Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 20

Running Head: COMPREHENSION PAPER AND RECEPTIVE LANGUAGE LAB

Comprehension Paper and Receptive Language Lab


Sophie Pierre-Louis
Seton Hall University

Receptive Language Lab & Comprehension Paper


Merriam-Webster (2014) defines comprehension as an act of grasping intelligence, fully
grasping information and gaining knowledge through comprehension. This definition of
comprehension would be one of the first ones to come up in a search engine, when the keywords
define comprehension are typed in. However, comprehension entails so much more than just
this simple definition. This broad term of comprehension encompasses a variety of different
types, such as reading comprehension and language comprehension. This paper will be focusing
on language comprehension, examples of and factors that affect language comprehension. Also
the changes that occur over time with development in regards to comprehension will be touched
upon in this paper. Along with assessments that assess language comprehension.
Language Comprehension Definition and Example
Language comprehension is the ability to recognize information from verbal information
within a message, which is improved with nonverbal context of the message and by the listeners
world experience (Weiss 2014). This definition of language comprehension shows that
comprehension is not as strong as it could be without the use of world knowledge and the
gestures. Similarly, Hoover & Gough (2013) have defined language comprehension as the
capability to form an understanding of spoken language with an assortment of skills that depend
on each other. These assortments of skills are a knowledge of the structure of language and prior
knowledge that is formed from previous encounters with the environment. Both of these
definitions both include information that a listener needs previous world experience. They differ
along the lines of knowledge of the language rules and nonverbal information, gestures. These
skills help us make inferences in language, so that we are able to understand what is being said.

Comprehension is about making connections mentally so that a coherent representation is


formed.
From the definitions of language comprehension mentioned there can be a number of
examples. In The Little Mermaid, Ariel comes across a fork in the ocean and decides it used on
the land as a comb. So once, she trades her tail fin for legs, she sits and sees the fork and
automatically starts combing her hair with it. This example shows that Ariel used her prior
experience with the fork and applied to the next time she encountered. It is also an illustration of
fast-mapping. Fast-mapping is learning a new concept after limited exposure (Drye 2009). Ariel
had only had one interaction with the fork and was able to apply the knowledge in a different
setting. However, mapping could lead to misconceptions if there is not enough exposure. This is
the case with Ariel she though a fork was a comb within her first encounter and used that
knowledge in second the encounter, where she learned that it was actually a utensil used to eat.
Fast mapping is a comprehension strategy used to learn words. Through fast mapping
children are creating educated guesses in relation to the context of the new word (Drye 2009).
Upon exposure to the word, there will be information stored that is not related to the meaning of
the word, once the child had more exposure to the word the child will be able to dispose of the
improper information (Weiss 2014). Once the child has a grander receptive language, the child
becomes better at fast mapping (Drye 2009). Fast mapping is a strategy that allows for the
comprehension of words. This strategy becomes more efficient with experiences and the
increasing size of receptive vocabulary. The listener becomes less likely to incorporate irrelevant
information to the new word.
Factors that Affect Language Comprehension

Even though, both of the definitions of language comprehension state that there are skills
that work together in understanding language comprehension; it is a challenge to test language
comprehension with the use of nonverbal information present. For instance, a caregiver is
playing peek-a-boo with the child and the caregiver is doing all the related gestures and saying
peak-a-boo then the child imitates the same gestures. The caregiver may go on to state that the
child has understood what was said. A question would come up as to whether or not the child has
really understood what the caregiver has said or is just imitating the caregiver. This would be
called imitate ongoing actions (Weiss 2014). The caregiver has repeatedly done the peak-a-boo
motions to the child and the child has begun doing the motions without, perhaps, regarding what
verbal information was said. According to Weiss (2014), the child producing an action is not
result of language comprehension, but the action would have occurred regardless. This is why it
is important to test language comprehension without the gestures. Subtracting gestures out of the
equation leads to the child being less dependent on them to figure out, guess the meaning. The
elimination of gestures and then asking questions is done by clinicians and researcher s that
believe gestures are a confound (Weiss 2014).
Another factor that affects language comprehension is guessing. When a child is put in a
situation where they do not completely understand the language they begin really making
guesses (Weiss 2014). These guesses can sometimes be wrong or right. Though the guesses may
be right the question still remains if the childs guess if because they understood the linguistic
information (Weiss 2014). The guesses that children make help them better and create a grander
receptive vocabulary. Inappropriate guesses will lead to the caregiver correcting the child and
appropriate (Weiss 2014). The child getting the feedback helps them learn more language. Even
though, guessing can be negative for language comprehension it does have a positive effect on it.

Lastly, another factor that affects language comprehension is the quality of input. When
speaking to children adults speak differently so that the child can comprehend and learn the
linguistic information from the message. Adults will incorporate a lot more gestures, emphasize
on certain words, have shifts in prosody and longer turn-taking transitions (Weiss 2014). This
techniques that adults incorporate when speaking to a child not only allows the child to learn the
art of conversation but it allows them to learn about the linguistic information.
Development of Comprehension
Language comprehension changes throughout life. According to Williams (1990),
language comprehension does not get better with age but like any milestone, each skill builds on
upon the previous one. Individuals demonstrate signs of language comprehension as young as
one month old. At one month old receptive language is demonstrated through responding to a
voice, the next skill that builds upon this is the eyes following movement (Williams 1990).
Language comprehension is measured from early on, through reactions to voices and faces and
evolves to the child understanding words, identifying familiar objects, and following simple
directions (Williams 1990).
In developing language comprehension there are strategies that children use
compensating for their lack of understanding. These strategies that are used to help aide in the
comprehension of children are imitate ongoing actions, bootstrapping, and probable relation of
events strategy.
Imitate ongoing actions as described previously is when the child imitates a caregivers
action regardless of the linguistic information (Weiss 2014). Another comprehension strategy is
bootstrapping. Bootstrapping is the process of making best guesses given knowledge of only
part of the linguistic message (Weiss 2014). With bootstrapping child generalize rules about

language that they know to language that is unfamiliar to them. For instance, a child is learning
the past tense of verbs and understands that ed but be adding to ending of the word. Yet, the
child will come across an irregular past tense verb such as run the child might say it as runned
instead of ran.
The probable relation event strategy is another strategy of comprehension. This strategy
refers to the childs word experiences (Weiss). An example of this strategy is when the phone
encounters a telephone in unfamiliar context, they would pick up the and say hello. The
children is using what is known about the phone and applying it to the unknown context. The
child does what is known about the object in an unknown context is called do what you do
strategy (Weiss 2014).
Conclusion
Language comprehension is an important part of language that should be measured and
should be assumed as normal based the expressive language of a child (Weiss 2014). For this
reason there are receptive language assessments that ae designed to test language
comprehension. These assessments measure the language comprehension and take into
consideration the way comprehension changes over time. Either they are norm-referenced,
criterion-based, or play based the assessments test language comprehension.

Receptive Language Assessments


Description of the Assessments
In the Receptive Language Lab, we touched up six assessments. The six assessments are
Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-3rd edition, Test of Language Development-Primary 3rd
edition, Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals- Primary 2nd edition, Token Test for
Children, Miller& Paul Procedure, and Preschool Language Scale 5 th edition. These test either

wholly or contain specific subtest that test receptive language. The following chart encompasses
more information about all six receptive language tests.

Test and age level

Peabody Picture
Vocabulary
Test- 3rd Edition
(PPVT-3)
2-6 to Adult

Test of
Language
DevelopmentPrimary 3rd
Edition (TOLD)
4-0 to 8-11

Receptive Language Assessments


Domain of
How is
What does the
Language
comprehension
experimenter do?
tapped?
- Presents four
One word level
picture to a page,
Semantics
then speaks a word
Vocabulary
describing one of
Acquisition
the pictures and asks
the child to point,
Matching one
touch, or say the
picture out of a
number of the
series of 4
picture

Semantics (Picture
Vocabulary)
Syntax (Grammatic
Understanding)

One word level


Sentence level
Matching one
picture to a word
or a sentence
Receptive
Vocabulary and
Grammar

Clinical
Evaluation of
Language
Fundamentals
Preschool- 2 nd
Edition
(CELF-P:2)
3-0 to 6 -11

Semantics
Linguistic
Concepts
(LC)
Basic
Concepts
(BC)
Syntax
Sentence
Structure
(SS)
Linguistic
Concepts

Phrase Level
Sentence Level
Receptive
Vocabulary

-Picture
Vocabulary- present
a series of pictures
to child, then says
Show me ______.
Or Point to____.
Avoid articles in
order not to sway
child.
Grammatic
UnderstandingShows child a series
of picture, then says
a sentence to child
-LC- Shows child a
series of pictures
and asks them to
identify specific
animals. Point to the
_____.
-BC- Shows the
child a series of
pictures and asks
them to match
pictures to specific
words by saying
Point to.or
Show meand
will circle the
corresponding letter
to the childs
response.

What does the


child do?
-Point, touch, or
say the number of
the picture,
however eye gaze
can be accepted if
they cant point
or touch

-PV-Point or
touch the picture
that matches
word that the
experimenter has
asked to point to
-GU- Points to
the picture that
matches the
sentence said by
the experimenter

- LC- Child needs


to point to picture
that matches what
the experimenter
has told the child
to point to.
-BC- Child will
need to point to a
picture that
matches what the
experimenter has
said.
-SS- Point to the
picture that
corresponds with
the sentence

8
-SS- Experimenter
will say a sentence
and ask the child to
Point to a
picture out of a
series of pictures
that match the
sentence
Token Test For
Children- 3rd
Edition (TTFC-2)
3-0 to 12-11

Syntax
Semantics

Manipulatives
Receptive
Vocabulary
Sentence LevelRange of
complexity

Miller & Paul


Procedure
8-12 months
8 months & up
12-18 months
12-24 months
18-24 months
24-48 months
30-48 months

Semantics
Syntax
Pragmatics

Word level (8-12


months, 12-18
months 12-24
months, 18-24
month, 30-48
months)
Discourse
(8months &up)
Commands (1224 months)
Sentence level &
Questions
(18-24 months,
24-48 months)
Play (all ages)
Receptive
Vocabulary (all
ages)

-Read sentences that


explain small tasks
that the child has to
complete. The
experimenter also
has to record if the
child has completed
the tasks correctly or
incorrectly. The
commands are
arranged in four
parts of increasing
difficulty.
Parent/ Caregiver
verbally requests
child to join in game
without using
gestures (8-12
months)
Parent must use
speech and gesture
directed towards
certain objects and
activities to gain
childs attention (8
months &up)

- Has to touch
manipulate the
different colored
shapes that are set
before according
to the sentence
that the
experimenter has
read. The child
will either need to
touch a specific
shape(s) or put a
shape under
another shape.
Child enters
game at verbal
request with
appropriate
gestures (8-12
months)
Child attends to
objects indicated
by the parent (8
months & up)
Childs attention
to objects (12-18
months)

Place objects in
front of child and
say Where is?
without looking at
object and pointing

Child performs
action that is
requested (12-24
months)

Complete previous
procedure then have
child preform
actions on the
objects from
previous procedure
(12-24 months)

The child
searches for
object or person
named. She/he
may then get,
give, or show the
object (18-24

9
months)
Place child so that
some familiar
objects are hidden
and then request the
one of familiar
objects or persons
(18-24 months)
Ask child for objects
and to do actions of
objects. Questions
would be: possessorpossession, actionobject, and agentaction (18-24
months)
Use several objects
that the child must
choose from, then
ask child to act out
instructions, such as
Make the horse
eat or The doll
kisses the comb
(24-48 months)

Child responds
correctly to both
elements in the
instruction (18-24
months)
Child chooses the
correct agent
from the array
and uses it to
perform the
mentioned action
(24-48 months)
Child moves to
the appropriate
positions (30-48
months)

Place a box in front


of child, and play
game with child
using prepositions.
For example tell
child to hide in the
box, go under the
box or sit on the
box. (30-28 months)
Preschool
Language
Scales- 5th
Edition (PLS-5)
Birth to 7-11

Pragmatics
Semantics
Syntax

-Use of
Manipulatives in
all age groups
-Play-based
(starting at 3
months)
-Word Level
(starting at age 2)
-Sentence level
(starting at age 3)

- Talk to child,
create a noise, speak
with gestures, point
to objects, request
objects, say Point
to, Show me,
or ask questions in
order to illicit a
verbal or nonverbal
response from the
child.

-Children need to
point or provide
verbal response to
pictures and
objects depending
on section child is
completing on the
PLS-5

10

Comparing and Contrasting of Assessments


Knowing the basic information, i.e. the domain of language tapped, of the assessments
will help in understanding what assessment would work best for a client. Yet, to further
understand each test it would be best to compare and contrast. Through comparing and
contrasting the assessments you will be able to understand, the end product each test will be able
to provide one once you give it to a client. Below is a compare and contrast chart on the six
receptive language assessments.

PP
VT3
PPVT-3

Compare* and Contrast of Receptive Language Assessments


TOLD
CELF-P:2
TTFC-2
Miller & Paul

PLS-5

-Tap into the


language
domain
Semantics
-Minimal
demand on
the child
-Progression
in the tests
results to
more
complex
semantics and
syntax
-Tests
understandin
g of spoken
language
- Uses Picture
Vocabulary
-Normreferenced
tests
-Forced
choice picture
recognition
-PPVT-3
- Can be used
from children
ages 2-6 to
Adults

-Semantics is
tested in both
tests
- Child is
required to
point in order
to convey
answer;
minimal
demand on
child
-Suggested
starts points
according to
age
-Normreferenced test
-Contain both
basal and
ceiling rules
PPVT-3
- Tests
children from
age 2-6 to
adult
- Broadly
sample words
that represent
different
content words
and parts of

-Both tap in the


language
domain
Semantics
-Tests
understanding of
spoken language
-Forced choice
picture
recognition
- Child points to
corresponding
picture; minimal
demand on child
-Normreferenced tests
PPVT-3
-Child is given
referent and
words
-Can be tested at
one word level
-Token picture
is randomly
assigned to
different boxes
- Has a basal set
rule
-Ceiling rule is
based on
number of errors

- Both tap into


the language
domain
Semantics
- Test an
understanding
of Spoken
Language
-Progression
through the test
results in
increase of
difficulty
PPVY-3
-Child points or
touches
corresponding
picture;
minimal
demand on the
child
- Normreferenced test
- Can be used
from children
ages 2-6 to
Adults
TTFC-2
-Child has to
manipulate the
different

-Tested
comprehension
at the word
level
-Tapped into
semantics
- Includes
specific ages
for each section
-Uses pictures
or objects the
child should be
familiar with
PPVT-3
-Normreferenced test
- Requires the
child
-Uses pictures
to test the
comprehension
of children
-Child points or
touches
corresponding
picture;
minimal
demand on the
child
Miller & Paul
- Criterion-

11
-Ceiling rule
is based on
number of
errors in a set
and not
consecutive
items
- Broadly
represents
different
content areas
and parts of
speech across
all levels of
difficulty.
TOLD
- used for
ages 4-0 to 811
-Provides
different
components
for child to
comprehend
spoken
language
through
picture
vocabulary
with the use
of words,
phrases, and
sentences.
-Ceiling rules
are based on
the number of
items wrong
consecutively

TOLD

in a set and not


consecutive
items
CELF-P:2
-Tests not only
semantics but
also syntax
- Uses words
naming words
for animals,
temporal words,
prepositions,
descriptive
words, along
with simple,
complex, and
passive
sentences
-Ceiling rules
are based on the
age of the child

colored and
shaped tokens
in response to
the what the
experimenter
has said
- Used in only
children ages
3-0 to 12-11
years.

based test
-Play- based
test
-Tests
comprehension
in infants
- Uses real
objects and
people and
actions
happening in
real time to the
test the
comprehension
of children
-In some
procedures the
response is
recorded after
several trials

-Both tap into


the language
domains of
semantics and
syntax
- Minimal
demand on the
child, has to just
point to pictures

-Semantics and
syntax is tested
by both
assessments
-Progression
with
assessments
result in
increase of

-These
assessments
focus on the
domains of
semantics and
syntax
-Word level,
sentence level
and receptive

speech across
all levels of
difficulty
PLS-5
- not only
requires child
to point at
pictures but
also has child
respond with
verbal
responses
- Does not
only tap into
the language
domain of
semantics, also
taps into
pragmatics
and syntax.
-Tests child
from birth to
7:11
- Comes with
manipulatives
- Contains
Supplemental
Measures
(checklists,
questionnaire)
-Measures
comprehensio
ns with the use
of analogies,
pictures, use
of verbs,
symbolic play,
spatial
concepts,
rhymes,
negatives, and
etc.
-The language
domain tested
in both test is
semantics and
syntax
-Child needs
to point to
picture in
response to

12
in response
- Test
comprehension
on one-word
level and then
on sentence
level
-Normreferenced tests
-Contain
specific subtest
that test
respective
language
TOLD
-Is used for ages
4-0 to 8-11
-Measures a
childs
understanding of
a spoken word
and sentence
-Contains two
subtest that test
receptive
language,
Picture
Vocabulary
(Spoken,
Language,
Listening, &
Semantics) and
Grammatic
Understanding
(Spoken
Language,
Listening ,&
Syntax)
CELF-P:2
-Used for ages
3-0 to 6-11
- Is to test if
preschoolers
have the aspects
of language
necessary to
make the
transition into
the classroom
- Contains three
subtests that test

difficulty and
complexity
TOLD
-Points to
picture to
convey
response;
minimal
demand on
child
-Only 3 subtest
test receptive
language
TTFC-2
-Whole
assessment test
receptive
language
-Have to have
prior
knowledge of
basic shapes
and colors
-Tests reading
and listening
skills
- Taxes
working
memory with
complex
sentences and
tasks become
more complex

vocabulary are
used to test the
children
receptive
language
TOLD
-Normreferenced test
- Minimal
demand on the
child, has to
just point to
pictures in
response to
word or
sentence said
by
experimenter
Miller & Paul
- Has specific
procedures that
are to be tested
in specific age
ranges
-Criterionbased test
-Play based
-Requires equal
work from both
the
experimenter
and the child
- Child
responses to
appropriately to
procedures
according
where they are
developmentally

stimuli
presented
- Most of the
work is done
by the
experimenter
-Normreferenced test
TOLD
-Tests
receptive
language in
children 4-0 to
8-11
-Starting rule
is beginning
with number
one on all the
subtests
-There is no
basal rule, but
there is a
ceiling rule
present
PLS-5
-Tests
receptive
language
based on the
developmental
milestones;
which is why
it is able to
test from birth
to 7-11
- Does not
only require
child to point
at picture to
convey
response but
also has them
provide verbal
responses

13
receptive
language,
Linguistic
Concepts, Basic
Concepts, and
Sentence
Structure.
-All three
subtests contain
elements of
semantics and
syntax.
-Contains item
analysis for
subtests
CELFP:2

-Tests
semantics and
syntax domains
of language
-Normreferenced
CELF-P:2
- Used for ages
3-0 to 6-11
years
-Is to test if
preschoolers
have the
aspects of
language
necessary to
make the
transition into
the classroom
-Tests on word,
phrase, and
sentence level
-Assessment
for receptive
language
TTFC-2
- Used in
children ages
3-0 to 12-11
years.
-Have to have
prior
knowledge of
basic shapes
and colors
-Tests reading

- Uses the
childs
receptive
vocabulary in
order to test
their receptive
language
-The
assessments
focus on the
language
domains of
semantics and
syntax
Miller & Paul
-Play based test
-criterion based
test
-Procedures are
linked together;
child needs the
knowledge
from another
procedure to
complete
consecutive
procedures
CELF-P:2
-Normreferenced test
-Requires the
students to
point to
pictures in
response to the
experimenters

-Poses
minimal
demand on the
child to
convey
responses
-Tap in the
semantic and
syntax domain
of language
-Ceiling rules
are present in
both
assessments
-Indicates
where to start
according to
the age of the
child
- There are
basal and
ceiling rules
present
-Normreferenced
tests
CELF-2
-Uses words
naming words
for animals,
temporal
words,
prepositions,
descriptive
words, along
with simple,

14
and listening
skills
-Tests using
manipulatives
- Screener for
receptive
language
-Test must be
given in
consecutive
order

TTFC-2

sentence or
word
-Contains
ceiling rules

-Use of
manipulatives
-From
beginning to
end the
difficulty
increases and
becomes more
demanding on
the child
Miller & Paul
-Has specific
procedures that
are to be tested
in specific age
ranges
-Criterionbased test
-Play based
- Child
responses to
appropriately to
procedures
according
where they are

complex, and
passive
sentences
-Ceiling rules
are based on
the age of the
child
-Tests
comprehensio
n at one word
level, phrase
level, and
sentence level
PLS-5
-Measures
comprehensio
n with the use
of analogies,
pictures, use
of verbs,
symbolic play,
spatial
concepts,
rhymes,
negatives, and
etc.
-Both
assessments
use
manipulatives
- These
assessments
test both
semantics and
syntax
TTFC-2
-Have to know
basic shapes
-Testing in
reading and
listening skills
-Gets
progressively
more complex
sentence-wise
and tactilewise
-Does not
contain basal
and ceiling
rules

15
developmentally

TTFC-2
-Subtests must
be given in
consecutive
order
-Theres needs
to be a prior
knowledge of
basic shapes
and colors

Miller
&Paul

-Only tests
receptive
language
PLS-5
-Contains
basal and
ceiling rules
-Also tests the
language
domain of
pragmatics
along with
semantics and
syntax
-Taps into the
language
domains of
semantics,
syntax, and
pragmatics
- At young
ages below 12
months
parents can be
involved to
illicit a
response from
child
-Identifies
comprehensio
n in young
infants (i.e.
does child
respond to
name)
-Minimal
demand on
child
-Progressing
on through
assessments
increases the
difficulty of
items/
procedures
-Indicates
where to
which item/
procedure to
begin on

16
depending on
age of child
-Use of
manipulatives
Miller & Paul
-Play based
assessment
;uses play
since it is a
major
participant
-Criterionbased
PLS-5
-Normreferenced test
-Contains
basal and
ceiling rules
PLS-5
*Comparisons are in orange font

In charting the basic information and comparing and contrasting the six receptive
assessments one can gain new insight. In describing the similarities and differences within the
assessments a speech-language pathologist (SLP) could decide which test would work for the
needs of a specific student. For instance, a daycare teacher could have concerns about a students
receptive language, which will soon be beginning Kindergartener and is five years old. The
student is typically developing in understanding words, but has a tough time understanding
sentences. In looking at the charts above, the SLP can already decide which test would
potentially not work for the student because of the age factor. Of course the SLP would need to
ask more questions about the teachers concern in order to gain a better picture about the student.
Yet, from the information given by the teacher the SLP could narrow down her choices of test to
TTFC-2, CELF, and TOLD. Another example, would be if the SLP receives a concern from a
teacher that a student is not following complex directions and is completing only certain steps to

17

multiple step tasks; then the SLP could proceed to decide to use the TTFC-2 to determine around
what level of complexity is too complex for the student.
Comprehension over Time
Language comprehension changes throughout the course of an individuals life it become
more complex as an individual ages, the receptive vocabulary increases, and the comprehension
from the word level increases sentences. The complexity of comprehension increases as well.
The assessments that test language comprehension must take into consideration the way an
individuals comprehension changes over time in order to efficiently assess. Each of the six
assessments mentioned above, tests different aspects of comprehension and the difficulty
increases as you near the end of the exam. In the PLS-5, comprehension is tested at first through
play, and these reactions of the child, then the complexity of the testing increases. It increases to
the word level by the child having to identify colors, body parts, and objects, and demonstrate an
understanding of different parts of speech.
Similarly to the PLS-5, The Miller & Paul Procedure uses play to test comprehension, but
only use play, throughout the assessment. The complexity of play increases from the child
attending to a game with the caregiver to the child playing a game to demonstrate understanding
of spatial concepts. Contrastingly, TTFC-2 does not test comprehension with play, but it does on
the sentence level with tasks the child has to complete. As you go through the consecutive
sections the sentences become more complex and with multiple steps. In the CELF and the
TOLD the child is tested through the word level and sentence level, a progression forward with
the subtests increases complexity. In contrast, the PPVT-3 tests comprehension on the one word
level and the words can be anything from verbs to nouns. Yet, towards the end of the assessment

18

the words become more challenging, for instance instead of just using the word hot, the word
blazing is used.
Comprehension changes over time in an individual. The assessments were created to test
language comprehension must still illustrate these changes in order to test effectively and aide in
diagnostics or intervention.
Professional Summary
Before completing this project, I believed that receptive language was just having an
understanding of what is being said. However, Ive learned through this paper that it also
includes everything that could be understood about language counting in the pragmatics, gestures
semantics, syntax, morphology, and phonology. It also includes the experience an individual has
that aides them in knowing the meaning of a word. This is the reason for the six receptive
assessments that were analyzed during our Receptive Language Lab not only tapped in the
semantics, but also into some of the other domains of language. Throughout this whole
experience, one thing that really surprised me was that comprehension can be tested through a
play-based assessment, the Miller & Paul Procedure. The Miller & Paul Procedure incorporates
play into its assessment because play is major participant among children. The age cohort this
assessment examines uses play as a tool to learning new language which can then be added to
their receptive vocabulary. This is how learning a new language is added to their receptive
vocabulary among a variation of different skills.
The information learned throughout this experience is information that I will be
incorporating into clinical practice. I would apply this knowledge of the receptive language
assessments by using it as a platform of evaluating to see if a child has a receptive language
delay or disorder. If through clinical practice I come across a young child, whose parents believe

19

she does not understand when they tell her a routine commands or her name. In this scenario I
would check her hearing then if that checks out to normal, I would prepare to either use the PLS5 or the Miller & Paul Procedure as assessments. With the knowledge I gained I know this child
would fall into the age range of these assessments; they take into consideration developmental
milestones the child comes across in the different section of the test. Another approach I would
apply this knowledge to clinical practice is through intervention. Giving the assessments of
receptive language will allow me to know what area the child has difficulty understanding. Using
the assessments, I will be able to differentiate where the difficultly is, whether it be at the word,
sentence, or complexity level. With my knowledge and understanding how comprehension
changes over time will help through the evaluation and intervention.

20

References
Drye, M. (2009, December 1). Fast Mapping. Retrieved November 1, 2014, from
http://faculty.mercer.edu/spears_a/studentpages/webpagesfall09/Fast Mapping/Fast
Mapping.htm
Hoover, W., & Gough, P. (2013, January 1). The Reading Acquisition Framework - An
http://www.sedl.org/reading/framework/overview.html
Merriam-Webster. (2014). Comprehension. Retrieved November 1, 2014, from
http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/comprehension
Weiss, A. (2014). Comprehension of Language. In B.B. Shulman & N.C. Capone Singleton
(Eds.). Language development: Foundations, processes, and clinical applications (pp.
99-116). Sudbury, Mass.: Jones and Bartlett.