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1

2548
ISBN 974-11-6529-3

COHESION IN THE ROYAL DECREES IN THE REIGN OF KING THONBURI


AND KING RAMA I

By
Pornsiri Tuntijitjaru

A Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree


MASTER OF ART
Department of Oriental Languages
Graduate School
SILPAKORN UNIVERSITY
2005
ISBN 974-11-6529-3

.......
( . )

........................................

......................................................
( )
............./............../...............
......................................................
( . )
............/.............../................
......................................................
( )
............./............../................

K44103205 :
: /
:
1 (COHESION IN THE ROYAL DECREES IN THE REIGN OF KING THONBURI AND
KING RAMA I) : . 120 . ISBN 974-116529-3

1 47
1 6


6


3

3






2548
..................................................
............................................................

K 44103205 : MAJOR : THAI EPIGRAPHY


KEYWORD : COHESION / THE ROYAL DECREES
PORNSIRI TUNTIJITJARU : COHESION IN THE ROYAL DECREES IN THE
REIGN OF KING THONBURI AND KING RAMA I. THESIS ADVISOR :ASST.PROF.
PAYAU CHAROENCHAI. 120 pp. ISBN 974-11-6529-3.
The purpose of this thesis is to study the cohesion in the Royal Decrees in the
reign of king Thonburi and king Rama I. The data were published of 47 of the Royal
Decrees that were read by the epigraphists. From this study, the mechanics of cohesion
in the Royal Decrees can be classified into 6 types, that is reference, substitution,
ellipsis, repetition, conjunction, and lexical usage.
There are 6 types of reference, that is, pronominal reference, nominal
reference, proper names/position reference, kinship terms reference, abbreviation
reference and zero reference. There is only one type of substitution, that is, clausal
substitution. There are 3 types of ellipsis, that is, nominal ellipsis, verbal ellipsis, and
clausal ellipsis. There are 3 types of repetition which are repetition of words or phrases,
repetition of structures, and paraphrases. The conjunctions show the relations in 13
types, that is, additive relation, ordinal relation, alternative relation reformatory relation,
conditional relation, temporal relation, clausal relation, relation of purpose, relation of
result comparative relation, relation of starting and ending points, content relation,
place relation and transitional relation. There is only one type of lexical usage, that is,
lexical collocation.

Department of Oriental Languages Graduate School, Silpakorn University Academic Year 2005
Students signature ..
Thesis Advisors signature............................................................

.
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..........................................................................................................

1 .................................................................................................................. 1
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2 ............................................................................... 12

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. 32
3 .......................................... 34
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............................................................................. 35

. ................................... 36
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4 1.......................................... 66
1............................................................ 66
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1................................ 68
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5 ......................................................................... 102
. ................................. 102
1 ................................. 103
. 105
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..................................................................................................................... 109

...................................... 109
1................................. 112
.................................................... 114
1............................................. 117
................................................................................................................... 120


1




1



..2542


2
1

, 1 ( :
, 2523) ,32.
2
, .. 2542 ( : , 2546) ,724.










(Discourse)

(Text)

(Cohesion)
2 3


(Cohesion through Reference),
(Cohesion through Conjunctive), (Cohesion through Ellipsis)

Halliday Hasan
Cohesion in English4,
3

M.A.K. Halliday and Rugaiya Hasan, Cohesion in English (London: Longman, 1976).

Ibid.

31.

Beaugrande & Dressler Introduction to Text


Linguistics5, 6,
: 7
8,
9, Wipah Chanawangsa Cohesion in Thai10,

.11,
.. 1893 -246612,
13,
5

Robert-Alain de Beaugrande and Wolfgang Urich, Introduction to Text Linguistics


(London : Longman,1981).
6
, 3 7-15 (10,11),
9 ( : ,2544), 45-78.
7
, : ( :
,2537).
8
, ( : , 2542).
9
. ,
(
, 2529).
10
Wipah Chanawangsa, Cohesion in Thai (Ph.D. dissertation of Georgetown
University,1986).
11
,
. (
, 2532).
12
, .. 1893 2466
(
, 2534).
13
,
(
, 2542).

14,
15, 16


17

3
(Reference)

()

(Conjunctive)
14

,
(
, 2543).
15
, (
, 2544).
16
, (
, 2544).
17
, 1 , 26.

()
(Ellipsis)
3



1.
1 1 18
2 19
2. 1
47
(1/10) 1 ( )
1 10 / ( )
10

18

, 1 ( :
, 2523).
19
, 2 ( :
, 2525).

1. 1 10
1
.. 1138 (.. 2319)
2
.. 1138 (..2319)
3 ..1138
(..2319)
4
.. 1138 (..2319)
5
.. 1138 (..2319)
6
.. 1139 (..2320)
7 .. 1141 (..2322)
8
.. 1142 (..2323)
9
10

2
( 1)
37
1 .. 1144 (..2325)
2 .. 1144 (..2325)
3
.. 1145 (..2326)

4 11 12 ..1145
(..2326)
5 .. 1145 (..2326)
6
.. 1145 (..2326)
7
.. 1146 (..2327)
8
.. 1146 (..2327)
9 ..1148 (..2329)
10
..1149 (..2330)
11
.. 1150 (..2331)
12
.. 1150
(..2331)
13
.. 1153 (..2334)
14 ..
1153 (..2337)
15 .. 1156 (..2337)
16
..1156 (..2337)
17 ..1157 (..2338)
18 ..1159 (..2340)
19 ..1159 (..2340)
20 ..1163
(..2344)

21
..1164 (..2345)
22
..1164 (..2345)
23
.. 1164 (..2345)
24
.. 1164 (..2345)
25 4
.. 1164 (..2345)
26 7
.. 1165 (..2346)
27
7 ..1165 (..2346)
28 ..1165 (..2346)
29 ..1165
(..2346)
30 6
.. 1165 (..2346)
31 10
..1166 (..2347)
32 ..1168 (..2349)
33
..1170 (..2351)
34 ..1170
(..2351)
35 ..1170
(..2351)
36 ..1170 (..2351)

37 ..1170
( ..2351)
2. 1
2
.. 2523 .. 2525
3. 6

3.1 (Reference)
3.2 (Substitution)
3.3 (Ellipsis)
3.4 (Repetition)
3.5 (Conjunction)
3.6 (Lexical)
6
Halliday & Hasan20, Wipah Chanawangsa21
22

1.

2.
3.

4.

20

M.A.K. Halliday and Rugaiya Hasan, Cohesion in English.


Wipah Chanawangsa, Cohesion in Thai.
22
, ( :
, 2539).
21

10

1.
2.

3.
4.
5.
6.

1.







1
2523 2 3
2. (Discourse)




(Cohesion)

11

3. (Cohesion)


(Surface Text)
(Cohesive Device)
4.
5.

6.

7.

8.


1. .....

2.
3. ___

4. (1/1)
()
) (1/10)
5. (
1 10

2
1.

2.

1. Robert -Alain de Beaugrande and Wolfgang Urich 1


"Cohesion in English"
(Discourse) 2
(Cohesion)

Robert -Alain de Beaugrande and Wolfgang Urich


5
1.1 (Reference)

Robert -Alain de Beaugrande and Wolfgang Urich, Introduction to Text Linguistics


(London : Longman,1981).

12

13
3
1.1.1 (Personal Reference) 1
2 3
1.1.2 (Demonstrative Reference)
,
1.1.3 (Comparative Reference)

1.2 (Substitution)
3
1.2.1 (Nominal Substitution)
1.2.2 (Verbal Substitution)
1.2.3 (Clausal Substitution)
1.3 (Ellipsis)
3
1.3.1 (Nominal Ellipsis)
1.3.2 (Verbal Ellipsis)
1.3.3 (Clausal Ellipsis)
1.4 (Conjunction)
4
1.4.1 (Additive)
1.4.2 (Adversative)
1.4.3 (Causal)
1.4.4 (Temporal)
1.5 (Lexical Cohesion)
2
1.5.1 (Reiteration)

14
1.5.2 (Collocation)

2. M.A.K. Halliday and Rugaiya Hasan 2


Cohesion in English.
(Cohesion)
M.A.K. Halliday and Rugaiya
Hasan 7
2.1 (Recurrence)

2.2 (Partial Recurrence)



2.3 (Parallelism)

2.4 (Paraphrase)

2.5 (Pro-form)

(Anaphora)
(Cataphora)
3
2.5.1 (Pronoun)
2.5.2 (Pro-verb)
2.5.3 (Pro-complement)
2.6 (Ellipsis)

M.A.K. Halliday and Rugaiya Hasan, Cohesion in English (London: Longman, 1976).

15
2.7 (Junction)
4
2.7.1 (Conjunction)
and, moreover, also, in addition, besides, furthermore etc.
2.7.2 (Disjunction)
or
2.7.3 (Contra junction)

2.7.4 (Subordination)

because, as, therefore, so, while, thus, since, when etc.
,

1. 3






5
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
3

, ( : , 2525).

16



2. Wipah Chanawangsa4
6
2.1 (Reference) 3
2.1.1 (Pronominals) 4
2.1.1.1 (Personal pronouns) 3
2.1.1.1.1 1 :

2.1.1.1.2 2 :

2.1.1.1.3 3 :
2.1.1.2 (Pronominally Used Nouns)

1
5
2.1.1.2.1 (Kinship Term)
1 2 3

Wipah Chanawangsa, Cohesion in Thai (Ph.D. dissertation of Georgetown


University,1986).

17
2.1.1.2.2 (Personal Names)
1 2 3
2.1.1.2.3 (Friendship Terms)
1 2
2.1.1.2.4 (Occupation Terms)

2.1.1.2.5 (Title Terms)
1 2 3
2.1.1.3 (Zero Pronoun)

2.1.1.4 (Possessives) 2
2.1.1.4.1
(Possessive Pronouns)
2 . 1.1.4.2
(Possessive Determiners)
2.1.2 (Demonstrative Reference)

2.1.3 (Comparative Reference)

2.2 (Substitution)
(clausal substitution)
2.3 (Ellipsis) 3
2.3.1 (nominal ellipsis)
2.3.2 (verbal ellipsis)
2.3.3 (clausal ellipsis)
2.4 (Repetition)
3
2.4.1 (repetition of words and phrases)
2.4.2 (repetition of structures)

18
2.4.3 (paraphrase)
2.5 (Lexical Cohesion)
6
2.5.1 (Synonymy)
2.5.2 (Use of general terms)
2.5.3 (Hyponymy and Co-hyponymy)
2.5.4 (Meronymy
and Co-Meronymy)
2.5.5 (Antonymy)
2.5.6 (Collocation)
2.6 (Conjunction)
2
16
2. 6.1 (Additive Relation)
2.6.2 (Enumerative
Relation)
2.6.3 (Alternative Relation)
2.6.4 (Comparative Relation)
2.6.5 (Contrastive Relation)
2.6.6 (Concessive
Relation)
2.6.7 (Exemplificatory Relation)
2.6.8 (Reformulatary
Relation)
2.6.9
(Causal Relation)
2.6.10 (Relation of purpose)
2.6.11
(Relation of result)

19
2.6.12 (Conditional Relation)
2.6.13
(Inferential Relation)
2.6.14
(Temporal Relation)
2.6.15 (Transitional Relation)
2.6.16 (Continuative Relation)
3. Yajai Chuwicha5
2 (First-Person Narratives)
Cohesion in Thai
3.1

3.1.1 (Reference)
(Generic Words)
(Social Status Words)

3.1.2 (Deletion)

3.1.3 (Collocation)
- -
--
3.2 (Internal Linking)

3.2.1 (Demonstrative Reference)

3.2.2 (Substitution)

5

Yajai Chuwicha, Cohesion in Thai (Master s thesis Mahidol University, 1986).

20
3.2.3 (Connection)




3.3 (Paragraph Linking) 2
3.3.1 (Boundary Marker)
3.3.2 (Grammatical Construction)

4. 6
4 ,
,
10
49.68 32.04
12.18
5.90
5. 7

, ,

,
( ,2529).
7
,
: (
,2534).

21
, , , ,


2

5 ,
, , ,
6. 8
(Reference) (Conjunction)

6.1 (Reference)
( )
( ) (Anaphoric relation)
( )

6.1.1 (Nominal reference)
3
6.1.1.1 (Personal pronoun)

6.1.1.2

,

,2539.()

22
6.1.1.3

6.1.2

3
6.1.2.1
, , , ,
,
6.1.2.2
/ +
, , ,
, ,
6.1.2.3

6.1.3

3
6.1.3.1

6.1.3.2 , (
, , )
6.1.3.3 / +
+ +
, , ,
6.2 (Conjunction)

23
6.2.1


, , , , ...
, , ...
6.2.2


, , , , ,
6.2.3
, , , ,
6.2.4

6.2.5


, ,
6.2.6

,
6.2.7

,

6.2.8

,,,,,,,

24
6.2.9

, , , ,
6.2.10



, , , ,
6.2.11

, , ,
6.2.12

, , , ,

6.2.13

, ... , ,

6.2.14

6.2.15

,

25
6.3 (Repetition)
3 (Recurrence)

(Reparaphrase) (Parallel structure)
6.3.1
1
6 . 3 . 1 . 1
(Complete recurrence) (Partial recurrence)


6.3.1.2




( -)
( -)



6.3.2

6.3.2.1

6.3.2.2

26
-, --, -,
-
6.3.3





7. 9

5

8. 10
6

,
(
, 2542).
10
, (
, 2544).

27
3
1 2 3 4

2

3 2


3

3

3

14






5


4

28
9. 11

9.1

9.1.1 4

9.1.2 3
9.1.3 2
9.1.3.1 3
9.1.3.2


9.1.4 3

9.2
2
9.2.1 9


9.2.2 2

11

, (
, 2546).

29




10. 12 .
. 6
5

11. 13
(Cohesion)



11.1 (Cohesion through discourse
structure)
(one theme)

11.1.1 (Cycles)
(episodes) (similar plots)
(old information) (cycle)
(setting)

12

, . . (
, 2545).
13
, : ( :
,2537).

30
11.1.2 (Overlay)
(non-narrative
material) (amplification)

(round and round)

(literal repetition)




11.2 (Theme Cohesion)







11.3 (Cohesion through reference)


3
11.3.1 (Personal reference)
1 2 3
(Pro forms)

31


11.3.2 (Demonstrative reference)

11.3.3 (Comparative
reference) (identity),
(general), (similarity), (difference),
(comparison), (quantity), (particular) (quality)
11.4 (Cohesion through
substitution and ellipsis)






11.5 (Cohesion by conjunctionlinkage)

11.5.1 (Explicit linkage)

11.5.1.1

11.5.1.2

11.5.1.3
-

32
11.5.2 (Implicit linkage)


11.5.2.1

11.5.2.2

11.5.2.3

11.5.3 (Grouping)


11.6 (Cohesion through lexical itemsvocabulary)


11.7 (Pragmatic
cohesion)

33
M.A.K.
Halliday and Rugaiya Hasan,
Wipah Chanawangsa ,
,

1.
Halliday and Rugaiya Hasan , Wipah Chanawangsa
3

2.
Wipah
Chanawangsa

3. Halliday and
Rugaiya Hasan Wipah Chanawangsa

4.
Wipah Chanawangsa

5.
Wipah Chanawangsa




6.
Wipah Chanawangsa



(Monologue)




1
12 1 1138


.. (1/11)
12 1 1138




(Topic)
1
34

35

2
..... 5 6


15
(1/10)


3
..... 3230 2738 153 2891
6121 14 12 3 1 12242 9 11 1
1 24 4 2 1321 4 2 2 1
97 1595 4 14 3 1 2916 8 17 1 2
33 3 2 (1/15)

.....

36
4
.....



1 2 1 1 1
3 1

100 2 100
1000 100 2 (1/18)


5
..... (1/54)

(Cohesion)


6
1. (Reference)
2. (Substitution)
3. (Ellipsis)
4. (Repetition)
5. (Conjunction)
6. (Lexical Usage)

37
1. (Reference)



(Endophora)
(Exophora)








1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.1

38
3
1 1
1.1.1 1
6




. (1/22)
1
1.1.2 3
7

(1/9)
3 (
)
8
.....
.....
(1/12)
3 (
)
9
2 4
...(1/33)
3 (
)
10
. (1/ 52)

39
3 (
)
1.2
11
6 6 (1/7)

12
. 52 ....
(1/12)

13

1 1
...

.. (1/19-20)

1.3
14

...(1/21)
(
)
15
...

40
4 12 3 3
...(1/30)

16
2 11 1138

..... (1/16)

1.4
17
1142
1
...
2
7 (1/46)
2
1
1.5
18
...
4 3 11 5 3
9 3 ...(1/33)

19
... 10
6 10 ... 90055 ...(1/40)

41
20
...
...
...(1/47)

1.6

//

21
...
16 5
6 2 6 3 8 6
3
(1/9)

22
12 1 1138

........ (1/11)

23
6 11

. (1/19)

42
24
2 2 1138

...... (1/23)

25
2 3 1141 1
2
.. (1/33)
1-2
26
1142

(1/46)

2.

27
12 1 1138
......

..... .... 15 1
..... ....
.... 52 ....
1 1 ...
(1/12)

43

28
.... 1
3
7 1 .... (1/18)

29
3 3 6
41 3 20 10 30
10 11 3

20 5 3 (1/18)

30
. 7,8,9 .
4 3 1 1

..
(1/21)

31
..... 3
..... 2
1. 5 3 .
(1/24-25)

44
32


.. (1/46)

3. (Ellipsis)







3.1

33
...... 2 6
1 1 1 2 7 14
3 2 2 .....
2 3 1 2 4 2 3
13 2 ......
1 , 2 ()
34
.

1 2
3 (1/11)

45
1, 2, 3 ()
35
...... 33 1 35 68
14 2 19 33 12 3 10
22 55 ..... (/13)
1 ()
2 ()
3 ()
36
.... 3

1 2 3
.(1/19-20)
1, 2, 3 3 ()
37
........ 7,8,9
1
15 2 3 7 ....... (1/21)
1, 2 ()
3 ()

38
.... 1 3 4 4
12 20 1 2 3 2 3 4
20 16 ...... (1/28)
1 , 2 ()
39
3 1 1 3 9
.....

46

4 25 3 .... (1/45)
()
40
3 ....
1 2
4 25 3 .... (1/45)
1, 2 ()
41
2 4 6 3
1 2 2 3 3 5 5
2 15 3
3 6 3 (1/ 37)
1, 2, 3 ()
42
.


(1/11)
()
43
.... 1

2 7 7
15 3
........ (1/25)
1, 2 ()

47

44
..... 1 1 1 2 2 3 2
4 2 5 6 4 6 4 7 8 8
4 9 4 10 16 ...... (1/7)
1 5 ()
6 - 10 ()
45
...... 2 6
1 1 1 2 2 7
14 3 2 2 ..... (1/8)
1, 2 ()
46
.... 33 35 68
14 19 33 12 10
22 55 20 1 20 2
20 3 20 4 80 135 ..... (1/13)
1 4 ()
47
.. 1 1 6 2 7 1 3
7 4 8 1 5 5 6 6 (1/14)
1 6 ()
48
1 1 2 2
1 3 1 4 2 5 7 ...... (1/14)
1 - 5 ()

48
49
....... 1
1 1 1 4

10 1 12 2 22
5 2 ....... (1/23)
1, 2 ()
50
.... 10 1 10 2 20 3 20 4 40
40 5 48 6 88 .... (1/24)
1 4 ()
5, 6 ()
51
1 1 1 2 2 .. (1/43)
1 , 2 ()
52
...... 4 1 8 2 12 1
12 7 84 84 ...... (1/39)
1, 2 ()
3.2
53
1321 4 2 2 1
1439 4 9 3 3 .. (1/15)
()
54
...... 108 1 7
44 2 11 3 18 ...... (1/45)

49
55
...... 29 26
25 ....... (1/14)

3.3

56
1 1
1 2 1 3
1. (1/ 6)
1-3
57
.
..... 1
1 1 1 4

10 12 22
5 2 ....... (1/23)

58
.... 3 ....
1 2 ...........
2 7 .....
3 3 ...... (1/42)
1, 2, 3

50
4. (Repetition)




4.1

59
..... 2 22 8
22 1 2 1 4 6
22 22 44 8 1........ (1/6)

60

4 3230 1 10 1 3 2
2738 153 2891 ......... (1/15)
,
,
,
61
1 2 1
1 2 7 . (1/14 )

62
.....
....... (1/17)

51
63
...... 6 6
1 1 2 8 ....... (1/24)

64
3 ....

4 25 3 .... (1/45)

65
.....
.....(1/21)

66


..... (1/20)

4.2
67
.... 6 6
3 3 6
1
1......... (1/7)
......()...
68
4 3
2

52
4 3
2
4 3
2 ...... (1/8)
4
3 2
69
.... 2 2 2 2
1 50 3 2 2
2 1 2 1 1 3 3 1
2 1 2 3 5 47 2 ..... (1/9)
.........
70
/ 1
1 / 1
1 / 1.. (1/24)
.......
71
...
3 3 9
3 1 3 3 2 1 3 3
3 ...... (1/33)
...() 3 ... ...() ...
72
2 10 1 3 3
6 3 18 10 3 1 ... (1/ 47)
1
3

53
4.3
73
.
1 6 7
2 2 1 2 2 .
1 1 10 7
10 10 2 10 (1/38)

5. (Conjunction)
2




5.1

74


1
2 3
(1/7)
1-3

54
75

1
2 1 ..... (1/11)
1
2
76
....
1
2 3
4
1 2 1 1 ...... (1/18)
1, 2, 3, 4


77
.... 3

1 2
(1/19-20)
1

55
78
...... 1 2..... (1/20)
1 2

5.2

79
...... 3 14
1 2 5 6 2 3 1
6 7 1 2 1
15 13

..... (1/17)

80
.... 4 2
1 2
1 5 6 2 3 1
2 1 2 1 6
7 ..... (1/19)
1-2

56
81
.
3
.... (1/20)

3
5.3

82
....



....... (1/19)

83
.....
15 7
4 3 1 1

.... (1/21)

57
5.4

84
......
...... (1/19)

85
......
.... (1/17)

86
......
.....
(1/25)

5.5

87
.....
20 5 3 2 ..... (1/18)

88
.....
....... (1/18)

58

89
.....

..... (1/19)
........

90
....
3
...... (1/19-20)
........
5.6
91
.... 2 6
.... (1/8)

92
.... 5 6

..... (1/10)

59
93
.... ....
.... .....
15 1 ..... (1/11)
........

94
2 3 1141

4 4 3 11 5
3 9 3
10 3 ...(1/ 33)
..... ....

95
...
4 3 ...(1/44)

4 ...
5.7
2
96
.... 2 2 2 2
1 50 3 2 2 2
1 2 1 ..... (1/9)

60
97
... 2 2 2
1 2 2 1 1
10 ...(1/47)

98
...
20 5 3 2 10 5 15
5 5 3 2 ...(1/18)

5.8
99
..... 1 1
..... (1/20)


100
... 1 2
...(1/19)


101
... 3 1 1
...(1/20)

61
5.9
102
1142

.

7 .. (1/46)

103
9 1139


..... (1/30)

5.10
104
...
.... (1/8)
...

105
... ... (24)
...

106
...
4 3 11 5 3 ...
(1/33)

62

107
...
...(1/25)


5.11
108
... 7 3
10 ...(1/47)

109
...
...(1/30)

110
...
......
(1/19)

5.12
111
...
4 3 ...(1/44)

63

112
... 14
3 ...(1/36)

6.


-
113
2 6
1 1 2 7 14 3 2 2
1 4 3 12 1 3 1
4 4 2 1 2 . (1/8)


114
16 ... 2
1 50 3 2 1
3 (1/9)


115
. 52
.. (1/12)

64
116
.
2 ..
1 1
1 1
1 6 2 1 1
1 3 3 1 1 .
(1/17)




117
. 2 1 1
1
(1/20)



118
2 7 14 3 2 2
2 1 1 1 2
(1/27)


119

3 7 63 5 37
2 9 46 151

65
108 84 192 30 30
10 1 1 72 . (1/28)



120
. 12 3

2 1 1 1 . (1/29)


121
... 14 3 1 4
2 4 10000 6000 400 600
200 200...(1/36)

4
1
1


(Monologue)

1

1



1
11 3
1
1
11 4
... (2/27)
11 3

1
1

66

67
2

11 14 1
2 3 4...... (2/35)


11 14


(Topic)
1




1


3
..... 15 15
15 10 10 10 5 5
5 2 2 2 2 2
2 10 60

68
10 4 6 10 10
150 844 (2/29)

844
4
.....
50 30 2, 3, 4 3
(2/90)


5
.....
3 2
3 4 3
2 5
2 3
(2/40)



1
(Cohesion)


1 6
1. (Reference)
2. (Substitution)

69
3. (Ellipsis)
4. (Repetition)
5. (Conjunction)
6. (Lexical Usage)
1. (Reference)



(Endophora)
(Exophora)




1


1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.1

70
1


3
3 1

1.1.1 1
6

18 3 10 31 ... (2/91)
1
7
6 6 15 1171 2


.......
5,000

.... (2/ 93)
1

1.1.2 3
8
... 1
1 3


100 ... (2/100-101)
3

71
9
4 10 5
.... ....
(2/6)
3 (
)
10
...
1 2 7 11 8
(2/7)
3 (
)
1.2
11
.....

.....(2/49)

1.3
12
2 12
....
10
...(2/20-23)

72
(
)
1.4

13



6 .....
........ (2/73)


14
.....
10 1 7 1
1 1 4 ...
(2/91)

1.5



1


15
... 4 13 5
5

73
14 5
...

16
... 11 14 15 1
3

2 ... (2/9)

17
... 12 14 15 1 12
(2/10)

18
...
7 10

(
)
19
2 12

6 12
(2/20)

20
... 2 10 ()

74
2 13 3
... (2/24)

21


1 1 1 3 (2/61)

22
4 10 5
1 2..... (2/6)

23
5 7 8 ..1146
....
(2/14)

24

5
....... (2/82)

25
1 2
7 6 9 10
11 6 12
3
..... (2/65)
1-3 3

75
1 ,2 3
26

30 30 30 25 15
20 150 .... (2/ 7)

27

7 10
........ (2/15)

28
11 14 15 1
3 .......... (2/ 9)

29
11 12
1 1
........ (2/ 28)

2.

30
.. 5 5 ......
5, 7 .....

76

........ (2/15)

31
3
3
3

......... (2/ 9-10)

32

5 8
3
... (2/39)

33
... 6 7 3
6 7
8 9 2 7 3

... (2/67)

34
...

... (2/104)

77
3. (Ellipsis)





1

3.1

35
... 3
6
... (2/10)
()
36
...

... (2/10)
()
37
.... 4 200 1
2 3 (2/21)
1 3 ()
38
4 8 8 16
1325 ... (2/22)
()

78
39
...
60 1 60 120 60 2
60 120 40 3 40 80 ... (2/23)
1 ()
2 ()
3 ()
40
...... 50
100 100 200 ..... (2/21)
()

41
... () 1 1 30
30 1 2 1 3 2 5 4 5
5 20 6 20 7 36 8 147
1 9 1 10 1 11 100 12
103 250
472 ... (2/3)
1 - 12 ()
42
...
1 2 7 11 8
15 30 3 3 1 1
13 25 25 2 25 3
25 4 100 20 5 20 6 40 20 7
40 20 8 20 9 40 120

79
80 343
100 443 ... (2/7)
1 9 ()
43
... 1 10
1 1 1 2 2 70 3 1 4 1
5 1 6 1 7 4 8 2 9 2 10 4 11
90 15 40 ... (2/16)
1 - 11 ()
44
...
60 1 60 2 120
60 3 60 4 120 40 5 40 6 80
40 7 40 8 80 20 9 20 10 40 (2/23)
1 - 10 ()
45
... 4 1 1 2 2
1 ... 2, 3, 4 ... (2/88)
1 , 2 ()
46
7 4 11

1 1 2 2 2 3 5
4 30 5 35 ......... (2/30)
1 5 ()
47
....
2 1 5 2 7 ...... (2/ 36)
1 2 ()

80
3.2
48
... 1 2 3 2
6 ... (2/50)
1-3
49
...
1 ...
2 1 ...
3 ...
4 ...
5 2...
1-2
50
... 4 8 8 16
1325 (2/22)

51
12 1

... (2/11)

52
... ...
1 1 30 30
1 30 30 ... (2/78)

81
53
... 5 5
... (2/15)

54
2 15 2 5
1 10 2 2 1
2 7 2 2 14 .(2/58)
1-2
3.3

55

11 14 1 1
2 2 3 3 4 2
2 ........ (2/35)
1-3 .........
56
.....

.............

82

. (2/102-103)
1-3
4. (Repetition)


1

4.1

57
...
... (2/10)

58
... ...
12 1
... (2/11)

83
59
... 500 30
585 615 3 ...
(2/12)

60
...
16 3 48 48 1 1
(2/71)
,
61
... 3

... (2/74)

62
....
1 1.....
6 9 10 11 ..... (2/ 61)

63
16 2 5
10 15
1200 30 ........ (2/ 69)

64
.
3 3

84
3 ......
(2/9)

65
...

... (2/73)
,
66
... 6 8 10
... (2/53)

67
1 1 2 1
1 1 1... (2/53)

68
... 16 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1... (2/55)

69
...

... (2/48)

85
4.2
70
... 11 5 1 2
3 4 4
11 6 1 2 3
4 4
11 7 1 2 3
4 4
11 8 1 2 () 3
3
11 9 1 2
3 3 ... (2/26)

... ... ... ... 1 ... 2.... 3 ... ...
71
... 1
2
3
4
5

... ...
72
...
1 8 6
48 3 3 2 16
74 15 3
36 158

86
3
1 3 16 5 2 14
30 188 .... (2/15)

.......................
73
3
3 ....(2/ 9)
+ / /
3 ....
74
1 7
-
1 4 1 7 7
9 1
1 4 1 9 7
10 1...(2/ 37)
.... .... .... ........
.....................
75
....... 1 1 1 1 15 17
2 1 1 1 15 17
3 1 1 1 5
5 5 17
4 1 1 1 15 17
(2/31)
...... 1 1 1
.........

87
4.3
76
.....




3


5. (Conjunction)
2


1

5.1

77
... 10
10 20 10 10
4 5 5
5... (2/11)


78

88

10 50 3
1 1 1 3 2 5
5
() ... (2/14)


79
... 2


4 200

... (2/21)




80

(2/ 9)


81
.
....
....

89
4 200 ....


...... (2/21)


82
........ 2
6
....... (2/50)

6
5.2

83
8 10


50
50 ... (2/47)

84
4 2 5 2

9

2 8

90
160 5 640 2
2 ... (2/87)



85

2 17 19 27 513
25 4
2 6 2 5

... (2/39)
, .... ...

2
86
..... 500 30
585 615 3
...(1/12)


87
.....
100
8 3 15 .... (2/41)


8

91
5.3

88
...
4

100
8 3 15

3 15 ... (2/42)

89
... 50
53 50

8 9
50

8 10 ... (2/47)

90
...


100
... (2/88)

92
91
....
2 5

.....
.......

..... (2/39)

92
...... 40 3
1 1.......
........
20
.......
40
........ (2/96)

5.4

93
... 1 4

4 11 ... (2/60)

93
94
... ... (2/87)

95
8
(2/88)

96
...
... (2/101)

97
..... 4
11 12 13 3 3...... (2/73)

98
...

...(2/10)

5.5
99
...

...(2/102)

94


5.6
100
...
3 15 3 1 3
2 ... (2/42)

101
... 8 9

... (2/48)
8 9
102

4 11
4


103
...

...(2/16)

95
5.7
104
6 15 6 1171

6 7 8 9
2,000 3 ... (2/93-94)


105

2 4
3
30 2 3 4
3 3


106

11 14 (1156)
... (2/36)


5.8

107
..... ....
....... (2/10)

96


108
40
..... (2/96)

109



5,000 ...
(2/93)
(2) (1)
5.9
110
... 5 14 5

...(2/1)

5.10
111
... 2

... (2/21)

97

... (2/21)
112
...


12 1 1
(2/11)
12 1
1
113


(2/33)




114
12 1

... 12 1
1 (2/11)

1
115

11 8
11 13 ... (2/43)

98
11 13
5.11
116
...
7 10 ...(2/14)

117
...
3 2 3
4 ...(2/40)

5.12
118
3 14
... (2/42)

119
...
8 9 8 10
... (2/48)

99
5.13
120

11 8
11 13
1 2 34 2 34 68
2 6 74
1 3 18 2 17 35
2 6 41
1 3 11 2 12
23 2 6 29 ... (2/43)

6.


-
121
2 15 2
10 2 2 1
7 2 2 14
2 2 4 8
3 3 1 7 14 12 2
4 4 8 1 2
2 2 3 3 3 5
1 1 ... (2/58)


100
122
..
...
(2/33)


123
... 1 7
-
1
1
4 ...
1
4 ...


, , ,
124
... 1 1
1 3
8 9 ... (2/48)


125
... 1 12 8
... (2/68)

101
126
... 4 14 3 3
...(2/60)


10 1
1 37 2

1

6


1.
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
2.
3.
3.1
3.2
3.3
102

103
4.
4.1
4.2
4.3
5.
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7
5.8
5.9
5.10
5.11
5.12
6.
1
6

1.
1.1
1.2

104
1.3
1.4
1.5
2.
3.
3.1
3.2
3.3
4.
4.1
4.2
4.3
5.
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7
5.8
5.9
5.10
5.11
5.12
5.13
6.

105

1
2
2 6

1
1
,
,
,
2
,

3 ,

,
,
4

,
5

, ,
, ,
6

7
,

9 , ,

, , ,, ,
10 , ,

11

12

,
13

106

1



1

2



1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

107

. . 8. : , 2533.
. . : , 2542.
..
, 2546.
. . :
, 2539.
. ..1893 2466.

, 2534.
. 3 7 -15 (1 0,11).
9, : , 2544.
.
.
, 2542.
.
: .
,2534.
. .

, 2529.
.
..
, 2532.
.1 . :
, 2523.

108
.2 . :
,
2525.
. .. 2542. :
, 2546.
. .

,2544.
. .
, 2544.
. . 4.:
, 2526.
. . : , 2542.
. . :
, 2544.
. .

, 2543.
. . ..

, 2545.

Beauugrande, Robert-Alain de and Wolfgang Ulrich Dressler. Introduction to Text


Linguistics.London : Lomgman,1981.
Halliday, M.A.K. and Rugaiya Hasan. Cohesion in English. London : Longman,1976.
Wipah Chanawangsa. Cohesion in Thai. Ph.D.Dissertation Georgetown University,1986.
Yajai Chuwicha. Cohesion in Thai. Master thesis, Mahidol University,1986.

110

2
2 2

5 15
1096 17 2277
3



4 1129 28
2311 35
5 9 1144
6 2325


4 4 20 2279
3

111
(
) ( ) 5 3
2
1

2
2
3

4
1
5

8 1
1144 10 2325 48
9 3
1171 2352 3 7 74
28

115







()


()
()


()
()






()

116

()

()
()
( )


()

()

()

()
()

()
()

118


..1150

11 12 (1150)
1 1

()
()
11 13
8 ()
64
() () () 40 40
80 40 40 80 30 30 60
20 20 40 20 20 40 20
20 40 ( 340 )
() 60
30 10
20 60
()
20 10 10 60
() 10 10 20
10 10 20 10 10 20 60
() 15
25 5 5 20 15 30
2 3 2

119
() 7 10 12 20
150
15 15 15
10 10 10 5 5
5 2 2 2 2 2
2 10 60
10 4 4 10 10
150 944

120

.. 2540
.. 2544


175 4
72120