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Social Studies Reviewer

The Establishment of a Colonial Government and the Threats Against it


Principal aim of the Spaniards is the establishment of a colony
Reduccion and the Formation of Towns
Encouraged the newly baptized and those to be baptized to live in the
pueblo or town
Reduccion is the method of creating towns or the transfer of the
inhabitants to the town
Cabecera-Visita
Cabecera under the bells
The inhabitants had to live in a place where they can hear the church bell
Visita a village or barrio surrounding the cabecera where those
undergoing Christianization lived.
The chapel in visita was also called visita
Under the authority of the Catholic Church and the colonial govt
Plaza
The center of the cabecera
Open space, square in shape, where the streets of the town converge

Municipal Hall

Arsenal
Hospital

Church

Tow
n
Ho
me
s

Plaza

Establishment

Market

Insular Government
Governance became intricate
Council of the Indies
Overall council with the duty to govern all of the colonies in the name
of the king of Spain
National Government
Centralized government
Aim was to hasten and to make effective the colonial policies
Governor-General
Highest official in the national government
Captain-general defend the colony

Vice royal patron counterpart of the archbishop in religious matters


President of the Audiencia highest judge
Audiencia
Adviser to the governor-general
Last court of appeal
Provincial government
Spaniards divided the archipelago into provinces for effective governance
Role of Friars in the government
Supervised the election of the gobernadorcillo and the cabeza
Keeper of the list of residents of the town. Signature must be seen in all
financial papers
Served as mediator who pacified rebellions
Owners of prime lands haciendas or agricultural lands
Colonial Economy Before the 19th century
Created changes in agriculture, land ownership, labor, and taxation
Became the root cause of the widespread abuses that Filipinos experienced
Agriculture
Each family in pueblo had its own piece of land to build its house
Friars taught the Filipinos the use of plow
First blacksmith was a Filipino Panday Pira
Known for his skill in crafting iron tools and foremost expert in making
cannons
Land
Recopilacion de leyes de las Indias laws of Spain
King of Spain is owner of all lands in the Philippines
Names of Filipinos werent placed in the certificate of ownership of land
The law only gave them the right to use or till the land
Land could not be sold or given to other Filipinos or Spaniards
The right to the land will be taken away from them if they dont use
the land within 2 succeeding years
Right to the land can be transferred to the rightful heir or king.
Hacienda
Land the friars received from the king
Agricultural estate
much larger compared to the pueblo
many of them located in settlements outside Manila and the
neighbouring Tagalog districts or provinces
Taxation
Colonial govt needed income to spend for public works
Principal among all of these was the collection of taxes

Encomienda and tribute


Encomienda is the right to collect tribute or taxes in a place
Encomenderos were given the privilege of using the taxes for their own
benefit
Defends people in his encomienda from common criminals

Bandala
Forced sale of products to the government
Other taxes
Sanctorum for the use of the Church
Caja de comunidad community fund
Diezmos prediales or tithe
Donativo de Zamboanga to pay for the cost of the campaign of the
govt against Muslims
Vinta to pay for the cost of the patrols on the coastal areas against
Muslim attacks
Cedula payment of tax according to the persons income
Labor
Polo
All male Filipinos from 16-60 yrs. Old render polo for 40 days in a year
Not scheduled during planting or harvest seasons
Chinese render polo first before Filipinos
Polistas
Monopoly
Brought hardship to Filipinos
Tobacco
If farmer planted more than the quota, the govt confiscated the
surplus w/o payment
Abusive because all harvest go to the govt
Trade
Philippines open to foreign trade before Spaniards arrived
Only Chinese and galleon trade were allowed
Chinese and Manila-China trade
Spaniards encouraged Chinese to trade in the Philippines
Important because of the services that they rendered
Parian exclusive district for the Chinese
Manila-Acapulco Trade
Galleon trade
Used only 2 ships per year
Principal product is silk and porcelain, Moluccas, jewelry, carpets, ivory,
silverware
Galleons large ships
Had to buy boleta or ticket
Andres de Urdaneta
Internal trade
Provinces traded with Manila
Loans
Obras Pias loaned money
Needed to participate in the galleon trade
Obras Pias
Organization of the Church that asked money from the rich

New Plants and Animals


With the arrival of the Spaniards, new plants and animals reached the
Philippines. The new plants enriched the diet of the Filipinos
Changes in Society and Culture
Underwent widespread changes because of colonialism
Peninsulares
Spaniards born in Spain
Insulares Spaniards born in
Philippines
Mestizo Half
Spanish/Chinese & Half Filipino
Indio Catholic Filipinos
Infiel Non-Catholic Filipinos
Moro Muslim Filipinos
System of Education
Religion is principal subject
Missionares- first teacher
Role memory learned by repetition
Controlled by the Church
3 levels of Education
Primary
Secondary
Colegio for boys
5 years of study
Grammar and rhetoric, physics and mathematics, philosophy,
science
Student who finished successfully get Bachelor of Arts
ONLY the children of Spaniards, Spanish Mestizos, and
Chinese Mestizos studied in colegios
Beaterio for girls
Just like the colegio
Taught Christianity and good conduct
University
Highest level of education
Most Filipinos remained as farmers and fishermen
Higher levels of education werent offered to Filipinos
Revolts against Spain
To change the system
All revolts failed

Longest revolt Dagohoy Revolt


Revolt

Year/s

Leader

Manila Revolt

1574

Conspiracy of the
Maharlikas

1587-1588

Ladia Revolt

1643

Lakandula/Solim
an
Magat
Salamat/Agustin
de Legazpi and
chieftains
Pedro Ladia

Tamblot Revolt

1621

Tamblot

Bankaw Revolt

1622

Bankaw/Pagali

Tapar Revolt

1623

Tapar

Pule Revolt

1832

Hermano Pule

Silang Revolt

1762

Diego/ Gabriela
Silang

Magalat Revolt

1596

Magalat

Gaddang Revolt

1621

Palaris Revolt

1762

Felipe
Catupay/Gabriel
Dayag
Juan dela Cruz
Palaris

Sumuroy Revolt

1649

Juan Sumuroy

Maniago Revolt

1660

Francisco
Maniago

Malong Revolt

1660

Andres Malong

Basi Revolt

1807

Pedro Mateo

Reason of
Rebellion
Loss of political
power
Loss of political
power

Loss of political
power
Return to the
old religion
Return to the
old religion
Return to the
old religion
Rejection of
Filipinos for
Prieshood
Abusive
Economic
policies; Tax
Abusive
Economic
policies; Tax
Abusive
Economic
Policies; Tax
Abusive
Economic
Policies; Tax
Abusive
Economic
Policies; Polo
Abusive
Economic
Policies; Polo
Abusive
Economic
Policies; Polo
Abusive
Economic
Policies;

Result of Rebellion
Quelled
Betrayed to the
Spanish
authorities

Crushed
Suppressed

Crushed

Supressed

Quelled

Crushed

Crushed

Weakened &
abandoned
Crushed

Agrarian Revolt

1745-1746

Filipino
landowners

Dagohoy Revolt

1744-1829

Francisco
Dagohoy

imposition of
monopolies
Landgrabbing/R
evolt of the
Peasants
Unequal Rights

Reform and Revolution


Economic, political, social, and infrastructural changes in the 19 th century
resulted in the emergence of nationalism
Nationalism
The love of a country.
Reform Movement
Ilustrado
Went to Spain to escape the restrictions that the govt imposed after
the execution of GomBurZa
Expressed their feelings through articles they wrote
Jose Rizal
Dimasalang, Laon-Laan
Noli Me Tangere
Story of Juan Crisostomo Ibarra
El Filibusterismo
Story of Crisostomo continues
Encouraged Filipinos to seek knowledge and reason in paving the
future of the country
Marcelo H. Del Pilar
Most well-known writer of the Reform Movement
Plaridel
Assimilation
Acceptance of the Philippines as a part or province of Spain
Graciano Lopez Jaena
Diego Laura
Fray Botod
Greed, cruelty, and appetite of the Friars
Juan Luna
Spoliarium
Felix Resurreccion Hidalgo
Virgenes Cristianas Expuestas al Populacho
Los Dos Mundo
newspaper
Gregorio Sancianco
El Progreso De Pilipinas

Steps needed to bring the growth of the Philippines


Maximo and Pedro Paterno
Pedro Paterno- son of Maximo Paterno
Sampaguitas
La Solidaridad
Newspaper in order to find a venue where the desire of the Reform
Movement towards achieving assimilation can be expressed
Assimilation
Expulsion of the friars from the Philippines
To attain freedom of Speech
Equality of all before the law
Philippine representation in the Cortes, legislature of Spain
Lopez Jaena 1st editor
Marcelo H. Del Pilar became editor and replaced Jaena
Relation with Masonry
Masonry
Society that pursued free thinking w/c often criticized the policies and
beliefs of the Catholic Church
Important to the Reform Movement and also during the time of the
Revolution
Establishment of the La Liga Filipina
Rizal believed that the battle was in the Philippines, not in Europe
Preparation to be done was needed to be done through education
Aim of the La Liga Filipina:
Unification of the entire country
Cooperation in the face of necessity
Defence against violence and injustice
Support for education, commerce, and agriculture, and the
implantation of reforms
July 7, 1892, Rizal was deported to Zamboanga
Result of the Reform Movement
Failed
Spain didnt implement any changes in the Philippines
Spain was too preoccupied with her own problems
Reformists faced financial problems
Reform Movement opened the eyes of many Filipinos
Katipunan
Kataastaasan Kagalang-galang na Katipunan ng mga Anak ng Bayan
Andres Bonifacio
Charismatic leader
Led the Katipunan that launched the Philippine Revolution
Father of the Philippine Revolution
Aims of the Katipunan
Political
To strive for the separation of the Philippines from Spain
Moral

To teach people the right conduct and cleanliness


To fight blind obedience to religion
To overcome weakness of character
Civic
To help oneself and defend the poor and the oppressed
Aspiration of the Katipuneros was to be free from the abuses of the
Spaniards
Structure of the Katipunan
Divided into 3 bodies:
Kataastaasang Sanggunian
Highest body
Sangguniang bayan
Sangguniang Balangay
Represented the province and town
3 types of members:
Katipon Associate, anak ng bayan
Kawal primary role is to be soldiers
Bayani - hero
Members underwent a test and given a symbolic name.
Andres Bonifacio May Pag-asa
Emilio Jacinto Pinkian
Used passwords to identify its members
Katipon anak ng bayan
Kawal GomBurZa
Bayani Rizal
Teachings of the Katipunan
Kartilya
Written by Emilio Jacinto
13 teachings
Towns that accepted the teachings of the Katipunan were also given
symbolic names
Magdalo Cavite Viejo
Magdiwang Noveleta
Magwagi Naic
Magtagumpay Maragondon
Walangtinan Indang
Emilio Jacinto brains of the Katipunan
The women of the Katipunan
In 1893, Bonifacio opened the doors of the Katipunan to the women
Only the wifes, children, and sister of the Katipuneros would be accepted
Duty of the women was to make sure that Katipunan meetings werent
interrupted
To provide distraction to passers-by while meetings were held at the
backroom
Keepers of important documents

Nurses for the wounded and sick Katipuneros


Carriers of weapons
Newspaper of the Katipunan
Kalayaan
To spread the teachings of the Katipunan and to recruit new members
Bonifacio Agapito Bagumbayan & May Pag-asa
Jacinto Pingkian and Dimlas-Ilaw
Valenzuela Madlang-away
The political aim of the Katipuneros was to fight for the separation of the
Philippines from Spain.
The primary aim of the Reform Movement was assimilation
Andres Bonifacio was the founder of the Katipunan
The Reform Movement that sough reforms was led by educated members of the
middle class, also known as ilustrados
The consciousness of one race that is rooted in having one religion, language,
culture, history, and values is nationalism
The official newspaper of the Reform Movement was the La Solidaridad
The work of Juan Luna that shows parallelism between the oppressive Romans
and Spaniards is the Spoliarium
The organization advocating free thinking that often criticized the policies of the
Catholic Church is Masonry
While conservatism prevailed in colonial Philippines, there was the widespread
influence of liberalism in Europe
The revolution of the Katipunan was through armed struggle
The Uncovering
Date: August, 1896
Traitor: Teodoro Patino
Teodoro told his sister, the sister confessed to the nun, the nun told the
Father, the priest told the general, they went to the location of the KKK.
The Supremos
Deodato Arellano
Roman Basa
Andres Bonifacio
The Membership
You have to pay 25 centavos
12 centavos monthly fee for the management of the Katipunan
CRY OF PUGAD LAWIN
The revolution began with Bonifacio and his men tearing up their
cedulas
Women who contributed to fight for freedom
Melchora Aquino (Tandang Sora) gave food and shelter to
wounded Katipuneros

Trinidad Tecson Mother of Biak-na-Bato; helped wounded


Katipuneros
Capitana Salome (Nueva Ecija) fought in battlefields with other
Katipuneros
Henerala Agueda Kahabagan (Laguna) fought in battlefields
with other Katipuneros
First shots of the Revolution
Spanish authorities arrested many Filipinos & locked them up in dungeons
of Fort Santiago (Intramuros)
Three Revolutionary Models of the Period
Jose Rizal
Andres Bonifacio
Emilio Aguinaldo
Better Man
Bonifacio
Appeal
Charism
Action
Passion
Never won in battles
Graduated Hard Knocks University
Aguinaldo
Ilustrado
Elitist
contemplation
Inaction
Won battles
Strategizes
College drop-out

Tejeros Convention of 1897


Meeting held between the Magdiwang and Magdalo factions of the Katipunan
San Francisco de Malabon, Cavite