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Name: Maata Epenisa

Spring 2016 History 1700 Mid-Term Examination Hansen

What are the three primary reasons people seeking freedom leave their native lands to come to America historically and
What written evidence do we have that the Vikings came to the North American continent?
Icelandic sages
What influence did the Chinese have on exploration and mapping of the world up to 1421?
Obtain tribute from the scattered and less developed civilizations of the world.
Establish trade routes and establish trade centers and support system throughout the maritime world.
How did Henry the Navigator contribute to exploration?
He created an observatory, sponsored expeditions, and founded a school of navigation that taught better methods of sailing.
Henry was obsessed with a desire to learn more about Africa.
He devoted his life to organizing, equipping and sending out fleets that extended farther down the AfricanWest
Coast and eventually into the Indian Ocean.
What motivated the Spanish to come to the New World?
Most saw new world as reincarnation of the Garden of Eden, a fairyland of infinite promise.Fountain of Youth. To have
more land and form a country, then they'd have more power that way, and also they'd get more resources like trees, food, and
so on. that's y there were wars over lands.
Why did Henry VIII throw off papal control and establish his own church?
Henry had issues about divorce and wives, but he was unable to divorce under the Catholic Church because Pope would not
grant the annulment, so Henry decided to start his own religion and granted himself the annulment.
He was controlled by the Pope in Rome
What are the laws of Primogeniture?
The right of the first born son to be succeed to inherit the estate (lands and properties) from his ancestors to exclusion of his
younger siblings.
Why did the Puritans and Separatists come to America?
The separatists and the puritans left England and went to North America because both groups wanted to have religious
freedom, economic freedom and political freedom.
What is the difference between Royal and Proprietary colonies?
1. Royal: Royal colony is controlled by the English government for the benefit of England.
2. Proprietary: The King of England grants to a businessman or businessmen a charter granting a specific area of land in
America for development. It is a business venture underwritten by the funds of those participating.
Who did Sir Humphrey Gilbert attempt to do in 1583?
He attempted to discover and colonize to North America and his goal is economic.
What was the result?
He failed because of the nature and weather
Who established the lost colony of Roanoke in 1587?
Sir Walter Raleigh
What happened to the colony?
No one knows what happened to the Lost Colonists of Roanoke Island
1. All the residents of Roanoke died either by natural causes, disease or weather, or by the hands of the Indians.
2. The settlers moved further inland away from the ocean to avoid severe weather or to find additional food supplies.
3. The English settlers were absorbed into the local Indian tribes willingly or unwillingly.
Richard Hakluyt proposed the idea of joint stock companies. What is a joint stock company?
Broader opportunity to invest
More investors will be attracted
Joint effort between government and individuals
Reduces potential losses
What problems did the early settlers of Jamestown face that potentially doomed the settlement?
1. Poor location.
2. Too close to standing water.
3. Disease from mosquitoes; malaria.
4. Did not plant food crops, too busy seeking gold.
5. Arrived in Virginia in the wrong time of the year, Winter
6. During the first winter 50% of the settlers died.
What made Jamestown an economic success?
Jamestown was successful because they grew tobacco and that made them a lot of money, which led to many people buying
tobacco. Tobacco is a cash crop so obviously the people in Jamestown made a lot of money


What was the headright system?

The headright system was established in 1617 by the Virginia Company in an attempt to recruit laborers and workers to the
colony and more populate Virginia; it granted 50 acres of land to new settlers and 100 acres of land to those who already
lived in the colony.
What type of government model does the Mayflower Compact create?
A. Autocracy.
E. Theocratic.
What type of government was established in the Massachusetts Bay Colony?
A. Autocracy.
E. Theocratic.
Who was the first governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony and how did he feel about his appointment as governor?
John Winthrop was the first governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony. Winthrop felt that it was his duty to remain in
What is the Puritan Political Theory and how did it influence the development of the Massachusetts Bay government?
Puritan Political Theoryinfluenced the type of government in the Massachusetts Colony, based on the teachings of John
Calvin (Calvinism).
Creation of the first theocracy in America.
Theocracy allowing the state to force all persons to live and worship in an orthodox manner.
Dislike for true democracy
What are the five points of TULIP?
What did the Toleration Act of 1649 do for the people of Maryland?
Law in Maryland allowed those who believe in the divinity of Christ to practice their religion
Who established the colony of Rhode Island in 1632?
John Coggeshall
Why did he do it?
He wanted to establish a colony for religious freedom, political freedom and economic freedom.
Who was Anne Hutchinson and what did she do to cause problems in Massachusetts?
Anne Hutchinson was a Puritan woman who spread her own interpretations of the Bible, leading to the Antinomian
Controversy in the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
What colony is known as the holy experiment?
New Jersey.
William Penn established his model of government in 1682 based upon what document?
A. Cambridge Agreement B. Mayflower Compact.
C. Fundamental Orders. D. Frame of Government.
What did William Penn state that voters should look for in their candidates?
1.Only requirement of the charter upon Penn was that he had to obtain the settler's consent when making laws.
2.This was a positive step towards self government.
What did the French do differently than the British to establish relationships with the Native Americans?
Intermarriage with Indian relations and alliance
What war did Robert Walpole start that became a larger war known as King Georges War?
A. War of Jenkins Ear. B. Queen Annes War. C. King Williams War.
D. French Indian War.
Why did he want to start a war with Spain?
Walpole's failure to maintain a policy of avoiding military conflict eventually led to his fall from power
What events led up to the French-Indian War?
The larger Seven Years' War, began after a series of incidents in the upper Ohio River valley, which the French and British
governments both claimed as their territory.
What was the key battle of the French-Indian War?
Fallen Timbers.
New York.
What were the three reasons for the American colonial population increase between 1700 and 1775?
White Immigration
41. Forced Immigration (black salves)
42. Birth rate
What was the American Trade Triangle?
The best-known triangular trading system is the transatlantic slave trade
What were the primary goods traded in the American Trade Triangle?
Slaves, Molasses and Tobacco
What was the English response to the American Trade Triangle?
English mercantilism manifested itself in the form of the triangular trade. Trade routes linked the American Colonies
What was the First Great Awakening?
First Great Awakening: Many of the social, economic, and political changes occurring in the eighteenth century
colonies converted in the Great Awakening, the first of many religious revivals that would

sweep American society during the next two centuries. This quest for spiritual renewal
challenged old sources of authority and produced patterns of thought and behavior that
helped fuel a revolutionary movement in the next generation.
What did Theodore Frelinghuysen do?
1. Excited his congregation through emotional preaching.
2. He avoided theological abstractions concentrating on arousing his parishioners to feel a need to be saved.
Who preached about complete dependence upon Gods grace?
Jonathan Edwards
What two points was emphasized during The First Great Awakening?
Direct contact
What was the legacy of the First Great Awakening?
The separation of church and state
The Awakening nurtured a subtle change in values that crossed over into politics and daily life.
For ordinary people, the revival experience created a new feeling of self-worth.
List four causative factors leading into the Revolutionary War.
Economic Subordination of the Colonies to England
53. Struggle for Home Rule
Channeling all trade through England
55. Limiting of colonies to Raw Material Production.
What was the purpose of the English Mercantile System?
To establish a plan and method to control colonial economics and wealth.
What was the purpose of the Currency Reform Act?
The Purpose of the Currency Act of 1764 was to:
Extend the provisions of the Currency Act of 1751 (New England Currency Act)
Control the printing and use of colonial paper money (Bills of Credit)
Appease British merchants who did not trust colonial paper money due to its depreciation in value. British merchants in
England wanted to be paid in British currency and not colony currency
Reduce the national debt
What British tax laws had a negative impact on English businesses?
Sugar Act.
B. Stamp Act.
Townshend Duties.
Currency Reform Act.
What tax act was passed by Parliament to protect the East India Trading Company from filing bankrutpcy?
Molasses Act.
Tea Act.
Sugar Act.
Stamp Act.
What was the Boston Tea Party?
Boston Tea Party, December 1773. Ships: Dartmouth, Eleanor and Beaver. Sons of Liberty in number about 60 Value of
Tea: 18,000 pounds Sterling (approximately $1 million today)
Identify the four laws of the Coercive Acts in 1774 and what rights were taken away from the American colonists in
Rights Deprived
The Boston Port Act
62. the Port Act punished all of Boston rather
than just the individuals who had destroyed
the tea, and that they were being punished
without having been given an opportunity to
testify in their own defense.

The Massachusetts Government Act

called for

The Administration of Justice Act

he decided

The Quartering Act



64. The act also severely limited the activities of town meetings in
Massachusetts to one meeting a year, unless the Governor
66. the Royal governor to order that trials of accused royal officials
take place in Great Britain or elsewhere within the Empire if
that the defendant could not get a fair trial in Massachusetts.
68. applied to all of the colonies, and sought to create a more effective
method of housing British troops in America.

Why did Thomas Paine write Common Sense?

To indicate that it was an argument that the colonies and England should be separated
To educate the general public and inspire them to claim their freedom.
He also wanted readers to understand that as Americans they needed to renovate their life patterns that have been influenced
by British before and take responsibility for their decisions and activities to establish democracy.
Who was the primary author of the Declaration of Independence?



Thomas Jefferson
What was the most important point made by the author in his declaration?
Purpose of this document is dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the
powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them...
What did the battle of Saratoga accomplish during the Revolutionary War?
The Battle of Saratoga secured a critical French alliance for the Americans during the American Revolution, providing
monetary and military support to outlast the British.
What was the Articles of Confederation?
Articles of Confederation was made up of a series of written documents that were agreed by 13 states, it established the
United States of America as a confederation of sovereign states and served as its first constitution for government, which
were passed by Congress on November 15,1777.

Identify three weaknesses of this document.



Each state has own paper money 75. No national army or navy 76. No national courts
What was Shays Rebellion?
Shays' Rebellion was an armed uprising in Massachusetts during 1786 and 1787. Revolutionary War veteran Daniel Shays
led four thousand rebels (called Shaysites) in rising up against perceived economic injustices and suspension of civil rights by
Massachusetts, and in a later attempt to capture the United States' national weapons arsenal at the U.S. Armory at Springfield.
What term originated from this rebellion which causes fear?


What is the Preamble to the Constitution?

To form a more perfect union
Establish justice
Insure domestic tranquility
Provide for the common defense
Promote the general welfare
Secure the blessings of liberty


Why was a Bill of Rights added to the Constitution?

The collective 1st 10 amendments for U.S Constitution, They were ratified as a protection for individual rights and freedoms.

What were two major points of Alexander Hamiltons philosophy regarding government?
81. Openly advocated rule by the Best People. John Jay said: Those who own the country, ought to govern it.
82. Distrusted full democracy. Feared common people could be fooled.
What were two of Thomas Jeffersons approach to government?
83. Believed that the best government was the one that governed leas
84. National Debt should be paid off.
What happens during a mudslinging election?

What did the Supreme Court decision Marbury v. Madison establish?

the concept of judicial review?. Judicial review is the doctrine under which legislative
and exclusive actions are subject to review by the judiciary


Who was John C. Marshall and what was his role in American government?
John C. Marshall was the Supreme Court Chief Justice who helped determine the role of the Supreme
Court in 1801
What law was passed after the War of 1812 to protect American businesses?
After the War of 1812, nationalists like Henry Clay proposed a set of measures called the "American System". They wanted
to raise tariffs to protect American manufactures from foreign competition so that industry would grow and employ more
people. They also wanted the government to spend the tariff revenues on transportation projects and other internal projects to
help farmers ship their crops to market. In 1816 the government did enact a high tariff and chartered a national bank to
regulate the nation's currency and take care of the government's finances.
What was the American System and how would it benefit the United States?
Senator Henry Clay of Kentucky is considered the architect of the American System, the first government-sponsored
attempt to invigorate the national economy. Not a system in the true sense of the word, the American System was really a
series of plans for strengthening the infrastructure and financial institutions of the United States. The plan included:

the regimenting of high tariffs to protect fledgling American industries

federally supporting 'internal improvements in transportation

the creation of a strong banking system that would make loans available for businessmen



What was the Missouri Compromise?
The Missouri Compromise was a United States federal statute devised by Henry Clay. It regulated slavery in the country's western
territories by prohibiting the practice in the former Louisiana Territory north of the parallel 3630 north, except within the boundaries
of the proposed state of Missouri
What was the Corrupt Bargain?
CORRUPT BARGAIN. When the 1824 election ended without any candidate receiving a majority in the electoral college,
the House of Representatives awarded the election to John Quincy Adams.







Define Deism?
The belief that believes God created the world, but then just stood apart from it, having nothing to do with what happened in
it from then on. The belief, based on the testimony of reason, that God
created the world and set it in motion,
subject to natural laws, but takes no interest in it or in its
What is Transcendentalism?
Opiate of the intellectuals that about the truth transcends the human senses and manifests itself in emotional feelings
The 2nd Great Awakening created more interest in what social issues?
Prison reform
Temperance cause
Womens movement
What was the intent or goal of the Utopian societies?
A place where exist in balance and harmony and peace and people accepted each other regardless of color of skin, where
people could live in peace without fear of persecution, where there is no war, no hunger, no poverty.
The Womens Movement focused on what specific rights?
How were the Irish perceived as they came to the United States between 1840 and 1850?
the new Irish immigrants from 1840-1850 not easily accepted by American society
Religion - Roman Catholic
Social Menace
Racial battles with Blacks.
They actually didnt want to be a part of American life
What contributions did the German immigrants give to America during this same period?
Education Kindergarten
Arts, Music
Work Ethic
Religion was more diverse, Lutheran, some Catholic.
Moved inland Established towns and farms away from the eastern seaboard.
What allegations were made during the 1828 mudslinging election?
Jackson was an illegitimate child
His mother was a whore
He was a bigamist who married with more than one men or women
What was the Tariff of Abominations?
The Tariff of 1828 to protect industry in the northern United States, which passed by the Congress
Who were the dissenting authors of the American literary movement?

What were the three political innovations of the 1832 presidential election?
National Nomination Conventions
Publication of party platforms (Philosophy)
Emergency of a 3rd political partyAnti Masonic party
Why did President Jackson dislike the Bank of the United States?


It concentrated an excessive amount of the nation's financial strength into a single institution
It exposed the government to control by "foreign interests"
It served mainly to make the rich richer
It exercised too much control over members of the Congress
It favored Northeastern states over Southern and Western states
What is Manifest Destiny?
The statement that passed by John L. OSullivan to overspread the continent allotted by Providence for the free development
of our yearly multiplying millions


What was President Polks purpose in starting a war with Mexico?

President Polk wants California. Polk will mastermind a war with Mexico so he can take California
What was the Compromise of 1850 and what did it do?
The general solution that was adopted by the Compromise of 1850 was to transfer a considerable part of the territory claimed
by the state of Texas to the federal government, to formally organize two new territories, the Territory of New Mexico and
the Territory of Utah, which expressly would be allowed to locally determine whether they would become slave or free
territories, to add another free state to the Union (California), adopt a severe measure to recover slaves who had escaped to a
free state or free territory (the Fugitive Slave Law), and to abolish the slave trade in the District of Columbia.
What two major events hurt President Buchanans Administration?

Panic of 1857
Utah war 1857-1858
How did the Dred Scott v. Sanford case affect black slaves?
Republican Party vigorously attacked the decision and the court
Many antislavery Democrats deserted the Democratic Party
Decision made the breach wider between the North and South, and thus closer to war
What did the Kansas-Nebraska Act cause?
Bleeding Kansas happened with the Kansas - Nebraska act. President Pierce supported the pro-slavery settlers. Kansas
constitution and violence prohibits Congress from accepting Kansas as a state.
What are the three main causes of the Civil War?
Economic Slavery
States Right
What was one significant fact about the Presidential Election of 1860 affecting the results?
one significant fact was about the Presidential Election of 1860 affecting the results is Lincolns name was not on the ballots
of 11 southern states.
Where did the Civil War begin and where did it end?
The civil was begin Fort Sumter, South Carolina on April 12, 1861 and ended Appomattox Courthouse on April 9, 1865.
What resulted from the battle between the U. S. S. Monitor and the C. S. A. Virginia aka Monitor that impacted naval
Birth of Ironclads: When steam propulsion began to be applied to warships, naval constructors renewed their interest in
armor for their vessels
From the lecture presentation on the Civil War what was the most startling fact that was emphasized?
Causes The election of the Republican Abraham Lincoln to the presidency in November 1860 triggered a chain of events that
within six months shattered the Union and culminated in the outbreak of the Civil War. The coming to power of a Republican
and Northern administration committed to prohibiting the expansion of slavery struck at the vital interests of the slave South;
it was the signal eagerly awaited by the proponents of Southern independence to launch a secession movement. Tensions
over slavery and the struggles to perpetuate or end the institution that dated back to the incomplete American Revolution of
1776 had now become so polarized along sectional lines that the North and South lacked common ground on which to
compromise the issue.
What was the response by Lincolns generals when he requested action on their part?
The Lincolns generals Halleck and Buell used some excuses to delay his order.
Halleck, I am not ready to cooperate.
Buell, Too much haste will ruin everything.
Why did the South lose the Civil War?
The enemy had more men and guns
Who orchestrated the assassination of Abraham Lincoln?
John Wilkes Booth
Why did the South cheer when it was announced that Lincoln was dead?
Lincoln was moving forward from victory to the difficult times ahead. The southern rebellion was over. Now, he faced the
task of re-building the Union. Lincoln did not want to punish the south. He wanted to re-join the ties that the Civil War had
What happened to those involved in the assassination plot?
Four of the eight convicted for participating in the conspirary to assassinate Lincoln in April of 1865 died on the gallows
three months later.


What conditions did General Grant offer General Lee at Appomattox?

Grant had great respect for Lee. He needed to treat the Confederate soldiers such that they would not rebel again. The terms
of the surrender were generous: Confederate soldiers would have to turn in their rifles, but they could return home
immediately and keep their horses or mules. They were also given food as many of them were very hungry.

Essay Value 25 points

Select one of the following topics and write a five paragraph essay. You may use outside sources to validate your point of view. Of
course you will need to write in the Chicago Style with footnotes as necessary and bibliography for sources used. Be clear and

Why should one understand the business cycle in American economics?

Business cycles relate to fluctuating growth in economies and are measured using the gross domestic product for respective countries.
A business cycle has four phases, i.e. recession, slump, growth and peak. Task 1 includes a brief look at the business cycle of the UK
economy over a five year period and explains the usefulness of business cycles to business organizations that need to plan for the

The use of the word cycle suggests that things happen again and again, every so often. That is definitely true. A common definition of
a business cycle in American economics has the following four stages: expansion, peak and more. An expansion is a time when
businesses are expanding, producing more goods and hiring more workers. This means that more money is coming into the economy
and that people and businesses are able to afford more things than they normally might be. A peak is usually identified after it happens
because this is the time when a country's expansion is at its highest level. Economists don't really know when the expansion is going
to peak, so they wait until production and hiring start to fall, then identify the peak.

Economists used to think that business cycles had specific lengths for their various parts. Whether that was ever the case, economists
don't think that anymore. With a country's economic needs more and more dependent on international supply and demand, economists
are finding it more and more difficult to predict a large number of things, including the length of a contraction or expansion.

The stages of business cycles are punctuated by data and behavior across many economic fields. Rises in stock prices and wages
usually accompany an expansion, as does a rise in prices in general. (If prices rise too quickly, economists get worried about inflation.)
A contraction, on the other hand, can bring sharp drops in stock prices, business loans, and increases in the number of people out of
work. (This is economists' other chief worry: unemployment.)

The severity of a contraction can also bring about greater government intervention into the country's economy. As stock prices fall and
unemployment grows and consumer confidence plummets, the government will seek to turn the economy back toward expansion,
introducing measures designed to help business and workers. A prime example of this was the New Deal offered by President Franklin

D. Roosevelt. A massive set of economic incentives, the New Deal helped the American economy get back on its feet after the Great

On the other hand, when things are going well economically and an expansion is chugging right along, the government will
be hesitant to do much. Business cycles are relevant to business organizations that use the information to predict future performance
with the intention of achieving competitive advantage.