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LEARNING THEORIES

Alecia Baldwin
JOT2-Task 2

Dr. Costanza

LEARNING THEORIES AND


LEARNERS
Constructivism
Cognitivism
Behaviorism

LEARNING THEORIES AND


LEARNERS
Constructivism

Learning is an active experience


Learners use prior knowledge to help construct their own learning
Teachers do not give, but rather guide a student towards learning
Learning is targeted towards a real world context
Students obtain knowledge through interactive hands-on experiences with a
variety of materials, people and settings

When constructivism is beneficial for learners

Helps those who lack problem solving skills


Caters to students who need/prefer hands-on exploration and manipulation of objects
Group setting
When attempting to develop a deeper understanding of the subject matter
Research projects
Advanced learners
Early learners
Learners with special needs

LEARNING THEORIES AND


LEARNERS
Cognitivism
Focuses

on internal learning
Students learn best when allowed to create their own understanding of the
information
Learning must be meaningful
Thinking, memory and problem solving are emphasized

When congnitivism is beneficial to learners


Scaffolding
Modeling

Reasoning
Problem

solving
Lack of prior knowledge
Memory recall

LEARNING THEORIES AND


LEARNERS
Behaviorism

Stimulus to response

Teacher centered instruction

Provides constant and relevant feedback

Observable and measurable behaviors

When behaviorism is beneficial for learners

Negative and positive reinforcements

Drill and skill practice

Teacher directed instruction

Enhancing class structure

Teaching tool for positive behavior

LEARNING THEORY USED IN


LESSON PLAN

Constructivism
*Constructing knowledge through experiences

(Refer to lesson plan in notes below)

ADAPTION OF LESSON PLAN

Constructivism to Behaviorism

ADAPTION OF LESSON PLAN


Teacher will use more direct instruction
Teacher will model specific examples of how to write
the letter Aa
Teacher will list words that begin with the sound of Aa
and students will repeat
For every correct response, teacher will add a marble to
the class reward jar
During independent practice, students will be given a
sticker for every correct picture labeled and drawn
Those who do not finish their independent work or need
additional support will miss recess to continue practice

LESSON PLAN DISCUSSION


Constructivism or Behaviorism?

Constructivism is more beneficial for this specific lesson plan because it follows
developmentally appropriate practice for young learners.

My kindergartners often find success in learning


when they can

Use hands on exploration

Verbally communicate their ideas with others

Explore materials related to the subject matter

Focus on process rather than a specific product outcome

Feel safe to explore and make mistakes rather than focus on the correct answer

*Constructivism encompasses all these traits, and therefore leads as the appropriate
learning theory to use while teaching the letter names and sounds to kindergarten
students.

EFFECTIVE INSTRUCTION THROUGH THE


USE OF DESIGN THEORIES
Guides teacher planning and goals
Provides learning structure in the classroom
Allows for differentiation
Sets expectations for teachers and students
Provides ongoing feedback for students and
teachers

DESIGN THEORIES
Wiggins
Gagne
Teaching for Understanding

STRENGTHS OF WIGGINS THEORY


Clear objectives are presented
Ongoing feedback and assessments
Data driven instruction
Condenses large quantities of information into
specific goals

LIMITATIONS OF WIGGINS
Time consuming
Assessments can override instruction
Lacks student exploration and discovery

STRENGTHS OF GAGNES EVENTS


Clearly defined learning objectives
Engaging
Provides regular student feedback
Systematic approach to learning
Builds on existing knowledge

LIMITATIONS OF GAGNES EVENTS


Difficult to fit Common Core objectives within
Gagnes learning outcomes
Process oriented rather than product oriented
Lacks flexibility and teacher creativity
Difficult to implement

STRENGTHS OF
TEACHING FOR UNDERSTANDING
Incorporates prior knowledge with new
learning
Promotes in depth learning
Strong focus on practicality
Ongoing assessments direct teacher instruction
Includes differentiation for all learners

WEAKNESSES OF
TEACHING FOR UNDERSTANDING
Requires subject background knowledge
Time consuming
Is not always accessible to all learners
Demanding on both students and teachers

MOST SUITABLE DESIGN PROCESS

Teaching for Understanding

Provides structure
Flexible for teachers
Ongoing assessments and feedback
Reflective
Allows for discovery and student involvement