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Denn-warren Tafah | Twitter: @Dtafah

Date: April 19, 2016

19 April 2016


Water is a powerful symbol throughout the world, carrying with it ideas of
baptism and new life, cleansing and healing, and the promise of growth and prosperity.
However, in a world of growing demands on a limited resource, the increasing scarcity of
clean water has created devastating conflicts and catastrophe. For example by 2025, 1.5
billion people will experience absolute water scarcity and 2/3s of the world will be living
under water-stressed conditions. Basically, our daily necessities like water and food are in
There are a couple problems with water around the world. First, a lack of rain
across the world is causing droughts. Second, bad infrastructure of water systems (pipes,
wells etc.) has led and is leading to poison water. Third, defecation and toxic waste is
polluting the water, which effects the growth of crops, forcing the government to rely
heavily on Genetically Modified Organisms to solve the food crisis. Supposedly, GMO
technology can help to reduce water loss from agriculture and to improve drought
tolerance. However, we dont want people to depend on GMOs because of the not soadvertised health hazards. GMOs are linked to over 22 different diseases like cancer or
Parkinsons disease. (GMOS 10 reasons to not get)
A specific example for the water crisis is in Michigan. In 2014 the city of Flint
changed its water reservoir from the Detroit River to Flint River, which is very corrosive.
This is more of a problem than it would normally be because the pipes Flint uses to direct
the Flint River water throughout the city are old and leaden. This means that the new
water has dissolved particles of lead into the water that Flint residents use every day for
cooking, cleaning, etc. General motors are the only location that was allowed to switch
back to Detroit water because they reported that the water was corroding the cars. If the
water can corrode cars which are metal also, think about the damage it can do to the
human body. A lot of people are accumulating overdue water bills, which is resulting in
water shutoffs. The government expects the residents to pay for water they cant drink
because of a problem caused by the government. Some residents have put their houses up
for sale but the houses have no value. A few lawsuits have been filled against the city of
flint. However, the woman who filled the first lawsuit against Flint saying that her child
was poisoned by lead in the water, has been found shot dead in her house according to
The other crisis that this has produced is the Detroit water shutoffs, which has left
64,000 people in Detroit with no water service. 40 percent of the citys households are at
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or below the federal poverty level, which is $24,000 a year for a family of four. The water
bill runs from $80 to $160 a month. When you add that to the cost of housing, heat,
electricity, transportation, and food, its sad. Even though the other stuff is important, the
water is the foundation because our body can go three weeks without food but only three
days without water. So, these problems are being targeted because, water resources are
inextricably intertwined with food and the largest uses of freshwater are for agriculture

19 April 2016






Different charities....7
Explaining Lead...8




Advantages of Using
Disadvantages of using
Advantages of using
Disadvantages of using Copper.
Copper Pipe pictures.
Differentiation between PEX and Copper






19 April 2016

There have been plenty of lead poisoning cases appearing in the United
States since 2002, like when D.C water was deemed unsafe to drink. Lead
poisoning and corroded pipes are due to lack of care by government. A few
months after Governor Snyder removed Flint from the clean fresh water they have
been drinking for decades, the brass from General Motors went to him and
complained that the Flint River was causing their car parts to corrode. They
quietly spent $440,000 to hook them back to Detroit water, while the rest of the
city suffers. Also, this crisis could have been avoided if an additive that seals the
lead into the pipe and prevents it from leaching into the water would have been
added, costing $100 a day for three months.
However, its not just the water that was recklessly used to put peoples
lives in jeopardy. To add, there are many things that happen in Flint that would
give one the impression that there is a low value place on human life. For
example, Flint has one of the worst murder and crime rates in the country. Also,
General Motors installed faulty ignition switches in many of its cars and instead
of easily fixing the problem, they covered it up from the public. Flint isnt the
only unfortunate city a lot of cities in the United States still use lead pipes for
water provision, instead of just sewage disposition. To avoid any future
complications all citizens should personally go get the lead levels in their water
tested because there have been multiple reported cases of poisoned lead water
around the country, from Boston to Texas.

19 April 2016

Due to the lack of clean water in many villages in Cameroon, water-borne
and water-based diseases are a primary cause of preventable illness and premature
deaths, especially amongst infants and children. The company DEST2WIN
Incorporated is run by Denn-warren Tafah, Marie-Noel Tafah, and Peter Tafah.
They have experienced and tackled water problems in the past individually, for
two different villages in Bamenda, Cameroon. First was the problem in Menka
village, which is predominately focused on farming for the economy, however
farming couldnt be done because the water system was old leading to severe
water scarcity. No water means no crops, no crops means no food, which lead to
sickness and there are no hospitals in that village. So they built a 40 cubic meter
water storage tank.
Second problem was at the villages of the western region of Cameroon,
called NDE. This village lacks water as a whole, so what was propose is to build
hand-dug wells. The hand dug wells were drilled 85 plus meters in the ground, the
pipes were installed into the hole, and a hand pump was use to pump the water
out. That is some work we did in the past, that we were successful at.

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Different Charities
They are many of organizations that are focused on solving water issues around
the world and some of them are Charity water, MIYA, Water.org, Columbia Water
Center (CWC), and Three Avocados.
MIYA has a four stage plan:
First, In-depth analysis of the citys water system.
Second, planning the strategy and financing; developing the financial
Third, Implementation of the plan
Lastly, Maintenance.
Charity water uses sources:
Population, and terrain to determine what kind of technology is required for the
people in need of water.
Some that technology includes: hand-dug wells, rainwater catchments,
piped systems, bio sand filters, latrines, drilled wells, spring protections,
water purification systems, and gravity fed systems.
Colombia Water Center concept is:
The earth has all the tools needed to address some of the worlds most difficult
problems, from climate change, environmental degradation, poverty, disease, and
the sustainable use of resources.
Three avocados is actually a non-profit coffee company but they have
participated in a couple water projects. For example; Compassion International to
provide funding for their Water of Life program in Uganda, working in Uganda
Water.org provides
Innovative, market-based solutions that change lives everyday through
safe water and sanitation.
Those are past works that we have done in Cameroon, and some other
organizations that do the same. Right now our main focus today is on the Flint
Water Crisis. Which has devastated a community and left people even more
hopeless. Poor political decisions have made the water unusable. Different issues
like restaurants closing down due to the lack of clean water to cook. Plants cant
be watered because the water is to corrosive, which opens the door for GMOs.
Also, the projected price to change all the lead pipes in Flint is $60 million dollars
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and the project will take 15 years. We at Dest2Win have worked together to come
up with a solution to fix the pipes, and get people clean water, for a cheaper price
and a shorter installation time.

Explaining Lead Lead is a natural element that can be highly toxic to the human body. Most exposure to
lead occurs from inhalation or direct contact with substances containing high levels of
lead; however, lead can also enter the body through drinking water.
Treated water contains minerals that can act as corrosive agents on the pipes that deliver
water to the different rooms in a home or building; this can cause a harmful release of
lead from any parts of the water delivery system that contain lead products.

The most common source of lead in the water delivery system of old homes is the piping,
but even in newer homes, piping is not the only area from which lead can enter a
plumbing system. Common sources of lead in the water include:

Lead Piping
Made entirely of lead, highly corrodible and susceptible to the chemicals
found in tap water

Copper fixtures
Contain small amounts of lead used in their casting, can be corroded by
water. Both "hard" and "soft" water can contain chemicals that can be
slightly corrosive after long exposure, have an excessively low or high pH,
or contain corrosive minerals

Copper or brass pipes

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Often joined with lead-based solder


Brass or bronze pumps that can leach lead

Well screens with a "lead packing collar"
Wells that were packed with lead shot or lead wool to keep out sand

Service Connections
Some public service connections installed before 1930 used lead piping

If your home was built before 1930, it is likely to contain lead piping. If it was built
before 1988, it is likely to contain copper piping joined by lead-based solder.
In homes with pipes that are joined using lead solder, it is likely that water run through
the pipes after a long period of non-use (such as first thing in the morning) will pose the
greatest threat of lead contamination.
Health Effects
Lead in the human body can be toxic and cause serious damage to many areas of the
body including:

The brain: lead can damage the brain with consequences like lower IQ and
reduced potential for learning.

Kidneys: lead can damage kidney by a various form of toxicity called


The nervous system: The damage caused by lead ranges from learning disabilities
to high blood pressure and to death. Lead poisoning can also have hematologic
and endocrine effects in the human body

19 April 2016

Red blood cells: The damage can limit their ability to carry oxygen to the organs
and tissues that need it, thus causing anemia.

Children are more susceptible to damage caused from a buildup of lead in the body.
They can suffer such serious health effects as:

Damage to the nervous system

Behavior and learning problems

Slowed growth

Hearing problems

Problems can also occur in adults:

Ill effects during pregnancy

Reproductive problems

High blood pressure

Digestive difficulties

Nerve disorders

Memory and concentration problems

Muscle and joint pain

Lead cannot be seen, tasted, or smelled if it is dissolved in water, but if you suspect that
your water supply may be contaminated by lead, or if you are not sure about the
condition of your water, it should be tested to make sure that lead levels are within a safe
range. Home test kits are available but may not provide accurate results regarding lead
19 April 2016

levels in your water. For a completely accurate evaluation of your water supply,
a certified laboratory should perform the testing. This usually costs between $20 and
$100. Some laboratories will send a trained and certified technician to make sure that
water samples are correctly collected, but most will not. In this case you will be asked to
collect tap-water samples yourself. It is important that you follow the procedures
specified by the laboratory so that your water quality can be accurately determined. The
most common procedure for taking water samples is to obtain a "first draw" sample and a
"fully flushed" sample:
First draw - A sample collected after the water has sat motionless in your system for six
or more hours. No water must be allowed to run before the sample is collected or the
sample will not be accurate.
Fully flushed (purged-line) A sample collected after the water has run through the tap
for at least five minutes.
The laboratory will compare these two samples. If the lead content of the first draw
sample is higher than that of the fully flushed sample, then the water is leaching from the
in-house plumbing system. If both water samples contain the same amount of lead, then
the contaminated water most likely originates from a source outside the household
plumbing system.

19 April 2016

With water, people have to understand that if they live in a home built before the
mid-1950, they may have lead pipes. First it would be beneficial for everybody to get
their water tested but especially, the people with houses built before the 1950s.
We propose using a different type of piping system to replace already leaden pipes, in the
whole city, not just in each house. If we change all the pipes, starting with the main pipes
we will avoid faulty situations. For example, the government wants to change the pipes in
Flint from lead to copper, however a home on the north side of Flint had one of the
highest lead levels in the city and their pipes were copper.
-How can a copper pipe produce lead? It cant, the lead is coming from another pipe that
is connected.
Copper is a suitable option but because this an urgent problem, but we need the fastest
most efficient solution, which is using PEX (Cross-linked polyethylene) pipes.

Advantages of using PEX

PEX (cross-linked polyethylene) is part of a water supply piping system that has several
advantages over metal pipes like copper, iron, and lead. PEX metal is flexible, resistant to
scale and chlorine, doesnt corrode or develop pinholes.
Advantages of PEX
- PEX resists the scale build up common with copper pipe, and does not pit or corrode
when exposed to acidic water.
- PEX is much more resistant to freeze-breakage than copper or ridged plastic pipe
-PEX tubing does not transfer heat as readily as copper, and so it conserves energy.
- PEX plumbing installations require fewer fittings than rigid piping. The

flexible tubing can turn 90 degree corners without the need for elbow fittings,
and PEX tubing unrolled from spools can be installed in long runs without the
need for coupling fittings.
- Flexible PEX tube is manufactured by extrusion, and shipped and stored on
spools, where rigid plastic or metal piping must be cut to some practical length
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for shipping and storage. This leads to several advantages, including lower
shipping and handling costs due to decreased weight and improved storage

Attaching PEX tube to fittings does not require soldering, and so eliminates the
health hazards involved with lead-based solder and acid fluxes; PEX is also
safer to install since a torch is not needed to make connections.

Water flows more quietly through PEX tube, and the characteristic "water
hammer" noise of copper pipe systems is virtually eliminated.

PEX plumbing installations cost less because:

PEX is less expensive than copper pipe.

Less time is spent running pipe and installing fittings than with rigid pipe systems.

Installing fewer fittings reduces the chances for expensive callbacks.

Disadvantages of using PEX pipes.


It doesnt have any proven disadvantages because its was approved to be used by CALIF
only 7 years ago, but so far its been efficient.
If the pipes are not underground, there is a possibility that animals can get to it and
because it is plastic, it makes it easier for the animals to chew through.

Advantages of using Copper Pipes


Installation of copper tube does not require solvents that contain volatile organic
compounds, so its use does not harm the environment. Solvent-based adhesives used to
join other types of tube may contribute to air pollution, breakdown of atmospheric ozone
and global warming.

19 April 2016

Copper tube is the only material approved for water-supply piping that carries a 50-year
warranty backed by the manufacturer. The manufacturer warrants that, when properly
installed, its product will be free of failure as a result of defects in material or
workmanship in manufacturing the product.

Copper is a low-maintenance option for water pipes because it never requires painting to
protect it from corrosion, and it looks good.

Copper water pipes are durable. Copper pipes are good at handling heat without losing
strength or shape and are resist corrosion and high water-pressure.

Copper is also biostatic, which means it doesn't allow bacteria to grow.

Disadvantages of using copper pipes.


Copper pipe can also freeze and break in extremely cold temperatures. That is
unfortunate because the coldest has ever gotten is -39 degrees, which is extremely cold.
Copper pipes can also be subjected to major corrosion if the water it contains becomes
too acidic. In addition to this, copper pipes can leave water with a slightly metallic taste.

The U.S Environmental Protection Agency has estimated it would cost $50
million to $80 million to replace all the lead service lines in Flint. Thats only
in Flint there are approximately 6 million lead service line across the country
and it will cost $275 billion to replace the nations lead water service lines.
PEX Prices: 3/8 - $0.38
1/2 - $0.40
5/8 - $0.62
3/4 - $0.76
1 - $1.26
19 April 2016

Copper Prices: 3/8 - $4.87

1/2 - $5.67
5/8 - $7.31
3/4 - $10.21
1 - $13.38
We did the calculation and if it cost $50 million dollars to put in copper pipes
with those prices it would cost $4,708,520.18 (just under 5 million) to install
PEX instead.
It will cost 10% of 50 million to replace the pipes with PEX instead of copper
and in a shorter time.

Copper Pipes

19 April 2016

PEX pipes

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Differentiation between PEX and Copper prices

19 April 2016

- Our objective of this white paper was to propose a plan to Hank and Doug Meijer on how
to help provide clean water and fresh food for Flint, Michigan. We have done different
jobs in the past in Cameroon, that make us qualified but right now we are focused on the
Flint Michigan Water Crisis.

The problem is Flint, Michigan changed its water source from Lake Huron in Detroit to
the Flint River, knowing the Flint River was highly corrosive. Also there was no
problems with getting water from Lake Huron, it is considered one of the biggest bodies
of water.
Flint Michigan government has decided to begin replacing the old lead pipes with copper
pipes and the estimate to replace the pipes is $50 million to $80 million. However, we
propose using PEX, mainly because its much cheaper than copper and it takes a shorter
amount of time to install. This an emergency situation and the people of Flint are already
in a battle with crime and poverty, so we are trying to give people something to hope for,
letting them know there are people who care like you, Hank and Doug Meijer.

19 April 2016



These are additional ways we can benefit people in Flint, Michigan, that are tied in to the
water crisis. As the title states Food and water in our lives.
Even though we are trying to fix the foundation of the problem, there are different problems and
action that have been caused because of poisoned water. For example, the amount of different
diseases it causes, the inability to provide food and avoiding for the use of GMOs for the food
available. GMOs might not feel or seem harmful but the damage will be more prominent soon.
For the food we are selling land in Africa because it is and will always be the worlds bread
basket, with its fertility and size. Its not as expensive as getting land in the United States,
because, the U.S Dollar holds a lot of weight in Africa, so buying land is significantly cheaper.
Next, we will find you trustworthy farmers to invest in that will cultivate and take care of the
Finally, export the crops to the United States, and use them as you please. If you want to avoid
GMOs, you cant look to those who have vested interest in selling them to protect you. You have
to constantly educate yourself to beat them at their own game, which is monopoly. Congress
approved President International trade agreement late last year, so the possibilities are endless.
Countries make free trade agreements in order to open up new markets for their goods, while
avoiding the tariffs and import quotes on many goods that usually govern global economics.
Therefore, it will not cost nearly as much as it did to import and export goods before congress
approved the trade agreement. Basically, trading goods is now free.
We also offer health services, through our health insurance navigator for victims affected by the
poisoned water.
Health Insurance Navigator five duties-

Conduct Public education about the availability of qualified health plans

Distribute fairly
Impartial Information about enrollment in qualified plans and about the availability of
premium tax credits a cost sharing assistance in the exchange.
Facilitate enrollment in qualified plans.

19 April 2016

Refer people who need help resolving a problem with their health plan
Provide information in a culturally and linguistically appropriate manner to the
population being served by an exchanged.
The city of Flint is already in a terrible financial situation as a whole, so the Health Insurance
Navigator, will find suitable plants for interested citizens.

Child with legionnaire disease in Flint, Michigan.


19 April 2016

Email: Dennwarren@rocketmail.com
Phone: 469-396-3441
Facebook: Denn-Warren Tafah
Twitter: Dtafah.

19 April 2016

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25- Apr- 2016].
[3]"40 Facts About Water Pollution - Conserve Energy Future", Conserve-EnergyFuture, 2013. [Online]. Available: http://www.conserve-energyfuture.com/various-water-pollution-facts.php. [Accessed: 25- Apr- 2016].
[4]"Study Links GMOs to Over 22 Different Diseases", Natural Society, 2014.
[Online]. Available: http://naturalsociety.com/study-links-gmos-22-differentdiseases/. [Accessed: 25- Apr- 2016].
[5]T. Carmody, "How the Flint River got so toxic", The Verge, 2016. [Online].
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[6]"Mother, 19, who filed lawsuit against Flint water officials found dead", Mail
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SYSTEM", Gpo.gov, 2016. [Online]. Available:
https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CHRG-108shrg94604/html/CHRG108shrg94604.htm. [Accessed: 25- Apr- 2016].
19 April 2016

[8]"10 Things They Wont Tell You About the Flint Water Tragedy. But I Will. |
MICHAEL MOORE",MICHAEL MOORE, 2016. [Online]. Available:
http://michaelmoore.com/10FactsOnFlint/. [Accessed: 25- Apr- 2016].
[9]"NDE-Water-Project", Nde-dfw.org, 2016. [Online]. Available: http://www.ndedfw.org/NDE-Water-Project.html. [Accessed: 25- Apr- 2016].
[10]"Lead Pipes, Lead Piping Hazards", Propex.com, 2016. [Online]. Available:
http://www.propex.com/C_f_env_leadpip.htm. [Accessed: 25- Apr- 2016].
[11]Www1.toronto.ca, 2016. [Online]. Available:
vgnextoid=55c24f058377f310VgnVCM10000071d60f89RCRD. [Accessed: 25Apr- 2016].
[12]"Removing lead pipes may not solve Flint's water crisis", MLive.com, 2016.
[Online]. Available:
olve.html. [Accessed: 25- Apr- 2016].
[13]R. Article, "PEX Piping vs. Copper Piping - Articles", Networx, 2016. [Online].
Available: http://www.networx.com/article/pex-copper. [Accessed: 25- Apr2016].
[14]"PEX Information", Pexinfo.com, 2016. [Online]. Available:
http://www.pexinfo.com/. [Accessed: 25- Apr- 2016].
[15]"The Advantages and Disadvantages of Copper Piping", Tuckers Air Conditioning
& Heating, 2014. [Online]. Available: http://www.tuckersac.com/blog/plumbingservice/the-advantages-and-disadvantages-of-copper-piping/. [Accessed: 25- Apr2016].

19 April 2016

[16]Z. Benefits, "What is a Health Insurance Navigator?", Zanebenefits.com, 2016.

[Online]. Available: http://www.zanebenefits.com/blog/bid/271638/What-is-aHealth-Insurance-Navigator. [Accessed: 25- Apr- 2016].

19 April 2016

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