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VERB

VERB REQUIRE AN INFINITIVE


S
agree
appear
arrange
ask
claim
consent

V
decide
demand
deserve
expect
fail
forget

INFINITIVE
hesitate
hope
intend
learn
manage
mean

need
offer
plan
prepare
pretend
promise

VERB REQUIRE AN V-ING


S
admit
appreciate
avoid
complete
consider
delay
deny
discuss

V
enjoy
finish
keep
mention
miss
postpone
practice
quit

V-ing
recall
recommend
regret
risk
stop
suggest
tolerate
understand

VERB PHRASE REQUIRE V-ING


S

V(PH)

V-ING

approve of
be better of
can't help
count on

do not mind
forget about
get through
insist on

keep on
look forward to
object to
think about

MODAL
can
could
may
might
must
shall
should
will
would

possibility, ability, permission


possibility, ability, permission in the past
probability, permission
probability
necessity, logical conclusion
future with emphasis
advise, obligation, prediction
future
condition

think of

MODALS

TO BE

MODAL
AUX
USED TO
USED TO
HAD BETTER
WOULD RATHER
WOULD RATHER THAT
MUST HAVE
MUST BE

VERB
VERB WORD
VERB WORD
VERB ING
VERB WORD
VERB WORD
S + VERB (PAST)
PP
V-ING/ ADJ

refuse
seem
tend
threaten
wait
want

CAUSATIVE
MAKE/LET

SOMEONE
SOMETHING

GET

SOMEONE
SOMETHING

INF
PP

HAVE

SOMEONE
SOMETHING

VERB WORD
PP

HELP

VERB WORD

SOMEONE

VERB WORD
INF

CONDITIONAL
IF + S + VERB (PRESENT)

S + WILL + VERB(PRESENT)

IF + S + VERB (1)

S + WILL + VERB(1)

IF + S + VERB (2)

S + WOULD + VERB(2)

IF + S + HAD + VERB (3) ,

S + WOULD HAVE + VERB(3)

SUBJUNCTIVE
VERB
ask
demand
desire
insist
prefer
propose

recommend
request
require
suggest
urge

NOUN
demand
insistence
preference
proposal

recommendation
request
requirement
suggestion

ADJECTIVE
essential
imperative
important
necessary
S

V/N (SUBJ)

THAT

S
S

TO BE
VERB (1)

TENSES

PRESENT TENSE

EVERY
ALWAYS, NEVER, RARELY, SOMETIMES, OFTEN, USUALLY
ON SUNDAYS, ON FRIDAY
IN THE MORNING, IN THE EVENING

VERB WORD

PRESENT CONTINUOUS
S
-

TO BE

V-ING

HAS/HAVE
HAS/HAVE

BEEN
VERB 3

HAS/HAVE

BEEN

V-ING

S
S

WAS/WERE
VERB 2

WAS/WERE

V-ING

NOW
AT THE MOMENT
AT PRESENT
THIS MOMENT
THIS TIME

PRESENT PERFECT
S
S
-

SINCE
FOR
ALREADY
JUST
NOT YET
SO FAR
....... TIMES

PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS

- FOR
- SINCE

PAST TENSE

YESTERDAY
JUST NOW
LAST
AGO

PAST CONTINUOUS

- WHEN
- WHILE
- AT

(PAST CONTINUOUS + WHEN+ PAST TENSE)


(PAST CONTINUOUS + WHEN+ PAST CONTINUOUS )

PAST PERFECT
S
S
- BEFORE
- AFTER
- WHEN

HAD
HAD

BEEN
VERB 3

BEEN

V-ING

(PAST PERFECT + BEFORE + PAST TENSE)


(PAST TENSE + AFTER + PAST PERFECT)

PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS


S
- BEFORE
- FOR

HAD

FUTURE TENSE
S
S
-

WILL/SHALL
WILL/SHALL

BE
VERB 1

WILL/SHALL

BE

V-ING

TOMMOROW
NEXT..
TONIGHT
IN THE FUTURE
THIS WEEKEND
IN FIVE DAYS

FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE


S
AT THIS TIME TOMMOROW
AT......................TOMMOROW

PASSIVE

NOUN
INVINITIVES & V-ING SUBJECT
S (INF & V-ING)

THE
the

VERB

V-ING
reading

OF NOUN
of the material

.............

VERB
is

well known

NOMINAL THAT CLAUSE S


That vitamin C prevents colds
DETERMINERS
COUNTABLE
a(n), the, some, any
this, that, these, those
none, no, two,three
many
a large/great number of
a lot of
(a) few
fewer
more... Than

NONCOUNTABLE
the, some, any
this, that
none
much
a large amount of
a lot of
(a) little
less.. Than
more....than

* a few/a little (some)

ALL

NOUN
NONCOUNTABLE

VERB
SINGULAR

ALL

PLURAL

PLURAL

NO

COUNT SINGULAR

SINGULAR

NO

COUNT PLURAL

PLURAL

NO

NONCOUNTABLE

SINGULAR

ONE OF THE

COUNT PLURAL

SINGULAR

SOME OF THE

COUNT PLURAL

PLURAL

SOME OF THE

NONCOUNTABLE

SINGULAR

ALMOST ALL (OF THE) &


MOST (OF THE)

COUNT PLURAL
NONCOUNTABLE

PLURAL
SINGULAR

ENOUGH

COUNT PLURAL / NONCOUNT

ADJECTIVE

COUNT PLURAL / NONCOUNT

ENOUGH

ENOUGH

INFINITVE

PREPOSITION
BETWEEN
AMONG

NOUN 1
NOUN 1

NOUN 2
NOUN 2

NOUN 3

PLACE

TIME

IN
COUNTRY
STATE
PROVINCE
COUNTRY
CITY

YEAR
MONTH

ON
STREET
STREET CORNER
COAST
RIVER
A SHIP
A TRAIN
A PLANE
DAY
DATE

DESPITE
IN SPITE OF

NOUN

NOUN/ADJ/ADV

INSTEAD OF

AT
NUMBER IN CORNER
NUMBER IN ROOM
NUMBER A BUILDING
A NUMBER PARK
A NUMBER CAR
A NUMBER BOAT
TIME

NOUN/ADJ/ADV

NOUN/ADJ/ADV

INSTEAD

BECAUSE
BECAUSE OF

S
NOUN

ADJ

FROM (CAUSE)

NOUN/V-ING

NOUN

FOR

NOUN/V-ING

BY

V-ING

COMPARATIVES
NOUN

TO BE

the coat

is

COMPARATIVES
THE SAME AS
SIMILIAR TO
LIKE
DIFFERENT FROM
this coat and that one are

NOUN

COMPARATIVE

that one
THE SAME
SIMILIAR
ALIKE
DIFFERENT

CONJUCTION
CONJ
BOTH

PARALEL

CONJ
AND
AS WELL AS
BUT ALSO
BUT

PARALEL

S
SO
S
NEITHER

BE
BE
BE NOT
BE

TOO
S
EITHER
S

NOT ONLY
NOT
ELEPTICAL SENTENCE
(+)
(-)

CLAUSES

WHO
WHAT
WHEN
WHERE
WHY
HOW (....)

.....EVER

AGREEMENT

ADVERB AND ADJECTIVES