtheanglesymbolically
TheanglethatF r makeswiththexaxiscanbedeterminedifyouknowitsxandycomponents,whichyou
shouldhavefromyourcalculationforPartA.WhatistheanglethatF r makeswiththepositivexaxis?
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AnswersymbolicallyintermsofFrx andFry .

Hint1.Howtoapproachthisproblem
Whendevelopingageneralformulafortheangle,youcanchoosethevectortolieinanyquadrant.It
iseasiesttohavethevectorlieinthefirstquadrant.

ANSWER:

atan(

Fry
Frx

ANSWER:
73 degrees

Correct

PartC
Whatisthemagnitudeofthemass'saccelerationvector,a?
Expressyouranswertotwosignificantfigures.

Hint1.Newton's2ndlaw
RecallthatF =

,soyoushouldbeabletofind|a|fairlyeasilyhere.

ma

ANSWER:

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|a|

= 0.92 m/s 2

Correct

PartD
Whatisthedirectionofa?Inotherwords,whatangledoesthisvectormakewithrespecttothepositivexaxis?
Expressyouranswerindegreestotwosignificantfigures.

Hint1.RelationbetweenthedirectionofaandF
IsthereanyreasonwhythedirectionofashouldbedifferentfromF ?
ANSWER:
73 degrees

Correct

PartE
Howfar(inmeters)willthemassmovein5.0s?
Expressthedistanced inmeterstotwosignificantfigures.

Hint1.Displacementwithconstantacceleration
Rememberthatwehaveconstantaccelerationhere,soyoucanusetheequation:
d(t) = d0 + v 0 t +

1
2

at

whered(t)isthedisplacementattimet.
ANSWER:
d

= 11 m

Correct

PartF
Whatisthemagnitudeofthevelocityvectoroftheblockatt
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= 5.0 s

?
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Expressyouranswerinmeterspersecondtotwosignificantfigures.

Hint1.Velocitywithconstantacceleration
Remember,wehaveconstantacceleration,andbecausetheobjectstartsfromrest,thevelocityvectorwill
beparalleltotheaccelerationvector.Therefore,v f = v i + at .
ANSWER:

|v (5)|

= 4.6 m/s

Correct

PartG
Inwhatdirectionisthemassmovingattimet
respecttothepositivexaxis?

= 5.0 s

?Thatis,whatangledoesthevelocityvectormakewith

Expressyouranswerindegreestotwosignificantfigures.

Hint1.Relationshipbetweenthedirectionofv and
a

Themassstartsatrestandisacceleratedinonedirection.Therefore,itmusthavevelocityinthedirection
oftheacceleration,andthatdirectiononly.
ANSWER:
73 degrees

Correct

EnhancedEOC:Exercise4.28
ApersonpullshorizontallyonblockBinthefigure,causingbothblockstomovetogetherasaunit.
Youmaywanttoreview(

pages124125).

Forgeneralproblemsolvingtipsandstrategiesforthistopic,youmaywanttoviewaVideoTutorSolutionofA
Newtonsthirdlawparadox.

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PartA
Whilethissystemismoving,makeacarefullylabeledfreebodydiagramofblockAifthetableisfrictionless.
Drawallrelevantforcevectorswiththeirtailsatthedot.Theorientationofyourvectorswillbegraded.The
exactlengthofyourvectorswillnotbegraded,buttherelativelengthofonetotheotherwillbegraded.

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
First,picturewhatishappening.Whatforce(s)doesblockBexertonblockA?Arethereanyotherforces
actingonblockA?
Ifthetableisfrictionless,whathappenstoblockBasitispulled?SinceblockAandblockBmoveasa
unit,whatcanbesaidabouttheiraccelerations?
SoisthereanetforceonblockA?
ThinkaboutwhatcausesthisresultantforceonblockA.Inwhatdirectionmustitact?
ANSWER:

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Correct

PartB
Whilethissystemismoving,makeacarefullylabeledfreebodydiagramofblockAifthereisfrictionbetween
blockBandthetableandthepullisequaltothefrictionforceonblockBduetothetable.
Drawallrelevantforcevectorswiththeirtailsatthedot.Theorientationofyourvectorswillbegraded.The
exactlengthofyourvectorswillnotbegraded,buttherelativelengthofonetotheotherwillbegraded.

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
HowhasfrictionwiththetablechangedthisproblemfrompartA?WhatistheaccelerationofblockBnow?
SinceblockAandblockBmoveasaunit,whatcanbesaidabouttheiraccelerations?Soisthereanet
forceonblockA?
ANSWER:

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Correct

Problem4.58
Thepositionofa2.75 10 5
r = (0.020 m/s

)t

traininghelicopterundertestisgivenby

2
2 ^
^
^
i + (2.2 m/s)t j (0.060 m/s )t
k

PartA
Findthenetforceonthehelicopteratt

= 5.0 s

^ ^
Expressyouranswerintermsof^
i , j , k .Usethe'unitvector'buttontodenoteunitvectorsinyouranswer.
Expressyourcoefficientusingtwosignificantfigures.

ANSWER:

^
^
17000 i 3400k

Correct

Exercise4.31
Achairofmass12.0kg issittingonthehorizontalfloorthefloorisnotfrictionless.Youpushonthechairwithaforce

N
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=35.0Nthatisdirectedatanangleof43.0 belowthehorizontalandthechairslidesalongthefloor.

PartA
UseNewton'slawstocalculatethenormalforcethatthefloorexertsonthechair.
ANSWER:
n

= 141 N

Correct

Problem4.36
YouhavejustlandedonPlanetX.Youtakeoutaballofmass100g,releaseitfromrestfromaheightof13.0mand
measurethatittakesatimeof2.10s toreachtheground.Youcanignoreanyforceontheballfromtheatmosphereof
theplanet.

PartA
HowmuchdoestheballweighonthesurfaceofPlanetX?
ANSWER:
W

= 0.590 N

Correct

Problem4.40

PartA
Anadvertisementclaimsthataparticularautomobilecan"stoponadime".Whatnetforcewouldactuallybe
necessarytostopanautomobileofmass910kg travelinginitiallyataspeedof49.0km/hinadistanceequalto
thediameterofadime,whichis1.8cm?
Expressyouranswerusingtwosignificantfigures.
ANSWER:
F= 4.7106 {\rmN}

Correct

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Problem4.60
Anobjectwithmassminitiallyatrestisactedonbyaforce\vecF=k_1\hati+k_2t^3\hatjwherek_1andk_2are
constants.

PartA
Calculatethevelocity\vecv\left(t\right)oftheobjectasafunctionoftime.
ANSWER:
\large{\vecv(t)=m\left({k_1t\hati+\frac{k_2}{3}t^3\hatj}\right)}
\large{\vecv(t)=\frac{1}{m}\left({k_1\hati+\frac{k_2}{3}t^3\hatj}\right)}
\large{\vecv(t)=\frac{1}{m}\left({k_1t\hati+\frac{k_2}{4}t^4\hatj}\right)}
\large{\vecv(t)=m\left({k_1t\hati+\frac{k_2}{4}t^4\hatj}\right)}

Correct
ScoreSummary:
Yourscoreonthisassignmentis99.4%.
Youreceived26.83outofapossibletotalof27points.

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