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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

K-12 Classroom Teaching: A primer for new professionals/Andrea Guillaume


Includes bibliographical references.
ISBN-13: 978-0-13-158024-4 (alk. paper)
ISBN-10: 0-13-1,58024-8
1. First Year teachers-United States. 2. Teaching-United States'

3rd ed. p. cm.

l- Qrrillaume, Andrea M.

L82844-1.N4G85 2008

371.1-4c22

2007023855

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190

CHAPTER 7

Although traditional tests can evoke anxiety, they have a place n


sessment system because their judicious use can provide important
tion. Most assessment opportunities, though, should feel low risk
to students, undertaken with the trust that the teacher is interested in
instruction and facilitating learning. In today's high accountability
ternative (or authentic) assessment measures are seen by many as i
complements to standardized assessments in that alternative

provide context-embedded, multifaceted portrayals of what

stuffi

and can do. According to Herman, Aschbocher, and Winters (1992),


assessments

.
.
.

ask students to perform, create, produce, or do something.


tap higher-levelthinking and problem-solving skills.
use tasks that represent meaningful instructional activities.
o invoke real-world applications.
. are scored by people using human judgment rather than by m
o require new instructional and assessment roles for teachers.
Alternative assessments are currently recommended across the
lum, for students from pre-school (Grisham-Brown, Hallam, t,
2006) through secondary school (Prouty, 2006), and for a range of
needs, including those of English learners (Media-Jerez, Clark, E
2007) and of students with special needs (Layton e, Lock, 2007; Vacca,
Several alternative assessments are described in the second part
chapter. They include products, portfolios, performance-based
and interviews.

Assessment Needs to Be Inclusiue of the Learner


Check back to your work from the exercise preceding this chapter and
about, as a student, the role you played in the assessment of your own
ing. How often did you have choices about the content to be assessed.
the form of assessment, or about selecting the testing conditions? Many
state that, as learners, their role in assessment was that of passive
Their primary role seems to have been to study in preparation for tests and
to keep their eyes on their own paper. Assessment was done to them, not
them. Further, it appears that existing assessment procedures were
as normal and correct No one questioned the red ink or percentages
near the top of each test. Here's hoping, though, that your own opportunities
self-assess were numerous.
The ultimate goal in assessment is self-assessment (Costa 6 Kallick,
Costa and Kallick argue that only when they are effective self-evaluators
students be autonomous individuals who can analyze their own
motivate their own learning and action, and renew themselves as peophThroughout their schooling years, we should help students to set their own
continually monitor their own progress, and reflect accurately upon the
of their work. Although schooling experiences often place the authority for judging students' progress squarely on the teacher and the school as an instittrti4
we should be working to wean students away from their dependence rryc
authority to provide the ultimate evaluation of their work. Small actions can clr
tribute to this goa\ in\arge ways. For instance, we shou\d respond caretu\ to
first-grader's question, "Teacher, is this right?" and the twelfth-grader's query.
this what you want?" Do we grade our papers in pencil or pen? What
Figure 7.4 provides numerous examples of how you can include your
voices and choices in your assessment by helping students set goals, make
sessment choices, self-reflect, and evaluate instruction. Bear in mind that
options must be considered in conjunction with other principles of a
For instance, you need to remain systematic in assessing learning even as
allow for student choice.

AssessmenI
191
FIGARE 7.4 I nu

o lu

ing students in assessmen

Goal Setting

Students discuss orev.

t"pi;;

'

'
'
'

'
Student Choice

'

f.

i;;;;r;

iil:'jl$,L?rs

and create a chart at the


besinnins or the year or

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choosins units and ressons


based on

(portrorios, work sampres,


and report cards) to set

records or their prosress.


rhev discuss prosress and
revise

an examination by answering
the question, ,,what woutd you
tike to

,::rriT:il:d

:::::g::Ti":#;li,lff[J:1g,ff:fl::,'what

she shou,d rocus on as


she

The teacher invites .,1d,"^L,^.


.o, *rite rong-term goars
and sear them in enveropes.
The
hen they r"""tl ,
age.
""ituin
Students select some forms
of assessment.

*ffi

;x:::1ilff,,[?fll ll"n

",,o* ",rJ"r,"'i"'"no"ose rrom amons seven or eisht

' students work in groups to rist what they consider the key
content to be assessed.
' students develop some questions or prompts for the assessment.
' students select writing prompts or test items from a rarger
bank.
'
that attow ror a broad ranse
.
Self-Reflection and
Self-Evaluation

'

;::i?]tf,|[q,il1l""r'o'pts

s.tu de

rs h ave s om e

or appropriate responses

;ffj:,1 ]"H::',::i :'jl L

;;

;. ; ;;
st d e ts a re
"
;13ffi1'1""f:ffif,ff '#iv iiii", ffi'L"li!,". "",olt,Ji"
",,i"""L*"d to have a
ln sma'groups or in their journars,
students discuss their thinking
or

': r:[:: il|],x::::


i:l%;:,t ilyffi ITI

rrr[*-ffi

*"n srowth, in writins or in a conrerence


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urn il o,r":'"," ;
iliJ ll,1,.'#ffi,,.i ffi;
"

il
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.

:*

.
.
.

Evaluation of
Teaching and

Assessment

'
.
.

d ass es s e d
ore

Students grade their


anarysis *i,nln.

o,

i"r#li:ffi,[iljr["11":Hthe

srade. rhey compare their

.
Students reflect on the
-' -' ' rr rdlr progress over time by comparing
time periods.
work sampres from different

Students rate problems


and exercises ro.
just risht, o.. too Jn:crrt)
(too easv,
and ror
ln their journars or on
"ppropri"tli'"o*r,$:H:ii'dirricurtv
anonymous
.,[T#"i,,,I'",i: *i n tn -r srips of paper, students telr the teacher what
o
;; Iilh r"r ;

"oor-

ff

i ri

"i,

",,#;

Students periodicallv

"i

u;;

;o;i;;A,

i:'riJil::I:f #t1#.",,,:ffi l;J:;:,,?#:;j,ff


Ji:.tTI"JJ."fl:fJy,:,r?:*".,,0"*;i'.no,"".

;,,

",

forfuture

be

*e r

d u ri n

xr#:,,T.:?,1;Jrr?:,

a*ivities based on rhe


The leacher shares
his instructional goals
with students and revises
on ongoing
the goars based

assessment.

CHAPTER 7

1,92

Students need to be
actiue particiPants in
their own assessment.

Modern Curriculum Press/Pearson Learning

Everyactofteaching-includingassessment-conveysourprofessionalc*
encourage them to build revictions. If we wish to p-rotect studints' dignity, to
as self-assessors' tlm
growth
sponsibility for their ow,i learning, and to fos-ter iheir
son Alex taught n:
My
choices.
assessment must involve students' voices and
thislessonduringrriskindergartenyear.Intheleft-handportionofFigureT.52l
year. "Good detail," said lft
self-portrait Alex drew near- the blginning of the
,,Lots of realistic subtleties! S-urf kid!" In the right-hand portion ! th
mother.
"Les

that year s close. "Yikes!" said his mother'


at"*
"o*p1"1"J.,"u.
detail.Nopupils,nodigits,nofeet,nohairlNogrowthinfinemotorabilitidti
struggled with my i.,t"tir"iution of ihose portraiti "Tll1r Y1t^":"^".*":,::g:Y
explained to me the significarc
,ai:"?;1.;.'l""rvrl,ne portraits. Arei easily
ma&
y""' b'i' h" heldupboth arms'
of the second portrait. There was less detail,
- most +-^^-''-I
tret
Alex's
-^^+
nrtt, u"a Rexea his biceps, "Mom, look how strong I am!"
b,"":T:
h1d
was
;;;s" of his kinde.guri"., vear ll?t l:I not asked Alextllt]:.1Y:t^::
to attach meaning

self-portrait

,rv
For an examPle of
peer assessment,
watch elementarY
students discus their
peers' writing via a
technique dubbed
Author's Chair. Go to
the Merrill Teacher PreP
Web site, Video
Classroom, Educational
Psychology, Module 9,

Video 1. What stePs


would the teacher need
to have taken to helP
students learn to
accuratelY assess their

peers'work?

Ui", ,ir.t stronger: 5trp",.*t' strong! Had


with an unnecessarily limit
his work, to self-evalulte, I would hlave been left
experience humbled me as an
conclusion about his progress. This self-portrait
my. ability
structor and assessor. It taught me not to overestimatl
!:.1^*,9:l::
to understand stu
that
me
It
taught
gather'
I
irg U"""a on the informatiJn
tf1f.i:l
learning in holistic t"r-t, i"""dio ask the students ::
to set
for students lit":'J:
provide
opportunities
assessment,
a*i" iritr,u process of
instrt
your
and to evaluate
to have choices in assessment, to self-evaluate'

Inoureffortstoenhancestudents'skillsasevaluators'wecanhelpthem

peer assessment' tt'1:


evaluate products fr"*ift"it Peers as well' Through
performance.without reliance on
learn to assess the quality of a product or
such as when students edit e
teacher. peer assess-".rt "u.r be informar,

other,sworkorreviewhomeworkproblemstogether.Itcanalsobemore
at the close
grouP members
mal, as when students rate the social skills of
cooperative learning experlence'

Assessment
FIGARE 7.5

193
A

lexander,s self_portraits.

Alex's Early Kindergarten


Self_portrait

Alex's Late Kinctergarten


Self_portrait

@a

U,

must include not onlv


..Assessment
r profe
-

we

s,

ona

g u ia u

i,;

;;;;,-fr;'Tr[:
Ii":i j!i?r :l f,,,J;i: ff

fessionar ,naching st'"d";;;,


need to take the rlig

it

:: B::ixT.T,::

and schoors
ir ,n1rra,.ri"irli,* j" .r-,"
"r"".ii"t'iu'u'"nu.,
p.""Jrr"ri
ing the assessment
incrud_
n"_irllr;..,u ,1 ,1.
""nooring,
students get to bed,o1
l!?:".
ensuring that
time and u,uiu t"u*v u.-"um*t
communication with famiry
fJioi" ,nu o,n tests. your
assessm"r, rr,rrra be goar_driven,
muttifaceted, and incrusiv6
;i;h;;;;""*p"ctives. r"".r,r"g;ip
ideas for incruding famiries
7.4 gives a few
*,.

s.";;;;;;Ii.pry

-il;;';;out

u"r""-"ri;;""J--rnity.

"";;;;";'r;fe"13, 'fl;''''o
e*"4;'"'i:r,";00
";;r"*;;;"
F::[?J:rilif

Another

; Benson E
r",,iv'."'"rJ;J';::H:: j,"::X't",j:1i"1,.1XT?;1":*U":::.i;jk:
i

seems especiary popurar

., ,rr" -iJitJ ,.r,oor r"r"ii-r,"J

"trdunt, .un ,r"r


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Assessment Needs to Be
Integrated into a Manageabre
sy,ncnt
You have a tough job

todo in your assessor role. you


will assess
;"
alt
stance on education"1_a,"
".r"J"
and staying
ruii J.,-a.."o.cffi,r a"
day, at many levets,

ilil"ins,

*r; ffi
vJE a**

stggilrs