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Chinese OCW Conversational Chinese

Grammar Text
by
Kurt Hamm
and
Rose Xu

(X L)

edited by
Christine Feng
(Fng Xiojn)

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Table of Contents
Unit
page
Introduction to Studying Chinese
8
Summary of this Book
15
Unit 1 Greetings, Names and Titles
26
Addressing friends, family and coworkers
27
Statements
27
Negative Statements
27
Questions
28
Unit 2 To Be Sentences
29
To Be an noun
30
And / Also / All (Statements)
30
OR (Statements)
30
Negative Statements
31
Questions
31
Unit 3 Showing Possession (de)
34
Negative Statements
35
Questions
35
Unit 4 Numbers and Measure Words
37
The Number one
38
The Number two
38
Measure Words
38
Unit 5 Adjectives
39
To Be an Adjective
40
Negative Statements
41
Questions
42
General Rules for Modifying Nouns
43
(sh)(de)
43
Negative Statements
43
Questions
44
Using (de) with Adjectives
44
Adjectives that are Modified by Degree
45
Measure Words and Adjectives
45
Example Sentences
46
Unit 6 Comparisons
47
Comparing Two Things
50
Questions
50
Comparing Two Things ()
51
Questions
51
A is equal to or greater than B ()
51
A is less than B ()
52
Questions
52
Stating Two Things are the Same ( / )
53
Stating Two Things are not the Same ()
54
Questions
55
Relatively / Comparatively ()
56
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Unit 7
Unit 8

Unit 9

Unit 10

Unit 11
Unit 12

Unit 13
Unit 14

Unit 15

Progression ()
To Have () Sentences
Negative Statements
Questions
Days and Dates
Months and Days
Dates and Years
Questions
Time
Stating the Time
Length of Time
Questions
Action Verb Sentences
Habitual / Intentional Actions
Time Phrases
Negative Statements
Questions
Action Verb Sentences - Actions in Progress
Negative Statements
Questions
Action Verb Sentences () ()
Completed Actions ()
Negative Statements
Questions
Actions (as part of past experience) ()
Negative Statements
Questions
Describing a situation ()
Using (le) to indicate a change of state
To Be at a Place
as a Verb
Negative Statements
Questions
Habitual or Intentional Actions
Actions in Progress
Completed Actions
Negative Statements
Questions
There is (there exists) (, , )
There is (there exists)
Beside
Opposite ()
Between
There is not
Is not beside
Is not opposite

56
57
58
58
60
60
62
62
64
64
66
66
67
67
68
69
69
72
74
75
78
78
82
82
86
86
86
88
89
91
91
91
92
92
93
93
93
94
95
96
97
98
98
99
100
100

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Unit 16
Unit 17

Unit 18

Unit 19

Unit 20

Unit 21

Unit 22

Is not between
Questions
Over / On / Under / Below / In / Out
Negative Statements
Questions
Actions in a Continuing State ()
Negative Statements
Questions
Example Sentences
How Often / How Many Times
Often
Negative Statements
How Often
How Many Times
Normally / Usually
Questions
How / Why / Like / Dislike
Expressing Purpose (Why)
Negative Statements
Questions
Expressing Means and Method
Negative Statements
Questions
Stating Likes and Dislikes
Negative Statements
Questions
Compliment of Potentiality ()
Sentences with no Action
Negative Statements
Questions
Sentences with Potential Action
Comparisons
Two Actions (A is greater than B) ()
Two Actions (A is not greater than B) ()
Questions
Two Actions (A is equal to or greater than B) ( / )
Questions
Stating that two actions are the same ()
Stating Two Actions are the not Same ()
Questions
Verb Compliment of Results
Section 1 Verbs and Adjectives
Verbs
Adjectives
Section 2 Verb Compliment of Results
Negative Statements
Questions

101
102
103
105
106
108
110
111
111
114
114
115
115
117
117
118
120
121
121
121
123
124
124
125
126
126
127
127
128
128
129
130
130
131
132
132
133
134
135
135
136
138
138
139
140
143
143

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Section 3 Using Compliment of Results


and Compliments of Potentiality
Unit 23 Directional Verbs ( and )
Habitual or Intentional Actions
Actions in Progress
Completed Actions
Negative Statements
Questions
Unit 24 Will / Want / Think / Should / Must (Auxiliary Verbs)
Section 1 Verbs
Want (verb - )
Negative Statements
Questions
Think (verb - )
Negative Statements
Questions
Think / Opinion (verb - / )
Negative Statements
Questions
Need (verb - )
Need (verb - - di)
Negative Statements
Questions
Section 2 Auxiliary Verbs
Want / Will - Auxiliary Verbs ( / )
Negative Statements
Questions
Should - Auxiliary verbs ( / )
Negative Statements
Questions
Must - Auxiliary Verb ()
Negative Statements
Questions
Unit 25 Can / Able / Possible / Probable / Will (Auxiliary Verbs)
Can (ability or knowledge) Verb ()
Can (Auxiliary Verb) ()
Negative Statements
Questions
Possibly / Probably (Auxiliary Verb - )
Negative Statements
Questions
Can (Auxiliary Verb - )
Negative Statements
Questions
Possibility (may / can) (Auxiliary Verb - )
Negative Statements

144
148
149
149
149
149
149
151
152
152
152
152
153
153
154
154
155
155
156
156
156
157
157
157
158
158
159
159
159
160
160
161
162
163
163
163
164
164
165
165
165
166
166
167
167

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Unit 26

Unit 27

Unit 28

Unit 29

Unit 30

Unit 31
Unit 32

Questions
Possible / Not Possible - (lio)
Example Sentences
If / Then / Because / Don't / Other / But / Still
Because So ()
If Then () () ()
Then () () ()
Don't ()
Other () ()
But ()
Still / Yet / Also / Emphasis ()
Before / After / While / When
Before ()
After ()
While ()
When / While ()
Questions
Repetition of Actions () ()
(zi) and (yu)
(yu) - two actions happen in succession
The difference between and
two situations that occur at the same time
used to indicate a continuation of actions
From / To / With
From ()
From ()
With ()
Near / Nearby ( / )
Simple Compliments of Direction ( and )
and Compound Compliments of Direction
Simple Compliments of Direction ( and )
Compound Compliments of Direction
Example Sentences
Supplemental Words
Durations of Actions
Unit Summary
Example Sentences
Modifying Verbs ()
Example Sentences
Single syllable adjectives (de)
Reduplicated Single Syllable Adjectives
Two Syllable Adjectives with Verbs (de)
Reduplicated Two Syllable Adjectives
Example Sentences

167
168
170
171
172
173
175
179
179
179
180
181
181
181
182
183
183
184
184
185
185
186
186
187
187
188
188
189
190
190
192
193
193
199
199
212
218
219
220
220
220
221
221

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Unit 33 (b) Sentences


(b) sentences
Rules of (b) sentences
Using in (b) sentences
Auxiliary Verbs in (b) sentences
Time Phrases in (b) sentences
Negative Statements
Questions
Commands and Requests
To Give Something to Someone
Auxiliary Verbs and the Particle (le)
Verb compliments of results
Example Sentences
Sentences that must use
Compound Compliment of Direction
Unit 34 (bi) Sentences
Comparison of Active and Passive voice
Summary of rules for simple (bi) sentences
Using (rng) and (jio)
Negative Statements
Questions
Example Sentences

223
226
226
227
229
231
232
232
239
246
247
247
248
249
253
259
260
260
261
262
263
253

Appendices
Appendix A
Pinyin
Appendix B
Advance Measure Words
Appendix C
Shopping and Money
Appendix D
Numbers in Use
Appendix E
Large and Small Numbers
Pinyin Pronunciation Chart
Glossary
Pinyin is a phonetic representation of Chinese characters, it is not proper Chinese. In
the material in these books, we have only capitalized pinyin spellings that are
normally used as such in English. Those words are limited to the names of cities, such
as Beijing and Shanghai and family names.
In this text, we have used the more common pronunciation (shi) for the character
instead of (shu). In dialogs, the pinyin representations for (y) and (b) have
been changed to reflect the way they are spoken in conversation. (Reference:
Grammar Text Appendix A Tone Change Rules)

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Introduction to Studying Chinese


While there are many dialects of Chinese spoken throughout China, Mandarin is the
official language and most universally spoken in the country. As a written language, it
is universal to all the dialects. Chinese writing does not use letters; it uses ideographic
symbols called characters. Each character is one syllable. There is a phonetic system
for the characters that uses letters. This system, called pinyin, allows one to learn
pronunciation without much difficulty. Looking at the example below, it is apparent
that learning to speak Chinese is much easier than learning to read or write the
language.
Chinese
Characters

Pinyin
Phonetic Representation

English
Meaning

cn tng

cafeteria

Tones
In the example above, notice that each pinyin syllable has a mark over it. In the pinyin
pronunciation system, tones are accounted for by tone marks above each syllable. If
no tone mark is used, the tone is neutral. A neutral tone is spoken lightly. The tone
marks are shown below.
first tone

second tone

third tone

fourth tone

Each tone has both pitch and inflection as the diagram below illustrates: 1st - a high,
flat tone, 2nd - a rising tone, 3rd - a tone that combines a falling and a rising inflection,
4th - a falling tone and a neutral tone that is soft and light.
1st tone

nd

tone

3rd tone

th

tone

shng

shng

sn

shng

shng

high

I
T
C

low

1st
4

2nd
4th

3
C
2

3rd

TIME

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The example below shows how different tones distinguish words that are otherwise
pronounced alike.
1st tone

2nd tone

3rd tone

4th tone

to droop

to answer

to hit

big

In China, you will often see pinyin writing on signs under characters. Pinyin spellings
are included on hotel signs, advertisements, road signs and buildings; however, tone
marks are only used in books, not on signs. People's names as well as city names,
such as Beijing and Shanghai, will appear in English writing as their pinyin
spellings.
The importance of using correct tones when speaking cannot be overemphasized.
Using incorrect tones makes it nearly impossible to understand what is being said.
For example, in the sentence below, notice how changing the tone of han changes
the meaning of the sentence.
Can you speak hny ?

4th tone

means. Can you speak Chinese?

Can you speak hny ?

2nd tone

means. Can you speak Korean?

Pronunciation
Most Chinese books for beginners have pinyin charts. All the sounds that are possible
to speak are on the chart. The easiest way to master pronunciation is to learn all the
sounds on the pinyin chart first. Learn to listen for them and learn to speak them. It
helps to review the rules, which are quite simple, at the beginning of your program.
This helps avoid confusion later on. For instance, the "un" in "gun" is not
pronounced the same as the the "un" in "xun". An explanation of this chart is
given in the first appendix of this book.
After that, practice by repeating audio material and reading sentences aloud. First,
listening is improved, particularly in getting used to hearing tones. Additionally,
speaking the texts helps in two ways. First, speaking develops the mouth muscles
needed to say sounds that are unfamiliar. For instance, English has no equivalent
sound for the (u) in (yu) (month). Making this sound requires drawing in the
cheek muscles in a way not familiar to native English speakers. After speaking a
sound several times, the mouth muscles get used to it, and in time, it is gets easier.
Second and most importantly, English speakers aren't used to using tones. Repeating
the texts helps develop the habit of speaking the tones.
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After understanding how pinyin works, it is tempting to simply ignore characters in


your Chinese study program. While pinyin is indispensable when studying Mandarin,
Chinese characters are not the same as words. Very few spoken Chinese programs rely
solely on pinyin. This is true because a working knowledge of characters simplifies all
grammar explanations as well as vocabulary acquisition. While it isn't necessary to
learn to read or write proficiently, knowing how characters are manipulated to form
words and grammatical structures makes learning to speak Chinese much easier.

Characters
Each character represents a word or an idea. Many characters, in their monosyllabic
form, have meaning - but are not typically used alone. For instance, (xi) means
"summer". However, "I like summer" is expressed as I like (xi tin). In this
case, their monosyllabic forms are only used when listing them.

Bijng

yu

sg

jji chn xi

qi

dng.

Beijing

has

four

seasons

autumn,

winter

spring,

summer,

When listing things, in general, it is common to see or hear monosyllabic word forms.
On buses and subways there is usually a sign that says, please offer your seat to
(lo ru bng cn yn) (old, sick ,weak, disabled, pregnant). Each of these
individual characters has meaning when used alone, but are only used alone when in a
list. If one of these groups of people were mentioned, separately, they would use the
following multi-syllabic phrases:

senior citizens

lo nin rn
shn t x ru de rn
shng bng de rn
cn j rn
hui yn de f n

weak people
sick people
disabled
pregnant women

Consider the following mono-syllabic words:

lo
nin

old
year

zhng
rn

middle
person(s)

The following multi-syllabic words seem fairly intuitive

zhng nin rn
lo nin rn

middle aged person(s)


old aged person(s)

If both groups are referred to at the same time, a multi-syllabic phase is used to
express the combination of the groups as:
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zhng lo nin rn

both old age and middle aged person(s)

"Tea is enjoyed by many (zhng lo nin rn). "


Another example: the two syllable word for China is (zhng gu), the two
syllable word for France is (f gu). When referring to relations between the two
countries the first syllable of each word is used form the multi-syllabic phrase, "
(zhng f)", as in the sentence, "(zhng f) (Sino-French) relations are very
good" . The word for desk is (zhu z) and the word for chair is (y zi)
but when referring to desks and chairs (zhu y) is used as in the sentence
This room has no (zhu y).
The examples above illustrate the tendency of the language to be brief. Chinese have
a penchant for brevity and often shorten expressions. Similar to when people in the
U.S. are discussing a state university, it isn't uncommon to hear the word "state" being
used in place of a university's name. This is much more common in Chinese than in
English. For example, (Bi jng t sh gun) [Beijing library] becomes
(bi t) or when referring to the bus stop for students going to the national
college entrance exams, (go ko de xu shng ch zhn) [college
entrance exam student bus stop] you will hear, (ko shng zhn). This way of
making phrases, by dropping characters and combining them, is also how words are
formed.
To create a single multi-syllabic word, single characters are taken from other multisyllabic words and combined in the same way as the phrases discussed above. For
instance, (x y din), is a multi-syllabic word that means "laundry shop". The
words for "shop" and "clothes" are have two characters each; however, only one
character from each word is used to form the words "laundry shop".
wash

(x)
(x)

clothes

(y fu)

(y)

shop

(shng din)
(din)

laundry shop

(x y din)

The list below further illustrates how this works. Knowing these associations helps
simplify learning new words. Notice that in the word (y fu), (f) is spoken in
the neutral tone and in the word (f w), (f) is spoken in the 2nd tone.

y
xi y
y y
y
d

rain
to rain
raincoat
clothes
big

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d y
y fu
f
w
f w
f w yun
y w
y
y w sh
sh

coat
clothes
serve, serve as
to be engage in
service
service person
medical matters
medicine, doctor
clinic
room

In the word list above, knowing that the character (yun) in the word (f w
yun) indicates a kind of job title, makes learning new words such as the ones below
easier.

d z
d z yun

to type
typist

fi xng
fi xng yun
shng din
din yun

to fly
pilot
store, shop
sales clerk

hi
hi yun

sea
sailor

However, ignoring the characters altogether, simply studying the language using
pinyin, increases the chances of making wrong associations when learning new words.
For instance, the character (yun) (service person) has the same pronunciation as
the character that means "an area of land for growing plants" or "a place for public
recreation", (yun). Limited to only using pinyin, a beginner might mistakenly
assume the word for "garden", (hu yun), to mean "gardener".

hu yun

garden

dng w yun

zoo

gng yun

public park

xio yun

campus

The examples above illustrate that including characters in Chinese study programs
simplifies vocabulary acquisition, by showing associations that make learning new
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words easier, as well as avoiding confusion through wrong associations.


While it isn't necessary to learn to read or write proficently, when learning to speak
Chinese, a familiarity with characters helps immensely in understanding the language
and avoiding confusion. Deciding to include characters in a course of study brings up
the question "how can a beginner remember new characters?"

Radicals
When people try to remember unfamiliar things, such as Chinese characters, it is
necessary to associate this new information with something familiar, to develop
memory hooks. Native English speakers have little experience in remembering, what
appear to be, pictures. In an effort to remember characters, a common mistake many
beginners make is to create their own "personal" memory associations or memory
hooks. They construct mental images that help them remember the complexities of
each character. For instance, "This looks like a house and that looks like a pillow, so
this character looks like a pillow on a house." Do not do this! This leads to
remembering a very complicated set of pictures that becomes very difficult to manage.
There is an easier way deal with remembering characters. To simplify reading
characters, it is important to understand that each character is composed of common
elements that are called radicals. There are around 241 radicals. Using radicals makes
recognizing and remembering characters much easier. In the example below, notice
how each radical on the left is used in the characters on the right. Also notice that the
radicals may not always appear exactly the same in different characters.
Radical

Characters

Sometimes, knowing the meaning of a radical makes understanding the meaning of a


character it is used in easier to remember. For instance, is the radical for water. It
is called "three dot water". In the example below, knowing the meaning of this radical
makes it easier to remember the meaning of the characters that it is in.

(x) wash

(hi) sea

(h) lake

(jing) river

In the following example,


mean "tree" and "forest".

is the radical for wood, which is in the characters that

(m) wood

(sh) tree

(ln) forest

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Understanding radicals makes recognizing characters much easier and systematic. As


in the examples above, there are some radicals that help reveal a characters meaning.
In the example below, the meaning of the radicals do not reveal the meaning of the
character; however, remembering the character for the word "building" isn't so hard if
you know the radicals.

m (wood)

m (rice)

n (woman)

lu (building)

Understanding radicals makes it possible to become familiar with characters in a


systematic way. As in the example above, the character for "building" breaks down
into its component parts, radicals. Using these radicals allows learners to have a
consistent set of memory hooks when dealing with characters.
As we have seen, while characters seem difficult, learning to recognize them is
manageable. Know how characters are used to form words as well as how radicals
form characters makes remembering this new kind of information much easier.
Relying solely on pinyin when learning to speak, can make it more difficult than it
needs to be, having a familiarity with Chinese characters makes learning new words
easier.
Grammar is also simplified by understanding characters. While Chinese grammar is
not difficult, the sentence structures are much easier to understand if characters are
not ignored. This is evident from the beginning. The following unit is a summary of
the contents of this book. These examples make it clear how understanding characters
helps in understanding basic grammar.

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Summary of this Book


For English speakers, the Chinese language appears quite difficult. Since it is
character based and uses tones, it seems that nothing is familiar. However, there are
some similarities between the languages. Both Chinese and English have a subjectverb-object (SVO) sentence structure within their grammar rules. Furthermore,
Chinese basic sentence structures, such as those that express numbers, places,
directions, measure words, prepositions, comparisons, time durations and conditional
statements are very dependent on word order. This makes it fairly easy to understand
and learn Chinese grammar. The units at the end of the book explain directional
compliments, (b) sentences, which are OSV (object-subject-verb), and (bi)
sentences, which are passive voice sentences.

Summary of Verbs
One of the main differences between Chinese and English is that Chinese is a verbcentered language and English is noun-centered. In Chinese, there are more kinds of
verbs and prepositions are used much less. The examples below will help new
learners understand how characters work and how Chinese verbs are used.
Basic SVO sentence:
Subject

w
I

Verb

ch
eat

Object

koy
roast duck.

(Unit 1) To make a sentence negative, add no/not, (b) in front of the verb:
Subject

w
I

Verb

bch
don't eat

Object

koy
roast duck.

To make the statement into a question, add 'ma ' at the end.
This sentence means Do you eat roast duck?

n
ch
koy
ma?
You
eat
roast duck
(question)
(Unit 2)
'To Be' Verb Sentences
The 'to be' verb, (sh), is used the same way in both Chinese and English.
Notice that common nouns do not have plural forms, only a few pronouns have
plural forms.

w
I

sh
am

losh
teacher

w men
We

sh
are

losh
teachers.

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w
I

b sh
am not

losh
teacher.

w men
We

b sh
are not

losh
teacher(s).

(Unit 5)
No Verb - 'to be' Verb Sentences
If the entire predicate is an adjective, then no verb is needed.

w
I

mng.
busy

w
I

b
not

mng.
busy.

In these kinds of sentences, an adverb of degree is usually used to modify the


adjective. If (hn) is used it does not carry any meaning, it simply makes the
sentence grammatically correct. In the sentences below, (fi chng) does carry
the meaning very.

w
I

hn

mng.
busy.

w
I

fi chng
very

mng.
busy.

(Unit 14)
No Verb - 'to be' Verb Sentences
If a place name follows (zi) then it carries the 'to be' meaning, which
means to be at a [place name]
Subject

t
He

Verb

zi
is at

Object

tshgun.
library.

t
He

b zi
is not at

tshgun.
library

Other verbs that carry the meaning to be


are covered in Unit 1:
xng to be named
jio to be called

(Unit 14)
Prepositions
(zi) may function as a preposition in sentences with other verbs.
Subject

t
He

(at place)

zi tshgun
at
library

Verb

kn
read

Object

bozh.
newspaper

(Unit 7)
to have verbs
In sentences below, (yu) is used to express 'to have'.
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w
I

yu
have

yxi
some

yngwn
English

sh.
book(s).

(Unit 4)
Measure Words
There are no articles (a, an, the) in Chinese. When specifying a number of nouns,
measure words (MW) (, ling c), sometimes called 'classifiers', are used. In
English, this is comparable to "piece" in a "piece of cake" or "sheet" in a "sheet of
paper". There are over 140 measure words and they are required for almost all nouns
in Mandarin. The measure word (ge) can be used to refer to almost anything. It
isn't considered fluent Chinese but it will get your meaning across. Therefore, one (of
something) is (y g), two is (ling ge) and three is (sn ge). In the
example below, (bn) is the measure word for books.

w
I

yu
have

sn
three

bn
MW

yng wn
English

sh.
book(s).

In action verb sentences, measure words are used between the verb and the object:
Subject

w
I

Verb

ch
eat

mitin
everyday

number

sn
three

MW

dn

Object

fn
meals.

(Unit 18)
How Often / How Many Times
The words that express the number of occurrences are also placed between the verb
and the object.
Subject

w
I

Verb

kn
watch

mitin
everyday

number

ling
two

MW

c
times

Object

xnwn
news.

(Unit 15)
There is / are
English sentences beginning with 'there is', meaning 'there exists', are expressed
using (yu)(zi), and (sh).
(zi)

There is a chair on the left side of the desk.

y zi
Chair

zi
is at


zhu zi de
desks

zu bin.
right side

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(yu)

There is a dormitory beside the library.


t sh gun de
Librarys
(sh)

png bin
side

yu
has

y g
one (MW)

s sh.
dormitory

y b
one (MW)

y zi.
chair.

There is a chair behind the desk.



zhu zi de
Desk's

hu bin
backside

sh
is

(Unit 10 - 12)
Action Verbs
The examples below illustrate how word order is fixed concerning time. The time an
action occurs must go at the beginning of the sentence or directly after the subject.
Subject

w
I
Time

mngtin
tomorrow

Time

mngtin
tomorrow
Subject

w
I

Verb

ch
eat

Object

koy
roast duck

Verb

ch
eat

Object

koy
roast duck

Action verbs can be used alone, but they usually have an object. For example,
(kn) can mean to look, see, watch or read, depending on the object that follows it.
The examples below illustrate how (kn) is used in several different verb-object
phrases. The first example, (kn sh) usually refers to the general idea of
reading, as in I like to read. Action verbs may also be used alone as one word
answers.
Verb-Object Phrase
kn sh

kn din yng

kn png you

kn bo zh

kn z zh

Subject

w
I

Time

mi tin
everyday

Verb

kn
read

ling
two

English Meaning
read books, reading (in general)
watch movies
see friends
read newspapers
read magazines

bn
MW

Object

zzh
magazine(s).

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(Unit 10)
Habitual or Intentional Actions (Action Verbs)
Units 10 12 explain that, in Chinese, there are no verb tenses. Verbs are habitual /
intentional, in progress or completed. Context determines if the verb indicates a
habitual or intentional action.
What do you do on weekends?
What will you do tonight?

kn sh.

I read.
I will read.

(habitual)
(intentional)

(Unit 11)
Actions in Progress (Action Verbs)
Using (zhng zi) or (zi) before an action verb are two ways, of several,
that may used to express an actions in progress.

w
I

zhng zi
(in progress)

I am reading.
(action is in progress)

kn sh.
read.

This is not the same as English present tense, an action in progress may occur in a
future or past time frame. In the sentences below, example sentence 1 shows a
continuing action in the past, and example sentence 2 shows a continuing action in the
future.
Example 1:

zu tin
Yesterday
Example 2:

At 9 pm last night, he was doing homework.

wn shng
evening

ji din
9 oclock

t
he

zhng zi
(in progress)

zu
do

zu y
homework.

When you come to the school tomorrow, we could be having class.

mng tin
Tomorrow

n
you

li
come

xu xio
school

w men
we

k nng
possible

zhng zi
(action in
progress)

shng k
have class

deshhou,
(when)

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(Unit 12)
Completed Actions (Action Verbs)
The particle (le) is used to express that actions have been completed.

w
I

kn
read

sn
bn
sh.
I have read 3 books.
le
(completed
3
MW books.
action)
Using the particle (le) is not the same as using past tense in English, it indicates an
actions completion, which may occur in a future time frame.
Example: After we eat breakfast we will go.

mng tin
Tomorrow

ch le
eat
(completed
action)

zo fn
breakfast

y hu
after

w men
we

ji
then

zu
go.

When indicating a completed action, (le) means different things depending on


where it is in the sentence. Placing (le) after the verb, places more emphasis on the
specific action. For example, after noticing someone has walked away, the speaker
would say (t q le nr ?) Where did he GO?. Placing (le) at the
end of the sentence places more emphasis on the overall situation. For example, after
a prolonged search for someone, the speaker would say (t q nr le?)
Where has he gone? .
(Unit 13)
When (le) is used to indicate a Change of State
When using (le) to indicate a change of state, it indicates that (1) the state has
actually changed, (2) it has changed relative to what a person (speaker or listener)
thought it was or (3) that someone has made a new discovery.
(1) (xi y) means rain. In this sentence, (xi y le) (It is raining), (le)
is used to express a change of state. It wasnt raining before and the speaker saying
that it is raining now.
(2) In the sentence below, the listener did not realize that the speaker was going out
out of town on Monday. (le) is placed at the end of the sentence because this is a
change of state that the listener was not aware of. The speaker realizes that the listener
didnt realize this new information, so the speaker adds (le).

xi g xngqy

ji

chchi

le

next Monday

(emphasis)

travel on business

change of state

(3) (t hn go) means he is tall. However, if a relative had not seen a child
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for a long time, the speaker could say (t go le). In this case, (le)
indicates a discovery has been made.
(Unit 17) (zhe) is used to indicate a state or action is continuing.
The door is open.

The teacher is standing.

subject

predicate
verb

subject

predicate
verb

mn

ki

zhe

lo sh

zhn

the door

open

continuing
state

teacher

stand

zhe
continuing
action

Mother is carrying a child.


subject

predicate verb

object

mm

bo

zhe

Mother

carry

continuing action

hi zi
child

(Units 24 and 25)


Auxiliary Verbs
Auxiliary verbs are used before verb-object phrases to show intention, desire or
ability. In this case the verb-object phrase becomes the object.
Subject
Subject

w
I

Verb
Auxiliary Verb

xing
would like to

Object
Verb - Object

ch fn
eat a meal

(Unit 22)
Verb Compliments of Results
Verb compliments are adjectives and verbs that are attached to verbs to complete
their meanings. There are many kinds of compliments including those that express
duration, quantity, degree, direction, possibility or result. A compliment of result
completes the meaning of a verb by indicating what results the action produced. For
instance, adding (wn) (to finish) after the verb (ch) (to eat) becomes
(ch wn) (finish eating).

w
I

mitin
everyday

qdin
7 o'clock


ch wn
eat (finish)

fn
meal.

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Unit 22 covers 7 verbs that are commonly are used as compliments of results,

understand

see

finish

arrive

to be at

give

start

For example: If someone can read Chinese (kn dng) would be used. means to
understand through reading. (kn) means to read and (dng) means to
understand.
Unit 22 also covers 5 adjectives are also used as compliments of results.

du

cu

qngchu

gnjng

ho

For example, if someone made a mistake when speaking, (shu cu) would be
used. (shu) means to speak and (cu) means incorrect.
(Unit 23)
Directional Verbs
(shng) and (xi) are used as the first character of verb-object phrases that
indicate direction. (shng) is used for actions that involve: going up, going in,
or getting started; (xi) is used for actions: going down, going out, or
finishing. For instance, (lu) means floor (of a building), (shng lu)
refers to the action of going upstairs and (xi lu) means the action of going
downstairs.

w
I

shng
xi
shng
shng
shng
xi
shng
xi

mitin
everyday

ch
ch
q ch
gng gong q ch
bn
bn
k
k

qdin
7 o'clock

shng
get on

get in a vehicle
get out of a vehicle
get in a car
get on a bus
start work
get off work
start class
end class

gng gng q ch
public bus

Note: In Unit 16, (shng) and (xi) are the second character used in location
words, for instance, (lu shng) (upstairs) and (lu xi) (downstairs).

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(Unit 30) (q) and (li) - USED AS - Simple Compliments of Direction


A directional compliment indicates the direction of the action in a sentence (relative to
the speaker). In sentences 1, 2 and 3 the verbs (q) (go), (li) (come) and (do)
(arrive) are used as verbs. There is no compliment of direction in these sentences.
1.
2.
3.

Subject

Time

mng tin

mng tin

mng tin

Verb-Object

q Bijng

li Bijng

do Bijng

English
He will go to Beijing tomorrow.
He will come to Beijing tomorrow.
He will arrive in Beijing tomorrow.

In sentences 4 and 5, (q) (go) and (li) (come) are used as simple compliments
of direction and are not the main verbs of the sentences.
4.
5.

Subject

Time

mng tin

mng tin

Verb-Object

do
Bijng

do
Bijng

4. He will arrive in Beijing tomorrow.


5. He will arrive in Beijing tomorrow.

Compliment of Direction

li

(Speaker is not in Beijing)


(Speaker is in Beijing)

(Unit 30) (q) and (li)- USED IN - Compound Compliments of Direction


(q) (go) and (li) (come) are used with other verbs, that indicate direction, to
form compound compliments of direction which are used to compliment other verbs.
Verbs that express direction:

shng
go up/on

xi
go out/down

jn
enter

ch
exit

hu
return

gu
pass

q
rise

When (q) and (li) are combined with the above verbs, they form the following
compound compliments of directions.

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Compound Compliments of Direction

shng li
shng q
xi li
xi q
hu li
hu q
gu li
gu q

come up
go up
come down
go down
come back
go back
come across
go across

jn li
jn q
ch li
ch q
q li

come in
go in
come out
go out
start and continue

They may stand alone as verbs. In the sentence below, (ch li) is used alone as
a verb with no object.

tiyng
Sun

cng
from

dng bin
east

ch li
comes up.

However, they are most commonly used to compliment other verbs. In the sentence
below, (ch li) is used to compliment the verb (zu) to indicate "come out".

t
He

cng
from

l bin
inside

zu
walking

ch li
come out

le
(completed action)

(Unit 31)
Duration of Actions
This unit covers 10 sentence patterns used to express how long actions take,
depending on a variety of circumstances. For instance, if the verb can or cannnot
indicate a continuous action or if the action is still occurring at the time of speaking
which all use different sentence patterns depending on if the verb does or does not
have an object. It is important to understand how (le) is used in sentences when
lengths of time are stated. Comparing lengths of time are also covered in this unit.
This sentence means He has been out of bed for 15 minutes.

t
q chung
sh w fn zhng
He
get out of bed
15 minutes
grammar particle
This sentence means It took him 15 minutes to get up.

t
q chung
sh w fn zhng
He
get out of bed
grammar particle
15 minutes
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(Unit 32) Modifying Verbs to the manner in which actions are done ()(zhe)
This unit shows how (zhe) and (de) are used to indicate the manner in which
something is done as well as how adjectives are reduplicated to show the manner in
which actions are done.
He sits to read. / He is sitting while reading.
subject

verb
(to show manner)

zu
sit

t
He

predicate verb

object

zhe

kn
read

sh
book

(Unit 33)
(b) Sentences
This unit introduces how (b) is used to create Subject - Object -Verb sentences
that stress the change in the disposition of the object. This sentence pattern may not be
used unless there is a change in the disposition of the object. Extensive usage
examples are given.
Subject
doer of the action

Predicate Verb
the action

+ other elements

Object
receiver of the action

l w

bo shng

le

gift / gifts

wrap

completed action

(Unit 34)
(bi) Sentences
This unit introduces how (bi) is used to create passive sentences that use the
Subject - Object Verb sentence pattern. Extensive usage examples are given.
My bicycle was stolen by a thief.
Subject

receiver of the action

w de zxngch
My bicycle

Predicate Verb

Object
( of )
doer of the action

+ other elements

bi

xio tu

tu

le

thief

steal

completed action

the action

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Unit 1
Greetings, Names, Titles
This unit teaches common ways of saying hello, asking simple questions and how
titles are used.
New Words

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

Mng
mng zi
n
nn
n sh

15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.

qng
shn me
sh
Wng
Wi
wn
w
xin sheng
xio
xio ji
xng
zi jin
Zhng

b
gu
ho
hu
jio
lo
lo sh
L
ma

no
expensive, honorable, to be named (family name)
good
flower
to be called
old (people and animals - not objects)
teacher
plum, a common surname
modal particle used at the end of a sentence to
change a statement into a question
bright, a given name
name
you
you (formal, indicating respect)
Madam, lady, respectful way to address a woman
that is older than yourself
please
what
is, are, am
king, a common surname
great, a common given name
ask
I, me
mister, gentleman
little, small
young lady, Miss (title)
surname
good bye
a common surname

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Addressing friends, family, and coworkers


Names are written and spoken using surnames first. In China, when women marry
they do not change their surnames. Children have the same surnames as their fathers,
a few have the same surnames as their mothers. Family names are usually one
character, but may be two characters. Given names are usually one or two characters.
Friends will address each other by their full names. At work, colleagues address each
other using surnames preceded by titles or sometimes full names are used. Sometimes
young adults may be addressed by (xio) preceding their surnames and old people
by (lo) preceding their surnames. Superiors are addressed by their surnames
followed by their titles. For instance, "Hello, Wang Teacher" is a common greeting
used by students when addressing their teachers.

Wng xin sheng


lo Wng
L xio ji
xio Wng
Wng lo sh
Zhng Mng Mng

Wng n sh

Mr. Wang
Old Wang
Miss Li
Little Wang
Teacher Wang
Zhang Ming Ming (full name)
Madam Wang (respectful way to address
a woman older than yourself)

Hello!
Whether meeting an old acquaintance or a friend, a common greeting in China is
(n ho). This literally means "you good" but conveys the meaning of "hello".
(zi jin), which literally means "again see", is used to say good bye.

nn ho
n ho
zi jin

Statements
Hello! (respectful)
Hello! (familiar)
Goodbye!

Names may be stated in three ways:

w sh (full name)
w jio (full name)
w xng (surname)

I am (full name)
I am called (full name)
My surname name is (surname)

Negative Statements
To make a negative statement, place (b) before (sh). In the examples below,
note that (b) is spoken in the second tone. This character changes tones when it
precedes a fourth tone character. (refer to Appendix A)
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w b sh (full name)
w b jio (full name)
w b xng (surname)

I am not (full name).


I am not called (full name)
My surname name is not
(surname)

Questions
(nn) is used to show respect for a person's position, age, or simply an extra show
of politeness. The following questions are polite, show respect, and could be used in
professional environments.
May I ask, your honorable surname?

1.
2.

1.
2.

qng wn, nn gu xng ?


w xng. L. nn gu xng ?

My surname is L. What is your honorable


family name?

To ask someone their name in the following way is very informal, used in casual
social situations, it should not be used in professional environments.

1.

1.

n jio shnme mngzi ?

What is your name?

questions
Adding (ma) to the end of a statement creates a yes-no question.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

How are you?


May I ask, are you Mr. Wng?
Are you Mr. Wang?
Are you Miss L?
Are you Teacher Wang?

n ho ma?
qng wn, nn sh Wng xinsheng ma?
nn sh Wng xinsheng ma?
nn sh L xio ji ma?
nn sh Wng losh ma

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Unit 2
'To Be' Sentences
This unit introduces 'to be' sentences that deal with nouns as well as several kinds of
questions. In these sentences, (sh) is used to express 'to be'.
New Words

1.
2.
3.

du
du
hi shi

4.
5.

h
hu zh

6.
7.
8.

mi gu
mi gu rn
men

9.
10.

n
ne

11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

n men
rn
shu (shi)
t
t
t men

17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.

t men
w men
xu sheng
y
yng gu
yng gu rn
zn men
zhng gu
zhng gu rn

all, both
correct
or (in a question - not used in a
statement)
and
or (in a statement - not used in a
question)
the USA
American citizen
a suffix added to pronouns
indicating plural
which
modal particle used at the end of a
sentence to create a question in a
soft tone
you (plural)
person
who (commonly pronounced shi)
he
she
they (for a group of both females
and males)
they (females)
we
student
also
England
British citizen
we
China
Chinese citizen

In this text, we have used the more common pronunciation (shi) for the character
instead of (shu).
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'To Be' - a noun


Pronouns, (w), (t) (n) and (nn), can be made plural by adding
(men) immediately after them. In the examples below, (w) may be replaced by
(n), (t), (t), or by the name of a person; (w men) may be replaced by
(zn men), (n men), (t men) or (t men). (zn men) is used
to indicate that we only refers the people involved in the immediate conversation.
And / Also / All (Statements)
There is no special word for "both" in Chinese. (du) is used to express "both" as
well as "all". In the examples below, (du) is optional.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

11.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

I am a student.
I am Zhng Mng Mng.
I am also a student.
We are students.
We are also students.
We are (all / both) students.
He and I are students.
He and I are both students.
Miss Li and Mr. Wang are teachers.
Miss Li and Mr. Wang are both
teachers.
Miss Li and us are all teachers.

w sh xusheng.
w sh Zhng Mngmng.
w y sh xusheng.
wmen sh xusheng.
wmen y sh xusheng.
wmen du sh xusheng.
t h w sh xusheng.
t h w du sh xusheng.
L xioji h Wng xinsheng du sh losh.
L xioji h Wng xinsheng sh losh.
L xioji h wmen du sh losh.

OR - Statements
To make a statements that use "or", (hu zh) is used, (hi sh) is only used
for forming questions which are discussed below.

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1.
2.

1.
2.

t huzh sh xusheng huzh sh losh.


t huzh sh ynggurn huzh sh migurn.

She is a teacher or a student.


He is British or American.

Negative Statements
To make a negative statement, place (b) before (sh). In the examples below,
(w) may be replaced by (n), (t), (t), or by the name of a person;
(wmen) may be replaced by (zn men), (nmen), (tmen) or
(tmen).
1.
I am not a student.
2.

I am not a student either.

5.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

w b sh xusheng.
w y b sh xusheng.
wmen b sh xusheng.
wmen y b sh xusheng.
wmen du b sh xusheng.

3.
4.

We are not students.


We are not students either.
(None / neither) of us are students.

Questions
(ma) questions
(ma) is placed at the end of a statement to create a yes-no question.
Are you a student?

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

n sh xusheng ma?
t sh xusheng ma
t sh losh ma
t y sh xushng ma
tmen du sh xushng ma

Is he a student?
Is she a teacher?
Is he a student also?
Are they all students?

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(ne) questions
(ne) is placed at the end of a sentence to ask a yes-no question about the beginning
of the sentence.

1.
2.

1.
2.

w sh xusheng, n ne ?
t sh xusheng, L Wi ne ?

I am a student, what about you?


He is a student, is L Wi?

'question-word' questions
Questions, that use question words, use the same word order as statements; except the
question word is used in place of expected answer. In the examples below, question
words (shi / shu) and (n) are used to create questions in this way.
Who is he?

1.
2.
3.

1.
2.
3.

t sh shi?
n sh n gu rn?
shi sh Wng xinshng

What is your nationality?


Who is Mr. Wang?

'affirmative - negative' questions


Statements using (sh) may be changed into affirmative-negative pattern questions
by replacing (sh) with (sh bu sh). In this sentence pattern, (ma) may
not be used. (Notice that (bu) is spoken using the neutral tone.)

n sh bu sh xusheng?

Are you a student?

'confirmation' questions
If speakers make statements they think are true, and want to confirm that they are true;
(sh bu sh) or (du bu du) are added to the end of statements. Both
phrases have the same meaning. This is true for any positive or negative statements.
(Notice that (bu) is spoken using the neutral tone.)

1.
2.
3.

You are a student, aren't you?


You are not a teacher, are you?
He is not a student, is he?

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1.
2.
3.

n sh xusheng, sh bu sh ?
n b sh loshdu bu du
t sh xushengsh bu sh

'or' questions
To make questions that use "or", (hi sh) is used, (hu zh) is not used in
questions, it is only used in statements which are discussed above.
Is he a teacher or a student?

1.
2.

1.
2.

t sh xusheng hishi losh


t sh ynggurn hishi migurn

Is he British or American?

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Unit 3
Showing Possession (de)
This unit introduces how to express possessive conditions and family relationships.
Notice the syllables that have no tone marks, they are spoken in the neutral tone.
New Words

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

b ba
de
d di
din no
g ge
jio sh
ji jie
ji mi
m ma
mi mei
n
nn png you
n png you

father

14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.

png you
sh
tng xu
xio zhng
xing d
xu xio
zh

friend

particle to indicate possession


younger brother
computer
older brother
classroom
older sister
sister
mother
younger sister
that
boyfriend
girlfriend
book
classmate
headmaster, school principle
brother
school
this

Showing Possession
The particle (de) is placed after a person or thing that posses something to express
a possessive condition.

w de sh
wmen de xuxio
xuxio de dinno
zh sh w de sh.
zh sh wmen de xuxio.

my book
our school
school's computer
This is my book.
This is our school.

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When referring to close family relationships, (de) is often omitted


This is my (older) sister.
1.

This is my sister's book.


2.

1.
2.

zh sh w jijie.
zh sh w jijie de sh.

If there are several possessive relationships in one sentence and it is obvious from the
context what the possessive relationships are, then (de) is often omitted. In
sentence number 1 below, (de) is not used between (w men) and (xu
xio). In sentence 2 below, (de) is not used between (w) and (png you).
This is our school's computer.

1.
2.

1.
2.

zh sh wmen xuxio de dinno.


zh sh w pngyou de dinno.

This is my friends's computer.

When Chinese speakers are trying to clarify which character they are speaking; for
instance when reading a list of names over the telephone, they will us (de) in the
following way.

pngyou de png

In English this would be the same as - (png) as in (png you)


Negative Statements
To say that the state of possession does not exist, place (b) before (sh).

Mr. Wang is not our school's headmaster.

Wng xinsheng b sh wmen xuxio de xiozhng.


Questions
questions
Is this is your big sister's book.

1.
2.

1.
2.

zh sh n jijie de sh ma?
zh sh nmen de jiosh ma?

Is this your (plural) classroom?

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'question word' questions

n sh shi de sh?

Whose book is that?

'affirmative - negative' questions

zh sh bu sh n de sh?

Is this your book?

'confirmation' questions
This is your book, isn't it?

1.
2.

,
,

1.
2.

zh sh n de sh, sh bu sh
zh sh n de sh, du bu du

This is your book, isn't it?

'or' questions

Is this your book or his book?

zh sh n de sh hishi t de sh

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Unit 4
Numbers and Measure Words
This unit introduces counting numbers up to 100 and how measure words are used.
(For very large and very small numbers refer to Appendix E. For using measure words to express
one half, one and a half, and indeterminate quantities refer to Appendix B)

New Words

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

bo zh
bn
c din
g
li
ling
qin b
yun zh b
zhng

10.
11.

zh
z xng ch

lng
y
r
ling
sn
s
w

6
7
8
9
10
11
12

0
1
2
2
3
4
5

newspaper
measure word for books
dictionary
general purpose measure word
equivalent to (ling g)
measure word for vehicles and bicycles
pencil
ballpoint pen
measure word for newspapers and pieces
of paper
measure word for pens and pencils
bicycle

Numbers
li
q
b
ji
sh
sh y
sh r

13
14
15
16
17
18
19

sh
sh
sh
sh
sh
sh
sh

sn
s
w
li
q
b
ji

For numbers from 21 to 99, state the ten's place then add the one's place directly after.
20
30
40
50
60

21

r sh

sn sh
s sh
w sh
li sh

r sh y
70
80
90
100

29

r sh ji

q sh
b sh
ji sh
y bi

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The number one


When speaking telephone numbers and bus numbers that are over three digits; the
number one () (y) is pronounced "yo". This avoids confusion with the number
seven () (q).
The number two
Notice in the numbers above, there are two ways to say the number two. When
specifying a quantity of two, (ling) is used. When "two" appears in the ones or
tens place , (r) is used. When two appears in the hundreds place, either (r) or
(ling) may be used.
2
12
20
200

r
sh r
r sh
r bi / ling bi

Measure Words
There are no articles (a, an, the) in Chinese. When specifying a number of nouns,
measure words (, ling c), sometimes called 'classifiers', are used. In English,
this is comparable to "piece" in a "piece of cake" or "sheet" in a "sheet of paper".
There are over 140 measure words and they are required for almost all nouns in
Mandarin. The measure word (g) can be used to refer to anything. It isn't
considered good Chinese but it will get your meaning across. To indicate a quantity of
two, (ling) is used, (r) is not used with measure words. Therefore, one (of
something) is (y g), two is (ling g) and three is (sn g).

ling zh qinb
sn bn sh
s ling zxngch
w g xusheng
ling zhng bozh
sh r g yu
r sh s g xiosh

two pencils
three books
four bicycles
five students
two newspapers
12 months
24 hours

When a noun being referred to is obvious, sometimes measure words are used alone.
For instance, when answering the question "How many books do you have?" A person
might answer (ling bn)". A customer might point to a newspaper and tell a
store clerk, " (y zhng)". No measure word is used if a possessive pronoun is
used immediately before a noun as in the sentence, "This is my book." .
(zh sh wde sh). (li) has the same meaning as (ling g) as in this
sentence, Those two are good friends., . (tmen li sh ho
pngyou.)
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Unit 5
Adjectives
This unit deals with how to use adjectives to modify nouns. It describes one sentence
pattern that does not use a verb and also introduces multi-syllabic words in
affirmative-negative questions.
New Words
short
1.
i

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.

d
d y
d gu
fng
fi chng
go
go xng
hn
hng
jin
ji
ln
lu
mng
n xi
nn kn
pio liang
qn kui
r bn
shu gu
ti
xn
xn xin
yng wn
yun
zh xi
zhu zi
zu

big
coat
Germany
square
very, extremely
tall
happy, pleased
very
red
measure word for articles of clothing
old (things not people or animals)
lazy
building
busy
those
ugly
pretty
diligent, hardworking
Japan
fruit
too
new
fresh
English language
round
these
table
measure word for buildings

Note: Some two character words appear to be adjective-noun combinations, but they
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are not; for instance: (d rn) (adult) and (d y) (coat) are two-character
nouns.
To Be an Adjective
If the entire predicate is an adjective, then no verb is needed in the sentence and the
predicate adjective must be modified to show degree. In sentences of this kind the
adverb (hn) is used for grammatical correctness but does not carry any meaning.
In these kinds of sentences, to clearly modify the adjective to express very, other
adverbs such as (ti) and (fi chng) are used (sentences 2 and 3).
(w) may be replaced by (n), (t), (t), or by the name of a person;
(w men) may be replaced by (zn men), (n men), (t men) or
(t men).
1.

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

I am busy.
We are very busy.
I am very busy.
I am also busy.
We all are busy.
My table is round.
Our table is old.
My coat is ugly.
Your coat is pretty.
This bicycle is big.
This bicycle is small.

w hn mng.
w fichng mng.
w fichng mng.
w y hn mng.
wmen du hn mng.
wde zhuzi hn yun.
wmen de zhuzi hn ji.
wde dy hn nnkn.
nde dy hn pioliang.
zh ling zxngch hn d.
zh ling zxngch hn xio.

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If the entire predicate is an adjective, the adjective may remain unmodified if a direct
comparison is being made.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

He is diligent.
This book is big.
My table is old.
My table is round.
My coat is ugly.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

t qnkui.
zh bn sh d.
wde zhuzi ji.
wde zhuzi yun.
wde dy nnkn.

He is lazy.
That book is small.
Your table is new.
Your table is square.
Your coat is pretty.

t ln.
n bn sh xio.
nde zhuzi xn.
nde zhuzi fng.
nde dy pioling.

Negative Statements
If the entire predicate is an adjective, then (b) goes before the adjective. The
adjective does not need to be modified to show degree, but it can be. In negative
statements, unlike positive statements, (hn) does carry meaning.

9.

1.
2.
3.

w b mng.
w y b mng.
wmen b ti mng.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

I am not busy.
I am not busy either.
We are not too busy.
None of us are busy.
China is not small.
Japan is not big.
My table is not round.
My table is not very old.
My coat is not ugly.

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4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

wmen du b mng.
zhnggu b xio.
rbn b d.
wde zhuzi b yun.
wde zhuzi b ti ji.
wde dy b nnkn.
Questions

questions
When asking (ma) questions, if the entire predicate is an adjective, (hn) does
carry meaning but is optional.

1.
2.
3.
4.

1.
2.
3.
4.

n
n
n
n

Are you busy?


You arent busy?
Are you very busy?
Are you also very busy?

mng ma?
b mng ma
hn mng ma?
y hn mng ma?

questions
I am not busy, what about you?

1.
2.

1.
2.

w b mng, n ne?
wmen hn mng, nmen ne?

We are busy, and you (plural)?

affirmative negative questions


Single Character Adjectives
Questions using adjectives may also be created using the affirmative-negative pattern.
In this case, adverb modifiers such as (hn) may not be used. Likewise, (ma)
may not be used.

n mng bu mng?
t go bu go?

Are you busy?


Is he tall?

Two Character Adjectives


If the entire predicate is a two character adjective, then there are two ways to create
affirmative-negative questions. In the first sentence below, both characters of the
adjective are repeated. In the second sentence, only the first character is repeated.
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n goxng bu goxng
n go bu goxng

Are you happy?


Are you happy?

confirmation questions
You are busy, arent you?

1.
2.

1.
2.

n mngsh bu sh
n b mngdu bu du

You arent busy, are you?

or questions
Is he tall or short?

1.
2.

1.
2.

t go hishi i
nde dinno xn hishi ji

Is your computer old or new?

General Rules for Modifying Nouns


Absolute Condition
This sentence pattern is used to state an absolute condition, such as true, false or
square. A monosyllabic or multi-syllabic adjective may be used. The adjective may
not be modified. This sentence means, My table is round.
subject

(sh)

adjective

(de)


wde zhuzi

sh

yun

de.

Negative Statements
When making a negative statement, using the (sh)(de) sentence pattern,
place (b) before (sh).
My table is not round.

1.
2.
3.

1.
2.
3.

wde zhuzi b sh yun de.


wde zhuzi b sh ji de.
tde dy b sh xn de.

My table is not old.


Her coat is not pretty.

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Questions
(ma) questions

Is your table round?

nde zhuzi sh yun de ma


(ne) questions

My table is old, and yours?

wde zhuzi sh ji dende ne


affirmative negative questions
Is your table round?

nde zhuzi sh bu sh yun de


confirmation questions
(sh bu sh) and (du bu du) are not be used with the (sh)(de)
sentence pattern.
or questions

Is your computer old or new?

nde dinno sh xn de hishi ji de


Using with Adjectives
Absolute Condition
The following examples show how to use (de), when an absolute condition is being
stated. In these sentences the adjective is not modified to show degree, for example,
when referring to a specific thing, such as the tall building or the pretty coat. In
these kinds of sentences, measure words precedes the adjectives.
IF the adjective is a single character(de) is not used.

go lu

tall building

IF the adjective consists of more than one character(de) is usually used

1.

pioliang de dy

pretty coat
This tall building is our companys.

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2.

1.
2.

zh zu go lu sh wmen gngs de.


n jin pioliang de dy sh tde.

That pretty coat is hers.

Adjectives that are Modified by Degree


When (hn), (ti), (fi chng) or other adverbs that express degree are
used, (de) is always needed. In this case, (hn) carries meaning.
IF the adjective consists of one or two-characters (de) is used.

fichng go de lu

hn pioliang de dy

very tall building


very pretty coat

1.
2.

1.
2.

This very tall building is our companys.


That pretty coat is hers.

1.
2.

zh zu fichng go de lu sh wmen gngs de.


n jin pioliang de dy sh tde.

Using with Adjectives


( is optional)
As discussed above (de) is usually used with two syllable adjectives, however, there
are situations where (de) is optional. If the topic of conversation or context of the
statement makes it very clear that the adjective modifies the noun after it, (de) is
not used. For instance, if the topic of conversation were cars (dgu
ch) would be used to say German cars.
Measure Words and Adjectives
When measure words are used with nouns that are modified with an adjective, the
word order is:
number measure word adjective noun.

1.
2.
3.
4.

ling zh xn qinb
sn bn yngwn sh
s ling ji zxngch
w ge goxng de xusheng

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1.
2.
3.
4.

two new pencils


three English books
four old bicycles
five happy students
Example Sentences

When referring to that or this (thing) measure words are needed (sentences 3-6).
When referring to these or those (things) (sentences 7 and 8) measure words are
not needed.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

nde zhuz sh ji de.


tde dy sh hng de.
n ti ji dinno sh wde.
n jin nnkn de dy sh wde.
n ti hn ji de dinno sh wde.
n jin hn pioliang de dy sh tde.
nxi dinno sh wmende
zhxi dinno sh wmende

Your table is old.


Her coat is red.
That old computer is mine.
That ugly coat is mine.
That very old computer is mine.
That very pretty coat is hers.
Those computers are ours.
These computers are ours.

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Unit 6
Comparisons
This unit introduces the sentence patterns used to compare things that are different,
state that two things are the same, express relatively / comparatively and state
progressive changes.
New Words

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.

bi zi
b
b jio
b r
chng
chng sh
d xio
de du
d
d t
dng tin
d
du le
fng jin
fng zi
H r bn
hi zi
Hng zhu
ji qin
jn tin
jng yn
k
kun
lng
n me
ni yu
pin yi
png gu
r
rn ku

cup
(something) compared to (something)
relatively, comparatively
not as (comparison standard) as
long, length
city
size
a lot
low
map
winter
degree (temperature)
a lot
room
house,apartment,building,room
a city in northeastern China
child
a city in southeastern China
price
today
to be experienced
measure word for trees
wide
cold
that much
New York
inexpensive
apple
hot
population

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31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
29.
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
45.

voice, sound

shng yn
sh
tin qi
tio
xi tin
xing jio
xng f.
y dinr
y xi
y yng
yn yu
yu li yu
zh me
zhun y
zu tin

tree
weather
measure word for roads
summer
banana
happiness
a little bit
some
the same
music
used to state a progression
this much
university major
yesterday

Sentence Patterns for Comparisons


Comparing two things

A
A
A
A
A
A

A is greater than B
A is greater than B
A is not greater than B
A is not greater than B
A is as _____ as B
A is not as _____ as B

B
B
B
B
B
B

comparison standard
comparison standard
comparison standard
comparison standard
comparison standard
comparison standard

degree

Stating two things are the same

A is the same as B
A
B
/
A
B
/

comparison standard

Stating two things are not the same

A is the not same as B


A
B
/

A
B
/

comparison standard

Stating a relative condition

A is relatively (standard of comaparison)


A
standard

Stating a progressive condition

A is progressing in (standard of comaparison)


A
standard

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Comparing Two Things ()


When using (b) to compare two things (A and B), the first thing mentioned, is the
greater of the two. The standard of comparison is stated last. Adverbs such as (hn)
and (fi chng) cannot be used to modify the comparison standard. The degree
of difference may be stated but is optional. When stating the degree of difference, an
exact number or an approximation may be used. When stating an approximation,
(y dinr) and (y xi) are used for small differences while (de du) and
(du le) are used for relatively large differences.

1.
2.
3.
4.
1.
2.
3.
4.

comparison standard

degree

Today is colder than yesterday.


Today is 5 degrees colder than
yesterday.
Today is much colder than
yesterday.
Today is a little colder than
yesterday.

jntin b zutin lng.


jntin b zutin lng w d.
jntin b zutin lng de du.
jntin b zutin lng y dinr.

1.
2.
3.
4.

1.
2.
3.
4.

Wng xinsheng b w go.


tde shngyn b wde shngyn d.
pnggu b xingjio pinyi.
t b w yu jngyn.

Mr. Wang is taller than me.


His voice is lower than mine.
Apples are cheaper than bananas.
He is more experienced than I am.

To compare two things (A and B) and the first thing mentioned (A), is the lesser of the
two, (b b) is used; however, this pattern is only used to express disagreement
or refutation. The standard of comparison is stated last. Adverbs such as (hn) and
(fi chng) cannot be used to modify the comparison standard.

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Mr. Wang is not taller than me.

comparison standard

Wng xinsheng b b w go.

1.
2.
3.
4.

1.
2.
3.
4.

He is not more experienced than I am.


His Chinese is not better than yours.
Winter in Beijing is not warmer than Shanghai.
This coat is not newer than that one.

1.
2.
3.
4.

t bb w yu jngyn.
tde hny bb nde hny ho.
Bijng de xitin bb Shnghi de xitin r.
zh jin dy bb n jin xn.
Questions

questions
Adding (ma) to the end of a (b) statement creates a question.

Is today colder than yesterday?

jntin b zu tin lng ma


affirmative negative questions
Statements using (b) may be changed into affirmative-negative questions by
replacing (b) with (b bu b). In this sentence pattern, (ma) cannot be
used.

Is winter in Beijing colder than in


New York?

Bijng de dngtin bbub niyu de dngtin lng

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Comparing Two Things ()


To compare two things (A and B) and the first thing mentioned (A), is the lesser of the
two, (b r) is normally used. The standard of comparison is stated last. Adverbs
such as (hn) and (fi chng) cannot be used to modify the comparison
standard.

comparison standard

w br t go.

I am not as tall as him.

1.
2.
1.
2.

This cup isnt as big as that one.


This street is not as wide as that street.

zh ge bizi br n ge bizi d.
zh tio l br n tio l kun.
Questions

questions
Adding (ma) to the end of a (b r) statement creates a question.

This street is not as wide as that street (is it)?

zh tio l br n tio l kun ma


Comparing Two Things
A is equal to or greater than B ()
A is less than B ()
When comparing two things (A and B), and the first thing mentioned (A), is equal to
or greater than (B); (yu) is used. The standard of comparison is stated last.
Adverbs such as (hn) and (fi chng) cannot be used to modify the
comparison standard. In this sentence pattern, (n me) and (zh me) are
optional and may be used before the comparison standard.
He is at least as tall as you.

t
1.

yu

comparison standard

go

That tree is at least as tall that


building.

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His little brother is at least as tall


as I am.
This building is at least as tall as
that building.
Shanghai is as cold as this (in
Beijing).
Shanghai is as cold as that (in
Beijing).

2.

3.

4.

5.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

n k xio sh yu n zu fngzi nme go.


t ddi yu w zhme go.
zh zu lu yu n zu lu nme go.
Shnghi yu Bijng zhme lng.
Shnghi yu Bijng nme lng.

A is less than B
When comparing two things, the following pattern is used to express A is less than B,
(mi) or (mi yu) may be used. The standard of comparison is stated last.
Adverbs such as (hn) and (fi chng) cannot be used with the comparison
standard.
He is not as tall as me.

()
()
mi(yu)

comparison standard

go

1.

2.

3.

1.
2.
3.

Bijng de dngtin miyu Hrbn lng.


Hngzhu de rnku miyu Bijng du
w mimei miyu w go.

Winter in Beijing is not as cold as Harbin.


Hangzhous population is not as big as
Beijings.
My little sister is not as tall as I am.

Questions
questions
Adding (ma) to the end of a (yu) statement creates a question.

1.

Is he as tall as you?

t yu n go ma
Is this room as big as that one?

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2.
3.
4.

1.
2.
3.
4.

zh ge fngjin yu n ge fngjin d ma
Shnghi yu Bijng lng ma
Shnghi yu Bijng zhme lng ma
Shnghi yu Bijng ame lng ma

Is Shanghai as cold as Beijing?


Is Shanghai as cold as this (in Beijing)?
Is Shanghai as cold as that (in Beijing)?

affirmative negative questions


Statements using (yu) or (mi yu) may use the (yu mi yu)
affirmative-negative question pattern. In this sentence pattern, (ma) may not be
used.

Is he as tall as you?

t yu mi yu n go

Is Shanghai as cold as this (in Beijing)?

1.
2.

1.
2.

Shnghi yu mi yu Bijng zhme lng ma


Shnghi yu mi yu Bijng ame lng ma

Is Shanghai as cold as that (in Beijing)?

Stating Two Things are the Same ( / )


When stating that two things are the same, A and B, both things are linked with
(gn) or (h) followed by ( y yng). This means that (A is the same as B). The
comparison standard is optional. A measure word may be used alone, without a noun,
in the second phrase of (sentence 2).

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

1.
2.
3.
4.

This map is the same as that map.


This map is the same as that map.
This maps size is the same as that maps size.
This map is the same size as that map.

comparison
standard

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5.

This maps price is the same as that maps price.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

zh
zh
zh
zh
zh

1.
2.
3.

Your book is the same as his.

This table is the same as that one.

We have the same number of children

4.

1.
2.
3.
4.

nde sh h tde yyng.


zh zhng zhuzi gn n zhng zhuzi yyng.
wmen de hizi gn tmen de yyng du.
w gn t yyng go.

zhng
zhng
zhng
zhng
zhng

dt
dt
dt
dt
dt

gn n zhng dt yyng.
h n zhng yyng.
dxio h n zhng dt yyng.
gn n zhng yyng d.
gn n zhng dt jiqin yyng.

as they do.
I am the same height as he is.

Stating Two Things are the not Same (


)
When stating that two things are not the same, both things are linked with (gn) or
(h) and followed by (b y yng). These sentences mean : A is not the same
as B.
A
B
/
comparison
standard

1.
2.

1.
2.

This map is the not the same as that map.


This map is the not the same size as that map.

1.
2.

zh zhng dt gn n zhng dt b yyng.


zh zhng dt h n zhng dt b yyng d.

3.

4.

5.
6.

7.

Today is not the same as


yesterday.
Hainans weather is not the same
as Beijings.
His major is not the same as mine.
This suit is not the same length as
that one.
Little Zhang is not the same
height as little Wang.

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3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

jntin h zutin b yyng.


Hinn de qhu gn Bijng b yyng.
t xu de zhuny h w b yyng.
zh jin xfu gn n jin xfu b yyng chng.
xio Zhng gn xio Wng b yyng go.
Questions

questions
Adding (ma) to the end of a statement creates a yes-no question.
Is this map the same as that
map?
Is this map the same size as
that map?

1.

2.

1.
2.

zh zhng dt gn n zhng dt yyng ma


zh ge dt gn n ge dt b yyng d ma

affirmative negative questions


In statements ending with (y yng) or (b y yng), putting
(y yng b y yng) at the end of a the sentence creates a yes-no
question.
The word (yfu) means clothing but, if it is clear to the listener what article of
clothing is being discussed, it can be used for any specific article of clothing. In
sentence 1, (dy) (coat) could replace (yfu).
Are this coat and that
coat the same?
Are these maps the
same?
Are these two books the
same price?
Is the weather in Beijing
the same as in Shanghai?

1.

2.

3.

4.

1.
2.
3.
4.

zh jin yfu h n jin yfu yyng bu yyng


zh zhng dt h n zhng dt yyng bu yyng
zh ling bn sh de jiqin yyng bu yyng
Bijng de tinqi h Shnghi de tinqi yyng bu yyng

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Relatively / Comparatively ()
To state that something (A) is relatively (standard of comparison), the following
sentnece pattern is used:
standard of comparison

1.
2.

1.
2.

zh ge chngsh bjio d.
tde qch bjio gu.

This is a relatively big city.


His car is relatively expensive.

Progression
(yu li yu) is used to show that something (A) changes as time goes on.

standard of comparison

1.
2.
3.

1.
2.
3.

tinqi yuliyu lng.


tmen de sh yuliyu du.
wmen shnghu yuliyu xngf.

1. The weather is getting colder.


2. They are getting more and more books.
3. Our lives are getting happier.

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Unit 7
To Have () Sentences
This unit introduces (yu) as it is used to express to have. How to make
statements and questions that express to have and do not have are given. Stating
quantities such as some and a few as well as asking questions such as, how
much? are covered.
New Words

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

du shao
f wn
hn du
j
mi yu
yu
zhng wn

how many? how much?


French (language)
many
several, how many?
do not have
have
Chinese (language)

To Have () Sentences
Measure Words
In sentences below, (yu) is used to express to have. Measure words are used
with, this [ (zh)], that [(n)] or several [( j)]. (j) indicates a
relatively small quantity, usually 10 or less.

1.
2.
3.
4.

1.
2.
3.
4.

w yu y bn sh.
t yu ling bn sh.
w yu j bn sh.
w yu y bn yngwn sh.

I have a book.
He has two books.
I have several books.
I have an English book.

Measure words are not used when expressing some [ (y xi)], these [
(zh xi)], those [ (n xi)] or many [ (hndu)].

1.
2.
3.
4.

1.

w yu yxi yngwn sh.

I have some English books.


I have many books.
These Chinese books are mine.
Those books are his.

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2.
3.
4.

w yu hndu sh.
zhxi zhngwn sh sh wde.
nxi sh sh tde.

Negative Statements
To express dont have place before . In this case, measure words are not used.
I do not have any books.

1.
2.

1.
2.

w miyu sh.
w miyu zxngch.

I do not have a bicycle.

Questions
questions
To ask the question, Do you have any? a measure word is not used. If a number is
stated a measure word must be used.

Do you have any books?

n yu sh ma?

questions

w yu y bn sh, n ne?

I have a book, do you?


question word questions
(j) not only means several, it is also a question word, meaning how many?.
When using (j) in a question, a measure word is used between (j) and the noun.
(j) questions have the same word order as statements; except the question word
(j) is used in place of the expected answer. This means that (t yu j
bn sh) could mean He has several books. or How many books does he have?,
depending on the context of the sentence. In (j) questions, (ma) is not used.

n yu j bn sh?
w yu j bn sh.

How many books do you have?


I have several books.

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When asking how many, (du shao) may be used for any number; however, is
usually used for numbers over 10. When using (du shao) the measure word is
optional. In (du shao) questions, (ma) is not used. Both questions below
mean How many students does you school have?

1.
2.

1.
2.

nmen xuxio yu dushao ge xusheng?


nmen xuxio yu dushao xusheng?

affirmative negative questions


(yu mi yu) is used to create a question that asks, do you have any?, in
these questions numbers and measure words are not used.

n yu mi yu sh?

Do you have any books?

confirmation questions

You dont have a Chinese book, do you?

n miyu zhngwn shdu bu du


or questions

Do you have a pencil or a ballpoint pen?

n yu qinb hishi yunzhb.

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Unit 8
Days and Dates
This unit introduces statements and questions concerning days, days, weeks, months,
years and dates.
New Words

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.

ho
jn nin
l bi
mng nin
mng tin
nin
q nin
r
shng ge xng q
shng ge yu
shng r
tin
xi ge xng q
xi ge yu
xng q
xu q
yu
zh ge xng q
zh ge yu
zhu

number (expressing a day)


this year
week
next year
tomorrow
year
last year
day
last week
last month
birthday
day
next week
next month
week
term, semester
month
this week
this month
week

Months and Days


The names of the 12 months are formed by combining the numbers 1 to 12 with
(yu). (Note: (yu fn) may also be used) The numbers from 1 to 6 follow
(xng q), (l bi) or (zhu) to express the days of the week from Monday to
Saturday. Sunday is spoken using (xng q tin), (l bi tin) or
(zhu tin) and written as (xng q r), (l bi r) or (zhu r).

January
February
March
April

July
August
September
October

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May

June

November
December

Monday
Tuesday
Wednesday
Thursday
Friday
Saturday
Sunday (spoken)
Sunday (written)

Dates and Years


When expressing the date - the day follows the month. The day is expressed by
combining numbers 1 to 31 with (ho) (spoken form ) or (r) (written form).

b yu b ho
b yu b r

August 8

(spoken)

August 8

(written)

The four figures making up the a year are read out as four separate numbers with
(nin) at the end. While (lng) is the character for "zero", the numeral is usually
used when writing the year. When expressing a year, (r) is used, (ling) cannot
be used.

2010

r lng y lng nin

the year 2010

The word order for expressing the complete date goes from largest unit to smallest.
Friday, August 8, 2008 would be expressed as follows:

2008 8 8
r lng lng b nin b yu b ho xngqw
Note: The words year [ (nin)], week [ (zhu)], day [ (tin)], minute [ (fn)],
and second [ (mio)] are nouns of quantity and are not used with measure words. The words
month [ (yu)], week [ (xng q)], week [ (lbi)] and hour [ (xio sh)]
are not nouns of quantity and require measure words. (Refer to Appendix B Advanced Measure
Words)

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2 years

ling nin
w tin
s ge xngq
s zhu
sn ge yu

5 days
4 weeks
4 weeks
3 months

In the examples below, (j) could mean "a few" or "how many?", depending on the
context.

j
j
j
j

a few years / how many years?

nin
tin
ge xngq
ge yu

a few days / how many days?


a few weeks / how many weeks?
a few months / how many months?
Yesterday was October 18th.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

2 0 1 0

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

zutin sh shyu shb ho.


jntin sh shyu sh ji ho.
mngtin sh shyu rshr ho.
jnnin sh r lng y lng nin.
mngtin sh wde shngr.

Today is October 19th.


Tomorrow will be October 20th.
The year is 2010.
Tomorrow is my birthday.

Questions
questions

1.
2.

1.
2.

jntin sh r yu y ho ma?
shs ho sh xngqsn ma?

Is today is February 1st


Is the 14th on Wednesday?

'question word' questions


(j) is used as a question word to ask "what day", "what date" or "what month".
(du shao) may not be used for this. However, (dushao) or (j) may be
used to ask the number of days, weeks, months or years.
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What is today's month, date, and day?

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

jntin sh jyu jho? xngqj?


y g xngq yu j tin
y zhu yu j tin
y nin yu j ge yu?
y nin yu dushao ge xngq?
y g xuq yu dushao ge xngq?

How many days does a week have?


How many days does a week have?
How many months does a year have?
How many weeks does a year have?
How many weeks does a semester
have?

'affirmative - negative' questions

Is today February 1st ?

jntin sh bu sh ryu yho?


'confirmation' questions

Today February 1stisn't it?

jntin sh ryu yho, sh bu sh


'or' questions

Is today Wednesday or Thurday?

jntin sh xngqsn hishi xngqs

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Unit 9
Time
This unit introduces questions and statements about lengths of time and stating the
(clock) time.
New Words

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

bn
ch
din zhng
du chng
fn zhng
j din
k
kui
shng w
sh jin
wn shang
xi w
xio sh
zo shang
zhng w

half
short of
o'clock
how long? (time)
minute
what time?
a quarter of an hour
fast, quick
morning
time
evening, late, night time
afternoon
hour
morning
noon

Stating the Time


To express AM, (zo shang) is generally used to discuss early morning hours
such as before one goes to work or school. When discussing ones workday,
(shng w) is more commonly used to talk about things that happen before lunch. To
express PM, (xi w) is used for times in the afternoon and (wn shang) is
used for evening times. These expressions are placed before the (clock) time is stated.
These may be omitted if it is already clear what part of the day it is. For early morning
hours, when most people are asleep, (wn shang) is commonly used because it is
considered to be night time. When stating the time, as in "It is 2 o'clock"; (ling) is
used. When stating the time, the minutes place, as in "2 minutes after 10" (r) is
used. When stating the time of day, (kui) is used to express 'almost' and (ch)
is used to say until the hour. (k) may be used to state the 15 or 45 minute
"quarter hour" times but is not used for half hour times. (bn) may be used to state
"half past". When stating the time, (zhng) is optional; however, it is not used after
(k) or (bn). Time phrases always are stated from the largest unit of time to
the smallest unit.

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10:00 am

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15

()

()

()
()
()
()

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

shngw sh din (zhng)


shngw sh din y k
shngw sh din bn
shngw sh din snsh fn
shngw sh din sn k
shngw sh din sshw fn
zhngw shr din (zhng)
xiw shr din y fn
xiw ling din r fn
wnshng shier din (zhng)
kui ling din (zhng)
ch y k y din (zhng)
ch sh fn y din (zhng)
ling din sn k
sn din y k

10:15 am
10:30 am
10:30 am
10:45 am
10:45 am
noon
12:01 pm
2:02 pm
midnight
almost 2 oclock
a quarter to 1 oclock
10 minutes until 1 oclock
2:45
3:15

In China, public places that have digital clocks, such as subway stations, it is common
to have the time displayed in 24 hour time format. Radio time announcements are
commonly spoken in 24 hour format. (sh s din ) would be used to express 2
pm.

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Length of Time
To express a length of time in minutes, measure words are not used. For a number of
hours, the measure word (g) is used. (The words minute [ (fn)] and
second [ (mio)] are nouns of quantity and are not used with measure words. The
word hour [ (xio sh)] is not a noun of quantity and requires a measure words.
Refer to Appendix B Advanced Measure Words)

ling
ling

fn zhng
ge xiosh

two minutes
two hours

Questions
questions

()

sh din (zhng) ma?

Is it 10 o'clock? (now)

'question word' questions

()
?
?
?
?
?

j din (zhng)?
duchng sh jin?
dushao ge xiosh?
j ge xiosh?
dushao fn zhng?
j fn zhng?

What time is it? (now)


how long? (length of time)
how many hours?
how many hours?
how many minutes?
how many minutes?

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Unit 10
'Action Verb' Sentences
Habitual / Intentional Actions
This unit introduces how to express statements and questions about actions that are
habitual or intentional. It shows examples of how multisyllabic verbs are used in
affirmative-negative questions.
New Words

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.

Bijng
d fang
din sh
gn
h
jio zi
k fi
kn
li
mi
nr
q
shng din
Shng hi
shn me sh hu
t sh gun
xin zi
xu x
yng y
zu

the capital of China


a place or location
television
to do
drink
Chinese dumpling
coffee
to see, to watch
come
every
where?
go
store, shop
Shanghai (a major city in China)
when?
library
now
study
English language
to do

Action Verbs
There are no verb tenses in Chinese, actions are expressed as habitual / intentional, in
progress, completed, or to be part of a past experience. The times actions occur are
apparent from context or are specified by time phrases at the beginning of sentences.
Habitual / Intentional Actions
This example does not refer to a specific time. The context tells the listener if the
statement refers to a habitual or intentional action.

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Habitual actions
Question: What do you do after school everyday?
Answer:

w q tshgun.

I go to the library.

Intentional actions
Question: (as someone walks out the door) Where are you going (now)?
Answer:

w q tshgun.

I am going to the
library.

Question: Where will you go tomorrow?


Answer:

w q tshgun.

I will go to the library.

Time Phrases
To express the time that actions occurs, time phrases are always placed at the
beginning of sentences or immediately following the subject. In the examples below,
(w) is the subject.
Habitual actions
Both sentences below express, " I go to the library every afternoon."

mitin xiw w q tshgun.


w mitin xiw q tshgun.

Intentional actions
I am going to the store tomorrow afternoon.
He is going to come to Beijing tomorrow morning.

1.
2.
3.
4.

(sentences 1, 2)
(sentences 3, 4)

mngtin xiw w q shngdin.


w mngtin xiw q shngdin.
mngtin zoshang t li Bijng.
t mngtin zoshang li Bijng.

In the example (xinzi) below, means "now". However, based on the context of
the question, the sentence still refers to an action that is intentional.
Question: (as someone prepares to walk out the door) Where are you going (now)?
Answer: I am going to the library.

w xinzi q tshgun.
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Negative Statements
In habitual or intentional action sentences (b) is always before the verb to make a
negative statement. In the examples below, (w) is the subject. As in the examples
above, context is needed to determine the speaker's meaning.
Habitual Actions
Question: Do you drink coffee?
Answer:

I don't drink coffee.

w b h kfi.

Intentional Actions
Question:
Will you go to the library tomorrow?
Answer:

I will not go to the library.


w b q tshgun.

Negative Statements - with Time Phrases


In both sentences below, (w) is the subject and the sentences express, "I am not
going to the store on Friday" or "I do not go to the library on Fridays"; depending on
context.

xngqw xiw w b q shngdin.


w xngqw xiw b q shngdin.
Questions
questions
As in the above examples, context is needed to determine the exact meaning of the
question.
Habitual Actions
"I notice you leave the cafeteria at one o'clock everyday. Do you go to the library?"

n q tshgun ma Do you go to the library?


Intentional Actions
"Mark told me you are going to school tomorrow. Are you going to the library?"

n q tshgun ma Are you going to the library?


questions with time phrases:
In the questions below, the time phrases may go at the beginning of the sentence or
after the subject. In the sentences below, (n) is the subject.
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1.
2.
3.

1.
2.
3.

n mngtin q shngdin ma
xngqw n q Shnghi ma
n ji dinzhng q shngdin ma

Are you going to the store tomorrow?


Are you going to Shanghai on Friday?
Are you going to the store at 9 oclock?

'question word' questions

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

n q shnme dfang
n q shnme shngdin
n xux shnme
shi q shngdin
n q nr
n gn shnme
n zu shnme
n xngqw gn shnme
n xiw zu shnme
n jdin q shngdin

Where are you going?


What store are you going to?
What do you study?
Who is going to the store?
Where are you going?
What are you doing?
What are you doing?
What do you do on Fridays?
What are you going to do this afternoon?
What time are you going to the store?

'question word' questions with time phrases


In the questions below, the subject (n) could go at the beginning of the questions
or after the time phrases.

1.
2.

Where do you go every afternoon?


Where are you going tomorrow?

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3.
4.

5.
6.
7.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

n mitin xiw q nr
mngtin n q shnme dfng
n xngqw q shnme shngdin
mngtin xiw n gn shnme
n shnme shhou h kfi
n shnme shhou q Shnghi
n jdinzhng q shngdin

What store are you going to on Friday?


What are you going to do tomorrow
afternoon?
When do you drink coffee?
When are you going to Shanghai?
What time are you going to the store?

'affirmative - negative' questions


In this example, as in the above examples, context is needed to determine the exact
meaning of the question.

Do you go to the store?


Are you going to the store?
Will you go to the store?
n q bu q shngdin
'affirmative - negative' questions that use two character verbs
There are two ways to express 'affirmative-negative' questions that have two-character
verbs. In the first sentence below, both characters of the verb, (xu x), are
repeated. In the second sentence, only the first character is repeated. Both sentences
have the same meaning, Do you study Chinese?

1.
2.

n xux bu xux zhngwn


n xu bu xux zhngwn

'affirmative - negative' questions with time phrases


Are you going to the store tomorrow?
1.

2.

1.
2.

n mngtin q bu q shngdin
mngnin n xu bu xux zhngwn

Are you going to study Chinese next year?

'or' questions
Do you study Chinese or English?

n xux hny hishi xux yngy?


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Unit 11
'Action Verb' Sentences - Actions in Progress
This unit introduces how to express actions that are in progress.
New Words

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.

i rn
c
chng g
d din hu
d ln qi
de sh hou
dng
din yng
dng xi
gi
gng zu
hi bn
hu
ji
ki hu
l
lio tinr
mi
mi dng xi
ne
shn t
shu jio
to ln
x
xi
xi xi
yq
yn wi
zi
zho
zhng zi

husband or wife
wipe
to sing
a phone call
play basketball
when something happens
wait
movie
things
to give
a job, to work
blackboard
will
home (a place), family (people)
start a meeting, have a meeting
inside
chit chat
buy
go shopping
a particle that indicates an action in progress
health, body
sleep
discuss
wash
write
rest, break, a day off
together
because
an adverb that indicates an action in progress
to look for
an adverb that indicates an action in progress

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32.
33.

zhr
zu jn

here
recently

In order to show that an action is in progress, place one of the adverbs (zi),
(zhng) or (zhng zi) before the predicate verb or place (ne) at the end of the
sentence. (zi), (zhng) and (zhng zi) are often used together with
(ne) to express that an action is in progress.
The sentences below show 7 possible ways to say: Mother is doing the laundry.
subject

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

/ /

predicate
verb

object

yfu

ne

wash

clothes

action in
progress

mm
Mother

action in
progress

Some verbs do not require objects. For instance, in the examples below the word for
rest [ (xi x)] does not need an object. The sentences below show 7 possible
ways to say: He is resting.
subject

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

/ /

predicate
verb

xi x

ne

rest

action in
progress

t
He

action in
progress

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If the speaker wants to indicate a place that an action (in progress) is occurring then
(zi) is followed by a place and is used as the preposition at. (Unit 14). In this
case, (zhng) and (ne) are used to indicate the action is in progress. The
sentences below mean, Mother is washing clothes at home.

mm zhng zi ji l x yfu
mm zhng zi ji l x yfu ne
mm zi ji l x yfu ne

Actions in progress with time phrases


Without more context or time words, it assumed that the actions in the above
sentences are occurring at the present time. However, actions in progress may occur in
the future or in the past. In sentence 2, is used as an auxiliary verb. This is covered
in greater detail in Unit 25.

1a.
1b.
2.
1a. zutin ji din zhng w zi kn dinsh
1b. w zutin ji din zhng zi kn dinsh
2. mngtin judin w hu zi kn dinyng
1a / 1b
2.

Yesterday at 9 oclock I was watching TV.


Tomorrow at 9 oclock I will be watching a movie.

(xin zi) which means now may also be used with, or in the same
way as time phrases as in : (w xinzi zi dng n) (I am waiting
for you now.)
These sentences may also have phrases that contain other elements. In the sentence
below, since (zi) does not come before a place, we know it indicates an action in
progress. This sentence means, They are shopping (together).

tmen zi yq mi dngxi ne
Negative Statements
To state that an action is not in progress, (mi) or (mi yu) are placed before
(zi). However, in spoken Chinese, it is not common to hear people use (mi
yu) before (zi). (zhng) and (ne) are not used in negative sentences.
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1.
2.

w mi zi kn dinsh.
t mi zi h kfi.

1.
2.

I am not watching television.


He is not drinking coffee.

Questions
To ask if an action is in progress, add (ma) to the end of the sentence. To answer
affirmatively, (sh) or (du) are used. Answering questions negatively only
requires that the speaker say (mi yu). When answering questions in full
sentences, (zi) is often omitted as in example sentences 1d and 2d below.

or

or

1.

Question

1a.

Affirmative answer

1b.

Negative answer

1c.

Negative answer

1d.
2.

Negative answer ( omitted)


Question

2a.

Affirmative answer

2b.

Negative answer

2c.

Negative answer

2d.

Negative answer ( omitted)

1.
1a.
1b.
1c.
1d.
2.
2a.
2b.
2c.
2d.

t men zi kn dinsh ma
sh / du
mi yu
tmen mi zi kn dinsh
tmen mi kn dinsh
n men zi toln ma
sh / du
mi yu
w men mi zi tolnw men liotinr ne
w men mi tolnw men liotinr ne

1.
1a.
1b.
1c / 1d
2.
2a.

Are they watching TV?


Yes
No.
They are not watching TV.
Are you discussing? (something important)
Yes

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2b.
2c / 2d

No
We are not in the middle of a serious discussion,
we are (only) chit chatting.

question word questions

1.
2.

shi zhngzi h kfi ma?


t zhngzi h shnme?

1.
2.

Who is drinking coffee? (now)


What is he drinking? (now)

To ask what action is in progress, (zu shn me) or (gn shn me) may
be used. Example sentences 1-4 below have the same meaning: What are they
doing?

1.
2.
3.
4.

t men
t men
t men
t men

zi gn shnme
zhng zi zu shnme
zi zu shnme ne
zhng zi gn shnme ne

In some questions a verb is used with (shn me). Example sentences 1-4 below
have the same meaning: What is she writing?.

1.
2.
3.
4.

t
t
t
t

zi xi shnme
zhng zi xi shnme
zi xi shn me ne
zhng zi xi shnme ne

In the answers below, (xi sh) or (xi y bn sh) could be used to


say She is writing a book.

1.
2.
3.
4.
1.
2.
3.

t
t
t
t

zi xi sh
zhng zi xi y bn sh
zi xi sh ne
zhng zi xi y bn sh ne

Example Sentences
They are having a meeting.

He is waiting on his wife.


He is resting.

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4.
5.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

tmen zi kihu
t zhng zi dng t de i rn ne
t zhng xixi
t zhng zi gi pngyou d dinhu ne
t men zi d lnqi

She is talking on the phone to a friend.


They are playing basketball.

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

She is erasing the blackboard.


She is sleeping.
Because he is sick, he has been at home resting for last few days.
She is singing.
Recently, he has been looking for a job.

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

t zhng zi c hibn ne
t shu jio ne
yn wi t shnt b hozh j tin t zhng zi ji l xixi
t zhng zi chng g ne
t zujn zi zho gngzu ne

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Unit 12
'Action Verb' Sentences
Completed Actions ()
Actions (as part of past experience) ()
This unit introduces how to express actions that have been completed as well as how
to express actions that occurred as part of an experience in the past.
New Words

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

b y
ch
cng
d xu
Guln
gu

7.
8.
9.
10.

ji
ji
ji
le

11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.

mo y
s sh
xi k
y hu
y qin
yu y shng din
zo fn
zu
zh

granduate
to eat
from (a place)
university
a province of China
particle for indicating past
experience
measure word for shops and stores
borrow
then
particle for indicating completed
action
sweater
dormitory
to end a class
after
before
Friendship Store
breakfast
walk, to leave a place
live

Completed Actions ()
Note: (le) has many complex grammatical functions. This unit explains some of them, but does
not cover every way (le) can be used. For this reason, some of the explanations below will state
that it is always correct to use (le) in the way shown. For a complete explanation of (y
qin) (before) and (y hu) (after), refer to Unit 27.

When the verb is followed directly by the object (there is no pronoun, attributive, or
numeral-measure word following the verb) then (le) may be placed at the end of the
sentence or after the verb to indicate the action of the verb has been completed.

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1.
2.
3.

1a.
2a.
3a.

1.
2.
3.

w ji cdin le.
w kn dinyng le.
w q shngdin le.

1a.
2a.
3a.

I borrowed a dictionary.
I saw a movie.
I went to the store.

w ji le cdin.
w kn le dinyng.
w q le shngdin.

To indicate a completed action, when there is a pronoun, attributive or number


between the verb and the object, then it is always correct to place (le) directly after
the verb.
I borrowed his dictionary.

(pronoun)

I saw a Chinese movie.

(attributive)

I went to two stores.

(number)

4.
5.
6.

4.
5.
6.

w ji le tde cdin.
w kn le zhnggu dinyng.
w q le ling ji shngdin.

Using (le) to indicate a specific action has been completed:


In these examples, the aspect particle is put after the verb to emphasize that an
action is completed. (Questions are explained at the end of this unit.)
1.

Question 1:
Answer 1:

2.

1.

Question 2:

Question 1:

n mi le shn me dngxi
w mi le y jin moy
n kn le jntin de bozh mi yu
w kn le

Question 2:
Answer 2:

todays

newspaper?
I read (the newspaper)

Answer 2:

Answer 1:
2.

What did you buy?

I bought a sweater.

Have you read

Using (le) to indicate a situation has already occurred:


In these examples, the modal particle is put at the end of a sentence to emphasis
that a situation has already occurred.

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1.
2.

1.
2.

zutin n q nr le
w q yuy shngdin le

Where did you go yesterday?


I went to the Friendship store.

The difference between (le) when used to indicate specific actions have
occurred and when (le) is used to indicate that situations have occurred.
In example sentence 1 below, (le) is used after the verb to indicate the completion
of the specific action of having class. Without further context, it is not certain that the
class has taken place already. This sentence could refer to a future action, because the
action is sure to be completed, or a habitual action. In example sentence 2 below, we
know that the class has taken place (the situation has already occurred) because the
sentence ends with . It is clear that the person has already gone home.

1.
2.

1.
2.

t xi le k ji hu ji
t xi le k ji hu ji le

1.
2.

After class he goes home. / After class he will go home.


He went home after class.

Questions are covered later on in this unit; however, to further illustrate the difference
between a specific action and a situation, consider the difference between the
questions (1) (t q le nr ?) and (2) (t q nr le?)
Suppose a young couple and their son were walking through a mall doing some
shopping. Suddenly, one of the parents notices their son is missing. One parent says,
(t q le nr ?) (Where did he GO?) , the sentence refers to the specific
action of going.
Suppose the mother and the son had gone into one store and the father had gone into a
different store. The father was suppose to meet his wife and son at an appointed time.
The father fails to show up. The mother and son start to look for the father in places
they think he may have gone to. The mother would say (t q nr le?)
(Where could he have gone?). Perhaps after they meet again, the mother would say
(n q nr le?) (Where did you go?) In this case, the sentence refers to the
overall situation, not specifically the action of the verb going.

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Completed actions with time phrases:


Time phrases are always placed at the beginning of sentences or immediately
following the subject. In the examples below, (w) is the subject. Since there is no
pronoun, attributive or number between the verb and the object, it is always correct to
place (le) at the end of the sentence or after the verb.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

w xngqw
xngqw w
w xngqw
xngqw w
w xngqw
xngqw w

I borrowed a dictionary on Friday.


I borrowed a dictionary on Friday.
I saw a movie on Friday.
I saw a movie on Friday.
I went to the store on Friday.
I went to the store on Friday.

ji cdin le.
ji le cdin.
kn dinyng le.
kn le dinyng.
q shngdin le.
q le shngdin.

Since there is a pronoun, attributive or number between the verb and the object, then
it is always correct to place (le) directly after the verb.
(pronoun)
1.

I borrowed his dictionary on Friday.

(attributive)
2.

I saw a Chinese movie on Friday.

(number)
3.

1.
2.
3.

w xngqw ji le tde cdin.


xngqw w kn le zhnggu dinyng.
w xngqw q le ling ji shngdin.

I went to two stores on Friday.

Note: Using the particle (le) is not the same as using past tense in English, it
indicates an actions completion, which may occur in a future time frame.

mngtin
Tomorrwo

ch
eat

le
(completion)

zofn
breakfast

yhu
after

wmen
we

j
then

zu
go.

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Negative Statements
To express an action that has not occured, (le) is not used, (mi) or (mi
yu) are placed directly before the verb and (le) is omitted. In these type sentences
(b) may not be used.

1.

1a.

2.
3.

2a.
3a.

1. w mi ji cdin.
2. w mi kn dinyng.
3. w mi q shngdin.

I did not borrow


dictionary.
I did not see a movie.

I did not go to the store.

1a. w miyu ji cdin.


2a. w miyu kn dinyng.
3a. w miyu q shngdin.

No numeral-measure word examples are given below since it would be uncommon to


express an idea such as "I did not go to two stores." This thought would be expressed
in an affirmative way, for example, "I only went to one store."
I did not borrow his dictionary.

(pronoun)

I did not see a Chinese movie.

(attributive)

4.
5.

()
()

4.
5.

w mi ji tde cdin.
w mi kn zhngwn dinyng.

negative statements with time phrases


1. I didn't go to the store on Friday.
I didn't go to the store on Friday.

2.

1.
2.

xngqw w mi q shngdin.
w xngqw mi q shngdin.

Questions
questions
Since the verb is not followed by a pronoun, attributive or number; (le) may placed
directly after the verb or just before (ma).

1.?
2.?
3.?

1a.?
2a.?
3a.?

Did you borrowed a dictionary?


Did you see a movie?
Did you go to the store?

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1. n ji cdin le ma?
2. n kn dinyng le ma?
3. n q shngdin le ma?

1a. n ji le cdin ma?


2a. n kn le dinyng ma?
3a. n q le shngdin ma?

Since there is a pronoun, attributive or number between the verb and the object, then
it is always correct to place (le) directly after the verb.
Did
you
borrow
his (pronoun)
dictionary?
Did you see a Chinese (attributive)
movie?
Did you go to those two (number)
stores?

1.

2.

3.

1.
2.
3.

n ji le tde cdin ma
n kn le zhngwn dinyng ma
n q le n ling ji shngdin ma

questions with time phrases


Time phrases are always placed at the beginning of sentences or immediately
following the subject. In the examples below, (n) is the subject.

1.
2.
3.
4.
1.
2.
3.
4.

Did you go to the store yesterday?

Did you go to the store yesterday?

Did you see a Chinese movie yesterday?


Did you see a Chinese movie yesterday?
zutin n q shngdin le ma
n zutin q le shngdin ma
n zutin kn le zhngwn dinyng ma
zutin n kn le zhngwn dinyng ma

(mi yu) questions


Adding (mi yu) to the end of a statement creates a yes-no question.

1.
2.
3.

?
?

1.
2.

n ji cdin le mi yu?
n ji le cdin mi yu?

Did you borrow a dictionary?


Did you borrow a dictionary?
Did you borrow his dictionary?

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3.

n ji le tde cdin mi yu

(mi yu) questions with time phrases


Did you go to the store yesterday?
1.

2.
3.

4.

1.
2.
3.
4.

zutin n
n zutin
n zutin
zutin n

Did you go to the store yesterday?


Did you see
yesterday?
Did you see
yesterday?

Chinese

movie

Chinese

movie

q shngdin le miyu
q le shngdin miyu
kn le zhngwn dinyng miyu
kn le zhngwn dinyng miyu

'question word' questions


What did you do yesterday
afternoon?
What movie did you watch
yesterday afternoon?
What movie did you watch
yesterday afternoon?

1.

2.

3.

1.
2.
3.

zutin xiw n gn shnme le


zutin xiw n kn shnme dinyng le
zutin xiw n kn le shnme dinyng

Questioning the time an action was completed


When questioning the time an action occurred, use the same word order as statements
that express time; except (time) question words are used in place of the time.
When did you go to Shanghai?

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

6.

1.
2.
3.

n shnmeshhu q le Shnghi
n shnmeshhu q Shnghi le
n jdinzhng q le shngdin

When did you go to Shanghai?


What time did you go to the store?
What time did you go to the store?
What time did you go to the store
yesterday?
What time did you go to the store
yesterday?

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4.
5.
6.

n jdinzhng q shngdin le
n zutin jdinzhng q le shngdin
n zutin jdinzhng q shngdin le

'affirmative - negative' questions


Did he go to Shanghai?

1.
2.
3.

1.
2.
3.

t q mi q Shnghi
xngqw t q mi q Shnghi
xngqw n kn mi kn dinyng

Did he go to Shanghai on Friday?


Did you watch a movie on Friday?

When (le) isnt used when expressing completed actions


It is not always necessary to use (le) to indicate a actions have been completed. For
example, if a past action is a habitual one (example 1), when it there is no need to
emphasize the completion of an action (examples 2 and 3) nor is it used in describing
the circumstances in which something took place (example 4).

1.
2.
3.
4.

2005

1.
2.
3.
4.

y qin t chng chng li kn w


q nin t zi xushng ssh zh
Lmng 2005 nin dxu by
w q kn t deshhout zi ji xixi ne

1.
2.
3.
4.

In the past, he often visited me.


Last year, he lived in the student dormitory.
Li Ming graduated from university in 2005.
When I went to see him, he was at home resting.

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Action Verbs
Actions (as part of past experience) ()

(gu) goes directly after the verb and indicates that an action or experience took
place in the past, but does not emphasize the completion of a specific action.

1.
2.

1.
2.

w q gu Shnghi.
w kn gu zh g dinyng.

I have been to Shanghai.


I have seen this movie.

Past Actions with time phrases


To illustrate the difference between (le) and (gu) consider the following. In the
first sentence, (gu) is used to express the action (go) took place as part of a past
action.

I went to Shanghai this year. (However, I am back now.)

w jnnin q gu Shnghi.
When (le) is used, it expresses that the specific action (go) was completed.

He went to Shanghai this year. (He is still there.)

t jnnin q le Shnghi.
Negative Statements
To express that an action has not occurred in the past, (gu) is used with either
(mi) or (mi yu). (mi) or (mi yu) are placed before the verb and
(gu) is place directly after the verb.

1.
2.

1.
2.

w mi q gu Shnghi.
w miyu q gu Shnghi.

I have not been to Shanghai.


I have not been to Shanghai.

Questions
(gu) is most commonly used to express Have you ever questions.

Have you (ever) eaten Chinese dumplings?

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n ch gu jiozi ma
When more specific information is asked for, a (le) sentence is used.

When did you go to Shanghai?

shnme shhu n q Shnghi le


questions

Have you (ever) been to Shanghai?

n q gu Shnghi ma?
questions
When using (gu), (mi yu) may be added to the end of a statement to create
a question.

Have you (ever) been to Shanghai?

n q gu Shnghi miyu?
'question word' questions

1.
2.
3.
4.

1.
2.
3.
4.

n q gu nr
n q gu shnme dfang
n xux gu shnme
shi q gu Shnghi

Where have you been?


What place(s) have you been to?
What have you studied?
Who has been to Shanghai?

'affirmative - negative' questions


Have you (ever) been to Shanghai?

n q mi q gu Shnghi

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Describing a situation
(shde)
The (shde) pattern is used to characterize a situation or to clarify an
assumption. For instance, both of the sentences below mean: He came to China
yesterday. The difference in usage is that sentence 2 addresses the situation:
Sentence 1 would be used to answer the question: When did he arrive?
Sentence 2 would be used to answer the question: Why cant he speak Chinese?

1.
2.

t zutin li zhnggu le
t sh zutin li zhnggu de

If a person had an unfamiliar accent, the question (3) and answer (4) below could be
used:

3.
4.

n sh cng nr li de
w sh cng Guln li de

Anytime this pattern is used with action, it always refers to some action that has
already occurred. The sentence below, must refer to a past event. Sentence 5 below
means, When did you arrive in Beijing?

5.

n sh shnme shhu do Bijng


de

This sentence pattern is also used to ask about jobs. The sentence below means,
What is your job?

6.

n sh zu shnme gng zu de

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Unit 13
Using (le) to indicate a change of state
New Words

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
*
**

ch chi*
f sho
fn
hu li**
mi
mi wn
pio
xi y

travel on business
to have a fever
meal
come back
sell
sell out of something
ticket
to rain

To express traveling for pleasure, (l xng) or (l yu) are used.


(hu li) is a compound compliment of direction. For a detailed explanation
of compound compliments refer to Unit 30.

In the examples below, (le) is used to indicate the state of affairs has changed. This
usage is much more common in the spoken language than in the written form because
the change of state is relative to the current situation of the speaker and listener. For
instance, a person may look out the window and notice that it has started to rain and
say, " (xi y le)", "it is raining" (it wasn't before). At dinner time you will
hear, "(fn ho le!)", "dinner is ready!". The context of these sentences is
very important. When using (le) to indicate a change of state, it indicates that (1)
the state has actually changed, (2) it has changed relative to what a person thought it
was or (3) that someone has made a new discovery.
If a mother has taken her sons temperature and announces that he has a fever, (le)
would be used to indicate the change of state.

t f sho le

He has a fever.

Suppose a childs parents were under the impression that their son was in his room
doing his homework, and one of the parents realized that he was sleeping.

t shu jio le

He is sleeping.

Suppose two people usually play tennis on Monday afternoon but, unexpectedly, one
of them has to go out of town on business. In this case, (le) would added to the end
of the sentence to indicate the situation has changed, relative to what the listener had
thought.

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I will be going out town on business this next


Monday.

xi g xngqy w ji ch chi le
If the person who didnt leave town ran into the traveling person on the following
Wednesday, but didnt think the business trip would be so short, (le) would be used
to indicate surprise at seeing the traveling person.

n hu li le

Youre back!.

If someone were describing their classmate to a friend, they may say, He is tall
(sentence 1). If a relative had not seen a child for a long time and the child had gotten
taller since their relatives had seen them, they would say He has gotten taller.
(sentence 2)

1.
2.

t hn go
t go le

He is tall.
He has gotten taller.

If a person entered a room with a pot of tea and someone did not intend to drink tea,
they would use the first sentence. If, after drinking some tea, they were offered a refill
but didnt want to drink anymore tea, they could use the second sentence.

1.
2.

w b h
w b h le

I am not having any tea.


I am not having any more tea.

When is used to indicate a change of state and a completed action:


Sometimes, (le) indicates both a completed action and a change of state. The
occurrence of the tickets selling out has occurred and the state of the situation has
changed, there are now no tickets and there were before.

Last Monday the tickets all sold out.

shng g xngq pio du mi wn le


In the example above, (mi wn) is a verb that is followed by a compliment of
completion. (mi) is a verb, which means to sell. (mi) is immediately
followed (wn), which is used as a verb compliment of results to indicate the
action of the verb has reached a state of completion. (Refer to Unit 22 for a full
explanation of (verb compliments of results.)

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Unit 14
'To Be' at a Place
This unit introduces how (zi) is used as a verb to express being at a location and
how it is used as the preposition at.
New Words

1.
2.

sh din
zi

bookstore
in, at

as a Verb
'To Be' at a place
When used as a verb, (zi) carries the to be meaning. Since there is a place
following (zi) and no action verb in the sentence, we know that (zi) means "to
be at" a location.

t zi tshgun.

He is at the library.

If there were an action verb in the sentence, for example, (kn) (to read) as in the
sentence (t zi tshgun kn bozh.) then (zi) would
be the preposition at, which is explained in the next section of this unit.
Negative Statements
When (zi) carries the meaning to be, the rules for placing (mi) or (b)
are the same as action verbs.

t b zi tshgun.
t mi zi tshgun.

He is not at the library.


He was not at the library.

If context allows, the place may be omitted, as in the answer below.

t zi tshgun ma
t b zi.

Is he at the library?
He is not.

If a completed action is being discussed, then (mi) is used in the answer:

1.
2.

1.
2.

zutin n zi tshgun ma
w mi zi.

Were you at the library yesterday?


I was not.

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Questions
questions

t zi tshgun ma

Is he at the library?

'question word' questions

shi zi tshgun
t zi nr

Who is at the library?


Where is he?

'affirmative - negative' questions

t zi bu zi tshgun

Is he at the
library?

'or' questions

Is he at the library or the bookstore?

t zi tshgun hishi zi shdin


(zi) as the preposition "at"
Habitual or Intentional Actions
When expressing the location where an action happens, functions as the
preposition "at". In the example below, there is an action verb in the sentence, so
(zi tshgun) is a prepositional phrase meaning "at the library". The
prepositional phrase, place (ziplace), must go after the subject.

He is at the library reading a newspaper.


He reads newspapers at the library.

t zi tshgun kn bozh.
When " place " (ziplace) prepositional phrases are used in action verb
sentences that have time phrases, they may directly follow the subject or the time
words. They may not be placed after the action verbs or at the beginning of the
sentences. Both sentences below mean, I watch TV at home on Thursdays.

1.
2.

w xngqs zi ji kn dinsh.
xngqs w zi ji kn dinsh.

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Actions in Progress
In the sentence, (w zhngzi kn dinsh.) ("I am watching TV"), we
know that (zhngzi) is used to indicate that action is in progress because it
comes before a verb. If (zi) comes before a place then "place" (ziplace) is
a prepositional phrase and (zhng) is used to indicate the action of the verb (
(kn) is in progress. In the examples below, (zi ji) and (zi
tshgun) are prepositional phrases that indicate the locations of the actions and
(zhng) tells us that the action is in progress.

1.
2.

1.
2.

w zhng zi ji kn dinsh.
t zhng zi tshgun knsh.

I am at home watching television.


He is at the at the library reading.

Completed actions
In action verb sentences, the prepositional phrase, place (ziplace), must go
after the subject. The following example means, "I borrowed a book at the library."

w zi tshgun ji le sh.

When " place" (ziplace) prepositional phrases are used in action verb
sentences that have time phrases, the prepositional phrase may directly follow the
subject or the time phrase. It may not be after the action verb or at the beginning or
the sentence. The following examples mean, "I borrowed two books at the library on
Saturday."

1.
2.

1.
2.

w xngqli zi tshgun ji le ling bn sh.


xngqli w zi tshgun ji le ling bn sh.

Negative Statements
To make a negative statement, (b) or (mi) is placed before the prepositional
phrase beginning with (zi).

1.
2.
3.

I don't work in Beijing.


I don't watch TV at home on Thursdays.
I didnt watch TV at home yesterday, I
watched TV at my friends home.

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1.
2.
3.

w b zi Bijng gngzu.
xngqs w b zi ji kn dinsh.
w zutin mi zi ji kn dinshw zi
pngyou ji kn dinsh
Questions

questions

1.

Is he at the library reading?


Does he read at the library?

2.
3.

Is he at the library reading (now)?

1.
2.
3.

t zi tshgun knsh ma
t zhngzi tshgun knsh ma
n zutin zi xuxio gn shnme le

What did you do at school yesterday?

'question word' questions

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

shi zi tshgun kn sh
t zi nr kn sh
n zi shnme dfang knsh
t zhngzi nr knsh
t zhngzi shnme dfang knsh

Who reads at the library?


Where does he read?
Where do you read?
Where is he reading (now)?
Where is he reading (now)?

'affirmative - negative' questions


Is he at the library?

1.
2.

3.

1.
2.
3.

t zi bu zi tshgun
xngqs n zi bu zi ji kn dinsh
n zutin zi mi zi ji kn dinsh

Do you watch TV at home on


Thursdays?
Did you watch TV at home
yesterday?

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Unit 15
There is (there exists) (, , )
This unit introduces how to express locations. Relative locations are introduced as
well as some place names.
New Words

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.

b
bi bin
bi min
bin
cn gun
dng bin
dng min
du min
lu s
hu bin
hu min
jin zh
k zhu
min
nn bin
nn min
png bin
qin bin
qin min
x bin
x min
xu yun
y yun
y zi
yu bin
yu min
yu j
zi
zhng
zhng jin

measure word for chair


north side
north side
side
restaurant
east side
east side
opposite
Russia
behind
behind
building (noun)
school desk for students
side, surface
south side
south side
beside
front side
front side
west side
west side
campus
hospital
chair
right side
right side
post office
at, there exists, there is
measure word for table
middle, between

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31.
32.

left side

zu bin
zu min

left side

Additional Phrases

zhuzi de zubin
zhuzi de yu bin
tshgun de pngbin
yyun de bi bin
xuxio de dumin

left side of the desk


right side of the desk
next to the library
north of the library
opposite the school

There is (there exists) (, , )


English sentences that begin with 'there is', meaning 'there exists', are expressed using
(yu)(zi), and (sh).
(person or thing)

()

(location)

(location)

( / )

(person or thing)

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

There is a chair on the left side of the desk.


There is a chair on the left side of the desk.
There is a chair behind the desk.
That chair is on the left side of the desk.
There is a chair in front of your desk.
Your chair is on the left side of the desk.
Russia is north of China.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

yz zi zhuzi de zubin.
zhuzi de zubin yu y b yzi.
zhuzi de hubin sh y b yzi.
n b yz zi zhuzi de zubin.
nde zhuzi de qin bin yu y b yzi.
zhuzi de zubin sh nde yzi.

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7.

zhnggu de bibin sh lus.

Beside
English sentences that say one thing or person is next to another thing or person use
the following pattern.
(person or thing)

()

(person's or thing's side)

(person's or thing's side)

( / )

(person or thing)

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

There is a dormitory beside the library.


There is a dormitory beside the library.
There is a dormitory beside the library.
That dormitory is beside the library.
There is a dormitory beside our school's library.
My dormitory is beside the library.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

ssh zi tshgun de pngbin.


tshgun de pngbin yu y g ssh.
tshgun de pngbin sh y g ssh.
n g ssh zi tshgun de pngbin.
wmen xuxio tshgun de pngbin yu y g
ssh.
tshgun de pngbin sh wde ssh.

6.

Usage note for (yu) and (sh): If there are several people or things at a place
and the one you are talking about is one of many, (yu) is used. If there is only one
thing at a place, then (sh) is used. For instance, If there were several people
standing beside a car and the speaker wanted to say, My teachers is beside that car.
then then (yu) is used. (ch pngbin yu wde losh)
If there was only one person standing by the car, (sh) would be used.
(ch pngbin sh wde losh)

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Opposite ()
is optional in the following sentence pattern.

(opposite a thing or person)

( / )

(thing or person)

1.
2.
3.
4.

( / )
( / )
( / )
( / )

1.
2.
3.
4.

There is a dormitory opposite the library.


There is a dormitory opposite the library.
There is a school opposite my home.
There is a school opposite my home.

1.
2.
3.
4.

tshgun de dumin (yu / sh) y g ssh.


zi tshgun de dumin (yu / sh) y g ssh.
w ji de dumin (yu / sh) y su xuxio.
zi w ji de dumin (yu / sh) y su xuxio.

Between
Both example A and B mean: There is a dormitory between the library and the
cafeteria.
Example A:
(person or
thing)

(person or
thing)

(person or
thing)

ssh

zi

tshgun

cngun

zhngjin

Example B:
(person or

thing)

(person or
thing)

(person or
thing)

zi

cngun


zhngjin sh

y ge ssh

1.
2.

tshgun

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1.
2.

My dormitory is between the library and the cafeteria.


My dormitory is between the library and the cafeteria.

1.
2.

zi tshgun h cngun zhngjin sh y g ssh .


n g ssh zi tshgun h cngun zhngjin.

Negative Statements
To make negative statements, (mi yu), (b zi), and (b sh) are
used. In these cases, stating that something "is not" in a place, measure words are not
used. *When expressing that 'nothing' exists in a specific place, (b sh) is not
used, (mi yu) is used (sentence 8).
There is not
(person or thing)

()

(location)

(location)

( / )

(person or thing)

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
*8.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
*8.

There is not a chair on the left side of the desk.


There is not a chair on the left side of the desk.
There is not a chair behind the desk.
That chair is not on the left side of the desk.
There is not a chair in front of your desk.
Your chair is not on the left side of the desk.
China is not north of Russia.
There is nothing on the left side of the desk.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

yzi bzi zhuzi de zubin.


zhuzi de zubin miyu yzi.
zhuzi de zubin b sh yzi.
n b yzi bzi zhuzi de zubin.
nde zhuzi de qinbin miyu yzi.

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6. zhuzi de zubin bsh nde yzi.


7. zhnggu bzi lus de bi bin.
*8. zhuzi de zubin miyu dngxi.
Is not beside
English sentences that say one thing or person is not next to another thing or person
use the following pattern. *When expressing that 'nothing' exists in a specific place,
(b sh) is not used, (mi yu) is used (sentence 7).
(person or thing)

()

(location)

(location)

( / )

(person or thing)

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
*7.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

There is not a dormitory beside the library.


There is not a dormitory beside the library.
There is not a dormitory beside the library.
That dormitory is not beside the library.
There is not a dormitory beside our school's library.
My dormitory is not beside the library.
There is nothing (no building) beside the library.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

ssh bzi tshgun de pngbin.


tshgun de pngbin miyu ssh.
tshgun de pngbin bsh ssh.
n ge ssh bzi tshgun de pngbin.
wmen xuxio tshgun de pngbin miyu ssh.
tshgun de pngbin bsh wde ssh.
tshgun de pngbin miyu jinzh.

Is not opposite
English sentences that say one thing or person is not opposite another thing or person
use the following pattern. *When expressing that 'nothing' exists in a specific place,
(b sh) is not used, (mi yu) is used (sentence 5).
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(opposite a thing or person)

( / )

(thing or person)

(opposite a thing or person)

( / )

(thing or person)

1.
2.
3.
4.
*5.

( / )
( / )
( / )
( / )
.

1.
2.
3.
4.
*5.

There is not a dormitory opposite the library.


There is not a dormitory opposite the library.
There is not a school opposite my home.
There is not a school opposite my home.
There is nothing (no building) opposite my home.

1.
2.
3.
4.
*5.

tshgun de dumin (miyu / bsh) ssh


zi tshgun de dumin (miyu / bsh) ssh.
w ji de dumin (miyu / bsh) xuxio.
zi w ji de dumin (miyu / bsh) xuxio.
w ji de dumin miyu jinzh.

Is not between
(b zi) and (b sh) are used to express that something is "not" between
two other things. *In these sentence patterns, (miyu) is only used to express
"nothing" is between two things (sentence 5).
(person or thing)
()

()

(person or thing)

()

(person or thing)

()

(person or thing)

(person or thing)

()

()

()

(person or thing)

1.
2.
3.
4.
*5.

1.
2.
3.

There is not a dormitory between the library and the cafeteria.


There is not a dormitory between the library and the cafeteria.
My dormitory is not between the library and the cafeteria.

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4.
*5.

That dormitory is not between the library and the cafeteria.


There is nothing between the cafeteria and the library.

1.
2.
3.
4.
*5.

ssh bzi tshgun h cngun zhngjin.


zi tshgun h cngun zhngjin bsh ssh.
wde ssh bzi tshgun h cngun zhngjin.
n ge ssh bzi tshgun h cngun zhngjin.
zi tshgun h cngun zhngjin miyu jinzh.
Questions

questions
Is there a post office west of the school?

1.
2.

1.
2.

xuxio x bin sh yuj ma


yyun zi yuj de dumin ma

Is the hospital opposite the post office?

affirmative-negative questions

Is there a post office west of the school?

xuxio x bin sh bu sh yuj


question word questions
Where is the library?

1.
2.
3.

1.
2.
3.

tshgun zi nr
xuxio de x bin sh shnme dfang
xuxio de pngbin yu shnme

What (place) is west of the school?


What is beside the school?

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Unit 16
Over / On / Under / Below / In / Out
This unit introduces more ways to express locations.
New Words

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.

ch
ch z q ch
d mn
d
fi j
gng gng q ch
hu ch
l bin
l mian
lu fng
l
shng bin
shng min
sh bo
sh ji
wi bin
wi min
xi bin
xi min
y

vehicle (car, bike, bus)


taxi
main gate
ground
airplane
public bus
train
in, inside
in, inside
multi-story building
road
top side
top side
book bag, backpack
bookshelf
outside
outside
under, below, bottom side
under, below, bottom side
page

Additional Phrases

88

zi l shang
zi ch shang
zi zxngch shang
zi chzqch shang
zi huch shang
zi lu shang
zi lu xi
zi d shang
zi hibn shang
zi bshb y shang

on the street (walking)


in a vehicle / on a bike
on a bike
in a taxi
on a train
upstairs
downstairs
on the (ground / floor)
on the blackboard
on page 88

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in the book bag

zi shbo l
zi shdin l
zi dmn wi
zi ssh wi

in the bookstore
outside the main gate
outside the dormitory

Over / On / Under / Below / In / Out


Depending on context, (shng) means on, over, or above and (xi) means under
or below. In the examples below, (bin) and (min) are optional because they
are implied by context.
Since (zi) is not followed by a verb we know that, in these examples, (zi)
means "to be at".
( person or thing )

( location )

()

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

(/)
(/)
(/)
(/)
(/)

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

My book is on the desk.


There is a bookshelf over/on the desk.
There are/is book(s) under/below the desk.
My dictionary is in the book bag.
There is a teacher outside the classroom.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

wde sh zi zhuzi shng (bin/min).


shji zi zhuzi shng (bin/min).
sh zi zhuzi xi (bin/min).
wde cdin zi sh bo l (bin/min).
losh zi jiosh wi (bin/min).

In these examples, (yu) is used to express 'there is', meaning 'there exists'.
( location )

1.
2.
3.
4.

()

(person or thing)

(/)
(/)
(/)
(/)

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5.

(/)

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

My book is on the desk.


There is a bookshelf over/on the desk.
There are/is book(s) under/below the desk.
My dictionary is in the book bag.
There is a teacher outside the classroom.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

zhuzi shng (bin/min) yu wde sh.


zhuzi shng (bin/min) yu shji.
zhuzi xi (bin/min) yu sh.
bol (bin/min) yu wde cdin.
jiosh wi (bin/min) yu losh.

Negative Statements
The make a negative statement, (b) is placed before (zi).
( person or thing )

()

( location )

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

(/)
(/)
(/)
(/)
(/)

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Your book is not on the desk.


There is not a bookshelf over/on the desk.
Your book is not under the desk.
My dictionary is not in the book bag.
The teacher is not outside the classroom.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

nde sh bzi zhuzi shng (bin/min).


shji bzi zhuzi shng (bin/min).
nde sh bzi zhuzi xi (bin/min).
wde cdin bzi shbo l (bin/min).
losh bzi jiosh wi (bin/min).

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The make a negative statement, (mi) is placed before (yu).


( location )

( person or thing )

()

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

(/)
(/)
(/)
(/)
(/)

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

My book is not on the desk.


There is not a bookshelf over/on the desk.
Your book is not under the desk.
My dictionary is not in the book bag.
There is not a teacher outside the classroom.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

zhuzi shng (bin/min) miyu wde sh.


zhuzi shng (bin/min) miyu shji.
zhuzi xi (bin/min) miyu nde sh.
bol (bin/min) miyu wde cdin.
jiosh wi (bin/min) miyu losh.
Questions

questions
Is my book is on the desk?

1.
2.

(/)
(/)

1.
2.

wde sh zi zhuzi shng (bin/min) ma?


zhuz shng (bin/min) yu wde sh ma?

Is my book is on the desk?

'affirmative-negative' questions
Is my book is on the desk?

1.
2.

(/)
(/)

1.
2.

zhuzi shng (bin/min) yu mi yu wde sh


wde sh zi bu zi zhuzi shng (bin/min)

Is my book is on the desk?

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'questions word' questions


In the questions below, (dng xi) is optional.
What is on the desk?

1.
2.

(/) ?
(/)?

1.
2.

zhuzi shng (bin/min) yu shnme dngxi?


shnme dngxi zi zhuzi shng (bin/min)?

What is on the desk?

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Unit 17
Actions in a Continuing State ()
This unit discusses actions that have resulted in continuing states and actions that are
continuing.
New Words

1.

bi

2.
3.
4.
5.

bo
bi
co
co d

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.

chun
chung
chung ti
di
di
fng
gu
gun
j zi
ki
lo lao
mn
mn ku
nin
pi zi
qing
qn zi
ti dng
tng
ti
wi y
yn jng
yye
zhn

to place things for the purpose


decorating
to carry (in ones arms)
to carry on ones back
grass
the ground covered with grass
growing on it
to wear, to put on (clothing)
bed
window sill
to take, to lead
to wear (hat, glasses, tie)
to put something somewhere
to hang something up
close
sentence
open, turn on
maternal grandmother
door, gate
door, gate
to read aloud
sign
wall
dress, skirt
table lamp
to lie down or recline
to stick something to another thing
coat
glasses
paternal grandfather
to stand

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32.
33.

zho xing j
zhe

34.

zu

camera
aspect particle indicating a
continuing state or action
to sit

The examples below show the difference between actions in progress and
continuing states. In sentence 1, (zi) indicates that an action is in progress, the
subject is actively doing something. In sentence 2, (zhe) indicates a state is
continuing. For example:

1.
2.
1.
2.

t zi chun wiy
t chun zhe wiy

He is putting on a coat.
He is wearing a coat.

Actions that have resulted in a continuing state (zhe)


Actions that are continuing (zhe)
To indicate that that an action is continuing or has resulted in a continuing state, the
particle (zhe) is placed directly after the verb with nothing in between. If the verb
takes an object, then the object must directly follow (zhe) with nothing in between.
The particle and adverbs and may not be used in these types of sentences.
In these examples, the action of the verb has resulted in the subject being in a
continuing state.
The door is open.
subject

predicate verb

mn
the door

ki
open

zhe
continuing state

The dictionary has been put on the desk. (and is still there)
subject

predicate verb

object

zhuzi shng
On the desk

fng
put

zhe
continuing state

y bn cdin
a dictionary

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In the examples below, the action of the verb is continuing.


The teacher is standing.
subject

predicate verb

lo sh
teacher

zhn
stand

zhe
continuing action

Mother is carrying a child.


subject

predicate verb

mm
Mother

bo
carry

zhe
continuing action

object

hi zi
child

Unless context or time words indicate otherwise, the action in these sentences is
generally assumed to be happening at the current time. Continuing actions also may
occur habitually, in the past or in the future; as in the examples below.
Habitual :

1.

2.

The library door is opened at 7 am in


the morning.
The library door is closed at 9 pm at
night.

1. zo shang q din t sh gun de mn ki zhe


2. wn shang ji din t sh gun de mn gun zhe
Past : I took a camera yesterday.

zutin w di zhe zhoxingj

Future : I will take a camera tomorrow.

mngtin w hu di zhe zho xing j

Negative Statements
To state that an action is not continuing, (mi) or (mi yu) are placed before
the predicate verb.

1.
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2.
1. xushng mi zhn zhetmen zu zhe
2. zutin w mi yu di zhe zhoxingj
1.
2.

The students are not standing, they are sitting.


Yesterday, I did not take a camera.

Questions
To ask a yes-no question about a continuing action or a continuing state in a sentence
that uses (zhe), (mi yu) or (ma) are placed at the end of the sentence. To
answer affirmatively, state the verb followed by (zhe ne). (mi yu)
questions may not be answered affirmatively using (du) or (sh). (ma)
questions may be answered affirmatively using (du) or (sh), however, (du)
or (sh) may not be used as one-word answers. They are generally followed by a
complete sentence.
Did you bring a Chinese dictionary?

negative answer
negative answer
negative answer
affirmative answer

n di zhe hny cdin mi yu


n di zhe hny cdin ma

mi yu
mi yuw mi di zhe
mi di
di zhe ne

The affirmative answers below are grammatically correct but they are too long to be
used in common conversation. The two examples below mean, Yes, I did bring a
camera.

,
,

du, w di zhe hny cdin


sh, w di zhe hny cdin
Example Sentences

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

qing shng ti zhe dt


mn ku ti zhe y g pizi
qing shng gu zhe hu
chung ti shng bi zhe hu
chung ti shng fng zhe hu

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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

A map is taped to the wall.


A sign is glued on the door.
A picture is hanging on the wall.
Some flowers are (displayed) on the window sill.
Some flowers are lying on the window sill.

In the above sentences 1 3, the character (ti) is used to describe things that are
stuck to other things, for instance, when something is glued or taped to another
thing. To express hanging something, such as a picture or clock, (gu) is used. In
sentences 4 and 5) the character (bi) is means to be displayed and the character
(fng) means to put. If someone where to put a vase of flowers on a window sill
with the intention of decorating, they would use (bi). If someone had laid down a
bunch of flowers on the window sill, simply as a place to put them for the moment,
(fng) would be used.

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

t chun zhe xn qnzi


t di zhe ynjng
t di zhe mozi
chung h gun zhe
ti dng ki zhe

She is wearing a new dress.


He is wearing glasses.
He is wearing a hat.
The window is closed.
The table lamp is on.

In the above sentences 7 and 8), when expressing to wear articles of clothing,
(chun) is used; however, (chun) is not used for everything one can wear. For
wearing some things, such as hats, glasses, and gloves; (di) is used. When
referring to items that are worn, but are tied, for example a necktie, (di) or (j)
may used.

11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

xushng men zu zhe


yye shu zhe
mn ki zhedinsh y ki zhe
n g xushng bi zhe shbo
t zu zhe q xuxio

11. The students are sitting.


12. Grandpa (paternal) is sleeping.
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13. The door is open, the TV is also on.


14. That student is carrying a book bag.
15. He is walking to school.
In sentence 14, (bi) is used to indicate someone is carrying something on their
back, such as a backpack. In China, a backpack is usually referred to as a bookbag
(sh bo).

16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.

losh zu zhexixi
lolao zi chung shng tng zhe
lolao tng zhe mi yu
t mi zi chung shng
tng zhe t zu zhe
mn ki zhe mi yu

The teacher is sitting and resting.


Grandmother (maternal) is lying on the bed.
Is Grandmother (maternal) lying on the bed?
She isnt lying on the bed, she is sitting.
Is the door open?

21.

22.

23.
24.

25.

21.
22.
23.
24.
25.

mm di zhe hizimen
q shngdin
t di zhe wmen nin
hibn shng de jzi
t zi humian zhn zhe
dt zi qing shng
gu zhe
tmen du zi cod
shng zu zhe

Mother is taking the children to the store.


The teacher led us while we spoke the sentence on the board.
He is standing in the back.
The map is hanging on the wall.
They all are sitting on the grass.

In sentence 21, (di) means to take or to lead. For instance, if a person is


giving another person a ride in their car or leading another person to a place (because
they dont know where it is). In sentence 22, (di) is used to express that the
students are repeating (aloud) what the teacher is saying.
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Unit 18
How Often / How Many Times
This unit introduces statements and questions regarding "how often" actions or events
occur as well as how to express how many times actions have occurred.
New Words

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

chng chng
c
cng b
d ji
dun lin
gng yun
hn sho
jng chng
l yu
po b
tio w
tng chng
yo
yn dng
zhu m

often
(number of) times
never
vacation
to do physical exercise
park
not much, not many, not often
often
to travel for pleasure
run
to dance
regular, ordinary, normal
medicine
sports, participating in sports
weekend

Often
(jng chng) and (chng chng) have the same meaning. Depending on
context, they may mean "usually" or "often". They may not be placed at the beginning
of a sentence. They must always go after the subject and before the verb.
Prepositional phrases, ( ..... location), may be placed directly after the subject
(sentence 2) or after (jng chng) and (chng chng) (sentence 3).
I often read.

1.
2.
3.

1.
2.
3.

w jngchng kn sh. / w chngchng knsh.


w chngchng zi ji kn sh.
w zi ji chngchng kn sh.

I often read at home.


I often read at home.

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Negative Statements
The most common way to express "not often" or "seldom" is (hn sho);
however, (b jng chng) may be used. (chng chng) is never used in a
negative statement. (hn sho) and (b jng chng) may not be placed at
the beginning of a sentence. They must always go after the subject and before the verb.
Prepositional phrases, ( ..... location), may be placed directly after the subject
(sentence 3) as well as after (hn sho) or (b jng chng), (sentences 4).

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

w
w
w
w
w

I don't read often. / I seldom read.


I don't read often. / I seldom read.
I seldom read at home.
I seldom read at home.
I never read at home.

hn sho kn sh.
b jngchng kn sh.
zi ji hn sho kn sh.
hn sho zi ji kn sh.
cngb zi ji kn sh.

How Often
To express that something happens every day, week or month; time phrases are placed
at the beginning of the sentence or after the subject.
I go to the park everyday.

1.
2.
3.

1.
2.
3.

w mitin q gngyun.
mi ge xngq w q gngyun.
w mi ge zhum kn dinsh.

I go to the park every week.


I watch TV every weekend.

When stating how often something happens within a specific time frame, the time
frame is stated at the beginning of the sentence or after the subject. The number of
times the thing happens within that time frame, is placed between the verb and the
object. In the sentences below, (tio w) (dance), (d ji) (take a vaction),
(kn dinsh) (watch TV), and (ch yo) (eat medicine) are verb-object
phrases. The number of times is expressed using (c), for example, (sn c)
means "3 times".

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One of these two patterns is used:


I go on vacation once a year.
time frame

subject

verb

number of times

object

y nin

y c

ji.

subject

time frame

verb

number of times

object

y nin

y c

ji.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

w y g yu tio ling c w.
y g xngq w kn sn c dinsh
w mitin ch ling c yo
w mi nin q y c Shnghi
w mi g xngq kn y c lo sh

I go dancing twice a month.


I watch TV three times a week.
I take medicine twice a day.
I go to Shanghai once a year.
I see my teacher once a week.

When the object is a personal pronoun, as in, I see/meet him twice a week. , the
sentence pattern is:
time frame

subject

verb

object

number of times

mi g xngq

jin

y c

subject

time frame

verb

object

number of times

mi g xngq

jin

y c

Some two character verbs cannot be divided, for instance (dun lin) (to
physically exercise). In these cases, the sentence pattern below is used. It goes beyond
the scope of this book to list these words.

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I workout three time a week.


time frame

subject

verb

number of times

mi g xngq

dunlin

sn c

subject

time frame

verb

number of times

mi g xngq

dunlin

sn c

1.
2.

1.
2.

w y nin lyu y c
y g xngq w yndng snc

I travel once a year.


I play sports three time a week.

How Many Times


To express the number of times that something has occurred, the same sentences
pattern as above may be used.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

w q gu sn c Shnghi
qnin w q gu sn c Shnghi
w zutin ch le y c fn
w zutin jin le t y c
w shng g xngq dunlin le sn c

I have been to Shanghai three times..


I went to Shanghai 3 times last year.
I ate once yesterday.
I saw him once yesterday.
I worked out three times last week.

Normally / Usually
(tng chng) is used to express what ordinarily happens. Negative words cannot
be used before (tng chng) but it can be used to express that something doesnt
usually happen. For instance, in example 3.

1.
2.

He usually watches TV after dinner.


I usually workout three times a week.

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There are usually no classes on


Saturday afternoon.

3.

1.
2.
3.

t tngchng wnfn hu kn dinsh


w tngchng mi y g xngq dunlin sn c
xngqli xiw tngchng miyu k
Questions

questions

Do you read often?

n jngchng kn sh ma/ n chngchng kn sh ma?


These questions may be answered affirmatively by simply saying (chng chng)
or (jng chng).
'How Often' questions
In English, the question "how often do you go dancing?", does not require the speaker
to specify a time frame or the frequency of occurrences. In Mandarin, when asking
"how often?" questions, the frequency of the actions or the time between their
occurrences must be specified.
One way to ask how often something happens, is to specify how many times an action
happens within a time frame. In this type of a question (j c), (how many
times?), is placed between the verb and the object. In the sentences below, (tio
w) (dance), (d ji) (take a vacation), and (kn dinsh) (watch TV) are
verb-object phrases. This kind of sentence may begin with the subject or a time frame.
How many times do you take a
vacation in one year?
How many times do you go dancing
in a month?
How many times do you watch TV in
week?
How many times do you work out in
a week?
How many times a year do you
travel?

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

n y nin d j c ji?
y g yu n tio j c w?
n y g xngq kn j c dinsh?
n y g xngq dunlin j c?
n y nin lyu j c

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Another way to ask how often something happens, is to ask how much time passes
between each occurrence. This type of questions begins with (du chng
sh jin) which in this context asks, "how long between occurrences?". In this type of
question, (y c), which means "one time", is placed between the verb and the
object. This kind of sentence may begin with the subject (sentences 1, 3, 4, 5) or
(du chng sh jin) (sentences 2, 6).
How often do you go on vacation?

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

n duchng shjin d y c ji?


duchng shjin n tio y c w?
n duchng shjin kn y c dinsh?
n duchng shjin po y c b
n duchng shjin dunlin y c
duchng shjin n yndng y c?

How often do you go dancing?


How often do you watch TV?
How often do you go running?
How often do you workout?
How often do you play sports?

Note: (du chng sh jin) may also be used to ask how long something
happens. (refer to Unit 31 for a complete explanation of how to express the duration
of actions)

How long do you run each time?


30 minutes.

n mi c po duchng shjin
sn sh fn zhng

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Unit 19
How / Why / Like / Dislike
This unit deals with expressing purpose, methods, likes and dislikes.
New Words

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.

i
bn gng sh
bng
d ti
hi p
hn
hu
ki
ki ch
kn bng
mo b
min tio
p
q
q ch
q z xng ch
sh pn
to yn
wnr
wi shn me
wn zhng
x huan
xi xie
xi xn
xn
y fu
yng
zn me
zu
zu x huan
zu

love
office
sick
subway
afraid
hate
return
drive, open, begin
drive a car (bus, truck)
see a doctor
brush for calligraphy
noodles
to dislike, to fear
ride (a bike, a horse, motorcycle)
car
ride a bike
foodstuffs
hate, disgusting
play, relax and enjoy oneself
why
article, passage, essay
like
thanks, thank you
to write a letter
letter
clothes
use
how?
most
favorite
to ride in a vehicle

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Expressing Purpose (Why)


In the following sentences, the predicate has two consecutive verbs or verbal phrases.
The order of these verb phrases is fixed. The first verb or verbal phrase indicates the
action and the second indicates the purpose of the action.
Note: When Chinese talk about going somewhere to relax and have a good time they
say play ( wnr).

1.
2.
3.
4.

1.
2.
3.
4.

I will go to the hospital to see a doctor this afternoon.


I am going to my friend's home to play now.
I went to the hospital to see a doctor this afternoon.
I went to my friend's home to play yesterday.

1.
2.
3.
4.

w jntin xiw q yyun kn bng.


t xinzi q pngyou ji wnr.
w jntin xiw q yyun kn bng le.
w zutin q pngyou ji wnr le.
Negative Statements

1.
2.
3.

1.
2.
3.

She won't go to the store to go shopping tomorrow.


I didn't go to the store to go shopping yesterday.
I didn't go to the hospital to see a doctor this afternoon.

1.
2.
3.

t mngtin b q shngdin mi dngxi.


t zutin mi q shngdin mi dngxi.
w jntin xiw mi q yyun kn bng.
Questions

questions:

1.
2.
3.

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4.

1.
2.
3.
4.

Will he go to the hospital to see a doctor this afternoon?


Are you going to a friend's home to play now?
Did he go to the hospital to see a doctor this afternoon?
Did he go to a friend's house to play yesterday?

1.
2.
3.
4.

t
n
t
t

jntin xiw q yyun kn bng ma


xinzi q pngyou ji wnr ma
jntin xiw q yyun kn bng le ma
zutin q pngyou ji wnr le ma

'affirmative-negative' questions

1.
2.
3.

1.
2.
3.

Will he go to the hospital to see a doctor this afternoon?


Are you going to your friends to play now?
Did he go to a friend's home to play yesterday?

1.
2.
3.

t jntin xiw q bu q yyun kn bng


n xinzi q bu q pngyou ji wnr
t zutin q mi q pngyou ji wnr

'Why' questions:
When asking why an action takes place, the following pattern is used:
(subject)

(action)

wi shn me
1.
2.
3.

1.
2.
3.

Why is he going to go to the hospital this afternoon?


Why are you going to a friend's house now?
Why did you go to the post office yesterday?

1.

t jntin xiw wi shnme q yyun

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2.
3.

n xinzi wi shnme q pngyou ji


n zutin wishnme q le yuj

'question word' questions

1.
2.
3.

1.
2.
3.

When are you going to go shopping in Beijing?


What will you buy at the store?
What did you buy at the store?

1.
2.
3.

n shnme shhu q Bijng mi dngxi


n q shngdin mi shnme
n q shngdin mi shnme le

'or' questions

Are you going to the store to by food or


clothes?

n q shngdin mi shpn hishi mi yfu


Expressing Means and Method
In the following sentences, the predicate has two consecutive verbs or verbal phrases.
The order of these verb phrases is fixed. The first verb or verb phrase expresses the
means or method of second verb's action.
Note: In Mandarin, "going home" or "returning home" are both expressed as
"returning home", (hu) is always used.

1.

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

1.

w yng mob xi hnz.

I use a brush to write Chinese


characters.
We use computers to write articles.
I go home by subway.
I take the subway to my office.
I go to my office by public bus.
I ride my bike to my office.
I drive to my office.
I take a plane to Shanghai.

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2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

wmen yng dinno xi wnzhng.


w zu dti hu ji.
w zu dti q bngngsh.
w zu gnggngqch q bngngsh.
w q zxngch q bngngsh.
w kich q bngngsh.
w zu fij q Shnghi.
Negative Statements
I don't take the subway home.

1.
2.

3.

4.

1.
2.
3.
4.

w
w
w
w

I didn't take the subway home


yesterday.
I will not use a brush to write
Chinese characters this morning.
I didn't use a brush to write Chinese
characters this morning.

b zu dti hu ji.
zutin mi zu dti hu ji.
jntin shngw b yng mob xi hnz.
jntin shngw mi yng mob xi hnz.
Questions

questions
Does he take the train to Beijing?

1.
2.
3.

1.
2.
3.

t zu huch q Bijng ma?


t zu hu ch q Bijng le ma?
zutin t zu huch q Bijng le ma?

Did he take the train to Beijing?


Did he take the train to Beijing
yesterday?

'affirmative-negative' questions

Does he take the train to Beijing?

t sh bu sh zu huch q Bijng?

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'questions word' questions


When asking how an action takes place, the following pattern is used:
(subject)

(action)

zn me

How does he go to Beijing?

1.
2.

1.
2.

t znme q Bijng?
zh ge z znme xi

How do you write this character?

'or' questions

Do you take the bus or


your car to go to work?

n zu fij q Shnghi hishi zu huch q Shnghi


Stating Likes and Dislikes
When stating likes and dislikes, if the predicate has two consecutive verbs or verbal
phrases, the order of these verb phrases is fixed. The first verb or verbal phrase
expresses the feeling the speaker has about the second verb's action. (examples 1 - 5)
When stating likes and dislikes, if there is no second verb, the verb indicates the
speaker's feelings about the object. This could be a condition, a place or a thing
(examples 6 - 9). To show stronger feelings (hn) or (fi chng) may be
added before words that express feelings (sentence 2, 7). The word meaning "to be
afraid" , (p), is often used to express dislike (sentence 9).
I like to drink coffee.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

1.
2.

w xhuan h kfi.
w hn xhuan h kfi.

I like drinking coffee very much.


I love to drink coffee.
I like to eat noodles.
I hate drinking coffee.
I hate summer.
I hate summer very much.
I like Beijing.
I dislike cold (weather).

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3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

w
w
w
w
w
w
w

i h kfi.
xhuan ch mintio.
toyn h kfi.
toyn xitin.
fichng toyn xitin.
xhuan Bijng.
p lng.
Negative Statements
I dislike drinking coffee.

1.
2.
3.
4.

1.
2.
3.
4.

w
w
w
w

I dislike drinking coffee very much.


I dislike drinking coffee very much.
I dont dislike cold (weather).

b xhuan h kfi.
hn b xhuan h kfi.
fichng b xhuan h kfi.
b p lng.
Questions

questions:

Do you like to drink coffee?

n xhuan h kfi ma?


'affirmative-negative' questions

1.
2.

?
?

1.
2.

n xhuan bu xhuan h kfi?


n x bu xhuan h kfi?

Do you like to drink coffee?


Do you like to drink coffee?

'question word' questions:

1.
2.
3.

1.
2.
3.

n xhuan h shnme?
shi xhuan h kfi
n zu xhuan de shugu sh shnme

What do you like to drink?


Who likes to drink coffee?
What is your favorite fruit?

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Unit 20
Compliment of Potentiality ()
Sentences with no Action / Sentences with Potential Action
This first section of this unit deals with modifying verbs in sentences that have no
action. For example, in the sentence "He runs fast", "run" is a verb but there is not
action in the sentence. The second section deals with sentences with potential action.
For example in the sentence, Can you clean the stain out of this shirt?
New Words

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

de
dng
gn jng
mn
qng chu
shu
tng
xi z

structural particle
understand
clean
slow
clear
sleep
listen, hear
write, write letters or characters

Compliment of Potentiality
(Sentences with no Action)
When (de) is used after a verb, the verbs do not indicate an action. In the following
examples, (de) goes after the verbs and is used to connect the verbs to the words
that modify them. For instance, (w tng de dng hny) means "I
understand (spoken) Chinese". In this sentence, (de) is between the verb (tng)
(to hear) and the compliment of potentiality (dng) (to understand). It means the
speaker can understand Chinese by listening. This sentence has no action. The verb
may be further modified to indicate degree by using adverbs such as (hn) or
(fi chng) (sentence 6).

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

t po de kui.
t po de mn.
t shu d qngchu.
t xi de kui.
w shu de ho.
t po de hn kui.

He runs fast.
He runs slowly.
He speaks clearly.
He writes fast.
I sleep well.
He runs very fast.

When (de) is used with verb object phrases, such as (xi z) (write Chinese
characters) - both characters are stated, then the first character is stated again,
followed by (de) which is followed by the words that modify the verb. Adverbs
such as (hn) and (fi chng) may be used (sentences 4, 5).
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He runs fast.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

t pob po de kui.
t pob po de mn.
t xiz xi de kui.
t shuhu shu de hn qngchu.
w shujio shu de hn ho.

He runs slowly.
He writes fast.
He speaks very clearly.
I sleep very well.

Negative Statements
To make a negative statement, (de) is followed by (b). Adverbs such as (hn)
or (fi chng) may be not used in these statements.
He does not run fast.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

t po de b kui.
t shu de b qngchu.
w xixn xi de b kui.
w shujio shu de b ho.
t pob po de b kui.

He does not speak clearly.


I do not write letters fast. (correspondence)
I do not sleep well.
He does not run fast.

Questions
questions: single character verbs

t po de kui ma

Does he run fast?

questions: two-character verb-object phrases


Does he run fast?
1.
Does he write fast? (handwriting)

2.

1.
2.

t pob po de kui ma?


t xiz xi de kui ma?

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Compliment of Potentiality
(Sentences with Potential Action)
This sentence structure may also be used to indicate if is something is possible.

Answer 2:

Question 1:
Answer 1:
Question 2:
Answer 2:

n tng de dng hny ma


w tng de dng.
n kn de dng hnz ma
w kn de dng.

Question 1:
Answer 1:
Question 2:

Do you understand Chinese?


I understand Chinese (from listening)
Can you read Chinese?
I understand Chinese (from listening)

If you went into a local dry cleaners and wanted to know if they could get a stain out
of your shirt, you would ask the question:
Note: Any article of clothing may be referred to as (y f).

Can this be cleaned?

1.
2.

1.
2.

zh jin yfu x d gnjng ma


zh jin yfu x d gnjng x b gnjng

The answer to the question would probably be:

1.
2.

x d gnjng.
x b gnjng.

It can be cleaned.
It cant be cleaned.

If you took your shirt into the dry cleaners and assumed that everything would go
smoothly, but the clerk realizes that your shirt cant be cleaned, then the clerk would
say:

zh jin yfu x b gnjng

This shirt cant


be cleaned.

Compliments of Potentiality are discussed further in Unit 22 where they are


compared to Compliments of Results.

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Unit 21
Comparisons
This unit introduces the sentence patterns used to compare actions that are different,
state that two actions are the same.
New Words

1.

early

zo

Comparing Actions

A is greater than B
A
A verb-compliment
A
A verb-compliment
A

B verb-object
B
B verb-compliment
B
B verb-compliment

A is not greater than B


A

A verb-compliment

comparison standard
comparison standard
comparison standard degree
comparison standard degree

B verb-object
B comparison standard
B verb-compliment

A is equal to or greater than B


A
B

comparison standard

A is less than B
A

comparison standard

comparison standard

Stating two actions are the same

A is the same as B
A
A verb-compliment
A

B
B
B

/
/
/

verb-object
comparison standard
comparison standard

Stating two actions are not the same

A is not the same as B


A
/
A verb-compliment /

B
B

B verb-compliment

verb-object
comparison
standard
comparison
standard

Comparing Two Actions ()


When using (b) to compare two actions, where A is greater than B, the following
pattern is used. In this pattern, the action is a verb-object phrase. A degree of
difference may not be stated here.

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action

t b w xhuan ynyu.

He likes music more than I do.

When comparing actions that are stated as complimented verbs (that is, verbs
modified with ) the verb compliment may be part of A or B. In this pattern, A is
greater than B and the comparison standard is stated last. The comparison standard
may be followed by a degree, which is optional. When stating the degree of difference,
an exact number or an approximation may be used. When stating an approximation,
(y dinr) and (y xi) are used for small differences while (de du)
and (du le) are used for relatively large differences.

comparison standard

1.
2.
3.
4.

1.
2.
3.
4.

He runs faster than I do.


He runs faster than I do.
He runs a little faster than I do.
His Chinese is much better than mine.

1.
2.
3.
4.

t
t
t
t

degree

b w po de kui.
po de b w kui.
b w po de kui y dinr.
hny b w shu de ho de du.

(b b) is used to state that A is not greater than B; however, this pattern is only
used to express disagreement or refutation. The standard of comparison is stated last.
Adverbs such as (hn) and (fi chng) may not be used to modify the
comparison standard.
He doesn't like music as much as I do.
action

b b

xhuan ynyu.

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1.
2.
1.
2.

t b b w po de kui.
t po de b b w kui.

comparison standard

He can't run as fast as I can.


He can't run as fast as I can.

Questions
questions
Adding (ma) to the end of a (b) statement creates a yes-no question.
Does he like music more than you do?

1.
2.
3.

1.
2.
3.

t b n xhuan ynyu ma?


t po de b n kui ma
t b n po de kui y dinr ma

Does he run faster than you do?


Does he run a little faster than you do?

'affirmative - negative' questions


Statements using (b) and (b b ) may be changed into affirmative-negative
questions by using (b bu b). In this sentence pattern, (ma) may not be
used.
Does he like music more than you do?

1.
2.

1.
2.

t b bu b n xhuan ynyu?
t po d b bu b n kui

Does he run faster than you do?

Comparing Two Actions ( / )


When comparing two actions, the following pattern is used to express A is equal to or
greater than B:
comparison standard
A
B

1.
2.
1.
2.

t po de yu w kui.
t yu w po de kui.

He runs at least as fast as I do.


He runs at least as fast as I do.

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He draws at least as good as I do.

1.
2.
3.

1.
2.
3.

t hu de yu w ho.
n shu de yu t ho.
t zu de yu n zhme kui.

You speak (a language) as well as he does.


He is as least as fast (at this) as you are.

When comparing two actions, the following pattern is used to express A is less than B,
(mi) or (miyu) may be used. The standard of comparison is stated last.
Adverbs such as (hn) and (fi chng) cannot be used to modify the
comparison standard.
comparison standard
A
B
()

1.
2.

()
()

1.
2.

He doesnt run as fast as I do.


He doesnt run as fast as I do.

1.
2.

3.
4.

1.
2.
3.
4.

t hu de miyu w ho.
n shu de miyu t ho.
t zu de miyu n zhme kui.
tmen miyu wmen li de zo

t po de mi(yu) w kui.
t mi(yu) w po de kui.
He is not better at drawing than I am.
You are not better at speaking (a
language) than he is.
He is not faster (at this) than you are.
They did not arrive as early as us.

Questions
questions
Adding (ma) to the end of a (yu) statement creates a question.
Does he draw as well as I do?

1.
2.

1.
2.

t hu de yu w ho ma
n shu de yu t ho ma

Do you speak (a language) as well as he does?

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'affirmative - negative' questions


Statements using (mi) or (mi yu) may use the (yu mi yu)
affirmative-negative question pattern. In this sentence pattern, (ma) may not be
used.
Does he draw as well as I do?

1.
2.

1.
2.

t hu d yu mi yu w ho
n shu d yu mi yu t ho

Do you speak (a language) as well as he does?

Stating that two actions are the same ()


When stating that two actions are the same, both things are linked with (gn) or
(h) followed by (y yng) followed by the action. When the action is expressed
by a verb-object phrase, the verb object phrase goes last.
He likes music as much as I do.

action (verb object phrase)

gn/ h

yyng

xhuan ynyu

When the action is expressed by a verb-compliment phrase (using de), the verb
compliment may be included in either A or B with the comparison standard last.

A
1.
2.

comparison
standard

Both of the sentences above (1 and 2) mean: He runs as fast as I do.

1.
2.

t po de gn w yyng kui
t h w po de yyng kui

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Stating Two Actions are the not Same ()


When stating that two actions are not the same, the sentence pattern is the same as
example sentences 1 and 2 above, except (b y yng) is used.

A
1.
2.

comparison
standard

Both examples mean: He doesn't run at the same speed as I do. (It does not indicate
which person is the fastest runner.)

1.
2.

t po de gn w b yyng kui
t h w po de b yyng kui

questions
Adding (ma) to the end of a statement creates a yes-no question.
Does he like music as much as I do?

1.
2.

1.
2.

t gn w yyng xhuan ynyu ma


t po de gn n yyng kui ma

Does he run as fast as you do?

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Unit 22
Verb 'Compliment of Result'
This unit deals with complimenting verbs to indicate the results their actions produce.
New Words

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.

b
ch
ch z ch
cu
d
d din hu
d ji
do
d shang
din hu
fng
f
gu
ho
hu
hun
hur
hu d
jin
jio
ji
pin
qin
qi
sh f
shu
sng
tu
wn
wn fn
w zi

measure word for movies


tea
taxi
incorrect
hit, send
make a telephone call
everybody, everyone
to arrive, to attain a goal
on the floor, on the ground
telephone
measure word for letters
measure word for paintings
dog
successful, satisfactory, good
to paint or draw (a picture)
return (something)
painting, picture
to answer
to meet, to see
to hand over or hand in something
street
measure word for literary articles
money
cut, clice
sofa
receive
deliver, give (free of charge)
push
to complete, to finish
dinner
room

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32.
33.
34.
35.
36.

x gu
xio gu
y dng
zi
zu y

watermelon
puppy
already
to be at a place
homework

Verb 'Compliment of Result'


An adjective or verb that is attached to a verb to complete its meaning is called a verb
compliment. There are many kinds of compliments including those that express
duration, quantity, degree, direction, possibility or result. In this unit we will only deal
with verb compliments that express results. This is done by adding a verb or adjective
after a verb to show the results produced by the action of the verb. For instance,
adding the verb (wn) (to finish) to the verb (ch) (to eat) becomes (ch
wn) (finish eating). Adding the adjective (cu) (incorrect) to the verb (shu)
(to speak) becomes (shu cu) (to speak incorrectly).
Referring to Unit 20, (w tng de dng hny) means "I understand
(spoken) Chinese". In this sentence, (de) is between the verb (tng) (to hear) and
the compliment of potentiality (dng) (to understand). It means the speaker can
understand Chinese by listening. This sentence has no action.
In the sentence, (w tng dng le t shu de hu) (I
understood what he said.), (de) is not used. The verb, (tng) (to hear), is
followed immediately by the verb, (dng) (to understand) which shows the results
produced by the verb (tng) (to hear). In this case, (dng) (to understand) is a
verb that is used as "verb compliment of results" that means that understanding was
the result of the action of hearing. The adjective (qng chu) (clear) is used in the
same way in the sentence, (w tng qngchu le t shu de
hu)" which means "I clearly heard what he said". No characters may be placed
between a verbs its compliment of results.
In this unit, we have chosen to use 7 verbs and 5 adjectives that are commonly used as
verb compliments of results to explain how compliments of results are used, however,
there are many more. In Section 1, we explain how these verbs and adjectives are
alone, not as compliments, so that their meanings will be clear. Section 2 has
examples of how they are used as compliments of results. Section 3 contrasts different
ways that compliments of results and compliments of potentiality are used in
conversation to clarify this idea.

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Section 1
Verbs and Adjectives
Verbs
These sentences explain how these verbs are used in verb object phrases, they are not
used as compliments in these sentences.

jin

jin

wn

dng

do

zi

gi

ki

to see, or perceive, to meet (someone)

(jin) is a single character action verb, it has two meanings, depending on context.
It can mean "to see or perceive" or it can mean "to meet (someone)". In modern
Chinese, when (jin) is used as a verb, it means to meet:

mngtin jin
hn ji mi jin

wn

finish, complete

I will meet you tomorrow.


Long time, no see.

(wn) is a verb, it is used at the end of computer games and movies to indicate
"finished"; however, it is most commonly used as a verb compliment.

dng

to understand

1.
2.

1.
2.

n dng wde ys ma ?
t dng hny.

do

Do you understand my meaning?


He understands Chinese.

arrive, reach

He has already arrived in Beijing.

t xinzi ydng do Bijng le

zi

to be at a place, an action in progress

(zi) is used as a verb that means "to be at a place".

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t zi tshgun.

gi

He is at the library.

give

When used as an action verb, meaning "to give", (gi) usually has two objects. In
the example below, (t) is the first object and (sh) is the second.

ki

w gi le t y bn sh

I gave him a book.

open, turn on, operate, begin

qng ki mn

Please open the door.

Adjectives
These sentences explain how these characters are used adjectives. They are not used
as compliments in the sentences below.

du

cu

du
cu
qng chu
gn jng
ho

qng chu

gn jng

ho

correct

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

n dut b du.
n cu le.
zh zhng dt b qngchu.
wzi l hn gn jng.
zh bn sh hn ho.

incorrect, wrong
clear, easy to understand
clean
good, satisfactory, effective
You are right, he is wrong.
You are wrong.
This map isn't clear.
The room is clean.
This is a good book.

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Section 2
Verb 'Compliment of Results'
These sentences show how to use the same verbs and adjectives, discussed above, as
compliments of results.

jin
1.
2.

1.
2.

kn jin
tng jin

dng
1.
2.

1.
2.

tng dng
kn dng

wn

Action that results in discovery

I see a taxi.
I heard what he said.

w knjin y ling chzch.


w tngjin le t shu de hu.
Action that achieves understanding

I understand what he is said.


Can you understand this book?

w tngdng le t shu de hu.


n kndng le zh bn sh ma
Action that results in completion

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.
6.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

ch wn
h wn
xi wn
kn wn
yng wn
zu wn

I have finished eating


dinner.
He finished drinking 3
cups of tea.
I have finished writing
that article.
Yesterday, we finished
watching that movie.
My money is all used up.
He
finished
his
homework.

w chwn wnfn le.


t hwn sn bi ch le.
t xiwn le n pin wnzhng.
wmen zutin knwn le zh b dinyng.
w de qin yng wn le .
t zu wn le zuy .

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do
1.
2.
3.

1.
2.
3.

zho do
shu do
jin do

zi
1.
2.
3.

1.
2.
3.

zh zi
zu zi
tng zi

gi
1.
2.

1.
2.

jio gi
song gi

ki

Action that attains a goal / reaches a place

I found the bookstore.


I received his letter.
I met Mr. Wang.

t zhodo le shdin.
w shudo le tde xn.
w jindo le Wng xinshng.
Action that results in being at a place

I live in Beijing.
Mr. Wang is sitting on the sofa.
A puppy is lying on the floor.

w zhzi Bijng.
Wng xinshng zuzi shf shang.
xio gu tngzi dshang.
Action that results in giving

He gave me a letter.
My big sister gave me a book.

t jiogi w y fng xn.


jijie snggi w y bn sh.
Actions that achieves opening

1.

Open your book.

2.

The teacher opened the


classroom door.

3.

Mother cut the watermelon.

1.
2.
3.

d ki
tu ki
qi ki

dki nde sh.


losh tuki le jiosh de mn.
mm qiki le xgu.

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du
1.
2.

1.
2.

shu du
hud du

Action that is done correctly

1.
2.

xi cu
d cu

Action that is done incorrectly

1.
2.
3.

1.
2.
3.

kn qngchu
tng qngchu
shu qngchu

1.
2.

1.
2.

x gn jng
c gn jng

You dialed (the telephone) incorrectly.

Action that results in being clear

gn jng

1.
2.

You wrote this incorrectly.

n xicu le.
n dcu le.

qngchu

ho

You answered correctly.

t shudu le.
n huddu le.

cu
1.
2.

What he said is correct.

I saw clearly.
I heard clearly.
He spoke clearly.

w knqngchu le.
w tngqngchu le.
t shuqngchu le.
Action that results in being clean

The cup was washed (clean).


The blackboard was wiped clean.

bizi x gnjng le.


hibn c gnjng le.
Action that is completed successfully

Please, (everyone) sit down.


I put my bike away.

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3.

1.
2.
3.

zu ho
fng ho
zu ho

She is finished with her homework.

qng dji zuho.


w fngho zxngch le.
t zuho zuy le.

Negative Statements
To make a negative statement using a verb 'compliment of results', (mi) or
(mi yu) are placed before the verb-compliment character combination. (le) may
not be used in these negative sentences.

mi knjin
miyu knjin

I do not /did not see a taxi.


I do not /did not see a taxi.

w mi knjin y ling chzch.


w miyu knjin y ling chzch.
Questions

questions
Do / did you see a taxi?

knjin

n knjin y ling chzch le ma

questions
To form a question using a verb 'compliment of results', (mi yu) may be
placed at the end of sentences.

knjin

Do / did you see a taxi?

n knjin y ling chzch le miyu

When using a compliment of result, an affirmative negative question is expressed by


using the following form:
verb

knjin

--

--

verb

compliment of result
Do / did you see a taxi?

n kn mi kn jin y ling chzch

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Section 3
Using Compliment of Results
and Compliments of Potentiality
In the examples below, when a compliment is a compliment of results it is
abbreviated (R) and a compliment that is a compliment of potentiality is
abbreviated (P).
If someone were to ask you if your friend understands Chinese, they would say:
Question 1:

Can he understand Chinese? (P)

In this case, you would answer as below.


Answer 1A:
Answer 1B:
Question 1:
Answer 1A:
Answer 1B:

He does not understand Chinese. (P)


He understands Chinese. (P)

t tng d dng hny ma


t tng b dng
t tng d dng

If someone wanted to know if you understand what was just said, they would ask:
Question 2:

Question 2:

n tng dng le ma

Did you understand what was said?(R)

You could make a general statement that you dont understand Chinese, which does
not refer to the action of listening, it refers to the ability to understand.
Answer 2A:

Answer 2A:

w tng b dng

I dont understand Chinese. (P)

If you usually understand Chinese fairly well, but arent following the conversation
well because your vocabulary is limited or the speaker is talking to fast, you would
answer as below. This statement refers to the action of listening:
Answer 2B:

Answer 2B:

w mi tng dng

I didnt understand what was said. (R)

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If you understood everything that was just said, you would say:
Answer 2C:

Answer 2C:

w tng dng le

I understand what was said. (R)

If you usually understand Chinese and are having difficulty understanding what is
being said because of circumstances, for instance, you are on a noisy bus talking on a
cell phone you would say:
Answer 2D:

Answer 2D:

w tng b qngchu

I didnt understand clearly. (P)

If you are having trouble clearly understanding what the speaker is saying because
your Chinese isnt very good, you would say:
Answer 2E:

Answer 2E:

w mi tng qngchu

I didnt understand clearly. (R)

To tell someone to listen carefully, you would say:


Statement:

Statement:

tng qngchu

Listen carefully. (R)

If someone wanted to know if you could read Chinese, they would ask:
Question 3:

Answer 3A:

Answer 3B:
Question 3:
Answer 3A:
Answer 3B:

Can you read Chinese?(P)

I can read Chinese. (P)


I cant can read Chinese. (P)

n kn d dng hnzi ma
w kn d dng
w kn b dng

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If some gave you a specific Chinese text , after you have tried to read it they would
say:
Question 4:

Question 4:

n kn dng le ma

Could you read it?(R)

You could answer in the following ways:


Answer 4A:
Answer 4B:
Answer 4C:
Answer 4A:
Answer 4B:
Answer 4C:

I can read it. (R)


I cant can read it. (R) (it is too difficult)
I cant can read it. (P) (I cant read Chinese)

w kn dng le
w mi kn dng
w kn b dng

You are at a train station meeting a friend. You are standing at the north end of the
plaza that is in front of the train station. You are talking on your cell phones and you
inform him that you are at the station but you cant find him due to circumstances, for
instance, the station is very crowded and spotting one person in the crowd is not
possible. You would say either statement 1 or statement 2:
Statement 1:
Statement 2:

w zho b do n. I cant find you. (P)


w kn b jin n. I cant see you. (P)

You suddenly see your friend and tell him (on your cell phone):

kn jin le

I see you. (R)

You left your bag under the table at a fast food restaurant where you had just eaten
lunch. You go back to the restaurant and find your bag. You tell the person you are
talking to on your cell phone:

I found it. (R)

zho do le

You are looking around your apartment for your Chinese book. Your roommate tells
you that your book is on the kitchen table. As you are coming out of the kitchen, your
roommate could ask you:
Question 5:

Did you see it?(R)

n kn jin le ma

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If you did not see the book in the kitchen, you would say:
Answer 5A:

I didnt see it. (R) w mi kn jin

If you found your book, you would say:


Answer 5B:

I found it. (R)

zho do le

If you had left your shirt at a laundry shop and knew that it was questionable if the
stain in your shirt could come out, when you see the clerk you could ask:
Question 6:

Were you able to get the stain out? (R)

Answer 6B:

()

Question 6:

n jin yfu x gnjng le ma

Answer 6A:

x gnjng le
(zh jin yfu) mi x gnjng

Answer 6A:

Answer 6B:

It is clean. (R)
It didnt come out. (R)

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Unit 23
Directional Verbs
Verb Phrases That Use and
New Words

1.
2.
3.
4.

shng bn
shng ch
shng chun
shng ji

to start work, to be at work

5.
6.
7.
8.

shng k
shng lu
shng l
shng xu

to start class, to be in class

9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
16.
17.
18.

xi bn
xi ch
xi chun
xi k
xi lu
xi xu
xi xu
y

to get off work

to get into a vehicle


to get in a boat
to set out on a (local) trip (ie., to go
shopping)

to go upstairs
to set out on (long) jouney
to go to school (daily classes or begin a
major course)

to get out of a vehicle


to get out of a boat
to end a class
to go downstairs
to end a day of school
to snow
night

In Unit 16, (shng) and (xi) were the second characters in words for locations,
for instance, (lu shng) (upstairs) and (lu xi) (downstairs). In this unit,
(shng) and (xi) are the first characters of verb-object phrases, that indicate
direction. For instance, (shng lu) refers to the action of going upstairs and
(xi lu) means the action of going downstairs. (shng) involves actions
including: going up, going in, or getting started; (xi) verbs involve going
down, going out, or finishing.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Additional Phrases
to start / to be in - an English class
shng yng y k

shng y bn
shng w lu
xi d y
xi xio xu

to begin / to be at - a night job


to go up to the fifth floor
to rain heavily
to snow lightly

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Depending on context, (shng k) may express the action of beginning a class or


it may express the fact that someone is in a class at the present moment. To begin a
class, teachers say (shng k), which means begin class. If someone were to
ask, Where is he?, the answer would be (t xinzi zhngzi
shngk) which means, he is in class now. (shng bn) is the same. These
directional verbs follow the same rules as action verbs discussed in Units 10 -12.
Habitual or Intentional Actions

1.
2.
3.
4.

1.
2.
3.
4.

w mitin zoshang q din bn shngbn.


t jngchng zu chzch shngbn.
w mitin kich shngbn.
w q zxngch shngbn.

I go start work everyday at seven 7:30 am.


He usually takes a taxi to work.
I drive to work everyday.
I ride a bike to work.

Actions in Progress

t zhngzi shnglu.

He is going upstairs (now).

Completed Action

t shngbn le.

He has started work.

Negative Statements
I didnt go to work yesterday.

1.
2.
3.

1.
2.
3.

zutin w mi shngbn.
mngtin w b shngbn.
xinzi b xiy.

I will not go to work tomorrow.


It is not raining now.

Questions
questions:

1.
2.

1.
2.

tmen zi shngk ma
zutin tmen shngk le ma

Are they in class?


Did they go to class yesterday?

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questions:

1.

1.

zutin tmen shngk le miyu

Did they go to class yesterday?

'questions word' questions:

1.
2.

()

1.
2.

n j din (zhng) shngk


mngtin n shng shnme k

What time do you start class


What classes do you have tomorrow?

'affirmative-negative' questions:

1.
2.

1.
2.

zutin n shng mi shngbn


mngtin n shng bu shngbn

Did you have class yesterday?


Do you work tomorrow?

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Unit 24
Will / Want / Think / Should / Must
(Auxiliary Verbs)
Section 1 of this unit explains (yo) and (xing) as they are used as verbs that
express desire and opinion. Other verbs that express the same meaning are also
included. Section 2 explains how (yo) and (xing) are used as auxiliary verbs
that express necessity, possibility and willingness. Other verbs and auxiliary verbs
that are related to advice, intentions and opinions are also introduced.
New Words

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.

bi
bo go
b x
chn shn
chu yn
di
f pio
ju de
gi
ji
rn shi
rn wi*
tio
xing
yo
yng gi
yu yng
zn me yng

19.
20.

zho j
zh y

white
report
must
shirt
smoke (cigarettes, etc.)
to have to, must, to need to
receipt
to think, to feel
should
alcohol, alcoholic drinks
to meet someone, to know someone
opinion
measure word for skirts and dresses
think, want, miss (long for)
want, will, intend
should
swim
how? (when asking about the
condition of something or someone)
worry, hurry
pay attention to

* Pronunciation tip: the in (rn wi) is pronounced in the second tone, not in the fourth tone as
in the in (yn wi) (because) and (wi shn me) (why).

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Section 1
Verbs
Want (verb - - yo)
When is used as a verb, it means "to want".

t yo y bn cdin.
1.
2.
3.
1.
2.
3.

He wants a dictionary.

Negative Statements
I do not want a white dress, I want

a red dress.
I do not want a receipt.

Yesterday, he didnt want a

receipt.

w b yo bi qnziw yo hng qnzi.


w b yo fpio.
zutin t mi yo fpio.

Questions
questions
When answering a " (yo) " question - stating (b yo) or (yo) is enough.
Question:

n yo fpio ma

Answer (a)

b yo
yo

Answer (b)

Do you want a receipt?


I do not want (a receipt).
I want (a receipt).

'question word' questions

1.
2.
3.

1.
2.
3.

n yo shnme
shi yo fpio
n shnme shhou yo bogo

What do you want?


Who wants a receipt?
When do you want the report?

'affirmative negative' questions

n yo bu yo fpio

Do you want a receipt?

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'or' questions

Do you want tea or coffee?

n yo ch hishi kfi?
Think (verb - - xing)
When expressing an opinion or when the speaker is not certain, (xing) is used as a
verb, it means "to think something is true". It may also express the feeling of
"missing" something or someone.

1.
2.
3.

1.
2.
3.

w xing t sh zhnggurn.
w xing zh ge chngsh hn pioliang.
w xing mma.

I think he is Chinese.
I think this city is very beautiful.
I miss Mother.

In common conversation, Chinese people use (ju de) to express the above ideas.

1.
2.

1.
2.

w jude t sh zhnggurn.
w jude zh ge chngsh hn pioliang.

I think he is Chinese.
I think this city is very beautiful.

Negative Statements
(b rn wi), discussed below, or (ju de) are used to express I do not
think (something is true). (xing) may be used in a negative expression, as in
sentences 1 and 2 below, but (b xing), when used as a verb, means do not
miss (do not long for) as in (w b xing mm) (I dont miss mother).
(b xing) is more commonly used when (xing) is used as an auxiliary verb
(Section 2).

1.
2.
3.
4.

1.

w xing n shucu le.

I think what you said is incorrect.


I think he is not Chinese.
I do not think this skirt is pretty.
I do not think this skirt is pretty.

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2.
3.
4.

w xing t b sh zhnggurn.
w b jude zh tio qnzi pioliang
w jude zh tio qnzi b pioliang
Questions

questions

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

n
n
n
n
n

Do you think he is Chinese?


Do you think this city is beautiful
Do you think he is Chinese?
Do you think this city is beautiful
Do you miss your mother?

xing t sh zhnggurn ma?


xing zh ge chngsh pioliang ma
jude t sh zhnggurn ma?
jude zh ge chngsh pioliang ma
xing nde mma ma

'affirmative negative' questions


Do you miss your mother?

n xing bu xing nde mma


Think / Opinion (verb - rn wi)
When expressing an opinion or when the speaker is not certain, (rn wi) is used
as a verb that expresses in my opinion or I think.

1.
2.

1.
2.

w rnwi n shu de du.


w rnwi zh ge chngsh hn pioliang.

I think what you said is correct.


I think this city is very beautiful.

In common conversation, Chinese people use (ju de) to express the above ideas.

1.
2.

1.
2.

w jude n shu de du.


w jude zh ge chngsh hn pioliang.

I think what you said is correct.


I think this city is very beautiful.

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Negative Statements
(b rn wi) or (ju de) are used to express I do not think (something is
true).
I do not think what you said is
correct.
I do not think he is Chinese.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

I do not think this city is beautiful.


I do not think he is Chinese.
I do not think this city is pretty.
I do not think what you said is
correct.
I think you are wrong.

7.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

w b rnwi n shu de du.


w b rnwi t sh zhnggurn.
w b rnwi zh ge chngsh pioliang.
w b rnwi t sh zhnggurn.
w b rnwi zh ge chng sh pioliang.
w jude n shu d b du
w jude n b du
Questions

questions

Do you think he is Chinese?

n rnwi t sh zhnggurn ma?


'question word' questions

1.
2.
3.

1.
2.
3.

n rnwi sh n gu rn?
n rnwi znmeyng?
n jude znmeyng?

What nationality do you think he is?


What do you think?
What do you think?

'affirmative negative' questions


(rnwi) is not used in an affirmative-negative phrase.
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Do you think what I said is


correct?
Do you think this city is
beautiful?

1.

2.

1.
2.

n rnwi w shu d du bu du
n rnwi zh g chngsh pioliang bu pioliang

Need (verb - - x yo)


In the examples below, the verb (x yo) is used to form sentences that express
needs or requirements.

1.
2.
3.

1.
2.
3.

w xyo q yyun.
n xyo wn losh.
w xyo mi y bn cdin.

I need to go to the hospital.


You need to ask the teacher.
I need to buy a dictionary.

Need (verb - - di)


In the examples below, the verb (di) is used to form sentences that express needs
or requirements.

1.
2.
3.

1.
2.
3.

w di q yyun.
n di wn losh.
w di mi y bn cdin.

I need to go to the hospital.


You need to ask the teacher.
I need to buy a dictionary.

Negative Statements
It is common to use (b yng) to reply to a question about if something
necessary. For instance, a taxi driver may ask, (yo f pio ma) (Do
you want a receipt?), the passenger can reply (b yng) (that is not necessary).

1.
2.
3.

I do not need to go to the hospital.


You do not need to ask the teacher.
I do not need to buy a dictionary.

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1.
2.
3.

w b xyo q yyun.
n b xyo wn losh.
w b xyo mi cdin.

1.
2.
3.

1.
2.
3.

w b yng q yyun.
n b yng wn losh.
w b yng mi cdin.

I do not need to go to the hospital.


You do not need to ask the teacher.
I do not need to buy a dictionary.

Questions
questions

n xyo q yyun ma

Do you need to go to
the hospital?

'question word' questions

shi xyo q yyun

Who needs to go to the


hospital?

'affirmative negative' questions

()

Do you need to go to the hospital?

n x (yo) bu xyo q yyun


Section 2
Auxiliary Verbs
Verbs that are used to "help" other verbs to express necessity, possibility and
willingness are called auxiliary verbs. They may not be negated with (mi), only
(b) is used. They may be modified with adverbs such as , , (hn, ti,
fichng). When auxiliary verbs are used in a question, the auxiliary verbs may be
used as a one word answers. For example, (n xing q Shnghi
ma?) (Would you like to go to Shanghai?) may be answered by simply saying
(xing).
Want / Will (Auxiliary Verbs - - yo / - xing)
When (yo) and (xing) are used as auxiliary verbs, (yo) emphasizes
demand, actual need or intention, while (xing) places more emphasis on the
feeling of wanting.

1.

2.

I (will / want to) go to the store and go


shopping.
I (will / want to) study Chinese.

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I (will / want to) drink coffee.

3.
4.
5.
6.

7.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

w yo q shngdin mi dngxi.
w yo xux hny.
w yo h kfi.
w xing h kfi.
w xing xux hny.
w xing q shngdin mi dngxi.
Wng xinshng xing rnshi t.

I would like to drink coffee.


I would like to study Chinese.
I would like to go to the store and go
shopping.
Mr. Wang would like to meet her.

Negative Statements
When expressing that one does not have the desire to do something, (b xing)
is used.

1.
2.

1.
2.

w b xing h kfi.
Wng xinshng b xing rnshi t.

I do not want to drink coffee.


Mr. Wang doesnt want to meet him.

Questions
questions

n xing q Shnghi ma

Do you want to go
to Shanghai?

'question word' questions


Why do you want to study Chinese?
Why will you study Chinese?
Tomorrow is Sunday, what would
you like to do?
Where would you like to go?

1.

2.

,?

3.
4.

1.
2.
3.
4.

n wishnme yo xux hny?


mngtin sh xngqtin, n xing zu shnme?
n xing q nr?
shi xing h kfi

Who would like to drink coffee?

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'affirmative negative' questions

1.
2.
3.

1.
2.
3.

n xing bu xing h kfi?


n xing bu xing xux hny?
n yo bu yo fpio?

Would you like to drink coffee?


Would you like to study Chinese?
Do you want a receipt?

Should (Auxiliary verbs - - yng gi and - yo)


When giving advice, (yng gi), and (yo) are used as auxiliary verbs to
express "should". (yng gi) can be used to express advice (sentence 1) or
conjecture (sentence 2). When (yo) is used to give advice, it expresses a relatively
strong demand or need (example sentence 3).

1.
2.
3.

1.
2.
3.

n ynggi xux yuyng.


tmen ynggi ch gu le.
n yo zhy fyn.

You should learn to swim.


They must have already eaten.
You should pay attention to pronunciation.

Negative Statements
(b yng gi) or (b gi) are used to give advice that means "should not".

n b ynggi chuyn.
n b ynggi h ji.

You should not smoke.


You should not drink.

Questions
questions

Should I wear my new shirt?

w ynggi chun xn chnshn ma?


'question word' questions

w ynggi chun shnme?

What
wear?

should

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'affirmative negative' questions

1.
2.

1.
2.

w ynggi bu ynggi chun xn chnshn?


w yng bu ynggi chun xn chnshn?

Should I wear my new shirt?


Should I wear my new shirt?

Must (Auxiliary Verb - - b x)


When expressing a necessity resulting from obligation or basic requirement due to
circumstances, (b x) is used.

1.
2.

1.
2.

n bx xux hny.
n bx q yyun.

You must study Chinese.


You must go to the hospital.

Negative Statements
(b b) is used to give advice that means "do not need to" or "not necessary".
The word (zho j) can mean hurry or worry, depending on context.

1.
2.
3.
4.

1.
2.
3.
4.

n b b q yyun.
wmen b b kihu.
t b b zi zhum gngzu.
n b b zhoj.

1.
2.
3.
4.

1.
2.
3.
4.

n b yng q yyun.
wmen b yng kihu.
t b yng zi zhum gngzu.
n b yng zhoj.

You do not need to go to the hospital.


We do not need to have a meeting.
He doesn't need to work on weekends.
You do not need to hurry (worry).

You do not need to go to the hospital.


We do not need to have a meeting.
He doesn't need to work on weekends.
You do not need to hurry (worry).

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Questions
questions

1.
2.

1.
2.

w bx chun bi chnshn ma
n bx q Shnghi ma

Do I need to wear a white shirt?


Do you need to go to Shanghai?

'question word' questions

1.
2.
3.

1.
2.
3.

t bx zu shnme
shi bx q Shnghi
n shnme shhou bx q Shnghi

What do I need to do?


Who needs to go to Shanghai?
When do you need to go to Shanghai?

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Unit 25
Can / Able / Possible / Probable / Will
(Auxiliary Verbs)
This unit introduces how to understand (hu), (nng) and (k y) and
(lio) as they are all used to express ability and possibility.
New Words

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

ci
chng
d qi
d yn
do
d
fn y
g
hi
hui
hun
hu
jin

14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.

jing
k bn
k y
l
ln qi
lio

20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.

n
nng
png png qi
q ch
q m
shng bng
sh
shu
sh xu
shu png

food
sing
to play (a ball game)
to print (computer)
measure word for math problems
read, study
to translate
song
dark, black
broken
to exchange
can, will, probably
measure word for affairs and
matters
speak, say, tell
textbook
allow, permit, may
spicey hot
basketball
verb compliment indicating
possibility
to carry in ones hand, to fetch
can, will
ping pong, table tennis
to ride a bike
to ride a horse
fall ill, become sick
matters or affairs
to receive
math (as a subject)
level

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30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.

s j
tng
tu
wi xin
wn jin
wn t
xio hu
xi l
y jng

driver
to have pain
leg
dangerous
documents, papers
question, problem
joke
to repair
already

Can (ability or knowledge) (Verb - - hu)


may be used as a verb; as in the sentence: " (t hu zhngwn.)",
which means, "He can (speak) Chinese". However, it is most commonly used as an
auxiliary verb as in the examples below.
Can (Auxiliary Verb - - hu)
(hu) is used an auxiliary verb to express "having ability, understanding or
knowledge".
She speaks Chinese.

1.
2.
3.
4.

1.
2.
3.
4.

t hu shu zhngwn.
w hn hu jing xiohu.
t hu chngg.
t hu qmt y hu q zxngch.

He is good at telling jokes.


She can sing.
He can ride a horse, he can also
ride a bicycle.

Negative Statements
She does not speak English.

1.
2.
3.

1.
2.
3.

w b hu shu yngwn.
t b hu d lnqi.
w b ti hu xi wnzhng.

She does not know how to play basketball.


I am not very good at writing essays.

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Questions
questions

1.
2.
3.
4.

1.
2.
3.
4.

t
n
n
n

hu
hu
hu
hu

Can she speak Chinese?


Do you know how to write in Chinese?
Do you know how to play ping pong?
Do you know how to ride a horse?

shu zhngwn ma
xi hnz ma
d pngpngqi ma
qm ma

'question word' questions

1.
2.

1.
2.

n hu shu shnme yyn


shi hu shu hny

What languages do you speak?


Who can speak Chinese?

'affirmative negative' questions


Does she speak Chinese?

t hu bu hu shu zhngwn ?
Possibly / Probably (Auxiliary Verb - )
(hu) is used as an auxiliary verb when talking about future possibilities,
probabilities and intentions. The difference between and (hu) and (yo) is that
while both characters express intentions and future events, expresses necessity
through need, or a more certain outcome. (hu) is used to express future events that
happen as a matter of course. When saying "I will go to Beijing tomorrow." - "
(mngtin w yo q Bijng)" is more certain than "
(mngtin w hu q Bijng)".

1.
2.
3.

1.
2.

dji hu tngy zh jin sh.


mngtin hu xiy.

Everyone will (probably) agree on this matter.


It will (probably) rain tomorrow.
I will (probably) give you a call tomorrow.

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3.
1.

mngtin w hu gi n d dinhu.
Negative Statements
Everyone will (probably) not agree on

this matter.
It will (probably) not rain tomorrow.

2.
3.

1.
2.
3.

dji b hu tngy zh jin sh.


mngtin b hu xiy.
mngtin w b hu gi n d dinhu.

I will not give you a call tomorrow.

Questions
questions

dji hu tngy ma

Will everyone agree?

'affirmative negative' questions

1.
2.

1.
2.

t hu bu hu yjng zu le?
mngtin hu bu hu xiy?

Can he have left already?


Will it rain tomorrow?

Can (Auxiliary Verb - )


(nng) can be used to express A) having the 'capability' to do something through talent or knowledge
B) having the 'possibility' of doing something provided by circumstances.

1.
2.
3.
4.

1.
2.
3.
4.

She speaks Chinese. / She can speak Chinese.


I know how to use a computer.
My computer is repaired, I can print your file.
(It is possible that) he can come to Beijing.

1.
2.
3.

t nng shu zhngwn.


w nng yng dinno.
wde dinno xi ho lew nng dyn nde wnjin.

capability
capability
possibility
possibility

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4.

t nng li Bijng.
Negative Statements

1.
2.
3.
4.

1.
2.
3.
4.

I can't read a Chinese newspaper.


I don't know how to use a computer.
No smoking in here.
My computer is broken, I can't print your document.

1.
2.
3.
4.

w b nng kn zhngwn bozh.


w b nng yng dinno .
zh l b nng chuyn.
wde dinno hui lew b nng dyn nde wnjin.

capability
capability
possibility
possibility

Questions
questions

1.
2.
3.
4.

1.
2.
3.
4.

Can you translate this book?


Does she speak Chinese?
Can you go to China?
Can little Wang go to university?

1.
2.
3.
4.

n nng fny zh bn sh ma
t nng shu zhngwn ma
n nng q zhnggu ma
xio Wng nng q dxu ma

capability
capability
possibility
possibility

'question word' questions


capability: At a job interview, the question : ? (n nng gn shnme?)
means, "What are your job related abilities?"
possibility: If a group of tourists are stranded in a broken down bus, ?
(wmen nng gn shnme?) means, "What can we do to get back to the hotel?"
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'affirmative negative' questions

1.
2.

1.
2.

Can the driver repair this bus?


Can we change buses?

1.
2.

sj nng bu nng xil zh ling ch


wmen nng bu nng hun ch

capability
possibility

Possibility (may / can) (Auxiliary Verb - - ky)


(ky) is used to express when something is "possible".
After class you may ask the teacher
questions.
We may smoke outside.

1.

2.
3.

1.
2.
3.

xik yhou n ky wn losh wnt.


wmen ky zi wimian chuyn.
n ky q Shnghi.

You may go to Shanghai.

Negative Statements
Negative statements are made using (b nng) .
(note : (b k y) is not used to express "it is not possible".)

1.
2.
3.

1.
2.
3.

nmen b nng zi zhr chuyn.


n b nng hu ji.
kich deshhou b nng h ji .

You may not smoke here.


You may not go home.
When you drive you may not drink.

Questions
questions

1.
2.
3.
4.

Can we smoke in the classroom?


May I smoke?
May I use the computer?
May I watch TV?

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1.
2.
3.
4.

jiosh lky chuyn ma


w ky chuyn ma
w ky yng dinno ma
w ky kn dinsh ma

'question word' questions

1.
2.

1.
2.

shi ky kn dinsh
hizmen ky zu shnme

Who can watch TV?


What may the children do?

'affirmative negative' questions


Can you go to his house?
?

n k bu ky q t de ji ?
(lio) - possible / not possible
Verb + ( Verb + de lio ) = possible
Verb + ( Verb + b lio ) = not possible
(lio) is used after a verb with (de) or (b) as a verb compliment of
potentiality to show if an action can take place or if an action is possible to finish. In
the following examples, (nng) has the same meaning as (de lio) and
(b nng) has the same meaning as (b lio). These sentences are used to
express whether an action can take place or be completed.

1.
2.
3.
4.

1.
2.
3.
4.

jntin
jntin
jntin
jntin

w
w
w
w

yu shjinnng q
yu shjinq de lio
miyu shjinb nng q
miyu shjinq b lio

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1 / 2.
3 / 4.

I have time today, I can go.


I dont have time today, I cant go.

To form a questions, (ma) is added to the end of the sentence.


I am going to the bookstore
today, can you go?

jntin w q shdinn q de lio ma

I have some things to do, I


cant go.

jntin yu shq b lio

(de lio) and (b lio) are also used to indicate whether an act is able to be
finished.
Can you eat
dumplings?

that

many

n ch de lio zhme du jiozi ma


Yes I can.

/
ch de lio / ch b lio

/ No I cant.

When trying to dissuade someone from doing something, only the pattern (b
nng) + V is used. (In the sentence below, (n q b lio ) would be
incorrect.)

It is too dangerous there, you cant go.

nr ti wixinn b nng q
When indicating that something cant be done because of lack the ability, the sentence
below is used. In this case, you would not say: (n b nng n) .

1.

There are too many things, you


cant carry them.

dngxi ti du len n b lio


When indicating that conditions are not sufficient, we normally use a verb
compliment as in the sentence below. In this case, you would not say (w
b nng kn jin). (as discussed in Unit 20 and Section 3 of Unit 22)

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2.

The room is too dark, I cant see.

wzi l ti hiw kn b jin


(shu b lio) is used to say cant stand (something).

1.
w shu b lio ti r de tinq

I cant stand hot weather.

2.

The weather is too hot! I


cant stand it.

tinq ti r w shu b lio


Example Sentences

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

This food is too spicy, I cant eat it.


My Chinese level is too low, I cant study this text.
I will drive, I cant drink.
He is ill, he cant come to class today.
I dont recognize this character, I cant read it.
My legs hurt, I cant walk there.

1.
2.

zh g ci ti lw ch b lio
wde hny shupng ti dw xu b lio zh
g kbn
w yo kichw h b lio ji
t shng bng lejn tin t shng b lio k
w b rnsh zh g zw d b lio
w tu tngw zu b lio

3.
4.
5.
6.

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Unit 26
If / Then / Because / Don't / Other / But / Still

This unit introduces how to use (ji ) which is used in sentence patterns that make
"if-then" and "as soon as" statements. Other ways to say "then", using (ci) and
(rn hu) are shown as well.
New Words

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

bi
bi de
ci
chng chng
d ro
dn sh
dng fng
d sh
f m
go s
g gng

12.

hi

13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.

ji hn
ki fng
l ki
lng wi
rn hu
r gu
shng hu
s
su y
tn
wn hu
xin
yo shi
zh me
zh
zh do

other, do not
other(s)
then
the Great Wall
disturb
but
eastern, Asia
to study
parents
tell
Forbidden City (historical site in
Beijing)
still, yet, still more, also, (used for
emphasis)
married
to make open to the public
leave
other, besides
then, afterwards
if
life
die
so
talk, discuss
culture
first
if
so, very
only
to know

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29.

best

zu ho

BecauseSo
The following sentence patterns are used to express because and so.

1.
2.
3.
4.

1.

reason

because so......
because ,
so
because
because .so.

(ynwisuy)

action or event

Because he is sick, so (he) didnt go to work today.

ynwi t yu bng suy mi shngbn.

Because he works and lives in China, so he studies Chinese.

ynwi zi zhnggu gngzu h shnghusuy t xux


hny
2.

reason

(ynwi )

because ,

action or event

Because he lives in China, he studies Chinese.

ynwi zi zhnggu shnghu, t xux hny.


3.

reason

so.

(suy)

action or event

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He likes eastern culture, so he wants to go to China.

t xhuan dngfng wnhu, suy t yo q zhnggu.


4.

action or event

because

(ynwi)

reason

He will go to Shanghai because his parents live there.

t q Shnghi ynwi tde fm zh zi n l.


IfThen
The following ifthen statements if expresses suppose that (a condition
were true). In these sentence patterns (1-5), the subject is optional.
IF

THEN

1.
2.

condition

condition

3. condition
condition
4.
5. condition
1.

(subject)
(subject)

action or event
action or event
action or event

(subject)
(subject)

(subject)

action or event

condition

(subject)

()

action or event

action or event

If you have any questions, (you) ask me.

yoshi yu wnt (n) ji wn w.


If it rains, I will take an umbrella.

1.
2.
3.

1.
2.
3.

yoshi xiy w ji di ysn.


yoshi k n ji h ch.
yoshi w q zhnggu w ji xux hny.

If you are thirsty, drink some tea.


If I go to China, I will study
Chinese.

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2.

condition

(subject)

action or event

()

If it snows (the ski resort) will open for business.

rgu xixu (huxu chng) ji kifng.

If you were married, you would


know (understand).

rgu n jihn len ji zhdo le.


3.

condition

(subject)

action or event

()

If I had money, ( I ) would go traveling.

yosh w yu qin dehu (w) ji q lyu.


1.
2.
3.

1.
2.
3.

If you are 18 years old, you may participate.


If you would like to drink coffee, we will go to a coffee shop.
If you have time, give me a call.

1.
2.
3.

yoshi n jnnin sh b su dehun ji ky cnji.


yoshi n xing h kfi dehuwmen ji q kfidin.
yoshi n yu shjin dehuji gi w d dinhu.

4.

condition

(subject)

()

nmen du q dehu (w) ji q.


1.
2.
3.

action or event

If you all go, I will go.

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1.
2.
3.

If the weather is good, we go to the Great Wall.


If you have time, give me a call.
If you would like to drink coffee, we will go to a coffee shop.

1.
2.
3.

tinq ho dehu wmen ji q chngchng.


yu shjin dehuji gi w d dinhu.
n xing h kfi dehuwmen ji q kfidin.
5.

condition

(subject)

action or event

()

If it snows (the ski resort) will open for business.

rgu xixu dehu (huxu chng) ji kifng.


Then
In sentence patterns 1,2 and 3; is used to express a time relationship between two
conditions, events or actions in which
a) one condition, event or action immediately follows another - "as soon as"
b) one condition, event or action follows another in a relatively early time frame.
1.

2.

action, event or conditon

subject

condition

event

action, event or condition

action

action

3.

condition

event

condition
event

subject

condition
event
action

action

In sentence pattern 4, (ci) is used to express a time relationship between two


events or actions in which one follows another after a relatively long time or to
indicate a single event takes place in a relatively late time frame.
4.

action or event

action or event

In sentence pattern 5, (xin) is placed before the first of two things that happen in
succession. (rn hu) is placed before the second thing that happens. There is no
length of time implied. Sometimes (xin) is not necessary.
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5. subject
action or eventaction or event
6. action or event
action or event
1.

action or event

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

She will finish watching the movie then she will return home.
He gets off work, then he goes to the library.
He ate, then he watched a movie.
He was five years old when he started going to school.
(It is) September, it is snowing.
He starts work at five in the morning.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

t knwn dinyngji hu ji.


t xi le bn ji q tshgun.
t ch le fn ji kn dinyng le.
t w su ji shngxu le.
ji yu ji xixu le.
t zoshng wdinzhng ji shngbn.

2.

action or event
(immediately)

(immediately)
(immediately)
(relatively early)
(relatively early)
(relatively early)

subject

condition / event / action

action or event

w y xibn ji knjin le t.

I saw him right after I got off work.

1.
2.

1.
2.

As soon as I arrive in China, I will go to see my old friend.


Right after they got out of the car, they saw their teacher.

1.

w y do zhnggu ji q kn wde lo pngyou.

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2.

tmen y xich ji knjin le tmen de losh.

3.

condition / event / action subject

action or event

y do zhnggu w ji q kn wde lo pngyou.


As soon as I arrive in China, I will go to see my old friend.

1.
2.

1.
2.

It is cold, I will wear a coat.


They got out of the car then saw their friend.

1.
2.

tinq y lng w ji chun dy.


y xich tmen ji kn jin le tmen de losh.

Note: (ju) is sometimes used to indicate emphasis, not a time relationship.


t ji sh Wng losh.
He is Teacher Wang.

4.

action or event

action or event

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

She will go home after the movie.


He finishes dinner and then goes to work.
He gets off work at nine in the evening.
Its December and it is snowing.
He was 50 and then he got married.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

t knwn dinyng ci hu ji.


t chwnfn ci q shngbn.
t wnshng ji dinzhng ci xibn.
shryu ci xixu.
t wsh su ci jihn.

(relatively long)
(relatively long)
(relatively late)
(relatively late)
(relatively late)

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5.

subject

action or event

action or event

First he bought a book, then bought two pens.

t xin mi le y bn sh, rnhu mi le ling zh b.


1. ,
2. ,
3. ,
1. We will first go to Beijing, then go to Shanghai.
2. We will watch a movie and then go home.
3. You do your homework and then watch TV.
1. tmen xin q Bijngrnhu q Shnghi.
2. wmen xin kn dinyng, rnhu huji.
3. n xin xi zuy, rnhu kn dinsh.
6.

action or event

action or event

He bought a book then bought two pens.

t mi le y bn sh rnhu mi le ling zh b.
1.
2. ,
3. ,
1. He will first go to Beijing, then will go to Shanghai.
2. We will watch a movie and then go home.
3. You do your homework and then watch TV.
1. tmen q Bijngrnhu q Shnghi.
2. wmen kn dinyng, rnhu hu ji.
3. n xi zuy, rnhu kn dinsh.

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Don't / Other / But / Still ( / - / / )


Don't ( )
(bi) is used to make commands and statements that mean "don't". (bi) is not
used in sentences that express I dont. When expressing I do not , (b) is used.

1.
2.
3.
4.

1.
2.
3.
4.

qng n bi zu.
nmen zuho bi q n g dfang.
bi dro t.
t zi dshbi dro t.

Please, don't go.


You had better not go to that place.
Don't disturb him.
He is studying, don't disturb him.

Other ( / )
(bi de) or (bi) are used to express "other", in the context of "any other".
(lng wi) or (ling wi de) are used to express "other" in the context of
"besides" or "in addition to".

1.
2.
1. Teacher Wang is the only one in the classroom, there is no one else.
2. I don't like this article of clothing, the other one is too expensive.
1. jiosh l zh yu Wng losh miyu bi rn
2. w b xhuan zh jin yfulngwi de n jin ti gu
But ( )

1.
2.
1. He would like to study English but he has no time.
2. This desk is good, but too expensive.
1. t xing xux yngy dnsh miyu shjin.
2. zh zhng zhuz hn hodnsh ti gu.
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Still / Yet / Also / (emphasis) ( )


There are many ways that (hi) is used. The examples below illustrate three ways
that it is commonly used - "still / yet" (sentences 1, 2), "also" (sentences 3, 4) and it
can be added for emphasis in questions (sentence 5).

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Nine o'clock, Little Wang is still reading.


Already September, yet it is hot.
He speaks Chinese and also speaks English.
We went to the Great Wall and went to the Forbidden City too.
It is colder here than it is there.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

jiudin lexio Wng hi zi knsh


yjng jiyu letin hi zhme r.
t hu shu zhngwnhi hu shu yngy.
wmen q le chngchnghi q le ggng.
zhr b nr hi lng

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Unit 27
Before / After / While / When

This unit introduces how express time relationships between events or actions.
New Words

1.
2.
3.
4.

b si
y hu
y qin
ybin...ybin

5.
6.

zh hu
zh qin

match, competition
after
before
while (two actions occurring
at the same time)
after
before

In the following examples (y qin) and (zh qin) are interchangeable and
(y hu) is interchangeable with (zh hu).
BEFORE

In this sentence pattern, the sentence starts with a phrase that indicates a length of
time, a point in time or an event. The action in the sentence happens prior to that.

1.
2.

3.

4.
5.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

ling ge xiosh yqin w ch wnfn le.


chfn yqin w q shngdin le.
kihu yqin wmen toln zh jin sh.
lidinzhng yqin w yo ch wnfn.
bsi yqin wmen yo kihu.

Two hours ago, I ate dinner.


Before I ate dinner, I went to the
store.
Before the meeting, we will discuss
the matter.
I will eat dinner before 6 pm.
We will have a meeting before the
game.

AFTER

In this sentence pattern, the beginning of the sentence is a phrase that indicates a
length of time, a point in time or an event. The action in the sentence happens after
that.

1.
2.

3.

I will have class in 2 hours.


After the meeting, we will discuss
the matter.
I will eat dinner after 6 pm.

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We will eat dinner after the game.

4.
5.

6.

7.

8.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

ling ge xiosh yhu w yo shngk.


kihu yhu wmen yo toln zh jin sh.
li dinzhng yhu w yo ch wnfn.
bsi yhu wmen yo ch wnfn.
zutin xibn yhu wmen kn dinyng le.
chfn yhu w q shngdin le.
kihu yhu wmen toln zh jin sh le.
li dinzhng yhu w ch wnfn le.

After work yesterday, I watched a


movie.
After I ate dinner, I went to the
store.
After the meeting we discussed
the matter.
We ate dinner after 6 pm.

WHILE

This sentence pattern is used to express when the subject is doing two actions at one
time.
subject

action

action

I eat dinner while I watch television.

w ybin ch wnfn ybin kn dinsh.


I read while I listen to music.

1.
2.
3.

1.
2.
3.

w ybin kn shybin tng ynyu.


w ybin tng ynyuybin xi xn.
t ybin h chybin kn dinsh.

I listen to music while I write letters.


He drinks tea while he watches television.

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WHEN / WHILE

This sentence patterns are used to express when something happens, (dng) is
optional.
event
event

While I am reading, he is watching TV.

dng w kn sh deshhou t zi kn dinsh.


1.
2.

1.
2.

When he was in England, he bought a computer.


When I was in Beijing, I spoke Chinese everyday.

1.
2.

t zi ynggu deshhou mi le y ti dinno.


w zi Bijng deshhou mitin shu hny.
Questions

questions
Did you eat dinner two hours ago?

1.
2.
3.

4.

1.
2.
3.
4.

ling ge xiosh yqin n ch wnfn le ma


ling ge xiosh yhu n yo ch wnfn ma
n ybin kn shybin tng ynyu ma
n zi Bijng deshhou mitin shu hny ma

Will you eat dinner in 2 hours?


Do you read while you listen to
music?
When you were in Beijing, did
you speak Chinese everyday?

'question word' questions


When will you eat dinner?

1.
2.

1.
2.

n shnme shhou xing ch wnfn?


dng n zi Bijng deshhou zu shnme

When you were in Beijing, what did


you do?

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Unit 28
Repetition of Actions
(zi) and (yu)
This unit introduces how to express repetition of actions and events that happen in
succession.
New Words
quiet

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

n jng
d q
fn gun
ho ch
hun jng
j
ji gu
j t
li l
nn gu
tn

12.
13.
14.

wi gu
xi
yu

15.

yu.yu

indicates two actions that happen in


the same time period

16.

zi

(1) indicates a repetition of an action


(2) Indicates a continuation

area
restaurant
delicious
environment
extremely
outcome, result
guitar
fluent
feel sad, grieved
play a stringed musical instrument
with ones fingers, pluck a string
foreign country
repair
(1) indicates a repetition of an action
(2) indicates a succession of actions

(zi) and (yu)


The adverbs (zi) and (yu) both indicate the repetition of an action. (zi) is
used to denote an action or state of affairs which has not been repeated yet and
(yu) is used when the repetition has already occurred.

1.
2.
3.

1.
2.
3.

He went to the library today, he said that he would go to the library tomorrow.
He came yesterday, he came again today.
He didnt come yesterday, he wont come tomorrow.

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1.
2.
3.

t jntin q tshgun let shu mngtin zi q


t zutin li lejntin yu li le
t zutin mi lijntin yu mi li

(yu) is used to indicate that two actions happen in succession

1. ,
2.
1.
2.

1.
2.

This TV was repaired once last year, this year it was repaired again, the result is
that it still isnt fixed.
He studied three years of Chinese at university and then studied three years of
French.

zh g dinsh q nin xu le y cjn nin yu xi le y c


jigu hi sh mi yu xi ho
t zi dxu xu le s nin zhngwn yu xu le
sn nin fwn

The difference between and


(ybin
ybin) is used to express doing two or more actions at the
same time while
(yuyu) is used to express two actions that happen
in the same time period. For example, if two people were walking together talking
you would say, (ybin zu ybin shu) but you would not say
(yu zu yu shu). If a person had cried and laughed in the same time frame
you could say (yu k yu xio) but you would not say
(ybin k ybin xio).

1.
2.
3.
4.

1.
2.
3.
4.

Mrs. Wang cooks dinner while chit chatting with the guests.
He plays guitar, sings and dances at the same time.
The child watches TV while eating an apple.
Mr. Wang drinks coffee while reading the newspaper.

1.
2.
3.

Wng titi ybin zu fn ybin gn krn liotin


t ybin tn jt ybin chngg ybin tiow
hizi ybin kn dinsh ybin ch pnggu

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4.

Wng xinshng ybin h kfi ybin knbo

may be used to express two situations or characteristics that occur at


the same time

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

,
,

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

This restaurants food is both delicious and cheap.


The students are very happy, they are both singing and dancing.
He is going abroad to study, he is both happy and sad.
He speaks Chinese both clearly and fluently.
This coat is both expensive and ugly.
This neighborhood is both quite and clean.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

zh ji fngun de ci yu hoch yu pinyi


xushngmen goxng j leyu chng yu tio
t q wigu xuxyu goxng yu nngu
t shu d hny, yu qngchu yu lil
zh g dy, yu gu yu nnkn
zh g dq de hunjng yu njng yu pioliang

(zi) may also indicate a continuation of actions. For instance, if someone were
going out for little while they may say:

I will go to the library and then go to the supermarket.

w xin q tshgun rnhu zi q chosh

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Unit 29
From / To / With

This unit introduces some commonly used prepositions that are used when talking
about distances and time as well as how to use the preposition "with".
New Words

1.
2.
3.
4.

bn gun
cng
cho sh
d

5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.

fng ji
f jn
gn
gng l
Gung zhu
hu yun bn gun
hu y sh
j chng
jio xu lu
jn
ki sh
l
shu d
y mo qi
y yn
yun

hotel
from (a place or time)
supermarket, grocery store
play (badminton, basketball, ping
pong)
vacation
nearby
with, and
kilometer
a city in China
Garden Hotel
meeting room
airport
teaching building
near
begin, start
from (a place)
capital
badminton
language
far

From
(cng) is a preposition that means from. It can be used when stating a starting
point from a place as well as a starting point in time.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

1.

I will go from here to your home.

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2.
3.
4.
5.

I will go from the school to the post office.


We start a vacation tomorrow.
I work from 10 o'clock in the morning to 5 o'clock in the afternoon.
He traveled in China from January of last year to May of this year.

1.
2.
3.
4.

w cng zhr q nde ji.


w cng xuxio q yuj.
wmen cng mngtin kish fngji.
wmen cng shngw shdinzhng gngzu do xiw
wdinzhng.
t cng qnin yyu do jnnin wyu zi zhnggu
lyu.

5.

(l) means from and is used when expressing exact distance measurements as
well as relative terms such as far and near.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

The Garden Hotel isn't too far from my home.


It is a long way from Beijing to Guangzhou.
Our school is two kilometers from the hospital.
The teaching building isn't far from the library.
It is a long way from Beijing Language Institute to the Capitol Airport.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

huyun bngun l wde ji b ti yun.


Bijng l Gungzhu hn yun.
wmen xuxio l yyun ling gngl.
jioxulu l tshgun b ti yun.
Bijng yyn xuyun l shud jchng hn yun.

(gn) is used to indicate that people are engaged in something together.


person

person

action or event

My Chinese friend and I go dancing together.


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w gn zhnggu pngyou yq q tiow.


1.
2.

1.
2.

I will go with him to school.


I play badminton with my dad.

w gn t yq q xuxio.
w gn wde bba yq d ymoqi.

(f jn) (nearby) is a noun and may be used as a subject, object or attributive


modifier.
(subject)

1.
2.
3.
4.

1.
2.
3.
4.

There is a supermarket nearby.


Nearby my home is a supermarket.
That supermarket is nearby.
I have been to all the nearby supermarkets.

1.
2.
3.
4.

fjn yu y g chosh
w ji fjn yu y g chosh
n g chosh ju zi fjn
fjn de chosh w du q gu le

(subject)
(object)
(attributive modifier)

(jn) (near) is an adjective and is usually expressed by saying (hn jn).


Question:

Which supermarket did you going to?

n q le n g chosh

Answer 1:

I went to a supermarket that is


nearby.

w q le fjn de chosh
Answer 2:

I went to the supermarket


near my home.

w q le l w ji hn jn de chosh

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Unit 30
Simple Compliment of Direction ( and )
and
Compound Compliment of Direction

This first part of this unit shows how (li) and (q) are used to compliment
verbs to show the direction of the action in a sentence. The second half of the unit
introduces how (li) and (q) are combined with other verbs to form compound
compliments of direction which are used to indicate the direction of an action.
New Words

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

di
gu
hur
jn
p
p ji
png
png zi
q
shn
sh

12.

yn hng

to take, bring, carry


come or go across, to cross
flower
enter
climb
beer
bottle (of something)
bottle (noun)
rise
mountain
measure word meaning a bunch (of
flowers)
bank

Simple Compliment of Direction ( and )


When (li) and (q) are added to the predicate to show direction, they are called
"simple compliments of direction". They are used to show the direction in which the
action proceeds. (q) is used to show the direction of the action is proceeding away
from the speaker, (li) is used to show that it is proceeding toward the speaker. If
the object is a location, (li) and (q) must go after the object. If the object is a
thing, (li) and (q) may either go before the object or after the object.
Sentences 1a - 6a show how to use auxiliary verbs in these sentences. Sentences 1b
6b show how (le) is used in these sentences.
subject

verb

object

( or )

1.
2.

1a.
2a.

(object is a location)
We will go to the bank.
They will come to the
bank.
We will go to the bank.
They will come to the
bank.

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1b.
2b.

They went to the bank.


They came to the bank.

subject

verb

( or )

object

3.

4.

3a.

We will take a bunch of

4a.

3b.

We took a bunch of

4b.

subject

verb

(object)

( or )

5.

6.

5a.

6a.

5b.

6b.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

(object is not a location)


We will take a bunch of
flowers.
We will bring a bunch of
flowers.

flowers.
We will bring a bunch
of flowers.

flowers.
We brought a bunch of
flowers.

(object is not a location)


We will take a bunch of
flowers.
We will bring a bunch of
flowers.
We will take a bunch of
flowers.
We will bring a bunch of
flowers.
We took a bunch of
flowers.
We brought a bunch of
flowers.

wmen do ynhng q.
tmen do ynhng li.
wmen di q y sh hur.
wmen di li y sh hur.
wmen di y sh hur q
wmen di y sh hur li .

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Compound Compliment of Direction


(q) and (li) are used with other verbs to form two character compound
compliments of direction that indicate the direction of another verbs action. For
instance, to say the children run up to me; the verb (po) is complimented with
(shng lai). To say the the children ran away from me; the verb (po) is
complimented with (xi lai). It is possible to use compound compliments of
direction alone, without other verbs, but this is not common. (example sentence 24).
Verbs that express direction:

shng
go up/on

xi
go out/down

jn
enter

ch
exit

hu
return

gu
pass

q
rise

When (q) and (li) are combined with the above verbs, that also indicate
direction, they form compound compliments of directions:

shng li
shng q
xi li
xi q
hu li
hu q
gu li
gu q

come up
go up
come down
go down
come back
go back
come across
go across

jn li
jn q
ch li
ch q
q li

come in
go in
come out
go out
start and continue

If the object is a location, then the object (location) goes between the two characters
of the compound compliment. For example, (p shn) is a verb-object phrase,
the verb is (p) (to climb) and the object is (shn) (mountain). The object must
go directly before (li) or (q). In the example sentence below, the speaker is on
the mountain above them.

come up

They came up the mountain.

tmen p shng shn li le.


If the object is not a location, the object may go either before or after or . In
these examples, the object is (y png pji) which means "one bottle of
beer".

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come out

1.
2.

object before
object after

Mr. Wang fetched a bottle of beer.

1.
2.

Wng xinshng n ch y png pji li.


Wng xinshng n chlai y png pji.

If there is no object, the compound compliment follows the verb. In the sentence
below (zh) is the verb.

go down /
continue

I will continue to
live in Beijing.

w hi yo zi Bijng zh xiq.
Example Sentences
The following section provides further examples of how to use compound
compliments of direction. The sentence numbers are in parenthesis.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

(1-4)
(5-8)
(9-12)
(13-14)

(15-17)
(18-21)
(22-25)
(26-28)

(29-34)
(35-38)
(39-42)
(43-44)

(45-46)

Supplemental Words
move (things)

bn
din xn
dio
fi
fng zheng
f qn
gng
hi
j
k fi gun
l w
m shng
mo

a snack
fall, drop
fly
kite
father
just (now)
sea
mail (verb)
coffee shop
gift
immediately
cat

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14.
15.
16.

m qn
ti yng
tng

mother
sun
stop

In the Glossary, these words are listed as Unit 30S.

When using directional compliments, in some cases, it is important to understand


where the speaker is. In the sentences below, the speaker's position is shown in
parenthesis.
Compound Compliment Sentences
speakers
come up
location
They
climbed
the
mountain.
(on
the
mountain)
1.
The children ran up.

(above the children)

He came upstairs.

(upstairs)

He came up. (walking)

(above the walking


person)

2.
3.
4.

1.
2.
3.
4.

tmen p shng shn li le.


hizmen po shngli le.
t shng lu li le.
t zu shngli le.
go down
They went upstairs.

5.
6.
7.

8.

5.
6.
7.
8.

tmen zu shng lu q le.


mo p shng sh q le.
fngzheng fi shng tin q le.
t po shngq le.

speakers
location
(downstairs)

The cat climbed the tree.


The kite flew up in the
sky.
He ran up.
(higher place than the
runner)

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speakers
location

come down
9.

We wrote down what

10.
11.

12.

9.
10.
11.
12.

t shu de hu wmen xi xili le.


ch du tng xili le.
t zu xi lu li d dinhu le.
t zu xi lu li le.
go down / continue

he said.
All the cars stopped.

He came downstairs (downstairs)


to make a call.
He came downstairs.
(downstairs)

speakers
location
He went downstairs to (upstairs)
buy a snack.
He drove down from (higher place
than the driver)
here.

13.

14.

13.
14.

t zu xi lu q mi dinxn.
cng zhr ki xiq.
speakers
location
The
students
came
in
the
(inside
the

classroom.
classroom)
The
cars
may
not
drive
(inside the

into the park.


park)
Children
may
not
come
(here)

in.

come in
15.
16.
17.
15.
16.
17.

xushngmen zu jn jiosh li le.


qch b nng ki jn gngyun l li.
xio hi b nng jnli.

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go in
Cars drive into the gate.

speakers
location
(outside the
gate)
(outside)

18.

19.
20.

Move everything in.

They went into the (outside the

21.

18.
19.
20.
21.

qch ki jn dmn q le.


dngxi du bn jnq le.
tmen zu jn bngngsh q le.
xiogu dio jn h l q le.

office.
office)
The puppy fell into the
river.

speakers
location

come out

Mr. Wang fetched a


beer.
He came out.
(outside)

22.

23.
24.

25.

22.
23.
24.
25.

Wng xinshng n chli y png pji.


t cng lbin zu chli le.
tiyng cng dngbin chli.
cng dmn lki chli y ling qch.

The sun comes up in


the east.
There is a car (outside the
driving out of the gate)
gate.

go out
26.
27.
28.

The children ran out.

I just mailed a letter.

They came out of the

26.
27.
28.

hizmen po chq le.


w gng j chq y fng xn.
tmen cng kfigun zu le chq.

speakers
location
(inside)

coffee shop.

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speakers
location

return , come
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.

The children ran home from


school.
He bought a book and

returned.
Father brought many gifts

back.
Mother bought a lot of food

and returned.
Mother bought a lot of food

and returned.
Dad brought many gifts
back.

36.

(here)
(here)
(here)
(here)

t cng xuxio po hu ji li le.


t mi hulai y bn sh.
fqn di huli b sho lw.
mqn mi hu hn du ci li.
mqn mi hn du ci huli.
bb di huli le b sho lw.
speakers
location

return go
35.

(here)

He ran back to school


from home.
, After class, I will run (in a classroom)
back to the dormitory.

37.

38.

35.
36.
37.
38.

t cng ji po hu xuxio q le.


xik yhuw yo po hu ssh q.
tmen di huq hn du sh.
xik yhumshng hu ji q.

They took back a lot of


books.
After class,
(not at home)
immediately go home.

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come across
The came across.

39.
40.

41.

42.

39.
40.
41.
42.

tmen zu guli le.


qinmin ki guli y ling chzch.
qinmin ki gu y ling chzch li.
dumin zu guli y g rn.

43.
44.

go across

43.
44.

qch ki gu q le.
fij fi gu q le.

45.
46.
47.
48.
49.
50.

start and continue something


The child can sit up.
The kite flew up.

Write (something) down.

Put (something) away

Put (something) away

Think (something) up

45.
46.
47.
48.
49.
50.

xiohi nng zu qli le.


fngzheng fi qli le.
xi xili
shu qli
fng qli
xing qli

speakers
location
(here)

There is a taxi coming


towards us.
There is a taxi coming
towards us.
There is a person walking
toward me.

The car is driving away.


The plane is flying away.

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Unit 31
Durations of Actions

This unit shows how express how long ago something happened and how long actions
take.
New Words

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

ba
dng
hu
k jin
lio
lio tin
pi du
q chung
shr
Tinjn

softens a request

wn
w fn
xng
y hur
y xi
y xir

late

to become
use time, spend time
break between classes
chit chat
chit chat
to wait in line
get up
affairs, matters
a city near Beijing
lunch
OK
indicates a short time
indicates a short time or casual manner
indicates a short time or casual manner

Unit Summary
Section A the length of time from the time of occurrence of an action to the time of
speaking when the predicate cannot be a contiuous action.
Question:
Answer:

Question:

n jihn du chng sh jin le


w jihn sh nin le

Answer:

How long have you been married?


I have been married for 10 years.

Section B the duration of actions that happened in the past and are not occurring at
the time of speaking. (using a verb without an object)
Question:
Answer:

How long were you out playing?


I played for one day.

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Question:
Answer:

n wnr le du chng sh jin


w wnr le y tin

the duration of actions that are occurring at the time of speaking (using
a verb without an object)

Section C

Question:
Answer:

Question:

n tng le du chng sh jin le


w tng le w fn zhng le

Answer:

How long have you been listening?


I have been listening for five minutes.

the duration of actions that happened in the past and are not occurring at
the time of speaking (using a verb with an object).

Section D

Question:
Answer:

Question:

n xux zhngwn xu le du chng sh jin


w xux zhngwn xu le ling nin

Answer:

How long did you study Chinese?


I studied Chinese for two years.

Sentences that have personal pronouns as objects are also discussed in this section.
the duration of actions that happened in the past and are not occurring at
the time of speaking (using a verb with an object). If the object is a
personal pronoun, this pattern may not be used.

Section E

Question:
Answer:

Question:
Answer:
Section F

How long did you study Chinese?


I studied Chinese for two years.

n xu le du chng sh jindezhngwn
w xu le ling nindezhngwn

the duration of reoccurring actions (using a verb with an object)

Question:

Answer:

Question:

n mi tin ch w fn ch du chng sh jin


w mi tin ch w fn ch y g xio sh

Answer:

How long do you eat lunch


everyday?
I eat lunch for one hour a day.

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Section F1

the duration of reoccurring actions (using a verb with an object)

Question:

()

Answer:

()

Question:

n mi tin ch du chng sh jindew fn


w mi tin ch y g xio shdew fn

Answer:
Section G

How long do you eat lunch


everyday?
I eat lunch for one hour a day.

the duration of reoccurring actions (using a verb without an object)

Question:
Answer:

Question:

n mi tin kn du chng sh jin


w mi tin kn y g xio sh

Answer:
Section H

How long do you (read/watch) every day?


I (read/watch) one hour a day.

using auxiliary verbs in sentences that express the duration of actions


(using a verb without an object)

I will (read/watch) for one hour.

w yo kn y g xio sh
Section I

using auxiliary verbs in sentences that express the duration of actions


(using a verb with an object)

I will (read/watch) for one hour.

w yo kn y g xio sh de din sh
Section J

using expressions that mean a little while


using expressions that mean use time / take time

a little while

y hur
y xi
y xir

use time / spend time / take time

yng sh jin
hu sh jin

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Section K

Comparing lengths of time and making comparisons using earlier and


later.

1.
2.

1.
2.

Anna gets to the classroom five minutes earlier than Li Ming everyday.
Anna sleeps two hours less than Li Ming everyday.

1. mi tin nn b Lmng zo w fn zhng do jio sh


2. mi tin nn b Lmng sho shu ling g xio shjio
Section A - from the time of occurrence to the time of speaking
To show how long an actions or states last, time phrases are added to the predicate
after the object. If the predicate verb cant indicate a continuous action, the time
phrase indicates the period of time from the occurrence of the action to the time of
speaking and (le) is placed at the end of the sentence.
It has been two years since I left home.
subject

verb

l ki

object

ji

time phrase

ling nin

leave

home

two years

le

To form a question, place (du chng sh jin) in place of the time phrase.

1. How long has it been since you came to


2.

Beijing?
I came to Beijing over two months ago.

1. n li Bijng du chng sh jin le


2. w li Bijng y g du yu le
3.
4.

How long has it been since you graduated?


I graduated two years ago.

3. n dxu by du chng sh jin le


4. w dxu by ling nin le
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In the remaining explanations in this unit, the verbs used can indicate continuous
actions.
Section B - the duration of actions that happened in the past and are not
occurring at the time of speaking. (using a verb without an object)
Generally, the sentence pattern below is used after the action is over so the action is
not occurring at the time of speaking. In the sentence pattern below, no object can be
included in the sentence. (le) is placed after the predicate verb and the time phrase
is placed at the end of the sentence.
I waited two hours.
subject

w
I

verb

dng
wait

5.
6.

le

time phrase

ling g xiosh
two hours

How long did he sleep?


He slept for six hours.

5. t shu le du chng sh jin


6. t shu le li g xiosh
To compare:
(t qchung sh w fn zhng le) (Section A)
means He has been out of bed for 15 minutes.
(t qchung le sh w fn zhng) (Section B)
means It took him 15 minutes to get up.
Section C - the duration of actions that are occurring at the time of speaking.
(using a verb without an object)
If the action is still going on at the time of speaking, (le) is placed after the verb
and (le) is also placed at the end of the sentences. In this sentence pattern, the verb
does not have an object.
I have waited two hours. (and I am still waiting)
subject

w
I

verb

dng
wait

le

time phrase

ling g xiosh
two hours

le

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In example questions 7 12 below, the action is still going on at the time of speaking.

7.
8.

7.
8.

How long has he been sleeping?


He has been sleeping for six hours. (and he is still sleeping)

7.
8.

t shu le duchng shjin le


t shu le li g xiosh le

9.
10.

9. How long have you been studying at this school?


10. I have been studying at this school for two years. (and continue to study)

9. n zi zh g xuxio xu le duchng shjin le


10. w zi zh g xuxio xu le ling nin le
11.
12.

11. How long have they been talking?


12. They have been talking for three hours. (and are still talking)

11. tmen lio le du chng sh jin le


12. tmen lio le sn g xiosh le
Section D - the duration of actions that happened in the past and are not
occurring at the time of speaking (using a verb with an object).
In the sentence pattern below the verb must have an object. The verb is repeated after
the object and (le) is placed after the second occurrence of the verb followed by the
time phrase at the end of the sentence. Generally, this sentence pattern is used after
the action is over so the action is not occurring at the time of speaking. In the sentence
below, the circumstances would tell the listener what specific vehicle (ch) refers
to, it could be a bus, taxi or a car.

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subject

w
I

13.
14.

I waited for the car for two hours.


verb
object
verb
time phrase

dng
ch
dng
le
ling ge xiosh
wait
vehicle
wait
two hours

How long did you watch TV?


We watched TV for two hours.

13. nmen kn dinsh kn le du chng sh jin


14. wmen kn dinsh kn le ling g xiosh
These patterns are used for names and personal pronouns.
(The sentence patterns in Section E may not be used for personal pronouns.)

15.
16.

How long did you wait for him?


I waited for him one hour.

15. n dng t dng le duchng shjin


16. w dng t dng le y g xiosh
This sentence pattern is used after the action is over so the action is not occurring at
the time of speaking.

17.
18.

How long did you wait for him?


I waited for him one hour.

17. n dng t dng le duchng shjin


18. w dng t le y g xiosh
This sentence pattern indicates that the action is not finished so the action is still
occurring at the time of speaking. The first occurance of (le) is optional.

19.

()

20.

()

How long have you been waiting for


him?
I have been waiting for him for one
hour.

19. n dng (le) t duchng shjin le


20. w dng (le) t dng y g xiosh le
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Section E - the duration of actions that happened in the past and are not
occurring at the time of speaking (using a verb with an object.)
In the sentence pattern below the verb must have an object. (le) is placed directly
after the verb followed by the time phrase indicating the duration of the action with
the object at the end of the sentence. (de) may be placed just before the object, but
it does not have to be included in the sentence, it is optional. Generally this sentence
pattern is used after the action is over so the action is not occurring at the time of
speaking. This pattern is not used with personal pronouns or names.
I waited for the car for two hours.
subject

w
I

15.
16.

verb

dng
wait

time phrase

ling g xiosh
two hours

le

()
()
()

object

ch
car

()
()

15. How long did you watch TV?


16. We watched TV for two hours.

15. nmen kn le du chng sh jin (de) dinsh


16. wmen kn le ling g xiosh (de) dinsh
Section F - the duration of reoccurring actions (using a verb with an object)
To express the duration of reoccurring actions, (le) is not used. In the sentence
pattern below, the verb must have an object.
We have three weeks of vacation every year.
subject

wmen
We

time phrase

mi nin
every year

time phrase

mi nin
Every year

subject

wmen
we

verb object

fng
ji
take vacation

verb

fng
take

time phrase

sn g xngq
three weeks

verb object

fng
ji
take vacation

verb

fng
take

time phrase

sn g xngq
three weeks

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17a.
17b.
18.
17 a/b.
18.

How much vacation time do you get every year?


We have three weeks of vacation every year.

17a. mi nin nmen fng ji fng du chng sh jin


17b. nmen mi nin fng ji fng du chng sh jin
18. wmen mi nin fng ji fng sn g xngq
19.
20.

19.
20.

How much time do you sleep everyday?


I sleep eight hours everyday.

19.
20.

n mi tin shu jio shu du chng sh jin


mi tin w shu jio shu b g xiosh

Section F1 - the duration of reoccurring actions (using a verb with an object)


To express the duration of reoccurring actions, using the sentence pattern below, the
time phrases are placed between the verb and the object. (le) is not used and (de)
is optional.
We have three weeks of vacation every year.
time phrase

mi nin
Every year
subject

wmen
We

21.
22.

subject

wmen
we
time phrase

mi nin
every year

verb

fng
take
verb

fng
take

time phrase

sn g xngq
three weeks
time phrase

sn g xngq
three weeks

()
()

()
()

object

ji
vacation
object

ji
vacation

()
()

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21.
22.

mi nin nmen fng du chng sh jin (de) ji


wmen mi nin fang sn g xngq (de) ji

21. How much vacation time do you get every year?


22. We have three weeks of vacation every year.

23.
24.

23.
24.

How much time do you sleep everyday?


I sleep eight hours everyday.

23.
24.

n mitin shu du chng sh jin (de) jio


w mitin shub g xiosh (de) jio

Section G - the duration of reoccurring actions (using a verb without an object)


If the verb does not require an object, the example below may be used to express the
duration of reoccurring actions.
I sleep six hours everyday.
subject

w
I

time phrase

mitin
everyday

verb

shu
sleep

time phrase

li g xiosh
six hours

You cannot use the sentence pattern above if the verb has an object. For example, you
cannot say ? (n mitin shujio duchng shjin)
Section H - Using auxiliary verbs in sentences that express the duration of
actions (using a verb without an object)
To express the duration of an action that will happen in the future, the sentence
patterns below may be used. In the example below, (wnr) , which literally
means to play is the general term Chinese people commonly use to express relaxing
and having fun in their leisure time. It is also used to express the action of playing,
like when children play. Either (wn) or (wnr) may be used.

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We are going to go out and have some fun for a day.


subject

wmen
We

25.
26.
27.

auxiliary verb

yo
will

verb

wnr
play

time phrase

y tin
one day

25. We will play for an hour.


26. I will sleep for two hours.
27. I will write for one hour.

25.
26.
27.

wmen hu d y g xiosh
w hu shu ling g xiosh
w hu xi y g xiosh

*In sentence 25, (d) means to play i.e., (d ln qu) (to play basketball)
(d pngpng qu) (to play ping pong).

Section I - Using auxiliary verbs in sentences that express the duration of actions
(using a verb with an object)
We are going to play basketball for an hour.
subject

wmen
We

28.
29.

auxiliary verb

hu
will

verb

d
play

time phrase

y g xiosh
an hour

()
()
(de)

object

ln qi
basketball

()
()

28. I will write letters for an hour.


29. I will do homework for two hours and then eat.

28.
29.

w hu xi y g xiosh (de) xn
w hu zu ling g xiosh (de) zuy rnhu ch fn

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Section J

using using expressions that mean a little while


using expressions that mean use time / take time

a little while

y hur
y xi
y xir

use time / spend time / take time

yng sh jin
hu sh jin

In all the examples in this unit, the time phrases used to express the duration of
actions have been definite time lengths. To express a little while, (y hur) is
used in the same way as the time phrases.

30.
31.
32.
33.
30.
31.
32.
33.

First we will rest a while and then do (our) homework.


We will play a while and then go home.
We talked a while during the break between classes.
My dad watches TV a while before he eats dinner everyday.

30.
31.
32.
33.

wmen xin xixi yhur rnhu zu zuy


wmen hu wn yhur rnhu hu ji
wmen zi kjin lio le yhur
w bba mi tin ch fn yqin kn yhur dinsh

Note:

1.
2.
3.
4.

To express rest a while you say : (xi yhur hur)


To express sleep a while you say : (shu yhur jio)

In sentence 2, (shu w jio) means afternoon nap. In sentence 4, (zho)


is used as a verb compliment of potentiality that means to fall asleep.
1.
2.
3.
4.

sleep
nap
sleep a while
not sleep

I go to bed at 10 o'clock every day.


I take a nap at 4 o'clock ever day.
I will sleep a little while.
I couldn't sleep last night.

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1.
2.
3.
4.

shu jio
shu w jio
shu yhur jio
shu b zho

w
w
w
w

mitin sh din shu jio


mitin s din shu w jio
yo shu yhur jio
zutin wnshng shu b zho

To express a very short time, (y xi) or (y xir) are used in the same
way as the time phrases. When using these terms, it also carries the meaning that that
the thing being done isnt of great importance, that something is done in a casual
manner. For instance, if something interesting came on TV, to draw another persons
attention to the TV one might say ! (kn y xi!). In sentence 35 below,
(mi shr) means its nothing and the modal particle (ba) is used to soften the
tone of the sentence.

34.
35.

34. Can I use your dictionary for a moment?


35. No problem, use it!

34.
35.

yng yxi nde cdinxng ma


mi shryng ba

To express using or spending time, (yng) (hu) are used. Both sentences
below mean I spend one hour cooking dinner everyday.

36.
37.
36.
37.

mitin w yng y g xiosh zu wnfn


mitin w hu y g xiosh zu wnfn

To make a question, (duchng shjin) goes in the place of the time phrase.
Both questions below mean How much time do you spend cooking dinner
everyday?

38.
39.

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38.
39.
40.
41.

mitin n yng duchng shjin zu wnfn


mitin n hu duchng shjin zu wnfn

40. How long does it take to go by train from Beijing to Tianjin?


41. It takes half an hour to go from Beijing to Tianjin by train.

40.
41.

cng Bijng zu hu ch do Tinjn yng


duchng shjin
cng Bijng zu hu ch do Tinjn hu
bn g xiosh
Example Sentences

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

How long did you sleep last night?


I slept for six hours.
How long did they talk yesterday?
They talked for three hours.
They have been talking for three hours. (they are still talking)

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

n zutin wnshng shu le duchng shjin


w shu le li g xiosh
zutin tmen lio le duchng shjin
tmen liotin lio le sn g xiosh
tmen lio le sn g xiosh le

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

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6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

How long do you workout each day?


I workout one hour a day.
He was sick for one month and three days.
I have already been in China for over a month.
It is 12:30 pm the students have already been out of class for half an hour.

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

n mitin dunlin du chng sh jin


w mi tin dunlin y g xiosh
t bng le y g yu lng sn tin
w li zhnggu y jng y g du yu le
xin zi sh sh r din bn tngxumen
yjng xik bn g xiosh le

11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

How long did he ride?


How long did he ride (his) bicycle?
He rode for four hours.
He rode his bicycle for four hours.
He has been riding his bicycle for twenty minutes. (and is still riding)

11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

t
t
t
t
t

16.
17.
18.
19.
20.

,
,

q
q
q
q
q

le duchng shjin
zxngch q le duchng shjin
le s g xiosh
le s g xiosh zxngch
zxngch q le r sh fn zhng le

16. How long is the flight from Beijing to Shanghai?


17. The flight from Beijing to Shanghai is three hours.
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18. How long did he read the newspaper?


19. He read the newspaper for half an hour.
20. He read the newspaper for half an hour.

16.
17.
18.
19.
20.

cng Bijng do Shnghi, zu duchng shjin de fij


cng Bijng do Shnghi, zu sn g xiosh de fij
t kn le du chng sh jin de bozh
t kn bozh kn le bn g xiosh
t kn le bn g xiosh de bozh

21.
22.
23.
24.
25.

(In example number 25, does not mean good, it indicates extreme)

21.
22.
23.
24.
25

She talked on the phone for 30 minutes.


She has been in university for three years. (and still is)
She has been a teacher for four years. (and still is)
They have been married for three years. (and still are)
I waited for a taxi (or bus) for a long time.

21.
22.
23.
24.
25

t d le sn sh fn zhng de dinhu
t shng le sn nin d xu le
t dng lo sh s nin le
tmen ji hn sn nin le
w dng ch dng le ho chng sh jin

26.
27.
28.
29.
30.

26.
27.
28.
29.
30.

How long does it take to go from your home to your office by bicycle?
It takes half an hour to go from my home to the office.
He spends a lot of time watching TV.
I spend a lot of time reading my email.
I waited in line for an hour.

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26. cng n ji q zxngch do bngngsh hu


du chng sh jin
27. cng w ji q zxngch do bngngsh yng
bn g xiosh
28. t hu hndu shjin kn dinsh
29. w hu hndu shjin kn dinz yujin
30 w hu le y g xiosh pidu
Section K

1. making comparisons using earlier and later


2. comparing lengths of time

These are the facts about when Anna and Li Ming granduated from university:

1.
2.

1995
2005

1.
2.

Anna graduated from university in 1995.


Li Ming graduated from university in 2005.

1. nn 1995 nin dxu by


2. Lmng 2005 nin dxu by
These are the statements of comparison about who graduated earlier and later:

3.
4.

3.
4.

Anna graduated from university 10 years earlier than Li Ming.


Li Ming graduated from university 10 years later than Anna.

3. nn b Lmng zo by sh nin
4. Lmng b nn wn by sh nin
These are the facts about when Anna and Li Ming go to bed and get up in the morning.

5. 12:00 , 6:00
6. 11:00 , 7:00
5.
6.

Anna goes to bed at 12 oclock and gets up at 6 oclock everyday.


Li Ming goes to bed at 11 oclock and gets up at 7 oclock everyday.

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5. nn mi tin 12:00 shu jio, 6:00 q chung


6. Lmng mi tin 11:00 shu jio, 7:00 q chung
These are comparisons about who gets up earlier and later:

7.
8.
7.
8.

Anna goes to bed one hour later and gets up one hour earlier than Li
Ming everyday.
Li Ming goes to bed one hour earlier and gets up one hour later than
Anna everyday.

7. mi tin nn b Lmng wn shu jio y g xio shzo q


chung y g xiosh
8. mi tin Lmng b nn zo shu jio y g xio sh wn q
chung y g xio sh
These are comparisons about who sleeps longer or sleeps less time:

9.
10.
9. Anna sleeps two hours less than Li Ming everyday.
10. Li Ming sleeps two hours more than Anna everyday.

9. mi tin nn b Lmng sho shu ling g xio shjio


10. mi tin Lmng b nn du shu ling g xio shjio
These are the facts about when Anna and Li Ming get to the classroom.

11. 7:50
12. 8:00
11. Anna gets to the classroom at 7:50 everyday.
12. Li Ming gets to the classroom at 8:00 everyday.

11. nn mitin 7:50 do jiosh


12. Lmng mitin 8:00 do jiosh
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These are comparisons about who gets to the classroom earlier and later:

13. .
14.
13. Anna gets to the classroom five minutes earlier than Li Ming everyday.
14. Li Ming gets to the classroom five minutes later than Anna everyday.

13. mi tin nn b Lmng zo w fn zhng do jio sh


14. mitin Lmng b nn wn w fn zhng do jio sh

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Unit 32
Modifying Verbs ()
(the manner in which something is done)
This unit shows how to express the manner in which actions are done.
New Words

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18
19.

ch f
j sh
ji ju
jn
jng l
k tng
k
ln j
mn y
p
r qng
rn zhn
shu
sh fu
tu
w
xio
yn yun
zhe

20.

zu l

set out
in a timely manner
solve, resolve, settle
tightly
manager
living room
cry
neighbor
satisfy
to lie face down
cordially
conscientious
hand
comfortable
head
to hold
smile, laugh
performer, actor
adverbial modifier to show the
manner in which an action is done
to walk down the street

Verb - (zhe)
Verbs are used with (zhe) to show the manner in which actions are done. In the
first example, (zhe) is used with the verb meaning to sit to show that the person
is sitting while reading. The second example shows how, (zhe) can be part of a
verb phrase to accomplish the same thing.

subject

t
He

He sits to read. / He is sitting while reading.


verb
predicate verb
(to show manner)

zu
zhe
kn
sit
read

object

sh
book

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He shook my hand, saying Thank you!


subject

t
He

verb phrase
(to show manner)

w zhe w de shu
shaking my hand

predicate verb

object

shu
say

xi xi nn
thank you

In the example above, (w) literally means to hold, but in the context of the
example sentence, it means that the two people are shaking hands. In examples 6 and
7 below, (p) means to lie face down. In example 8, (tng) means to lie face
up. In sentence 3, ( y) means aunt and is a term of respect that children call
women or a young adult will address an older woman.
Example Sentences

8.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

yn yun zhn zhe chng g


t d zhe tu zu l
t xio zhe shu xi xi y
mma zi ktng l gn lnj h zhe ch liotinr
zh g hizi k zhe shuw de xiogu bng le
t xhun zi chung shng p zhe kn sh
xio mo zi chung ti shng p zhe shujio ne
bba zi chung shng tng zhe shujio ne

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

The performer stood and sang. / The performer stands and sings.
He walks / walked down the street with his head down.
He smiled and said, Thank you Auntie.
Mother is in the living room drinking coffee and chatting with a neighbor.
This child cried and said, My puppy is sick.
He likes to lie in bed and read.
The kitten is on lying on the window sill sleeping.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

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8.

Father is on the lying on the bed sleeping.


Adjectives that show the manner in which something is done.

Single syllable adjectives


Adjectives are placed before verbs to show the manner in which something is done.
Single syllable adjectives are placed directly before a verb with nothing in between.
Two syllable adjectives may be followed by (de) and then the verb, but (de) is
optional. In the example below, (zo) (early) shows the manner in which the verb
(ch f) (set out) happens.
They set out early.
subject

tmen
They

adjective

zo
early

predicate verb

ch f
set out

completed action

le

Sometimes (du) is used in this sentence pattern, in place of the adjective, to place
added emphasis on the verb. In the sentence, (n bx du tng)
(You need to listen.) (du) is used to add extra emphasis to the verb (tng).
(de) is not used in sentences that use (du).
Reduplicated Single Syllable Adjectives
AA - - Verb
Another way to add emphasis to an adjective, that modifies a verb, is to say the
adjective twice, this is called reduplication. When a single syllable adjective is
reduplicated, the second syllable is spoken in the nuetral tone and a retroflex r may
be used, for instance, both (zo zao) or (zo zaor) could be used to say
early. Putting (de) between the reduplicated adjective and the verb is optional.
They set out early.
subject

tmen
They

reduplicated
adjective

zo zao
early

()
()
de

predicate
verb

ch f
set out

completed
action

le

Two Syllable Adjectives


AB - (de) - Verb
When using two syllable adjectives, putting (de) between the adjective and the
verb is optional. However, some two syllable adjectives are also verbs, depending on
the context they are used in. When those adjectives are used, (de) must be used.
For instance, in the sentence (z xi d hn qngchu) (The writing is
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very clear.) (qng chu) is an adjective that means to be clear and easy to
understand. However, in the sentence (t zu
qngchu zh sh de qin yn hu gu) (He understands the matter thoroughly.),
(qngchu) is a verb that means to understand, to know . In this case, (de) must be
used to make it clear that (qng chu) is an adjective. To avoid grammar mistakes,
a speaker may use (de) with all two syllable adjectives.
They study conscientiously.
subject

tmen
They

adjective

rn zhn
conscientious

de

predicate verb

xu x
study

Reduplicated Two Syllable Adjectives


AABB - - Verb
When two syllable adjectives are reduplicated they are in the form of AABB. The
second A syllable and the second B syllable are spoken in the neutral tone. For
instance, (rn zhn) (conscientious) becomes (rn ren zhn zhen). In
this case, (de) must be used. Be careful when using this form, not all two syllable
adjectives can be reduplicated.
subject

tmen
They

reduplicated
adjective

rn ren zhn zhen


conscientious

de

predicate
verb

xu x
study

Example Sentences

1.
2.
3.
4.

()

1. mqn jnjin (de) bo zhe t de hizi


2. t go xng de shuw shu do le pngyou de li xn
3. t go gao xng xing de shu
w shu do le pngyu de li xn
4. t de fm dng le t sn g xiosht li wn le
1.
2.
3.

The mother tightly held her child.


He happily said, I received a letter from my friend.
He happily said, I received a letter from my friend.

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4.

5.
6.
7.
8.

His parents waited three hours, he came late.

5.
6.
7.
8.

t rqng de shuhunyng gungln


lo titai mn man de zu zhe
Wng jngl j sh jiju le wnt
hizi mny de xio le

5.
6.
7.
8.

She warmly said, Welcome.


The old lady is slowly walking.
Manager Wang solved the problem in a timely manner.
The child smiled with satisfaction.

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Unit 33
(b) Sentences
This unit shows how use the preposition (b). In (b)sentences, the object is
stated before the predicate verb.
New Words

1.
2.

n qun di
b

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

9
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

bn ji
bo
bo gu
bn zi
b j bn
b j bn din
no
bin
bio
bng rn
b l
ch
ch tu
ch png

16.
17.
18.
19.
20.

chng
chu t
d ki
d sun
d

21
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27
28.

din ch
din z
din z yu jin
f
fng
f x
gi
g k

seat belt
a preposition used to make a
subject object verb sentence
to move (to a new home)
to wrap (a gift, a box)
parcel, package
notebook
notebook
laptop computer
change to, transform
form, table, chart
sick person, patient
glass, window pane
to plug in
electric plug
covered parking for bicycles
(similar to a carport)
turn into
drawer
open, turn on
to plan
pass or hand something to
someone
battery
electronic
email
send, transmit
wind
review (a lesson)
change to, transform
customer

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29.
30.

gu
gun dio

blow

31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.

gun shang
ho m
h shng
h zi
h zho
hu png
j
j

close, turn off

39.
40.

j pio
ji k

41.

ji

42.
43.
44.
45.

ji din hu
ji ki
jng ch
kng

46.
47.
48.
49.
50.
51.
52.
53.
54.
55.
56.
57.
58.
59.
60.
61.

kng tio
l
l lin
l w
lin
Ll
lng di
m fan
mi yun
min bo
mng
mng xn pin
m sh sh
no zhng
ni
nng

turn off (electric things)


number
close a book
box (small)
passport
flower vase
to take note, remember, record
put on or wear belts, scarves
and tied things
plane ticket
jacket
to receive, to pick up (i.e., a
child from school)
to answer the phone
take off (a belt)
police
to carry something on ones
shoulders
air conditioner
pull
zipper
gift
face
a name of a person
necktie
trouble, inconvenience
American dollars
bread
measure word for persons
postcard
magician
alarm clock
cow
make

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62.
63.
64.
65.
66.
67.
68.
69.
70.
71.
72.
73.
74.
75.
76.
77.
78.
79.
80.
81.
82.
83.
84.
85.
86.
87.
88.
89.
90.
91.
92.

png
qi
q
rn mn b
rng
rng dio
so
sh j t
shng c
shng zi
shu j
shu shi
shu
tng zh
tong sh
tu
wn hu
w sh
xing zi
xio tu
xi
xng li
yu r yun
yu pio
y f
y sn
y x
y y
zhi
zhu
zhung

touch, bump

93.
94.
95.

zhung xi
zhn bi
zu y bn

decorate, remodel

ball
to take, to fetch
Chinese currency
to throw
throw away
sweep
blueprints
new words
rope
cell phone
to put in order, to tidy up
water
notice
colleague, coworker
take off (clothing and shoes)
party (in the evening)
bedroom
box (large), suitcase
thief
shoe
luggage
kindergarten
stamp
grammar
umbrella
preview (a lesson)
raincoat
to take off things [that use ]
to grab, to sieze, to catch
load, pack
prepare
homework notebook

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In (b) sentences, the object is stated before the predicate verb. The simplest (b)
sentence pattern is:
Subject
doer of the action

w
I

Object
receiver of the action

Predicate Verb
the action

+ other elements
(rule # 8 below)

b
b

l w
gift / gifts

bo shng
wrap

le
completed action

(This sentence means, I wrapped the gifts.)

The most important feature of sentences is that the predicate verb must produce a
change in disposition of the object. For example, compare the two sentences below.
This sentence states how the speaker went to school. It means, I drove to school.

w ki ch do xuxio q le

This sentence emphasizes the disposition of the object (car). It means, I took the
car to the school.

w b ch ki do xuxio q le

A speaker could say: (w q shngdin le) (I went to the store) ;


however, it is incorrect to say : (w b shngdin q le) because
the predicate verb ( q) does not change the disposition of the object ( shng
din).
Summary of rules for simple (b) sentences:
1.

2.
3.

4.
5.
6.
7.

The predicate verb must be a transitive verb.


(A transitive verb is an action verb, expressing an activity, like writing or cleaning, and it has
a direct object, something or someone who receives the action of the verb.)
Verbs that do not produce action, such as (yu) and (sh) , may not be used.
Verbs that indicate mental activity and senses such as (zh do) (to know)
and (x hun) (to like) and (ju de) (to feel) may not be used as
predicate verbs.
Verbs that indicate direction such as (q), (li), (ch), (jn),
(shng) and (xi) may not be used as predicate verbs.
The pattern [Verb + (gu)] may not be used.
A potential compliment that uses (de) does not occur after the predicate verb.
When using (b) sentences, it is clear to the listener what the speaker has in
mind. General classifiers may not be used. For instance, a speaker may use a

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8.

(b) sentence to say give me that book () (n bn sh) but may not use a
sentence to say give me a book () (y bn sh).
(b) sentences may not end with single syllable verb. If a single syllable ends
a sentence then it may be duplicated or the sentences may end in particles such
as (le) or (zhe).

Using (zhe) in (b) sentences


Be careful when using (zhe) in (b) sentences. Since the particle (zhe) may
be used for turning some action verbs into a continuing state, as a general rule, when
using (zhe) to compliment a verb in a (b) sentence, determine if the context of
the sentence uses (zhe) in such a way that the verb produces an action that changes
the disposition of the object. For example: If some people were leaving their hotel or
home to go sightseeing, they could use example sentence 1 or 2 below to say, Lets
take a camera with us. This is the only circumstance when (zhe) would be used in
a (b) sentence to express take something. If the speaker were talking about an
outing that was going to happen the following day, they would use (di shng) or
(n shng), as in sentences 3 and 4 below. (In this case, (shng) is a verb
compliment of results indicating something has reached a certain place.)
If two people were walking down the street and one person were to tell the other
person I have my camera with me the speaker would say,
(w dizhe wde zhoxingj ne). In this context, (zhe) indicates a continuing state
and does not bring about a change in the disposition of the object; therefore, it would
be incorrect to say, (w b wde zhoxingj di zhe). In this
case, it would be correct to say, (w b wde zhoxingj
di li le) which means, I brought my camera with me because the verb and its
compliment (di li) indicate a change of disposition of the object.
Lets take the camera with us.

1.
2.
3.
4.

wmen
wmen
wmen
wmen

b
b
b
b

zhoxingj
zhoxingj
zhoxingj
zhoxingj

di zhe
n zhe
di shang
n shang

If someone were pointing out a person in a crowded room by saying, She is the one
wearing a white dress, they would say, (t chun zhe bi s
qnzi); they would not use a sentence, in this case, because the verb does not bring
about change in the disposition of the object. Generally, (chun zhe) is not used
in a sentences.
If someone wanted to draw attention to the fact that a person was wearing a new outfit,
it would be correct to say, (t b xn yfu chun shng le)
because the verb (chun) and its compliment (shng) indicate a change in the
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disposition of the object () (xn yfu). This sentence literally means, She has
put on new clothes.
The sentences below may be stated as Subject Verb Object (SVO) sentences or
(b) sentences. There are two reasons sentences, that can be stated using a SVO
sentence pattern, are stated using (b) sentences. Sometimes, they are used to place
emphasis on the changed disposition of the object, as explained above. Sometimes,
the predicate verbs are followed by fairly complicated constructions involving verb
compliments so it is generally easier to state the object first.
A. I have finished yesterdays homework.
1.
2.
1.
2.

sentence

w zu wn le zutin de zuy
w b zutin de zuy zu wn le

S-V-O

B. I have brought the blueprints.


1.
2.
1.
2.

sentence

w di li le shjt
w b shjt di li le

S-V-O

C. Let me write down your phone number.


1.
2.
1.
2.

sentence

w j yxi n de dinhu hom


w b nde dinhu hom j yxi

S-V-O

D. I threw away those newspapers.


1.
2.
1.
2.

sentence

w rngdio le n xi bozh
w b n xi bozh rngdio le

S-V-O

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E. Father broke the umbrella.


1.
2.
1.
2.

sentence

bba nng hui le ysn


bba b ysn nng hui le

S-V-O

F. I returned the book I borrowed last time.


1.
2.
1.
2.

sentence

w hun le shng c ji de n bn sh
w b shng c ji de n bn sh hun le

S-V-O

G. He knocked over the cup.


1.
2.
1.
2.

sentence

t png do le bizi
t b bizi png do le

S-V-O

H. The wind knocked over the bicycle.


1.
2.
1.
2.

sentence

fng gu do le zxngch
fng b zxngch gu do le

S-V-O

Auxiliary verbs may placed between the subject and .


I. You should wear a raincoat.
1.
2.
1.
2.

sentence

n ynggi chun yy
n ynggi b yy chun shang
S - AV V - O

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J. I will throw away those newspapers.


1.
2.
1.
2.

sentence

w hu rngdio n xi bozh
w hu b n xi bozh rng dio
S - AV V - O

K. You need to move those books.


1.
2.
1.
2.

sentence

n bx bnzu zhxi sh
n bx b zhxi sh bnzu
S - AV V - O

In the examples below, (fng zi) could refer to a single room, an apartment or a
house and (zhung xu) is usually translated as to decorate; however, this
expression also includes construction such as, adding carpet or adding new interior
walls. When a restaurant is being remodeled, there will be a sign in the window that
says (zhung xi) to inform customers that the process of remodeling is going
on. (bn) is used to express carrying things that are too big to carry in one hand.
L. I would like to redecorate my apartment.
1.
2.
1.
2.

sentence

w xing zhungxi fngzi


w xing b fngzi zhungxi yxi
S - AV V O

To express possibility auxiliary verbs and may placed between the


subject and .
M. I can repair your computer.
1.

S AV V O

2.

S AV V O

3.

sentence

4.

sentence

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1.
2.
3.
4.

w
w
w
w

nng
nng
nng
nng

xi n de dinno
xil n de dinno
b n de dinno xi ho
b n de dinno xil ho

N. I can print your file.


1.
2.
1.
2.

sentence

w ky dyn n de wnjin
w ky b nde wnjin dyn ho

S AV V O

O. We are going to move (our home) to Beijing.


1.
2.
1.
2.

sentence

wmen hu bnji do Bijng


wmen hu b ji bn do Bijng

S AV V O

Time phrases may placed between the subject and or before the subject.
If a person had checked out a book from the library, they could use the sentences
below to express that they had returned a certain book last Monday.
P. I returned that book last Monday.

1.

S time V O

2.

sentence

3.

sentence

1.

w shngg xngqy hun le n bn sh


shngg xngqy w b n bn sh hun le
w shngg xngqy b n bn sh hun le

2.
3.

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Negative Statements
The negative form of a sentence is made by placing (mi) or (mi yu)
directly before with nothing in between.
Q. I didnt bring blueprints.
1.
2.
1.
2.

()
sentence
()
w mi (yu) di li le shjt
w mi(yu) b shjt di li

S-V-O

When auxiliary verbs are used in sentences, to express an unwillingness to do


something or express that a supposition is not true, is placed directly after the
auxiliary verb and before with nothing in between.
R. I cant print your file.
1.
2.
1.
2.

sentence

w b nng dyn n de wnjin


w b nng b n de wnjin dyn ho

S AV V O

Questions
(ma) or (mi yu) may be used to form yes no questions.
S. Have you finished yesterdays homework?
1.
2.
3.
4.
1.
2.
3.
4.

S-V-O

sentence

sentence

n zu wn le zutin de zuy ma
n zu wn le zutin de zuy mi yu
n b zutin de zuy zu wn le ma
n b zutin de zuy zu wn le mi yu

S-V-O

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There are three ways to answer (ma) and (mi yu) questions negatively:

mi yu
no

hi mi yu
not yet

hi mi yu ne
not yet

To answer (ma) and (mi yu) questions affirmatively you can repeat the
verb and the compliment of result as well as the particle (le).
verb

zu

verb compliment
of results

wn

completed action
particle

le

To answer (ma) questions affirmatively, you may also answer (du).


Questions that use (mi yu) may not be answered with (du).
In all the example questions below, (ma) may be used to replace (mi yu)
and visa-versa. However, only the (ma) questions may be answered with (du).
T. (1,2) Have you brought the blueprints? (3) Has anyone brought the blueprints?
1.
2.
3.
1.
2.
3.

sentence

sentence

n di li le shjt mi yu
n b shjt di li mi yu
yu rn b shjt di li le mi yu

S-V-O

affirmative answer: (di li le)


U. Have you written down my phone number?
1.
2.
1.
2.

sentence

n j xi li wde dinhu hom le ma


n b wde dinhu hom j xi li le ma

S-V-O

affirmative answer: (j xi lai le) / (du)


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V. (1,2) Did you throw away those newspapers? (3) Who threw away the newspapers?
1.
2.
3.
1.
2.
3.

sentence

sentence

n rngdio le n xi bozh mi yu
n b n xi bozh rngdio le mi yu
shi b n xi bozh rngdio le

S-V-O

(questions 1,2) affirmative answer: (rng dio le)


answer to
(question 3):

bba b nxi bozh rng dio le


Father threw away the newspapers.

answer to
(question 3):

w b zhdo
I dont know.

W. Did Father break the umbrella?


1.
2.
1.
2.

sentence

bba nng hui le ysn ma


bba b ysn nng hui le ma

S-V-O

affirmative answer: (nng hui le) / (du)


X. Did you return the book you borrowed last time?
1.
2.
1.
2.

sentence

n hun le shng c ji de n bn sh mi yu
n b shng c ji de n bn sh hun le mi yu

S-V-O

affirmative answer: (hun le)

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Y. Did you get the camera out?


1.
2.
1.
2.

sentence

n n ch li le zho xing j ma
n b zho xing j n ch li le ma

S-V-O

affirmative answer: (n ch li le) / (du)


Z. Did you get the camera out of the car?

S-V-O

sentence

n cng ch l n ch li zho xing j le mi yu


n cng ch l n ch li le zho xing j mi yu
n b zho xing j cng ch l n ch li le mi yu

1. S-V-O
2.
3.
1.
2.
3.

affirmative answer: (n ch li le)


A1.

Have you put the battery in?

n b dinch zhung shng le ma


affirmative answer: (zhung shng le) / (du)
B1.

Have you finished your homework?

n b zuy zu wn le mi yu
affirmative answer: (zu wn le)
C1.

Have you finished cooking dinner?

n b wnfn zu ho le ma
affirmative answer: (zu ho le) / (du)

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D1.

Have you packed your bags?

n b xngli zhnbi ho le mi yu
affirmative answer: (zhn bi ho le)
E1. 1. 2.
Have you plugged it in?

1. n b chtu ch shng le ma
2. n b chtu ch jn q le mi yu
affirmative answers:

1. (ch shng le) / (du)


2. (ch jn q le)

F1.

Did you plug in the laptop?

n b bjbn dinno chtu ch jn q le mi yu


affirmative answer: (ch jn q le)
In the sentence below the speaker is talking to a person who has just returned from the
post office. The speaker knows that the listener has gone to the post office and was
expecting to receive a parcel in the mail.
G1.

Did you pick up the package?

n b bogu q hu li le ma
affirmative answer: (q hu li le) / (du)
H1.

Did you mail the letter?

n b xn f ch q le mi yu
affirmative answer: (f ch q le)
I1.

Did you send the email?

n b din z yu jin f ch q le mi yu
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affirmative answer: (f ch q le)


In the question below, the speaker is making sure the listener put something in some
place. For instance, if two people were in the process of leaving a travel agency and
the speaker wanted to make sure that the listener had not forgotten to put the airline
tickets in her purse or bag, the sentence below would be used.
J1.

Did you put the tickets away?

n b jpio fng jn q le mi yu
affirmative answer:

(fng jn q le)

In questions that use auxiliary verbs, is used ( cannot be used). In these


sentences the questions concern the auxiliary verbs being used, not the actions. For
instance, to say Did he take his book bag yesterday? either (ma) or (mi
yu) are correct because the question concerns the the action of taking the bookbag.
[(t zutin n le shbo miyu?) and
(t zutin n le shbo ma?)] However, (mi yu) could not be used to ask
Was it necessary for him to take his book bag? because the question concerns the
necessity of taking the book bag, not the action of taking the bookbag. [
(t zutin bx n shbo ma?)]
Questions with auxiliary verbs may be answered affirmatively by repeating the
auxiliary verb or saying (du).
To answer questions with auxiliary verbs negatively, use (b) and then the
auxiliary verb.
K1. Should I wear a raincoat?
1.
2.
1.
2.

sentence

w ynggi chun yy ma
w ynggi b yy chun shng ma

S AV V O

affirmative answer: (yng gi) / (du)


negative answer: (b yng gi)
L1. Are you going to throw away those newspapers?
1.

S AV V O

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2.
1.
2.

n hu rngdio n xi bozh ma
n hu b n xi bozh rng dio ma
sentence

affirmative answer: (hu) / (du)


negative answer: (b hu)
M1. Do I need to move those books?
1.
2.
1.
2.

sentence

w bx bn zu zh xi sh ma
w bx b zh xi sh bn zu ma
S - AV V - O

affirmative answer: (b x) / (du)


negative answer: (b b)
N1. Would you like to redecorate your apartment?
1.
2.
1.
2.

sentence

n xing zhungxi fngzi ma


n xing b fngzi zhungxi yxi ma
S - AV V - O

affirmative answer: (xing) / (du)


negative answer: (b xing)
O1. Can you repair my computer?
1.
2.
3.
4.
1.
2.
3.
4.

S AV V O
sentence

sentence

n nng xi w de dinno ma
n nng xil w de dinno ma
n nng b w de dinno xi ho ma
n nng b w de dinno xil ho ma
S AV V O

affirmative answer: (nng) / (du)


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negative answer: (b nng)


P1. Can you print my file?
1.
2.
1.
2.

sentence

n ky dyn w de wnjin ma
n ky b w de wnjin dyn ho ma

S AV V O

affirmative answer: (k y) (most common) / (du)


negative answer: (b k y) / (b xng)

Commands and Requests


(that begin with )
In spoken Chinese it is not uncommon to hear a sentence begin with . When
making commands, such as close the door, and it is obvious who the speaker is
talking to, then the subject is implied, not stated. If there were a group of people and
the speaker wanted to single out one person, then a subject would be used. For
instance, in the example below, if someone were requesting the listener to take their
cell phone out of their purse or pocket, they would use the following sentence pattern.
Get your cell phone out (of your purse, bag or pocket).
Subject

Object

Predicate
Verb

+ other elements

doer of the action

receiver of the action

the action

compliment of
result

(implied not spoken)

shu j

ch li

cell phone

fetch

take out

b
b

In the examples below, if the speaker wanted to say hurry up, they would begin the
sentence with (kui) (quickly).
Quickly! get your cell phone out (of your purse, bag or pocket).

Object

Predicate Verb

+ other elements

kui

shu j

ch li

quickly

cell phone

fetch

take out

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If the speaker wanted to say please, they would begin the sentence with (qng)
(please).

Object

Predicate Verb

+ other elements

qng

shu j

ch li

please

cell phone

fetch

take out

If the speaker wanted to say please help me (do something) , they would begin the
sentence with (qng bng w). In Chinese, the word help can be used to
mean that two people do something together, or that someone is doing something
for someone. The following sentence can mean either, Please help me erase the
blackboard. (Both the speaker and the listener are erasing the blackboard) or Please
erase the blackboard for me. (The listener is erasing the blackboard alone.)

qng bng w
please help me

Object

Predicate Verb (duplicated)

b
b

hi bn

c ca

blackboard

clean / wipe

(c) means to wipe and is used to express to wipe something to clean it. In the
sentences below, (c c) or (c yi c) may be used. (so) means to
sweep , in the last sentence below (so yi so) could also be used.

1.

b zhuz c ca

Wipe off the table.


Clean off the table.

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

b
b
b
b
b

Dry your face.

lin c yi c
bl c ca
d c yi c
hibn c ca
d so sao

Clean the window.


Mop the floor.
Erase the blackboard.
Sweep the floor.

(d ki) is used to express both turn on as well as open ; (gun shang)


is used to express both turn off as well as close.
Turn the air
conditioner on.
Turn the air
conditioner off.

7.

b kngtio d ki

8.

b kngtio gun shang

9.

b chung h d ki

Open the window.

10.

b chung h gun shang

Close the window.

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These nouns could be used to replace any of the things in the sentences above:

din sh

television

h zho

passport

mn

the door

xing zi

box, suitcase

shu j

cell phone

dng

light, lamp

kng tio

air conditioner

din no

computer

(gun dio) may be also used to express turn off when talking about things
that are electric.

11.

b kng tio gun dio

Turn
the
conditioner off.

air

In the sentences above, for the things that are physically closed (not electric), such as
doors and windows, (mi gun ho) would be used to express that something
was closed well. For instance, if someone was getting out of a car and the door wasnt
closed well, the driver would say (mi gun ho).
In the above example, it is assumed that the window opens on hinges, like a door.
When talking about opening or closing things that slide, such as curtains or windows
that slide, the verb pull [ (l)] is used, as in the examples below.

12.

b chung lin l ki

Open the curtains.

13.

b chung lin l shang

Close the curtains.

14.

b chung h l ki

Open the window.

15.

b chung h l shang

Close the window.

16.

b l lin l shang

Zip up your jacket.

(d ki) is used when saying open your book ; (h shng) is used to


express close your book. This is also true for telling someone to close a magazine
[ (z zh)] or a notebook [ (b j bn)].

17.

b n de sh d ki

18.

b n de sh h shang Close your book.

Open your book.

To say put on clothes, (chun shang) is used. For instance, if a children were
leaving for school, and their mother told them put on their coats [ (wi y)]; she
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would say (b wiy chun shang). If it is clear what item of clothing


the speaker is referring to, any article of clothing may be referred to as clothes [
(yf)]. To say take off an article of clothing, (tu xi li) is used. In the
sentences below, (n de) is optional.

19.
20.
21.
22.
19.
20.
21.
22.

()
()
()
()

b
b
b
b

(n de) yfu chun shang.


(n de) yfu tu xi li.
(n de) xi chun shang.
(n de) xi tu xi li.

Put on your (an article of clothing that is clear to the listener).


Take off your (an article of clothing that is clear to the listener).
Put on your shoes.
Take off your shoes.

(chun ho) may be used to tell someone to put on an article of clothing or to


tell someone to fix something that is wrong. For instance, a parent could use the
sentence below to tell a child to zip up the jacket they are wearing or to tell the child
to put on their jacket.

23.

b yfu chun ho

When expressing putting on [ (chun shng)] or wearing [ (chun zhe)]


articles of clothing, (chun) is not used for everything one can wear. For wearing
some things, such as hats, glasses, and gloves; (di) is used. When referring to
items that are worn, but are tied, for example a necktie, (di) or (j) may used. If
someone wanted to tell a person wearing a tie that it wasnt tied well, they would say,
(mi j ho) or (mi di ho) which means your tie isnt straight.
(zhi) is used to express taking off when taking off things that use (di) or (j)
to express putting on.

24.
25.

b ynjng di shang.
Take off your glasses. b ynjng zhi xi li.
Put on your glasses.

In the sentences above, (yn jng) could be replaced by any one of the articles
listed below.
shu to
gloves
*belt

* yo di

xing lin

necklace

wi jn

*neck scarf

r hun

ear rings

lng di

*necktie

mo zi

hat / cap

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*To say put on or to wear a necktie, neck scarf or belt; (j) or (di) may be
used. To say take off a belt, (ji ki) is used.
In the sentences below, (shng) and (ho) are compliments of results. In the
contexts below, (shng) is only used to express put on, but (ho) may be used
for expressing put on as well as expressing to adjust. For example, the first
sentence means put on a tie. The second sentence below could mean put on a tie
or straighten your tie.

26.
27.
28.
29.

b lngdi j shang.
b lngdi j ho.

Put on a tie.
Put on a tie.
Straighten you tie.
Tie your shoes.
Tie your shoes.
Re-tie you shoe laces.
Fasten your seatbelt.

30.
31. Fasten your seatbelt.
32.
33.

Adjust your seatbelt.


Tie that rope.

b xi di j shang.
b xi di j ho.
b nqun di j shang.
b nqun di j ho.
b shng zi j shang.
b shng zi j ho.

Tie that rope.


Re-tie that rope.

Remember, that the context of the sentence is important when using (zhe) in (b)
sentences. (refer to the explanation at the beginning of this unit.)
Sentences 34 37 all mean Take your passport.

34.
35.
36.
37.

b
b
b
b

hzho
hzho
hzho
hzho

di zhe.
n zhe.
di shang.
n shang.

In the sentences below, (di) or (n) could be used.

38.
39.

Take an umbrella.
Take a camera.

b ysn di shang.
b xingj n shang.

40. Take the books you checked out from the library last week.

40.

b n shng g xngq
ji de sh n shang

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(fng ho) means to put something away in its proper place. For example, if
two were leaving an embassy, the speaker might remind the listener to put their
passport in their bag so that it wouldnt fall out of a pocket or get misplaced. At home,
(fng ho) could be used to tell children to put away their toys.

41.

Put your passport away.

b hzho fngho.

The sentences below would be used to tell another person to clean up a messy area by
putting things away. For instance, if someones desk is messy, or if a teacher tells a
class of students to clean off their desks in preparation for a test.

42.
43.

b dngxi shu q li
Put your things away. b dngxi fng q li
Put your things away.

If the speaker is telling the listener to put something in a place that is higher up than
the speaker (fng shng q) is used. For instance, if a person had just boarded
a plane or train, an attendant would use the sentence below to tell the passenger to put
their luggage in the overhead luggage rack or storage compartment. This phrase could
also be used to tell someone to put a box on a shelf (that is higher up than the speaker).
(xing zi) is used to refer to many kinds of relatively large boxes such as,
cardboard boxes, trunks and suitcases.

44.

45.

Put the box up b xingzi fng shng q.


there.
Put you luggage b xngl fng shng q.
up there.

To tell someone to put something here or there the following sentences are used.

46.

47.

Put the suitcase(s)

b xingzi fng zi zhr.

over here.
Put the suitcase(s) b xingzi fng zi nr.
over there.

(hzi) is used to refer to many kinds of relatively small boxes such as shoe boxes
and boxes that small merchandise comes in.
48. Put the box in the drawer.

48.

b n g hzi fng jn chut l

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The sentence below is used to tell someone to take something out of something (a bag,
a pocket, a suitcase, a car). is usually for something small that can be moved using
one hand. When larger things are being moved, such as moving a sofa out of a room,
(bn) is used.

49.
50.

Get out the camera.

Bring the sofa out.


(of a room / a house)

b xingj n ch li.
b shf bn ch li.

51. Bring the sofa out of the living room.

51.

b shf cng ktng bn ch li

52. Hang up (an article of clothing).

b yf gu shang.

52.

53. Hang up that picture on the wall.

b hu gu zi qing shang.

53.

54. Put a battery in (something).

54.
55.

b dinch zhung shang

Close the door.

b mn gun yxi

56. Wash this article of clothing.

56. b zh jin yfu x yxi


57. Wash these clothes.

57. b zh xi yfu x yxi


58. Preview todays new words (Go over the words we will study in todays lesson.)

58.

b jntin de shngc yx yxi

59. Review yesterdays grammar.

59.

b zutin de yf fx yxi

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60. Clean up this room.

60.

b fng jin shushi yxi

To Give Something to Someone


In Mandarin SVO sentences that use (gi) to express giving something to
someone, it is possible to have two objects. In English sentences, prepositional
phrases that have indirect objects are used to accomplish the same thing. For instance,
in the sentence, Anna gave that sweater to me., the direct object is the word
sweater because it receives the action of the verb, and the word me (in the
prepositional phrase to me) is the indirect object which represents the secondary
goal of the action of the verb. In the sentences below, object 2 would be indirect
objects in English sentences. In first example below, it is clear who is being spoken to,
so the implied subject, (n), does not need to be spoken. In the second example, the
subject is Anna.
Give your plane ticket and passport to me.

object 1

object 2

jpio h hzho

gi

Anna, give your plane ticket and passport to her.


subject

object 1

object 2

n n

jpio h hzho

gi

In sentences that show intention or completed actions, an auxiliary verb is needed to


show intention (example sentence 1 below) or the particle (le) would be used to
show that the action had been completed (example sentences 2 and 3 below).
(1) I will give this red sweater to a friend.
subject

auxiliary verb

object

object

hu

zh jin hng moy

gi

png you

(2) Anna gave that sweater to her boyfriend.


subject

object

object

particle

n n

n jin moy

gi

t de nn pngyou

le

(3) Anna gave that sweater to her boyfriend.


subject

object

particle

object

n n

n jin moy

gi

le

t de nn pngyou

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1.

Give that book to me.

b n bn sh gi w.

2.

Give me your homework.

b zuy gi w.

3.

Give me your plane ticket.

b jpio gi w

4. Give the teacher the homework notebooks.

4.

b zuybn gi losh

5. Give that gift to mother.

5.

b n jin lw gi mma

6. Give that dictionary to Anna.

6.

b n bn cdin gi nn

These examples show the use of (7, 10) auxiliary verbs and (8,9,11,12) the particle
(le) in (b) sentences that use (gi).

7.
8.
9.
7.
8.
9.

w hu b n jin lw gi mma
w b n jin lw gi le mma
w b n jin lw gi mma le

I will give that picture to Mom.


I gave that picture to Mom.
I gave that picture to Mom.

10.
11.
12.

w hu b n bn cdin gi nn
w b n bn cdin gi le nn
w b n bn cdin gi nn le

10. I will give that dictionary to Anna.


11. I gave that dictionary to Anna.
12. I gave that dictionary to Anna.
Using verbs with compliments of results in (b) sentences
First, we will review how to use (gi), as a compliment of results, in sentences that
do not use (b). When using a verb followed by the compliment of results, (gi),
it is possible to have two objects and not use a sentence. (gi) is used as a
compliment of results to express that the verb has resulted giving something to a
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second party. No characters may go between a verb and its compliment of results.
He handed a letter to me.
subject

t
He

predicate
verb

jio

compliment of
results

gi

object
1

object
2

y fng xn

particle

to hand
something
to someone

to result in giving

one letter

(completed
action)

le

To say the same thing, using a (b) sentence, (y fng xn) cannot be used
because it is not specific. Also, it would be incorrect to say
(t jio n fng xn gi w le) because the compliment of results, (gi),
must go immediately after the verb (jio).
He handed that letter to me.
subject

object 1

n fng xn

He

that letter

predicate
verb

jio

compliment
of result

gi

object 2

particle

le

to hand
something
to someone

to result in
giving

(completed
action)

Example Sentences

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

1.
2.
3.
4.

qng b zh zhng bio jio gi Wng losh


w mngtin ji b zh zhng bio jio gi Wng losh
Wng xinshngmfan n b zh fngxn jio gi Ll
w de zhoxingj hui len nng b n de zhoxingj ji gi
w ma
5. Ll dsun b mngxnpin j gi t de pngyou

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6. mfan nb minbo d gi w
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Please give this form to the teacher.


I will give the Teacher Wang the form tomorrow.
Mr. Wang, can I trouble you to give this letter to Lili?
My camera is broken, can you lend me yours?
Lili plans to mail this postcard to her friend.
Could I trouble you to pass the bread?

Sentences that must use (b)


In sentences with two objects and the verb compliment of results is (zi), (do),
or (chng) it is necessary to use a (b) sentence because the compliment of
results must directly follow the verb with nothing between them.
The compliment of results (zi) is used to express that a person or thing has reached
or will reamain at a certain place - by the action of the verb. If a speaker were looking
at a bookshelf full of books and told the listener to put one specific book on the table,
the example sentence below would be used. It would be incorrect to say ()
( [n] fang n bn sh zi zhuz shng) because the compliment of
results, (zi), must immediately follow the verb (fng). Furthermore, in a (b)
sentence, (y bn sh) could not be used because it is not specific.
Put that book on the table.

object 1

n bn sh

predicate
verb

fng

compliment of
result

zi

b
b

that book

put

to result in being
at a place

object 2

zhuzi shng
on the table

Little Wang, put that book on the table.


subject

object 1

n bn sh

predicate
verb

fng

compliment of
result

zi

Xio Wng

Little Wang

that book

put

to result in being
at a place

object 2

zhuzi shng
on the table

Example Sentences

1.
2.
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3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

1.

8.

b sh bi zi sh ji shng
t b tngzh gu zi mn wi bin le
b n hupng fng zi zhuz shng
ll b t de dinhu hom xi zi bnzi shng le
w b zxngch fng zi luxi de chpng l le
xio mng b nozhng fng zi chung png bin le
t b yupio ti zi xnfng le
b n hupng fng zi nr

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Arrange the books (properly) in the bookcase.


He hung a notice on the outside of the door.
Put the vase on the table.
Lili wrote his phone number in her notebook.
I put (my,the) bicycle down in the covered bicycle parking area.
Little Ming put his alarm clock next to his bed.
He put the stamp on the envelope.
Where do I put this vase of flowers.

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

The compliment of results (do) is used to express that the action of the verb has
resulted in a person or thing reaching a certain place, achieveing a goal or an action
continuing until a certain time. If a speaker told a listener to take a form to the office,
the example sentences below could be used.
Take this form to the office.

object 1

b
b

zh zhng bio
this form

predicate compliment of
verb
result

sng
do
deliver
arrive at

object 2

bn gng sh
office

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Please take this form to the office for me.

qng bng w
Please help me

b
b

object 1

predicate compliment
object 2
verb
of result

zh zhng bio
sng
do
bn gng sh
this form
deliver
arrive at
office
Example Sentences

1.
2.
3.
4.

1.
2.
3.
4.

w hi mi b zh zhng bio sng do bngngsh


mma b hizi sng do yuryun le
w b qch ki do d mn ku le
xushng yo ki wnhub zhuzi bn do jiosh l

1.
2.
3.
4.

I havent taken the form to the office yet.


Mother took her child to kindergarten.
He drove the car to the main gate.
The students are going to have a party, move the tables into the classroom.

The compliment of results (chng) is used to express that a person or thing has
been changed into something of another kind by the action of the verb.
He exchanged American dollars for Chinese renminbi (yuan).
subject

t
He

b
b

object 1

miyun
American
dollars

predicate
verb

hun
exhange

compliment
of result

chng
changed into

object 2

particle

rn mn b
Chinese
currency

le
(completed
action)

Example Sentences

1.
2.
3.
4.

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5.

1. n nng bng w b zh pin wnzhng


fny chng yngy ma
2. t b w dng chng r bn rn le
3. mma b dy gi chng le jik
4. mshsh b zh bin chng hu le
5. n nng b t fny chng yngy ma
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Can you help me translate this article into English?


He thought I was Japanese.
Mom changed the coat into a jacket.
The magician turned paper into flowers.
Can you translate it into English?

If a beginner student were learning to write Chinese characters and wanted to write
the word cow [ (ni)] but mistakenly wrote the character used in afternoon
[(xi w)] then the following sentence would be used.
6. You wrote incorrectly and actually wrote .

6.

n b ni xi chng w le

If a beginner student were learning to speak Chinese wanted to say the word some
[ (xi)] but mistakenly said shoe [ (xi)] then the following sentence would be
used.
7. You wanted to say some by you actually said shoe.

7.

n b xi shu chng le xi

In the sentence below, the person who answered the phone did not understand the
person who made the call. The person making the call said 10 but the person who
answered the phone thought the caller said 4.
8. The person who answered the phone thought he/she heard 4 but I said 10.

8.
ji din hu de rn b sh tng chng s le
In the sentence below, the person speaking has been mistaken for another person
called Teacher Wang.
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9. He mistook me for Teacher Wang.

9.

t b w kn chng Wng losh le

Note: Notice that it does not change the meaning of the sentences if (le) is placed
after the verb or at the end of the sentences in these cases.
Compound Compliment of Direction used in Sentences
A (b) sentence must be used when the sentences has two objects and the predicate
verb has a compound directional compliment with an object of place. Remember that,
in a sentences with a compound compliment of direction with an object is a location,
the object must placed directly before (q) or (li). For example:
This table only shows the parts of speech for example sentences 1 and 2 below so it
will be easier to understand the explanations. These are not sentences.

(not a sentence)
(not a sentence)

1.
2.

object 1

predicate
verb

compound
compliment of
direction

object 2
location

In both sentences below, notice that their second objects are locations and are placed
between the two characters of the compound compliment of directions.

2.

1.
2.

w b w de pngyou sng hu ji q le
lobn b xn tngsh di jn bngngsh li le

1.
2.

I took my friend home.


The boss brought the new co-worker into the office.

1.

come up
In the first sentence, the speaker is in a higher place than Little Wang, perhaps Little
Wang has just come up a flight of stairs. In the second sentence, the speaker is on the
top of the mountain and Little Wang has come up the mountain carrying food and
water. The word (kng) indicates that the things he carried were carried on his
shoulder(s).

1.

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2.

1.
2.

Xio Wng b shu h shpn du kng shng li le


Xio Wng b shu h shpn du kng shng shn li le

1.
2.

Little Wang brought the water and food up.


Little Wang brought the water and food up here to the top (of the mountain).

go up
In sentence 2, the child is not as tall as the car so he must throw the ball up when
throwing it onto the top of the car.

1.
2.

1.
2.

xiohi b qi rng shng q le


xiohi b qi rng shng ch q le

1.
2.

The child threw the ball up.


The child threw the ball up onto the top of the car.

come down
In these sentences, the speaker is on a floor that is lower than the person who carried
the patient (or sick person). Using (li) indicates that the patient was carried
toward the speaker. Using (xi) indicates that the patient was carried down from a
higher place. (bi) indicates the patient (or sick person) was carried on
someones back. For instance, if someone had broken their ankle and someone carried
them horse-style.

1.
2.

1.
2.

t b bngrn bi xi li le
t b bngrn bi xi lu li le

1.
2.

He carried the patient down. (on his back)


He came downstairs with the patient (on his back).

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go down
In these sentences, the speaker was part of the group of people that moved some
books. For example, the books are now in a classroom on the first floor and the
speaker is on the second floor.

1.
2.

1.
2.

wmen b sh bn xi q le
wmen b sh bn xi lu q le

1.
2.

We took the books down.


We took the books downstairs.

come in
In these sentences, the compliment, (li), indicates that the action is coming toward
the speaker. In this case, the speaker is inside the bedroom. The word (bo) is
used when carrying something in your arms, the way a baby would be carried.

1.
2.

1.
2.

t b xio gu bo jn li le
t b xio gu bo jn wsh li le

1.
2.

She carried the dog in.


She carried the dog into the bedroom.

go in
In these sentences, (fng) can mean a house, apartment or a room. Using (q),
indicates the action is moving away from the speaker. In this case, the speaker is
outside the room, house or apartment and the things were moved in.

1.
2.

1.
2.

wmen b dngx du bn jn q le
wmen b dngx du bn jn xn fng q le

1.

We took everything in.

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2.

We took everything into the new room (or home).

return , come
In these sentences, (ji) means that mother has picked up the child, (Xio
Mng) and returned to their home. For instance, if the mother had gone to the childs
school to bring him/her home from school. The compliment, (li), indicates the
action is moving toward the speaker. In this case, the speaker is inside the home.

1.
2.

1.
2.

mma b Xio Mng ji hu li le


mma b Xio Mng ji hu ji li le

1.
2.

Mother brought Xio Mng back.


Mother brought Xio Mng back home.

return go
In these sentences, (ji) means that mother has picked up the child, (Xio
Mng). The compliment, (q), indicates that the action is moving away from the
speaker. In this case, the speaker is at the place where the mother picked up
(Xio Mng) and both the mother and child have gone away from the place the
speaker is. For instance, if a child at school asked a teacher where Xio Mng is, a
teacher could use the second sentences below to express that Xio Mngs mother had
taken him home.

1.
2.

1.
2.

Xio Mng de mm b Xio Mng ji hu qle


Xio Mng de mm b Xio Mng ji hu ji q le

1.
2.

Xio Mngs mother picked up Xio Mng and took him back.
Xio Mngs mother picked up Xio Mng and took him back home.

go out
In these sentences, (rng) means to throw something away. The compliment,
(q), indicates that action is moving away from the speaker. In this case, the speaker is
in the classroom and the trash is being taken out of the classroom.

1.
2.

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1.
2.

dji b lj rng ch q le
dji b lj rng ch jiosh q le

1.
2.

Eveyone took the trash out (and threw it away).


Eveyone took the trash (that was in the classroom) out (and threw it away).

The sentences below would not be stated with an object of place.

come out
1.
2.
1.
2.

ml b sh n ch li le
ml b sh cng shbol n ch li le

1.
2.

Mary got that book out.


Mary took that book out of her bookbag.

go across
In this sentence, (d) means to pass, handover, give. For instance, if a customer
were handing money to a cashier and the cashier was standing behind a counter. The
compliment, (q), indicates that the customer is on the same side of the counter as
the speaker and has passed the money way from the speaker to the cashier.
The customer handed the money over.

gk b qin d gu q le

come across
In this sentence, (jio) means to call out. (tong xu) which means
classmate is sometimes used to express the word student. In the sentence below,
the teacher has called one of the students to come to the front of the room where the
teacher is sitting at his/her desk. The compliment, (li), indicates that the teacher
told the student to come toward him/her.
The teacher called the student over.

losh b y mng tngxu jio


gu li le

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start and continue something


The police caught the thief.

jngch b xiotu zhu q li le

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Unit 34
(bi) Sentences
This unit shows how use (bi) to make passive voice sentences.
New Words

1.

bi

2.
3.
4.
5.
6
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.

b zi
ch y
chng
chu
dng
dng
dng
g niang
gung
ki shu
kui
l yn j
p png
q pin
ru
shng
sh y
su
tng
t
ti l
wn zi
yo
yun zi
zhi
zhu zh
zhung

introduces the doer of an action


in a passive sentence
neck
tea leaves
to dash against with great force
blow
light
sting (by a mesquito or bee)
to move
young lady
used up, nothing left
boiling water
a piece of
cassette tape recorder
critisize
cheat, swindle
meat
to injure
leaf
to lock
to burn, to scald
kick
railway, railroad tracks
mosquito
bite
yard, courtyard
pick (flowers, fruit, etc.)
to catch, to sieze
to bump, to hit

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Comparison of Active and Passive voice


(bi) sentences are passive voice sentences. (bi) introduces the doer of an
action in a passive voice sentence. In active voice sentences, the subject is the doer of
the action. In passive voice sentences, subject is the receiver of the action. For
instance, A thief stole my bicycle is an active voice sentence and My bicycle was
stolen by a thief is a passive voice sentence.
Active voice: A thief stole my bicycle.
Subject
doer of the action

Predicate Verb
the action

Object
receiver of the action

xio tu
Thief

tu
steal

le
completed action

w de zxngch

my bicycle

Passive voice: My bicycle was stolen by a thief.


Subject

receiver of the action

w de zxngch
My bicycle

bi

Object
( of )
doer of the action

Predicate Verb

+ other elements

the action

(rule # 2 below)

xio tu
thief

tu
steal

le
completed action

Sometimes, the object of (bi), the doer of the action, may be omitted. In this case,
(bi) goes directly before the predicate verb.
Passive voice: My bicycle was stolen
Subject
receiver of the action

w de zxngch
My bicycle

bi

Predicate Verb
the action

+ other elements
(rule # 2 below)

tu
steal

completed action

Summary of rules for simple (bi) sentences:


1. The predicate verb must be a transitive verb.
2. The predicate verb must be followed by other elements such as a compliment,
(le) or (guo).
3. Potential compliments, using (de) cannot be placed after the predicate verb.
4. The aspect particle (zhe) cannot be placed after the predicate verb.

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1.
2.
3.
1.
2.
3.

The thief was caught.


That young lady was cheated.
The window was blown open.

xio tu bi zhu zh le
n g gning bi qpin le
chungh bi chu ki le

Using (rng) and (jio)


In spoken Chinese, (bi) may be replaced by the prepositions (rng) or (jio).
In sentences that use (rng) and (jio), instead of (bi); the objects of the
prepositions (rng) and (jio), which are the doers of the actions, may not be
omitted.

4.
5.
4.
5.

The dictionary was bought by me.


The new books in the library have
all been borrowed.

zdin jio w mi li le
tshgun de xn sh du rng rn ji zu le

When it is not necessary or is impossible to tell the doer of the action the word (rn)
may be used in sentences that use (rng), (jio) or (bi).

6.
7.
8.

6.
7.
8.

The recorder was moved to another classroom by someone.


The flowers in the yard were picked by someone.
The door was locked by someone.

6.
7.
8.

lynj bi rn bn do bi de jiosh q le
yunzi l de hur jio rn zhi le
d mn* rng rn su le

In sentence 3, (d mn) can mean main door or gate.

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When time is specified in a sentence, it may go directly before or directly after the
subject.
The boy was bitten by the dog yesterday.

n g nn hizi zutin
bi gu yo shng le
zutin n g nn hizi
bi gu yo shng le

Negative Statements
The negative form of a (bi) is generally formed by placing (mi) or
(mi yu) directly before (bi).
My bicycle was not stolen by a thief.
Subject

Negation

receiver of the
action

w de zxngch
My bicycle

()
mi (yu)
not

Object
( of )

Predicate Verb

doer of the action

the action

bi

xio tu
thief

tu
steal

+ other
elements
(rule # 2
above)

zu
go

My bicycle was not stolen


Subject
receiver of the action

Negation

w de zxngch
My bicycle

()
mi (yu)
not

bi

Predicate Verb
the action

+ other elements
(rule # 2 above)

tu
steal

zu
go

While the grammar involved in creating a negative form of a (bi) sentence isnt
difficult, it is important to remember the context involved when using a negative
(bi) sentence. For instance, if someone should have locked the door but did not, a
speaker may say, (d mn mi bi rn su shng) (The door
wasnt locked by anyone.). However, to simply express that the door isnt locked,
(d mn mi su zhe) (The door isnt locked.) would be used. If
someone should have moved the tape recorder to the classroom, but did not, then
(lynj mi bi rn bn do jiosh l q) (The
recorder was not taken into the classroom by anyone) would be used. However, to
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simply express that the recorder is not in the classroom, (lynj


b zi jiosh l) (The recorder isnt in the classroom) would be used.
Questions
Yes / No questions may be formed by adding (ma) or (mi yu) to the end of
a statement.
Was you bicycle stolen?

n de zxngch bi tu le ma
n de zxngch bi tu le mi yu

You may answer with a complete statement or use the following short answers.
affirmative answer:
negative answer:
negative answer:

bi tu le
mi bi tu
mi yu

Yes, it was stolen.


No, it wasnt stolen.
No.

Example Sentences

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

The leaves have been blown by the wind.


The water has been drunk by someone.
The door was kicked open by him.
The light was turned on by the teacher.
The book was bought by him.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

sh y bi fng gu po le
shu bi rn h le
mn bi t t ki le
dng bi lo sh d ki le
sh bi t n zu le

In sentence 1 above, (gu po) or (gu zu) would be used to say the
leaves were already on the ground and blowing across the ground. (gu dio)
would mean they were blown off of the tree branches, (dio) means to fall.

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6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

The railway was damaged by the flood.


The meat was eaten by the dog.
I was criticized by the teacher.
What was just said was heard by him.
This thing (information / situation / piece of news) is known by them.

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

ti l bi d shu chng hui le


n kui ru bi gu ch le
w bi losh ppng le
gngci shu de hu bi t tng jin le
zh jin sh bi t men zhdo le

11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

The tree was knocked down by the wind.


The money was spent by me.
My hand was not burned by the boiling water.
The things on the table were not moved by anyone.
He was hurt by a car.

11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

n k sh bi d fng gu do le
qin bi w hugung le
w de shu mi bi kishu tng shng
zhuzi shng de dngxi mi bi rn dng gu
t rng qch zhung shng le

16.
17.
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18.
19.
20.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.

That pair of vases was taken away by someone.


His hat as blown off by the wind.
My dog was locked inside the room by someone.
My leg was bitten by the dog.
My neck was bitten by mosquitoes.

16.
17.
18.
19.
20.

n du hupng jio rn n zu le
t de mozi jio fng gu dio le
w de gu rng rn su zi fng jin l le
w de tu bi gu yo le
w de bzi bi wnzi dng le

21.
22.
23.
24.
25.

21.
22.
23.
24.
25.

The new books in the library were all checked (loaned) out.
The tea leaves were put on the table by him.
The things were put in my bedroom by someone.
The book was translated into English by Teacher Wang.
The thief was caught by the police.

21.
22.
23.
24.
25.

tshgun de xn sh du bi ji ch q le
ch y bi t fng zi le zhuzi shng
dngxi bi rn fng zi w de w zi l le
zh bn sh bi Wng losh fny chng le yngy
xiotu bi jngch zhu zh le

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Appendix A
Pronunciation Guide to Chinese
Pinyin Phonetic System ........
Tones
.....
Pitch ..
Inflection ...
Neutral Tone Syllables ..
Guide to Pinyin Pronunciation Chart ...
Initials
..
Finals
..
Pinyin Chart Pronunciation Guide ...
Retroflex r
...
Tone Change Rules ...
Third Tone Rules
.
Tone Change Rules for (b)
Tone Change Rules for (y)

1
1
2
2
2
2
3
3
4
5
6
6
6
6

Pinyin Phonetic System


During the 1950s the Chinese government developed and adopted a Romanized
alphabet system to assist with learning Chinese pronunciation. The system, known as
(pn yn) (spell sound), is a letter-based phonetic system that allows one to
speak Chinese with standard pronunciation. Each syllable is represented by pinyin
letters that follow standard pronunciation rules. Tones are accounted for by a tone
mark above each syllable.
first tone

second tone

third tone

fourth tone

Each tone has both pitch and inflection as the diagram below illustrates:
1st

nd

3rd

tone

tone

tone

high

shng
P

r shng

I
T
C

4
3
2

sn shng

1
low

4th

tone

1st
4th
2nd

3rd

TIME

s shng

Tones
There are 4 distinct tones, and a neutral tone, which is spoken softly. The four tones:
1st - a high (flat) tone, 2nd - a rising tone, 3rd - a tone that combines a falling and a
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rising inflection, and 4th - a falling tone. The neutral tone is soft and light. Each
character is one syllable, each syllable has one tone.
The example below shows how different tones distinguish words that are otherwise
pronounced alike.
1st tone

2nd tone

3rd tone

4th tone

to droop

to answer

to hit

big

Pitch

Notice the pitch of the third and first tones. When speaking a third tone, the fact that
the syllable starts at the lowest pitch of the four tones is important to the listener. The
low pitch of the third tone is the first and most important signal a listener has. While
the inflection of the syllable is important, the pitch is also important. Beginners
usually have problems with third tone syllables because they are concentrating on the
proper inflection. Their main difficulty is that they do not bring the pitch low enough
to be understood when speaking quickly. It is important that the first tone is
distinctively higher, in pitch, than the other tones and that the start of third tone is
lower, in pitch.
Inflection
Since first tone does not require inflection, it is quite easy to master. The English
language uses tones that are similar to the second and fourth tones. The word "no",
spoken sharply, "NO!", is similar to the fourth tone. The word "what", when spoken as
a one word question, "What?" is similar to the second tone. The key to speaking the
second and fourth tones is making sure the tonal inflection very clear. Beginners must
remember not to blend the syllables together. When speaking several syllables in
succession, remember to start at the right pitch followed by a clear inflection.
Neutral Tone Syllables
Some syllables are spoken, relatively softly, without a tone. This is referred to as the
neutral tone, for example, in the word for mother, (mma). As separate
characters each is pronounced as "m", but when put together to form the word for
"mother", the second "ma" becomes is spoken softly and quickly (neutral tone). In the
pinyin phonetic writing system, neutral tones are unmarked.

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Guide to Pinyin Pronunciation Chart


A syllable is usually made up of a beginning consonant sound, called an "initial";
followed by a vowel sound, called a "final". Some syllables consist only of a final.
Referencing Pinyin Chart 1, the columns are labeled A through AM and the rows are
numbered from 1 to 23. The initials [ A3 - A23 ] are followed by finals [ B1 - AM1 ]
to complete one syllable. For example:
initial
[A3]
b

+
+
+

final
[B1]
a

=
=
=

one syllable
[B3]
ba

Initials
The initials [A3-A23] pinyin pronunciations are approximately the same as they are in
English with the exception of z, c, zh, q, and x.
Column

A11
A12
A14
A19
A20

Initial
z
c
zh
q
x

Pronunciation Guide
like 'dz' or the 'ds' in suds
like the 'ts' in rats
like 'j' in just with tongue back
like the 'ch' in cheese with tongue forward
like the 'sh' in sheet with tongue forward

Finals
The finals [ B1 - AN1 ] may also be used alone, however some of them are spelled
differently when they are used alone. Row 2 [ B2 - AM2 ] shows the pinyin spellings
of the finals when they are used alone. Notice that initials E2, F2 and P2 are blank
because the finals in E1, F1, and P1 are not used alone. Notice that the sounds on the
chart in Row 1, from Q1 to AN1 are not the same as the spellings in Row 2 from Q2
to AN2. This is because these syllables, when used alone, are spelled differently than
simply spelling the final. For example: The pinyin spelling of is 'wang'. However,
there is no initial 'w' [ A3 - A23 ]. In this case, the pinyin for this word has no
consonant initial. The final, 'uang' [ AH1 ], stands alone as a single syllable. A 'w' is
used in place of the 'u' in the pinyin spelling, as shown in row 2. [ AH2 ]. The sounds
used for pronunciation are in Row 1 and the pinyin spellings are in Row 2.

Appendix A - Page 3 of 6
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Pinyin Chart

(Pronunciation Guide)

Column

Final

Pronunciation Guide

like 'a' in father

like 'o' in more

no letter

like 'u' in up
like 'r' in shirt

no letter

like 'i' in quiz

er

ai

like the American pronunciation of the letter 'r'


like 'ai' in aisle

ei

like 'ei' in weigh

ao

like 'ow' in now

ou

like 'ough' in though

an

begins with an 'a' like in father and ends with 'n' like in no

en

like 'en' in open

ang

begins with an 'a' like in father and ends with 'ng' in hung

ong

like 'oh' followed by the 'ng' in song

like 'i' in machine

ia

like 'i' in machine followed by 'a' in father

iao

like 'i' in machine followed by the 'ough' in though

ie

iu

like 'i' in machine followed by the 'ay' in day


like 'i' in machine followed by 'oh'

ian

like 'i' in machine followed by 'an' (as described above in L)

in

like 'i' in machine followed by the 'n' in no

iang

like 'i' in machine followed by 'ang' (described above in N)

ing

like 'ing' in sing

iong

like 'i' in machine followed by 'ong' (described above in P)

AA

AB

ua

like 'oo' in boo


like 'oo' in boo followed by the 'a' in father

AC

uo

like 'oo' in boo followed by 'oh'

AD

uai

like 'oo' in boo followed by the 'ai' in aisle

AE

ui

like 'oo' in boo followed by 'ay' in sway

AF

uan

AG

un

like 'oo' in boo followed by 'an' (as described above in L)


like 'oo' in boo followed by the 'n' in no

AH

uang

like 'oo' in boo followed by 'an' (as described above in L)

AI

ueng

like 'oo' in boo followed by 'an' (as described above in L)

AJ

* Note 1

* Note 2

* Note 4

AL
AM

e
an
n

* Note 5

like 'ee' in knee followed by the 'u' in you (but with lips rounded)
sounds like German or French eu

AK

* Note 3

* Note 6

(described above) followed by the 'ay' in day


(described above) followed by 'an' (described above in L)
(described above) followed by the 'n' in no

Appendix A - Page 4 of 6
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Note 1: When 'e' is pronounced alone, as one syllable, is not the same sound as used
in 'ye' [ T2 ], which is pronounced like the 'ye' in yes.
Note 2: In the spoken language, there are cases when the 'er' sound [ G1,G2 ] is
appended to other syllables. This is not reflected in the chart. The rules regarding the
use this sound are discussed in the following section on rules for speaking.
Note 3: When 'ie' [ T1 ] is used after an initial, the 'i' is pronounced like the 'i' in
machine followed by 'e' which is pronounced like the 'ay' in day. When 'ie' [ T1 ] is
used alone, it is spelled 'ye' [ T2 ] and pronounced like the 'ye' in yes.
Note 4: Do not be mistaken that the 'u' in the pinyin spellings of yu, ju, qu and xu
represent the 'oo' sound in column AA - it does not. These syllables are located in
column AJ. In this case, the pinyin spelling rules use the letter 'u' as a substitute for
the letter '', but the syllable is spoken with the sound of ''. The pinyin spellings yu,
ju, qu and xu - represent the syllables: , j, q and x .
Note 5: Do not be mistaken that the pinyin spelling of yuan, juan, quan and xuan
represent the 'uan' sound in column AF - they do not. These syllables are located in
the AL column. In this case, the pinyin spelling rules substitute the letter 'u' for '', but
the syllable is spoken with the sound of 'an'. In this case, the spellings yuan, juan,
quan and xuan represent the syllables -. yan, jan, qan and xan .
Note 6: In pinyin spelling, the letter '' is only used in four spellings. (n, l, ne, ye,)
[ AJ9, AJ10, AK9, AK10 ]. The spellings in AJ - AM columns of the chart show that
the letter '' is spelt as 'u' when it is used with the initials 'j', 'q' and 'x'. Even though
they are spelled with 'u', they are not spoken with the same sound as the 'u' in AA.
Syllables in the AJ - AM columns are pronounced using '', not 'u'.

Rules for Speaking


Retroflex r
The retroflex "r" (er) is sometimes attached to a final. This sound is included in the
syllable that it is attached to, so the addition of (er) doesn't change the original
tone. Only an 'r' is added to the pinyin spelling. For instance, (n) becomes
(nr). Standard Mandarin has several instances when this is used. If the retroflex "r"
(er) is added to a word ending in a consonant, the consonant is still pronounced. For
instance, when (er) is added to (din), the final "n" is pronounced. In these
type words, the tongue will be in the position of final consonant and the (er) sound
will have a slight nasal quality.
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Tone Change Rules


In spoken Chinese there are times when the tones of some syllables are changed.
However, these changes are not usually reflected in written pinyin. The rules are:
Third Tone Change Rule
If a 3rd tone is followed by another 3rd tone, the first 3rd tone becomes second tone.
For example, (n ho) - n changes to a 2nd tone (n) and (ho) remains a 3rd
tone. It is written as (n ho) but spoken as (nho).
Tone Change Rules for (b)
The word (b) is 4th tone when it is spoken in isolation, but when it is followed by
another 4th tone, it is pronounced 2nd tone. For example, (b yo) is represented
in pinyin spelling as (b yo), but it is spoken as (b yo). When (b) is used in
affirmative negative questions, as in phrases such as (sh bu sh), it is
pronounce in the neutral tone.
Tone Change Rules for (y)
First tone - The word ' (y)', which means 'one', is pronounced in the 1st tone when
it is spoken in isolation, for instance, when counting, using cardinal numbers or
stating non-arithmetic numbers such as room numbers. When it is the last digit of a
number, it will also be spoken in the first tone, for example, (sh y), which
means eleven.
Second tone - When ' (y)' precedes a 4th tone syllable, it is pronounced in the 2nd
tone, for example, (y g ) is pronounced 'y g rn'.
Fourth tone - When ' (y)' precedes a 1st, 2nd, or 3rd tone syllable, it is pronounced
4th tone.
Chinese Character
Written Pinyin
Spoken Chinese

y zhng
y zhng

y nin
y nin

y q
y q

Remember: Unlike English, when speaking a multi-syllabic word, the sounds do not
blend. In Chinese, each syllable begins at its proper pitch.
In the Chinese OCW Conversational Chinese Grammar Book and Workbook, the
pinyin has been changed to reflect the tone change rules for (bu) and (yi).

Appendix A - Page 6 of 6
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Appendix B
Advanced Measure Words
Summary
Section A Using nouns of quantity
Section B Expressing half (bn)
B1.

B2.

B3.

B4.

one half of a noun


ling g jzi

bn g jzi

one orange
half an orange

one and a half of a noun


sn png pji

sn png bn pji

three bottles of beer


three and a half bottles of beer

one half of a noun of quantity


y nin

bn nin

one year
one half year

one half of a noun of quantity


y nin

y nin bn

one year
one and a half years

Section C Expressing Indeterminate Quantities


C1.

C2.

a few, a little
()
()
()
and

y din(r)
y din(r)
yu y din (r)
y dindin
yu y dindin

nouns
adjectives
adjectives and verbs
nouns and adjectives
adjectives and verbs

these, those, some


/ n xi / zh xi
y dindin

Section D Using Measure Words with (du)


D1.

Numbers that have a units place of 0 and nouns

D2.

s sh du kui qin

more than 40 rmb

Numbers that have a units place of 1 -9 and nouns

s sh r kui du qin

more than 42 rmb

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D3.

Numbers that have a units place of 0 and nouns of quantity


sh

D4.

du nin

over 10 years

Numbers that have a units place of 1 -9 and nouns of quantity


sh y nin du

over 11 years

Section E verbal measure words


Section F characters that are measure words that appear in nouns
Refer to Appendix A for the tone change rules for (y).

Section A Nouns of Quantity


Some nouns are considered nouns of quantity so they are, themselves, considered
measure words. In this case, the numeral is placed just before the noun. The list below
has some commonly used nouns of quantity.
Words that express time:

nin
year

tin
day

zhu
week

fn
mio
minute second

k
quarter of an hour

su
years old

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

y nin yu sh r g yu
y tin yu r sh s g xiosh
y g xngq yu q tin
y g xiosh yu lu sh fn zhng
y fn zhng yu lu sh mio
sh w fn zhng sh y k zhng
t lu su

One year has 12 months.


One day has 24 hours.
One week has seven days.
One hour has 60 minutes.
One minute has 60 seconds.
15 minutes is one quarter of an hour.
He is six years old.

Appendix B - Page 2 of 14
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These words are nouns of quantity and are also measure words. In examples 1 5
they are used as nouns of quantity, in examples 6 9 they are used as measure words.
(A jin is a measurement unique to China, it equals one half of a kilogram.)

jn
half a kilogram

1.
2.
3.
4.

gng jn
kilogram

k
gram

m
meter

There are two jin* in one kilogram.


There are 1000 grams in one kilogram.
He is two meters tall.

5.
6.
7.
8. 100

He is two meters tall.


It is 3 kilometers from my home to
Tiananmen Square.
I bought 2 jins of apples.
This dress will take 3 meters of
material. (to make)
This bottle has 100 grams of water in
it.
This big cake takes 2 kilograms of
flour. (to make)

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

y gng jn yu ling jn
y gng jn yu y qin k
t ling m go
t go ling m
cng w de ji do tinnmn sh sn qin m
w mi le ling jn pnggu
zh jin qn z
yng le sn m b
zh g pngzi l yu 100 k shu
zh g d dngo yng le 2 gng jn min fn
Section B Expressing half (bn)

B1. When expressing one half of a noun, the word order is:

(bn)

measure word

noun

Comparison of expressing whole numbers and expressing a half:


w

yu

ling

jzi I have two oranges.

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bn
bn
bn
bn
bn
bn
bn

yu

bn

jzi

png pji
zhng zh
zh j
g yu
g xngq
g xiosh
g zhngtu

I have half an orange.

half of a bottle of beer


half of a piece of paper
half of a chicken
half of a month
half of a week
half an hour
half an hour

B2. When expressing [number] and a half of a noun, the word is:
whole number

measure word

(bn)

noun

Comparison of whole numbers and expressing [number] and a half:

w
w

yu
yu

bottles of beer.

y bi

ling zhng bn zh

sn
s
w
lu
q

g
g
g
g
g

bn

I have 3 bottles of beer.


sn png pji
sn png bn pji I have 3 and one half

bn
bn
bn
bn
bn

ch
jz
yu
xngq
xiosh
zhngtu

one and half cups of tea


two and a half pieces of
paper
three and a half oranges
four and a half months
five and a half weeks
six and a half hours
seven and half hours

B3. When expressing one half of a noun of quantity, the word order is:

(bn)

noun of quantity

Comparison of whole numbers and expressing a half:

w zh zi Bijng y nin le

w zh zi Bijng bn nin le

bn nin
bn tin
bn fn

I have lived in Beijing


for one year.
I have lived in Beijing
for half a year.

half of a year
half of a day
half of a minute

Appendix B - Page 4 of 14
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bn mio

half of a second

B4. When expressing [number] and a half of a noun of quantity, the word is:
whole number

noun of quantity

(bn)

Comparison of whole numbers and expressing [number] and a half:

w zh zi Bijng y nin le

w zh zi Bijng y nin bn le

y jn bn yngru
ling su bn
sn nin bn
s m bn
w fn bn
lu mio bn
q tin bn

I have lived in
Beijing for one year.
I have lived in
Beijing for one and
a half years.

one and a half jin of mutton


two and a half years old
three and a half years
four and a half meters
five and a half minutes
six and a half seconds
seven and a half days

Section C Expressing Indeterminate Quantities


C1. Expressing a few or a little
a little / a few

()
y din(r)

()
yu y din (r)

y dindin

(with Nouns
When () [ y din (r) ] is used before a noun it has the function of a measure
word to quantify the noun, indicating an indefinite small quantity, usually smaller that
(y xi) indicates (example sentence 6). The noun can be omitted if the noun
being referenced is clear. The retroflex (r) is always optional and (y) may be
omitted except when it appears at the beginning of a sentence.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Appendix B - Page 5 of 14
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1. wmen xin shngling y dinr shrnhu wmen zu ba


2. w b y dinr dngx l zi bngngsh
3. ynwi w h le dinr ju suy w bb kich
4. ch y dinr shnme
5. w q shngdin mi y dinr tng*
6. jiosh yu y xi xushng
*Sugar and candy are the same word in Chinese. People refer to refined white sugar
as (bi tng).
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

First we will talk (about something) and then we will go.


I left a few things at the office.
Because I drank a little (alcohol), I must not drive.
What would you like to eat?
I would like to go to the store and buy some candy.
There are some students in the classroom.

In the examples below, the nouns are omitted because it is clear from context what the
speaker has in mind.

7. w zh mi ydin I only bought a little.


Would you like to eat a little
8. zi ch dinr ma
more?

(Adjectives
() [ y din (r) ] does not come before adjectives, but it may be used after
adjectives. It is usually used to form a comparative degree. The retroflex is always
optional and (y) may be omitted except when it appears at the beginning of a
sentence.

9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

jntin b zutin r ydinr


w po d b t kui ydinr
jn nin de dngtin b q nin de
kui dinr
mn dinr

lng

ydinr

Appendix B - Page 6 of 14
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9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

Today is a little warmer than yesterday.


I run a little faster than he does.
This year winter has been a little colder than last year.
Hurry up!
Be careful!

In sentence 11, (mn) which literally means slow, is commonly used to mean
be careful.
Adjectives and Verbs
() [ yu y din (r) ] comes before a verb or an adjective, meaning a bit , a
little, or slightly it is often used to qualify something undesirable.

14.
15.
16.
17.
18.

14.
15.
16.
17.
18.

t
zh
zh
w
w

14.
15.
16.
17.
18.

yu dinr b goxng
g dy yu dinr chng
xi yf yu dinr zng le
yu dinr li
yu dinr xing ji

He is a little unhappy.
This coat is a little long.
These clothes are a little dirty.
I am a little tired.
I miss home a little.

and
(y din din) is a bit lower than () [ yu y din (r) ] but both
expressions follow the same grammatical rules.

19.
20.
21.
19. gi w y din din shjin ju gu le
20. t zh h le y din dinju tu tng le
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21. zu

zh

ci

yo

yng

y din din xin

19. Give me a little bit of your time and that will be enough.
20. He only has to drink a little (alcohol) and gets a headache.
21. To cook this dish you need a little bit of salt.
(yu y din din) is a bit lower than () [ yu y din (r) ] but both
expressions follow the same grammatical rules.

22.
23.
24.
22. wmen de jiosh hn hoju sh yu y din din r
23. zi zhr zh b cuju sh yu y din din yun
24. ci de wido b cuju sh yu y din din xin
22. Our classroom is good, it is a little hot.
23. Living here isnt bad, but it is a little far (away).
24. This dish isnt bad but it is a little salty.
Example Sentences

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

1.
2.

t yu dinr xing t de bb
zh jin moy yu dinr chngqng hun y g
dun y dinr de
gng li zhnggu de sh huw shnghu
yu y dinr b xgun xin zi xgun le

3.

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4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

xin zi zhme mngn ynggi zhy y dinr shnt


n bng ledi ch y dinr yo
t gng ci h le y din jutu yu y dinr tng
dji du kn zhe tt ju d yu dinr b ho y s
w yu y dinr b sh f
w

xing kn n g bsi

w du yndng y dinr xngq y


10. jntin nunhu y dinr le
11. t de bng ho y dinr le
12. w hu shu ydinr fy

miyu

1.
2.
3.

He looks a little like his father.


This sweater is a little long, please exchange it for one that is a little shorter.
When I first came to China I wasnt quite used to life (here), now I am a little
more used to it.
4. You are quite busy now, you should give a little (more) attention to your health.
5. You are sick, you need to take a little medicine.
6. He just drank a little alcohol, he has a little bit of a headache.
7. Everyone is looking at him, he feels a little embarrassed.
8. I feel a little sick.
9. I dont want to watch that game, I have no interest in sports.
10. Today is a little warmer. (than expected / than yesterday)
11. He is a little better today. / His health condition is a little better today.
12. I speak a little French.
C1. Expressing these, those, and some
When expressing some, a few or a little , (xi) and (din) are often
used after pronouns (n) and (zh). These are not used with nouns of quantity.
In example 3, (hu) means task and (gn wn) means to finish doing.

1.
2.

3.
4.

These books are Teacher Wangs.


The students in the classroom are Teacher
Wangs students.
Finish these tasks.
I understand everything about the factory.

1. zh xi sh sh Wng losh de
zi jiosh l de n xi xushng
2.
sh Wng losh de xushng
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3. b zh dinr hu gn wn
4. gngchng n dinr shw du

zhdo

Section D Using Measures Words with (du)


D1. Using measure words and nouns with (du)
(with whole numbers that have a units place of zero)
whole number
(with unit place of 0)

+ measure word + noun

1.
2.
3.

This sweater is more than 40 rmb.


I bought more than 10 jins of mutton
today.
They were on the train for over 10
hours.

1. zh jin moy yo s sh du kui qin


2. jntin w mi le sh du jn yang ru
3. t men zu huch zu le sh du g xio sh
D2. Using measure words and nouns with (du)
(with whole numbers that have a units place of 1 9)
whole number
(with unit place of 1 -9)

measure word

1.
2.
3.

+ noun

This sweater is more than 42 rmb.


I bought more than 14 jins of
mutton today.
They were on the train for over 15
hours.

1. zh jin mo y yo s sh r kui du qin


2. jntin w mi le sh s jn du yang ru
3. t men zu huch le sh w g du xio sh

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D3. Using measure words and nouns of quantity with (du)


(with whole numbers that have a units place of zero)
whole number
(with unit place of 0)

noun of
quantity

He is over 20 years old.


1.
2. I have lived in Beijing for more than 10 years.

1. t r sh du su le
2. w zh zi Bijng sh du nin le
D4. Using measure words and nouns of quantity with (du)
(with whole numbers that have a units place of 1 9)
whole number
(with unit place of 1 -9)

+ noun of quantity

He is over 22 years old.


1.
2. I have lived in Beijing for over 11 years.

1. t r sh r su du le
2. w zh zi Bijng sh y nin

du le

Section E Verbal Measure Words


Verbal measure words are most commonly used as compliments of verbs to indicate
the number of times actions happen. The number of times is expressed using a
number and a verbal measure word. The number and measure word go between the
verb and the object. In some instances, it is not necessary to include the object. In the
example below, (tng) means a trip.
I have been to the new bookshop once.
subject

verb

number of times
(number + measure word)

object

q gu

y tng

n ji xn de shdin?

subject

verb

number of times
(number + measure word)

q gu

y tng

Appendix B - Page 11 of 14
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When forming questions, (j) and (du sho) are used in place of the
number of times and the measure word is stated. Usually (j) is used for a
relatively small number and (du sho) is used for relatively large numbers.
How many times have you been to the new bookshop?
subject

verb

number of times?
( / + measure word)

object

q gu

j tng

?
n ji xn de shdin?

The most common measure word for describing the number of times something
occurs is (c) (one time, occurrence). Especially when answering questions. For
instance, (w q gu y c) (I have been [there] once.) is appropriate for
answering a question, but (tng) would normally be used in a statement.

one time, occurrence

1.

2.

3.
4.
5.

6.

7.
8.
9.

Have you discussed the matter?


How many times have you discussed the
matter?
We have discussed it twice.
How many times have you met?
(We) have met twice.
How many times did you go downtown last
month?
(I) went downtown once.
Where did you go traveling?
This time to the south.

n men toln gu zh jin sh


2.
n men toln gu j c zh jin sh
3.
w men toln gu ling c
4.
n men jin le j c min
5.
jin le ling c min
6 shng g yu n jn le j c chng
7.
jn le y c chng
8.
n q nr l xng
1.

Appendix B - Page 12 of 14
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9.

zh c do nn fng l xng

The verbal measure word (bin) is used to show that an action happens in its
entirety from beginning to end.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

n tng gu j bin le
n tnggu du sho bin le
w yjng tng gu j bin le
w dsun zi fx y bin
w yjng xi le ling bin
w yu zhngxn gi le sn bin
zi shu y bin
zh pin wnzhng n zi kn y bin

How many times have you listened (to this)?


How many times have you listened (to this)?
I have already listened (to this) several times.
I plan to review (something) again.
I have already written (something) twice.
I changed it three times.
Say that again.
Read this article again.

ba

Section E Characters that are measure words that appear in nouns


Some characters that are measure words appear in nouns. For instance, to say a cup
of (something), (bi) is used. (y bi ch) means a cup of tea. To say
a cup as in the sentence I have a cup, one would say (w yu
y g bizi.).

png

bottle

sn png shu
sn g png zi

three bottles of water


three bottles

Note: Many characters are both nouns and measure words. In these examples, (ji)
means home or family:
There are four people in my family.
1.

w ji yu sn g rn
I will go home tomorrow.
2.
w mngtin hu ji
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In these examples, (ji) is a measure word for some business establishments.

y ji shngdin
ling ji ynhng
sn ji yyun
s ji lgun

one store
two banks
three hospitals
four hotels

Appendix B - Page 14 of 14
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Appendix C
Shopping / Money / Colors / Clothing

New Words

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

rn mn b
yun
jio
mo (spoken only)
fn
kui (spoken only)
qin
jn

RMB (Chinese unit of currency)

9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.

y gng
bn
zh
jin
bn z
gng b
j z
png gu
hu shng m
d t
chn shn
bi
bi
hung

all together

Chinese unit of currency

.1 RMB (rn mn b)
.1 RMB (rn mn b)
.01 RMB (rn mn b)
Chinese unit of currency
money
Chinese unit of weight
( .5 kilograms )
measure word for books
measure word for garments
measure word for writing instruments
notebook
fountain pen
orange
apple
peanut
map
shirt
one hundred (100)
white
yellow

Currency
The Chinese unit of currencythe (rn mn b), is written as (yun). It is
usually spoken as (kui). Amounts of money are expressed in the following
examples. Adding (qin) to the amount is optional.
(Refer to Appendix A for the tone change rules for (y).)

Appendix C - Page 1 of 5
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When expressing amounts of money, (r) is only used for an amount ending in
two (fn) otherwise (ling) is used.
Written
1.00
1.05
1.25
1.50
1.50
1.65
0.02
1.00
1.05
1.25
1.50

1.65
0.02

Spoken

y yun (qin)
y kui (qin)
y yun lng w fn (qin)
y kui lng w fn (qin)
y yun ling jio w (fn)
y yun ling jio w (fn qin)
y yun w
y kui w
y yun w (mo qin)
y yun lu jio w (fn qin)
y kui lu mo w (fn qin)
ling fn / r fn

written
spoken
written
spoken
written
spoken
written
spoken
written
written
spoken
written and spoken

Questions
When asking the price of an item or number of items, first state the quantity (using
measure words or units of quantity) - then state the item - then add (du sho
qin).
amount / quantity

1.
2.
3.
4.

1.
2.
3.
4.

item

How much is a jin of apples?


How much is one notebook?
How much is a bag of peanuts?
How much is the fountain pen?

y jn pnggu dusho qin?


y bn bnz dusho qin
y bo hushngm dusho qin
y zh gngb dusho qin

Appendix C - Page 2 of 5
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To express the desire to buy something, , or may be used.


5.
6.
7.

( / / )
( / / )
( / / )

I want one bag of peanuts.


What would you like?
How [many / much] would you
like?

5. w (yo / mi / yomi) y bo hushngm.


6. nn (yo / mi / yomi) shnme
7. nn (yo / mi / yomi) dusho
Example Sentences

1.
2.

I would like (to buy) a map of China.


How much is a map of China?

1. w yo zhnggu dt.
2. zh zhng zhnggu dt dusho qin
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

What would you like to buy (see)?


I would like to buy two notebooks.
How much is one notebook?
One notebook is five mo.
How much all together?
Together, one kui.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

nn mi shnme
w mi ling g bnzi.
y g bnzi dusho qin
y g bnzi w mo.
y gng dusho qin
y gng y kui.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

()
()
()

I would like to buy these two shirts.


How much are the shirts?
Yellow shirts are 50 .10
White shirts are 48 . 80
Together, 92 . 90
You gave me 100 . 00

Appendix C - Page 3 of 5
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7. ()

Here is your change 7 . 10

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

w yo mi zh ling jin chnshn.


y jin chnshn dusho qin
hung chnshn wsh kui y (mo).
bi chnshn sshr kui b (mo).
y gng jushr kui ju (mo).
nn gi w ybikui.
zho nn qkuiy (mo).

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

How much is one jin of oranges?

One jin is 1.30.

How much is one jin of apples?

One jin is 3.00.

I would like to buy three jin of oranges, one

6.
7.
8.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

You gave me 10.00.


Your change is 3.10.

y jn jz dusho qin
y jn ykui sn.
y jn pnggu dusho qin
y jn sn kui.
w mi sn jn jzy jn pnggu.
y gng lu kui ju.
nn gi w sh kui qin.
zho nn sn kui y.
Colors

jin apples.
Together 6.90.

hi
hng
l
ln
hu
z
j
zng

black
red
green
blue
gray
purple
orange
brown

Clothes

y (shung) p xi
y (shung) shuto
y (shung) wzi
y (tio) kzi
y (tio) dunk
y (jin) dy
y (jin) yy
y (dng) mozi

a pair of leather shoes


a pair of gloves
a pair of socks
a pair of pants
a pair of shorts
a coat
a raincoat
a hat

Appendix C - Page 4 of 5
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qin
shn

light
dark

y (jin) qnzi
y (jin) niy

a skirt, a dress
an article of underwear

Measure words, included in parenthesis in the pinyin column, may not be left out.

Colors go after the measure words and may be stated in the 4 ways shown below.
Color may be modified by putting "dark (shn)" or " (qin) light" before them
as in example 2 below.
1) The color may be stated in a single syllable:

a yellow shirt

y jin hung chnshn

2) (de) may be used after the color:

a dark yellow shirt

y jin shn hungde chnshn

3) (s) may be used after the color:

a yellow shirt

y jin hungs chnshn

4) (s de) may be used after the color:

a yellow shirt

y jin qin hungsde chnshn

Appendix C - Page 5 of 5
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Appendix D
Numbers in Use
New Words

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
11.
12.
13.
14.
16.
17.
18.

zu
l ch
ho m
din hu
din hu ho m
fngjin
fng jin ho
k
ji
zhng
jn
gng jn
m
su
kui
go

sit, be in a bus or car


bus number
number
telephone
telephone number
house, apartment, room
house / apartment / room number
class
measure word for classes
heavy
unit of weight ( .5 kilograms )
kilogram
meter
years old
fast, quick
tall, high

Telephone and Bus Numbers


ONE
When speaking, telephone numbers and bus numbers; the number one is pronounced
yo . This avoids confusion with the number 7.

A:
B:

713

A:
B:

5123 7190

A:
B:

n de dinhu hom sh dusho


w de dinhu hom sh w yo r sn q yo ju lng

What bus do you take?


I take bus 713.

n zu j l ch
w zu q yo sn

What is your telephone number?


My number is 5123 7190.

Appendix D - Page 1 of 2
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Derivative Works 2.5 China Mainland License. Based on work at Chinese www.chineseocw.com

Measurements (height and weight)


How much do you weigh?
n du zhng

A:
B:

180

A:
B:

What is your height?

I am 1.52 meters (tall).

A:
B:

A:
B:

y gngjn sh j jn
y gngjn sh ling jn

w y bi b sh jn

I weigh 180 .

n du go
w y m w r

How many jin(s) are in one kilogram?


One kilogram is two jin(s).

Age
When express age or time (kui) is used to express 'almost'.

A:
B:
A:
B:

How old is he?


(children under 10)
He is almost 9 years old.

t j su
t kui ju su le.

n du d
w r sh lu su.
w kui sh q su le.

How old are you?


I am 26 years old.
I am almost 27 years old.

Ordinal numbers
To create an ordinal number, place before the number.
, 1st, 2nd ,3rd

Tomorrow, the first class is Chinese.

mngtin dy ji k sh hny.
Room numbers
What is your room number?

A:
B:

508

A:
B:

n fngjin ho sh dusho
w de fngjin sh w lng b ho.

My room number is 508.

Appendix D - Page 2 of 2
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Derivative Works 2.5 China Mainland License. Based on work at Chinese www.chineseocw.com

Appendix E
Numbers from .001 to one million
Percentages / Fractions
New Words

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

(number)

qin
wn
y bi wn
din
bi fn zh (number)

one thousand (1,000)

7.
8.
10.
11.

tng xu
bn
n shng
nn shng

classmate

ten thousand (10,000)


one million (1,000,000)
decimal point
(number) percent (%)

class
female student
male student

Fractions and Percentages


A is the whole amount, B is the part

B
fn zh

bi

100%

fn zh

bi

bi

20%

fn zh

r sh

1.
2.

2/5

fn zh

Our class is 20% boys.


1/4 of my classmates are girls.

1. wmen bn bi fnzh rsh sh nnshng.


2. s fnzh y de tngxu sh nshng.
The number 10,000 is one unit.

y wn
ling wn
r sh wn
y bi wn

1,000
20,000
200,000
1,000,000

When speaking numbers, as you begin on the left proceed to the right, each digit
represents the place value of the digit immediately following the one just stated and
trailing zeros may be omitted.
Appendix E - Page 1 of 3
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Derivative Works 2.5 China Mainland License. Based on work at Chinese www.chineseocw.com

number

is expressed as

110
110
120
120
199
1,000
1,200
1,200
2,999

y bi y
y bi y
y bi r
y bi r
y bi ju
y qin
y qin r
y qin r
ling qin

sh
sh
sh ju

bi
ju sh ju

When stating large numbers, saying (zero) takes the place of several zeros.
number
1,001
1,010
10,002
10,020
100,003

is expressed as

y
y
y
y
sh

qin
qin
wn
wn
wn

lng
lng
lng
lng
lng

y
y sh
r
r sh
sn

To express "a few", (j) is used with (sh), (bi) and (qin).

j sh
j bi
j qin

a few 10's
a few hundred
a few thousand

Appendix E - Page 2 of 3
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Derivative Works 2.5 China Mainland License. Based on work at Chinese www.chineseocw.com

The number TWO


In the thousands place and above, 2 should be read as (ling). 2000 is
(ling qin). When 2 appears in the hundreds place it may be read as either (r) or
(ling).

200

r bi OR

2,000
2,002
2,020
2,200
2,200
2,202
2,202
2,220
2,220
2,299
2,299

ling bi

ling qin
ling qin lng r
ling qin lng r sh
ling qin ling bi
ling qin r bi
ling qin ling bi lng r
ling qin r bi lng r
ling qin ling bi r sh
ling qin r bi r sh
ling qin ling bi ji sh ji
ling qin r bi ji sh ji

Decimal numbers
0.001
0.01
0.1
2.1
2.01
2.001
2.201

lng din lng lng y


lng din lng
lng din y
r din y
r din lng y
r din lng lng y
r din r lng y

Appendix E - Page 3 of 3
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Pinyin Pronunciation Chart


Page 1 of 4

(i)

(i)

er

ai

ei

ao

ou

an

er

ai

ei

ao

ou

an

ba

bo

bai

bei

bao

pa

po

pai

pei

pao

pou

pan

ma

mo

mai

mei

mao

mou

man

fa

fo

fou

fan

da

de

dai

dao

dou

dan

ta

te

tai

tao

tou

tan

na

ne

nai

nei

nao

nou

nan

10

la

le

lai

lei

lao

lou

lan

11

za

ze

zi

zai

zei

zao

zou

zan

12

ca

ce

ci

cai

cao

cou

can

13

sa

se

si

sai

sao

sou

san

14

zh

zha

zhe

zhi

zhai

zhao

zhou

zhan

15

ch

cha

che

chi

chai

chao

chou

chan

16

sh

sha

she

shi

shai

shao

shou

shan

17

ra

re

ri

rao

rou

ran

18

19

20

21

ga

ge

gai

gei

gao

gou

gan

22

ka

ke

kai

kei

kao

kou

kan

23

ha

he

hai

hei

hao

hou

han

me

fei
dei

zhei
shei

ban

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Pinyin Pronunciation Chart


Page 2 of 4

en

ang

eng

ong

ia

iao

ie

iu

ian

in

en

ang

eng

yi

ya

yao

ye

you

yan

yin

ben

bang

beng

bi

biao

bie

bian

bin

pen

pang

peng

pi

piao

pie

pian

pin

men

mang

meng

mi

miao

mie

miu

mian

min

fen

fang

feng

den

dang

deng

dong

di

diao

die

diu

dian

tang

teng

tong

ti

tiao

tie

nang

neng

nong

ni

niao

nie

niu

nian

nin

10

lang

leng

long

li

lia

liao

lie

liu

lian

lin

11

zen

zang

zeng

zong

12

cen

cang

ceng

cong

13

sen

sang

seng

song

14

zh

zhen

zhang

zheng

zhong

15

ch

chen

chang

cheng

chong

16

sh

shen

shang

sheng

17

ren

rang

reng

18

ji

jia

jiao

jie

jiu

jian

jin

19

qi

qia

qiao

qie

qiu

qian

qin

20

xi

xia

xiao

xie

xiu

xian

xin

21

gen

gang

geng

gong

22

ken

kang

keng

kong

23

hen

hang

heng

hong

nen

tian

rong

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Pinyin Pronunciation Chart


Page 3 of 4

AA

AB

AC

AD

AE

AF

AG

AH

iang

ing

iong

ua

uo

uai

ui

uan

un

uang

yang

ying

yong

wu

wa

wo

wai

wei

wan

wen

wang

bing

bu

ping

pu

ming

mu

ding

du

duo

dui

duan

dun

ting

tu

tuo

tui

tuan

tun

niang

ning

nu

nuo

nuan

10

liang

ling

lu

fuo

fuan

lun

11

zu

zuo

zui

zuan

zun

12

cu

cuo

cui

cuan

cun

13

su

suo

sui

suan

sun

14

zh

zhu

zhua

zhuo

zhuai

zhui

zhuan

zhun

shuang

15

ch

chu

chua

chuo

chuai

chui

chaun

chun

chuang

16

sh

shu

shua

shuo

shuai

shui

shuan

shun

shuang

17

ru

rua

ruo

rui

ruan

run

18

jiang

jing

jiong

19

qiang

qing

qiong

20

xiang

xing

xiong

21

gu

gua

guo

guai

gui

guan

gun

guang

22

ku

kua

kuo

kuai

kui

kuan

kun

kuang

23

hu

hua

huo

huai

hui

huan

hun

huang

fu

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Pinyin Pronunciation Chart


Page 4 of 4

AI

AJ

AK

AL

AM

ueng

an

weng

yu

yue

yuan

yun

ne

10

le

11

12

13

14

zh

15

ch

16

sh

17

18

ju

jue

juan

jun

19

qu

que

quan

qun

20

xu

xue

xuan

xun

21

22

23

Chinese OCW Conversational Chinese is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 2.5 China Mainland License. Based on work at Chinese
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Glossary
Unit 30S are words in Unit 30 listed as Supplementary words

Chinese

Pinyin

English Meaning

Unit

love

19

short

i rn

husband or wife

11

n jng

quiet

28

n qun di

seat belt

33

ba

softens a request

31

measure word for chair

15

a preposition used to make a subject


object verb sentence

33

eight

b ba

father

bi

white

24

bi

to place things for the purpose decorating

17

bn

half

bn

move (things)

30S

bn gng sh

office

19

bn ji

to move (to a new home)

33

bo

to carry (in ones arms)

17

bo

to wrap (a gift, a box)

33

bo go

report

24

bo gu

parcel, package

33

bo zh

newspaper

bi

introduces the doer of an action in a passive


sentence

34

bi

to carry on ones back

17

bi bin

north side

15

bi min

north side

15

bi zi

cup

Glossary - Page 1 of 25
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Bijng

the capital of China

10

bn

measure word for books

bn zi

notebook

33

(something) compared to (something)

b j bn

notebook

33

b j bn din no

laptop computer

33

b jio

relatively, comparatively

b si

match, competition

27

b x

must

24

b y

granduate

12

bin

change to, transform

33

bin

side

15

bio

form, table, chart

33

bi

other, do not

26

bi de

other(s)

26

bn gun

hotel

29

bng

sick

19

bng rn

sick person, patient

33

b l

glass, window pane

33

b zi

neck

34

no

measure word for movies

22

b r

not as (comparison standard) as

wipe

11

ci

then

26

ci

food

25

cn gun

restaurant

15

co

grass

17

co d

the ground covered with grass growing on it

17

ch

tea

22

ch

short of

ch

to plug in

33

ch tu

electric plug

33

Glossary - Page 2 of 25
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ch y

tea leaves

34

chng

long, length

chng

sing

25

chng chng

often

18

chng chng

the Great Wall

26

chng g

to sing

11

cho sh

supermarket, grocery store

29

ch

vehicle (car, bike, bus)

16

ch png

covered parking for bicycles

33

chn shn

shirt

24

chng

turn into

33

chng sh

city

ch

to eat

12

chng

to dash against with great force

34

chu t

drawer

33

chu yn

smoke (cigarettes, etc.)

24

ch chi

travel on business

13

ch f

set out

32

ch z ch

taxi

22

ch z q ch

taxi

16

chun

to wear, to put on (clothing)

17

chung

bed

17

chung ti

window sill

17

chu

blow

34

(number of) times

18

c din

dictionary

cng

from (a place)

12

cng

from (a place or time)

29

cng b

never

18

cu

incorrect

22

big

hit, send

22

play (badminton, basketball, ping pong)

29

Glossary - Page 3 of 25
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din hu

a phone call

11

ln qi

play basketball

11

d din hu

make a telephone call

22

d ji

everybody, everyone

22

d ki

open, turn on

33

d mn

main gate

16

d qi

to play (a ball game)

25

d ro

disturb

26

d sun

to plan

33

d xio

size

d xu

university

12

d y

coat

d yn

to print (computer)

25

di

to take, to lead

17

di

to wear (hat, glasses, tie)

17

di

to take, bring, carry

30

dn sh

but

26

dng

to become

31

do

to arrive, to attain a goal

22

do

measure word for math problems

25

de

particle to indicate possession

de

structural particle

20

de du

a lot

d gu

Germany

de sh hou

when something happens

11

di

to have to, must, to need to

24

dng

wait

11

dng

light

34

ground

16

pass or hand something to someone

33

low

d di

younger brother

d fang

a place or location

10

d q

area

28

Glossary - Page 4 of 25
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d shang

on the floor, on the ground

22

d ti

subway

19

d t

map

din ch

battery

33

din hu

telephone

22

din no

computer

din sh

television

10

din xn

a snack

30S

din yng

movie

11

din zhng

o'clock

din z

electronic

33

din z yu jin

email

33

dio

fall, drop

30S

dng

sting (by a mesquito or bee)

34

dng

to move

34

dng

understand

20

dng bin

east side

15

dng fng

eastern, Asia

26

dng min

east side

15

dng tin

winter

dng xi

things

11

du

all, both

read, study

25

degree (temperature)

d ji

vacation

18

d sh

to study

26

dun lin

to do physical exercise

18

du

correct

du min

opposite

15

du chng

how long? (time)

du le

a lot

du shao

how many? how much?

Russia

15

lu s

Glossary - Page 5 of 25
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two

send, transmit

33

f pio

receipt

24

f sho

to have a fever

13

f wn

French (language)

fn

meal

13

fn gun

restaurant

28

fn y

to translate

25

fng

to put something somewhere

17

fng

square

fng ji

vacation

29

fng jin

room

fng zi

house,apartment,building,room

fi

fly

fi chng

very, extremely

fi j

airplane

16

fn zhng

minute

fng

measure word for letters

22

fng

wind

33

fng zheng

kite

30S

measure word for paintings

22

f jn

nearby

29

f m

parents

26

f qn

father

30S

f x

review (a lesson)

33

30S

gi

change to, transform

33

gi

should

24

gn

to do

10

gn jng

clean

20

gng

just (now)

30S

go

tall

go s

tell

26

Glossary - Page 6 of 25
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go xng

happy, pleased

general purpose measure word

song

25

g ge

older brother

gi

to give

11

gn

with, and

29

gng gng q ch

public bus

16

gng l

kilometer

29

gng yun

park

18

gng zu

a job, to work

11

gu

dog

22

g gng

Forbidden City (historical site in Beijing)

26

g k

customer

33

g niang

young lady

34

gu

to hang something up

17

gu

blow

33

gun

close

17

gun dio

turn off (electric things)

33

gun shang

close, turn off

33

gung

used up, nothing left

34

Gung zhu

a city in China

29

gu

Guln

expensive, honorable, to be named (family


name)
a province of China

12

gu

particle for indicating past experience

12

gu

come or go across, to cross

30

H r bn

a city in northeastern China

hi

26

hi

still, yet, still more, also, (used for


emphasis)
sea

30S

hi p

afraid

19

hi shi

or (in a question - not used in a statement)

hi zi

child

Hng zhu

a city in southeastern China

Glossary - Page 7 of 25
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ho

number (expressing a day)

ho

successful, satisfactory, good

22

ho

good

ho ch

delicious

28

ho m

number

33

and

drink

10

h shng

close a book

33

h zi

box (small)

33

hi

dark, black

25

hi bn

blackboard

11

hn

very

hn

hate

19

hn du

many

hn sho

not much, not many, not often

18

hng

red

hu bin

behind

15

hu min

behind

15

h zho

passport

33

hu

to paint or draw (a picture)

22

hu

flower

hu

use time, spend time

31

hu png

flower vase

33

hu yun bn gun

Garden Hotel

29

hui

broken

25

hun

return (something)

22

hun

to exchange

25

hun jng

environment

28

hur

painting, picture

22

hur

flower

30

hu

return

19

hu

will

11

hu

can, will, probably

25

hu li

come back

13

Glossary - Page 8 of 25
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hu d

to answer

22

hu y sh

meeting room

29

hu ch

train

16

hu zh

or (in a statement - not used in a question)

extremely

28

to take note, remember, record

33

33

put on or wear belts, scarves and tied


things
mail (verb)

several, how many?

j chng

airport

29

j din

what time?

j pio

plane ticket

33

j sh

in a timely manner

32

j t

guitar

28

ji

home (a place), family (people)

11

ji

measure word for shops and stores

12

ji k

jacket

33

ji qin

price

jin

measure word for articles of clothing

jin

to meet, to see

22

jin

measure word for affairs and matters

25

jin zh

building (noun)

15

jing

speak, say, tell

25

jio

to be called

jio

to hand over or hand in something

22

jio sh

classroom

jio xu lu

teaching building

29

jio zi

Chinese dumpling

10

ji

borrow

12

ji

33

ji

to receive, to pick up (i.e., a child from


school)
street

ji din hu

to answer the phone

33

30S

22

Glossary - Page 9 of 25
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ji gu

outcome, result

28

ji hn

married

26

ji jie

older sister

ji ju

solve, resolve, settle

32

ji ki

take off (a belt)

33

ji mi

sister

jn

tightly

32

jn

near

29

jn

enter

30

jn nin

this year

jn tin

today

jng ch

police

33

jng chng

often

18

jng l

manager

32

jng yn

experienced

ji

old (things not people or animals)

ji

then

12

ji

nine

ji

alcohol, alcoholic drinks

24

j zi

sentence

17

ju de

to think, to feel

24

k fi

coffee

10

k fi gun

coffee shop

30S

ki

open, turn on

17

ki

drive, open, begin

19

ki hu

start a meeting, have a meeting

11

ki ch

drive a car (bus, truck)

19

ki fng

to make open to the public

26

ki sh

begin, start

29

ki shu

boiling water

34

kn

to see, to watch

10

kn bng

see a doctor

19

kng

to carry something on ones shoulders

33

Glossary - Page 10 of 25
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a quarter of an hour

measure word for trees

k bn

textbook

25

k jin

break between classes

31

k tng

living room

32

k y

allow, permit, may

25

k zhu

school desk for students

15

kng tio

air conditioner

33

cry

32

kui

fast, quick

kui

a piece of

34

kun

wide

spicey hot

25

pull

33

l lin

zipper

33

li

come

10

ln

lazy

ln qi

basketball

25

lo

old (people and animals - not objects)

lo lao

maternal grandmother

17

lo sh

teacher

le

particle for indicating completed action

12

lng

cold

from (a place)

29

plum, a common surname

inside

11

gift

33

l bi

week

l bian

in, inside

16

l ki

leave

26

l mian

in, inside

16

l w

gift

30S

li

equivalent to (ling g)

Glossary - Page 11 of 25
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lin

face

33

ling

measure word for vehicles and bicycles

ling

two (used with measure words)

lio

chit chat

31

lio

verb compliment indicating possibility

25

lio tin

chit chat

31

lio tinr

chit chat

11

Ll

a name of a person

33

ln j

neighbor

32

lng

zero

lng di

necktie

33

lng wi

other, besides

26

li

six

li l

fluent

28

lu

building

lu fng

multi-story building

16

road

16

l yn j

cassette tape recorder

34

l yu

to travel for pleasure

18
1
33
3

ma

m fan

modal particle used at the end of a sentence


to change a statement into a question
trouble, inconvenience

m ma

mother

m shng

immediately

30S

mi

sell

13

mi

buy

11

mi

sell out of something

13

mi dng xi

go shopping

11

mn

slow

20

mn y

satisfy

32

mng

busy

mo

cat

30S

mo b

brush for calligraphy

19

mo y

sweater

12

wn

Glossary - Page 12 of 25
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mi

every

10

mi gu

the USA

mi gu rn

American citizen

mi mei

younger sister

mi yu

do not have

mi yun

American dollars

33

men

a suffix added to pronouns indicating plural

mn

door, gate

17

mn ku

door, gate

17

min

side, surface

15

min bo

bread

33

min tio

noodles

19

Mng

bright, a given name

mng

measure word for persons

33

mng nin

next year

mng tin

tomorrow

mng xn pin

postcard

33

mng zi

name

m sh sh

magician

33

m qn

mother

30S

to carry in ones hand, to fetch

25

that

which

n me

that much

n xi

those

nn bin

south side

15

nn gu

sad, grieved

28

nn kn

ugly

nn min

south side

15

nn png you

boyfriend

no zhng

alarm clock

33

nr

where?

10

ne

modal particle used at the end of a sentence


to create a question in a soft tone

Glossary - Page 13 of 25
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ne
nng

a particle that indicates an action in


progress
can, will

11
25

n
n men

you
you (plural)

1
2

nin

year

nin

to read aloud

17

nn

you (formal, indicating respect)

ni

cow

33

ni yu

New York

nng

make

33

n png you

girlfriend

n sh

Madam, lady, respectful way to address a


woman that is older than yourself

climb

30

to lie face down

32

to dislike, to fear

19

pi du

to wait in line

31

pi zi

sign

17

png bin

beside

15

po b

run

18

png

touch, bump

33

png you

friend

p ji

beer

30

p png

critisize

34

pin

measure word for literary articles

22

pin yi

inexpensive

pio

ticket

13

pio liang

pretty

png

bottle (of something)

30

png gu

apple

png png qi

ping pong, table tennis

25

png zi

bottle (noun)

30

Glossary - Page 14 of 25
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ride (a bike, a horse, motorcycle)

19

rise

30

seven

q ch

to ride a bike

25

q ch

car

19

q chung

get up

31

q m

to ride a horse

25

q pin

cheat, swindle

34

q z xng ch

ride a bike

19

qin

money

22

qin b

pencil

qin bin

front side

15

qin min

front side

15

qing

wall

17

qi

cut, clice

22

qn kui

diligent, hardworking

qng

please

qng chu

clear

20

qi

ball

33

go

10

to take, to fetch

33

q nin

last year

qn zi

dress, skirt

17

rn hu

then, afterwards

26

hot

r qng

cordially

32

rn

person

rn ku

population

rn mn b

Chinese currency

33

rn shi

to meet someone, to know someone

24

rn wi

opinion

24

rn zhn

conscientious

32

Glossary - Page 15 of 25
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rng

to throw

33

rng dio

throw away

33

day

r bn

Japan

ru

meat

34

r gu

if

26

sn

three

so

sweep

33

sh f

sofa

22

shn

mountain

30

shng

to injure

34

shng bn

to start work, to be at work

23

shng bian

top side

16

shng ch

to get into a vehicle

23

shng chun

to get in a boat

23

shng din

store, shop

10

shng ge xng q

last week

shng ge yu

last month

Shng hi

Shanghai (a major city in China)

10

shng ji

23

shng k

to set out on a (local) trip (ie., to go


shopping)
to start class, to be in class

shng lu

to go upstairs

23

shng l

to set out on (long) jouney

23

shng mian

top side

16

shng w

morning

shng xu

23

sh j t

to go to school (daily classes or begin a


major course)
blueprints

shn me

what

shn me sh hu

when?

10

shn t

health, body

11

shng bng

fall ill, become sick

25

shng c

new words

33

23

33

Glossary - Page 16 of 25
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shng hu

life

26

shng r

birthday

shng yn

voice, sound

shng zi

rope

33

sh

ten

sh

is, are, am

sh

matters or affairs

25

sh jin

time

sh pn

foodstuffs

19

shr

affairs, matters

31

shu

to receive

25

shu

hand

32

shu

receive

22

shu j

cell phone

33

shu d

capital

29

shu shi

to put in order, to tidy up

33

sh

tree

sh

measure word meaning a bunch (of


flowers)

30

sh

book

sh bo

book bag, backpack

16

sh din

bookstore

14

sh fu

comfortable

32

sh ji

bookshelf

16

sh xu

math (as a subject)

25

sh y

leaf

34

shu

sleep

20

shu

water

33

shu (shi)

who (commonly pronounced shi)

shu gu

fruit

shu jio

sleep

11

shu png

level

25

four

die

26

Glossary - Page 17 of 25
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s j

driver

25

sng

deliver, give (free of charge)

22

s sh

dormitory

12

su

to lock

34

su y

so

26

he

she

tn

28

t men

t men

play a stringed musical instrument with


ones fingers, pluck a string
they (for a group of both females and
males)
they (females)

ti

too

ti dng

table lamp

17

ti yng

sun

30S

tn

talk, discuss

26

tng

to burn, to scald

34

tng

to lie down or recline

17

to ln

discuss

11

to yn

hate, disgusting

19

tng

to have pain

25

kick

34

tin

day

tin qi

weather

Tinjn

a city near Beijing

31

tio

measure word for roads

tio

measure word for skirts and dresses

24

tio w

to dance

18

ti

to stick something to another thing

17

ti l

railway, railroad tracks

34

tng

stop

30S

tng

listen, hear

20

tng chng

regular, ordinary, normal

18

tong sh

colleague, coworker

33

2
2

Glossary - Page 18 of 25
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tng xu

classmate

tng zh

notice

33

tu

head

32

t sh gun

library

10

tu

leg

25

tu

push

22

tu

take off (clothing and shoes)

33

wi bian

outside

16

wi gu

foreign country

28

wi mian

outside

16

wi y

coat

17

wn

to complete, to finish

22

wn

late

31

wn fn

dinner

22

wn hu

party (in the evening)

33

wn shang

evening, late, night time

Wng

king, a common surname

wnr

play, relax and enjoy oneself

19

Wi

great, a common given name

wi shn me

why

19

wi xin

dangerous

25

wn

ask

wn hu

culture

26

wn jin

documents, papers

25

wn t

question, problem

25

wn zhng

article, passage, essay

19

wn zi

mosquito

34

to hold

32

I, me

w men

we

w sh

bedroom

33

five

w fn

lunch

31

Glossary - Page 19 of 25
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w zi

room

22

wash

11

x bin

west side

15

x gu

watermelon

22

x huan

like

19

x min

west side

15

xi k

to end a class

12

xi bn

to get off work

23

xi bian

under, below, bottom side

16

xi ch

to get out of a vehicle

23

xi chun

to get out of a boat

23

xi ge xng q

next week

xi ge yu

next month

xi k

to end a class

23

xi lu

to go downstairs

23

xi mian

under, below, bottom side

16

xi tin

summer

xi w

afternoon

xi xu

to end a day of school

23

xi xu

to snow

23

xi y

to rain

13

xin

first

26

xin sheng

mister, gentleman

xin zi

now

10

xing

think, want, miss (long for)

24

xing jio

banana

xing zi

box (large), suitcase

33

xio

smile, laugh

32

xio

little, small

xio gu

puppy

22

xio hu

joke

25

xio ji

young lady, Miss (title)

xio sh

hour

Glossary - Page 20 of 25
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xio tu

thief

33

xio zhng

headmaster, school principle

xi

shoe

33

xi

write

11

xi xie

thanks, thank you

19

xi xn

to write a letter

19

xi z

write, write letters or characters

20

xn

letter

19

xn

new

xn xin

fresh

xng

OK

31

xng

surname

xng f.

happiness

xng li

luggage

33

xng q

week

xing d

brother

xi

repair

28

xi l

to repair

25

xi xi

rest, break, a day off

11

xu q

term, semester

xu sheng

student

xu x

study

10

xu xio

school

xu yun

campus

15

yn jng

glasses

17

yn yun

performer, actor

32

yo

medicine

18

yo

want, will, intend

24

yo

bite

34

yo shi

if

26

page

16

night

23

also

Glossary - Page 21 of 25
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yye

paternal grandfather

17

one

y dinr

a little bit

y dng

already

22

y fu

clothes

19

y hu

after

12

y hu

after

27

y hur

indicates a short time

31

y jng

already

25

y q

together

11

y qin

before

12

y qin

before

27

y xi

indicates a short time or casual manner

31

y xir

indicates a short time or casual manner

31

y xi

some

y yng

the same

y yun

hospital

15

y zi

chair

15

ybin...ybin

while (two actions occurring at the same


time)

27

yn hng

bank

30

yn wi

because

11

yn yu

music

yng gi

should

24

yng gu

England

yng gu rn

British citizen

yng wn

English language

yng y

English language

10

yng

use

19

yu

(1) indicates a repetition of an action


(2) indicates a succession of actions

28

yu

have

yu bin

right side

15

yu r yun

kindergarten

33

Glossary - Page 22 of 25
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yu j

post office

15

yu min

right side

15

yu pio

stamp

33

yu y shng din

Friendship Store

12

yu yng

swim

24

yu.yu

indicates two actions that happen


in the same time period

28

y f

grammar

33

y mo qi

badminton

29

y sn

umbrella

33

y x

preview (a lesson)

33

y yn

language

29

y y

raincoat

33

yun

round

yun

far

29

yun zh b

ballpoint pen

yun zi

yard, courtyard

34

yu

month

yu li yu

used to state a progression

yn dng

sports, participating in sports

18
11
14

zi

zi

an adverb that indicates an action in


progress
in, at

zi

at, there exists, there is

15

zi

to be at a place

22

zi

(1) indicates a repetition of an action


(2) Indicates a continuation

28

zi jin

good bye

zn men

we

zo

early

21

zo fn

breakfast

12

zo shang

morning

zn me

how?

19

zn me yng

how? (when asking about the condition of

24

Glossary - Page 23 of 25
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something or someone)

zhi

to take off things [that use ]

33

zhi

pick (flowers, fruit, etc.)

34

zhn

to stand

17

Zhng

a common surname

zhng

zhng

measure word for newspapers and pieces of


paper
measure word for table

15

zho

to look for

11

zho j

worry, hurry

24

zho xing j

camera

17

zhe

17

zhe

aspect particle indicating a continuing state


or action
adverbial modifier to show the manner in
which an action is done

zh

this

zh ge xng q

this week

zh ge yu

this month

zh me

this much

zh me

so, very

26

zh xi

these

zhng zi

11

zhr

an adverb that indicates an action in


progress
here

zh

only

26

zh

measure word for pens and pencils

zh do

to know

26

zh hu

after

27

zh qin

before

27

zhng gu

China

zhng gu rn

Chinese citizen

zhng jin

middle, between

15

zhng wn

Chinese (language)

zhng w

noon

zhu

week

32

11

Glossary - Page 24 of 25
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zhu m

weekend

18

zh

live

12

zh y

pay attention to

24

zhu

to grab, to sieze, to catch

33

zhu zh

to catch, to sieze

34

zhun y

university major

zhung

to bump, to hit

34

zhung

load, pack

33

zhung xi

decorate, remodel

33

zhn bi

prepare

33

zhu zi

table

z xng ch

bicycle

zu

walk, to leave a place

12

zu l

to walk down the street

32

zu

most

19

zu ho

best

26

zu jn

recently

11

zu x huan

favorite

19

zu

measure word for buildings

zu

to do

10

zu

to sit

17

zu

to ride in a vehicle

19

zu

yesterday

zu bin

left side

15

zu min

left side

15

zu y

homework

22

zu y bn

homework notebook

33

tin

Glossary - Page 25 of 25
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