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SOCIAL STUDIES

KINDERGARTEN TO
GRADE 12

PROGRAM RATIONALE AND PHILOSOPHY


Social studies provides opportunities for students
to develop the attitudes, skills and knowledge that
will enable them to become engaged, active,
informed and responsible citizens. Recognition
and respect for individual and collective identity is
essential in a pluralistic and democratic society.
Social studies helps students develop their sense
of self and community, encouraging them to
affirm their place as citizens in an inclusive,
democratic society.

PROGRAM VISION
The Alberta Social Studies Kindergarten to
Grade 12 Program of Studies meets the needs and
reflects the nature of 21st century learners. It has
at its heart the concepts of citizenship and identity
in the Canadian context. The program reflects
multiple perspectives, including Aboriginal and
Francophone, that contribute to Canadas evolving
realities. It fosters the building of a society that is
pluralistic, bilingual, multicultural, inclusive and
democratic.
The program emphasizes the
importance of diversity and respect for differences
as well as the need for social cohesion and the
effective functioning of society. It promotes a
sense of belonging and acceptance in students as
they engage in active and responsible citizenship
at the local, community, provincial, national and
global level.
Central to the vision of the Alberta social studies
program is the recognition of the diversity of
experiences and perspectives and the pluralistic
nature of Canadian society. Pluralism builds upon
Program Rationale and Philosophy
Alberta Education, Alberta, Canada

Canadas
historical
and
constitutional
foundations, which reflect the countrys
Aboriginal heritage, bilingual nature and
multicultural realities.
A pluralistic view
recognizes that citizenship and identity are shaped
by multiple factors such as culture, language,
environment,
gender,
ideology,
religion,
spirituality and philosophy.

DEFINITION OF SOCIAL STUDIES


Social studies is the study of people in relation to
each other and to their world. It is an issuesfocused and inquiry-based interdisciplinary
subject that draws upon history, geography,
ecology, economics, law, philosophy, political
science and other social science disciplines.
Social studies fosters students understanding of
and involvement in practical and ethical issues
that face their communities and humankind.
Social studies is integral to the process of enabling
students to develop an understanding of who they
are, what they want to become and the society in
which they want to live.

THE ROLE OF SOCIAL STUDIES


Social studies develops the key values and
attitudes, knowledge and understanding, and skills
and processes necessary for students to become
active and responsible citizens, engaged in the
democratic process and aware of their capacity to
effect change in their communities, society and
world.
Social Studies (K12) /1
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VALUES AND ATTITUDES

Social studies provides learning opportunities for


students to:

value the diversity, respect the dignity and


support the equality of all human beings
demonstrate social compassion, fairness and
justice
appreciate and respect how multiple
perspectives, including Aboriginal and
Francophone, shape Canadas political, socioeconomic, linguistic and cultural realities
honour and value the traditions, concepts and
symbols that are the expression of Canadian
identity
thrive in their evolving identity with a
legitimate sense of belonging to their
communities, Canada and the world
demonstrate a global consciousness with
respect to humanity and world issues
demonstrate a consciousness for the limits of
the natural environment, stewardship for the
land and an understanding of the principles of
sustainability
value lifelong learning and opportunities for
careers in the areas of social studies and the
social sciences.

KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING


Social studies provides learning opportunities for
students to:

understand their rights and responsibilities in


order to make informed decisions and
participate fully in society
understand the unique nature of Canada and
its land, history, complexities and current
issues
understand how knowledge of the history of
Alberta, of Canada and of the world,
contributes to a better comprehension of
contemporary realities
understand historic and contemporary issues,
including controversial issues, from multiple
perspectives
understand the diversity of Aboriginal
traditions, values and attitudes
understand contemporary challenges and
contributions of Aboriginal peoples in urban,
rural, cultural and linguistic settings

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understand the historical and contemporary


realities of Francophones in Canada
understand the multiethnic and intercultural
makeup of Francophones in Canada
understand the challenges and opportunities
that immigration presents to newcomers and
to Canada
understand how social cohesion can be
achieved in a pluralistic society
understand how political and economic
distribution of power affects individuals,
communities and nations
understand the role of social, political,
economic and legal institutions as they relate
to individual and collective well-being and a
sustainable society
understand
how
opportunities
and
responsibilities change in an increasingly
interdependent world
understand that humans exist in a dynamic
relationship with the natural environment.

SKILLS AND PROCESSES


Social studies provides learning opportunities for
students to:

engage in active inquiry and critical and


creative thinking
engage in problem solving and conflict
resolution with an awareness of the ethical
consequences of decision making
apply historical and geographic skills to bring
meaning to issues and events
use
and
manage
information
and
communication technologies critically
conduct research ethically using varied
methods and sources; organize, interpret and
present their findings; and defend their
opinions
apply skills of metacognition, reflecting upon
what they have learned and what they need to
learn
recognize and responsibly address injustices
as they occur in their schools, communities,
Canada and the world
communicate ideas and information in an
informed, organized and persuasive manner.

Program Rationale and Philosophy


Alberta Education, Alberta, Canada

PROGRAM FOUNDATIONS

The goal of social studies is to provide learning


opportunities for students to:

The program of studies provides a foundation of


learning experiences that address critical aspects
of social studies and its application. These critical
areas provide general direction for the program of
studies and identify major components of its
structure.

CORE CONCEPTS OF CITIZENSHIP


AND IDENTITY
The dynamic relationship between citizenship
and identity forms the basis for skills and
learning outcomes in the program of studies.

Program Rationale and Philosophy


Alberta Education, Alberta, Canada

understand the principles underlying a


democratic society
demonstrate a critical understanding of
individual and collective rights
understand the commitment required to
ensure the vitality and sustainability of their
changing communities at the local,
provincial, national and global levels
validate and accept differences that
contribute to the pluralistic nature of
Canada
respect the dignity and support the equality
of all human beings.

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The sense of being a citizen, enjoying individual


and collective rights and equitable status in
contemporary society, impacts an individuals
sense of identity. Individuals need to feel that
their identities are viewed as legitimate before
they can contribute to the public good and feel a
sense of belonging and empowerment as citizens.

Social studies provides learning opportunities for


students to:

understand the complexity of identity


formation in the Canadian context
understand how identity and self-esteem are
shaped by multiple personal, social, linguistic
and cultural factors
demonstrate sensitivity to the personal and
emotional aspects of identity
demonstrate skills required to maintain
individuality within a group
understand that with empowerment comes
personal and collective responsibility for the
public good.

SOCIAL STUDIES AND ABORIGINAL


PERSPECTIVES AND EXPERIENCES
For historical and constitutional reasons, an
understanding
of
Canada
requires
an
understanding:

of Aboriginal perspectives
of Aboriginal experiences
that Aboriginal students have particular needs
and requirements.

Central to Aboriginal identity are languages and


cultures that link each group with its physical
world, worldviews and traditions. The role of
Elders and community leaders is essential in this
linkage.
The social studies program of studies provides
learning opportunities that contribute to the
development of self-esteem and identity in
Aboriginal students by:

promoting and encouraging a balanced and


holistic
individual
and
strengthening
individual capacity

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honouring and valuing the traditions, concepts


and symbols that are the expression of their
identity
providing opportunities for students to express
who they are with confidence as they interact
and engage with others
contributing to the development of active and
responsible members of groups and
communities.

SOCIAL STUDIES AND


FRANCOPHONE PERSPECTIVES AND
EXPERIENCES
For historical and constitutional reasons, an
understanding
of
Canada
requires
an
understanding:

of Francophone perspectives
of Francophone experiences
that Francophone students have particular
needs and requirements.

Social studies occupies a central position in


successful Francophone education in Alberta.
Francophone schools are a focal point of the
Francophone community. They meet the needs
and aspirations of parents by ensuring the vitality
of the community. For students enrolled in
Francophone schools, the social studies program
will:

strengthen Francophone self-esteem and


identity
encourage students to actively contribute to
the flourishing of Francophone culture,
families and communities
promote partnerships among the home,
community and business world
engage students in participating in the
bilingual and multicultural nature of Canada.

PLURALISM: DIVERSITY AND


COHESION
One of the goals of the social studies program is to
foster understanding of the roles and contributions
of linguistic, cultural and ethnic groups in Canada.
Students will learn about themselves in relation to
others. Social studies helps students to function
Program Rationale and Philosophy
Alberta Education, Alberta, Canada

as citizens in a society that values diversity and


cohesion.
A key component of effective social
organizations, communities and institutions is
recognition of diversity of experiences and
perspectives. The program of studies emphasizes
how diversity and differences are assets that
enrich our lives. Students will have opportunities
to value diversity, to recognize differences as
positive attributes and to recognize the evolving
nature of individual identities. Race, socioeconomic conditions and gender are among
various forms of identification that people live
with and experience in a variety of ways.
Social studies addresses diversity and social
cohesion and provides processes that students can
use to work out differences, drawing on the
strengths of diversity. These processes include:

a commitment to respecting differences and


fostering inclusiveness
an understanding and appreciation for shared
values
a respect for democratic principles and
processes for decision making such as
dialogue and deliberation.

Diversity contributes to the development of a


vibrant democratic society.
Through the
interactions of place and historical processes of
change, diversity has been an important asset in
the evolution of Canadian society. Some key
manifestations of this diversity include:

First Nations, Inuit and Mtis cultures


official bilingualism
immigration
multiculturalism.

Accommodation of diversity is essential for


fostering social cohesion in a pluralistic society.
Social cohesion is a process that requires the
development of the relationships within and
among communities.
Social cohesion is
manifested by respect for:

individual and collective rights


civic responsibilities

Program Rationale and Philosophy


Alberta Education, Alberta, Canada

shared values
democracy
rule of law
diversity.

SOCIAL STUDIES: LEARNERS AND


LEARNING
Students bring their own perspectives, cultures
and experiences to the social studies classroom.
They construct meaning in the context of their
lived experience through active inquiry and
engagement with their school and community. In
this respect, the infusion of current events, issues
and concerns is an essential component of social
studies.
Social studies recognizes the interconnections and
interactions among school, community, provincial,
national and global institutions.
The Alberta program of studies for social studies
provides learning opportunities for students to
develop skills of active and responsible citizenship
and the capacity to inquire, make reasoned and
informed judgments, and arrive at decisions for
the public good.
Students become engaged and involved in their
communities by:

asking questions
making connections with their local
community
writing letters and articles
sharing ideas and understandings
listening to and collaborating and working
with others to design the future
empathizing with the viewpoints and positions
of others
creating new ways to solve problems.

ISSUES-FOCUSED APPROACH TO
TEACHING SOCIAL STUDIES
A focus on issues through deliberation is intrinsic
to the multidisciplinary nature of social studies
and to democratic life in a pluralistic society. An
issues-focused approach presents opportunities to
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address learning outcomes by engaging students in


active inquiry and application of knowledge and
critical thinking skills. These skills help students
to identify the relevance of an issue by guiding
them to develop informed positions and respect
for the positions of others. This process enables
students to question, validate, expand and express
their
understanding;
to
challenge
their
presuppositions; and to construct their own points
of view.
The program of studies is designed to promote
metacognition
through
critical
reflection,
questioning, decision making and consideration of
multiple perspectives on issues. Through this
process, students will strive to understand and
explain the world in the present and to determine
what kind of world they want in the future.

Current Affairs
Social studies fosters the development of citizens
who are informed and engaged in current affairs.
Accordingly, current affairs play a central role in
learning and are integrated throughout the
program. Ongoing reference to current affairs
adds relevance, interest and immediacy to social
studies issues. Investigating current affairs from
multiple perspectives motivates students to engage
in meaningful dialogue on relevant historical and
contemporary issues, helping them to make
informed and reasoned decisions on local,
provincial, national and global issues.
An issues-focused approach that incorporates
multiple perspectives and current affairs helps
students apply problem-solving and decisionmaking skills to real-life and controversial issues.
In order to allow opportunities for students to
engage in current affairs, issues and concerns of a
local nature, the program of studies provides the
flexibility to include these topics within the time
allotted for social studies.
Opportunities may include:

current events in local communities


issues with local, provincial, national and/or
global relevance

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cultural celebrations
visits from dignitaries
special events.

Controversial Issues
Controversial issues are those topics that are
publicly sensitive and upon which there is no
consensus of values or beliefs. They include
topics on which reasonable people may sincerely
disagree. Opportunities to deal with these issues
are an integral part of social studies education in
Alberta.
Studying controversial issues is important in
preparing students to participate responsibly in a
democratic and pluralistic society. Such study
provides opportunities to develop the ability to
think clearly, to reason logically, to openmindedly and respectfully examine different
points of view and to make sound judgments.
Controversial issues that have been anticipated by
the teacher, and those that may arise incidentally
during instruction, should be used by the teacher
to promote critical inquiry and teach thinking
skills.

STRANDS OF SOCIAL STUDIES


Learning related to the core concepts of
citizenship and identity is achieved through
focused content at each grade level. The six
strands
of
social
studies
reflect
the
interdisciplinary nature of social studies. The
strands are interrelated and constitute the basis for
the learning outcomes in the program of studies.

Time, Continuity and Change


Understanding the dynamic relationships among
time, continuity and change is a cornerstone of
citizenship and identity. Considering multiple
perspectives on history, and contemporary issues
within their historical context, enables students to
understand and appreciate the social, cultural and
political dimensions of the past, make meaning of
the present and make decisions for the future.

Program Rationale and Philosophy


Alberta Education, Alberta, Canada

The Land: Places and People

Global Connections

Exploring the unique and dynamic relationship


that humans have with the land, places and
environments affects decisions that students make
and their understanding of perspectives, issues,
citizenship and identity. Students will examine
the impact of physical geography on the social,
political,
environmental
and
economic
organization of societies. This examination also
affects students understanding of perspectives
and issues as they consider how connections to the
land influence their sense of place.

Critically examining multiple perspectives and


connections among local, national and global
issues develops students understanding of
citizenship and identity and the interdependent or
conflicting nature of individuals, communities,
societies and nations.
Exploring this
interdependence broadens students global
consciousness and empathy with world conditions.
Students will also acquire a better comprehension
of tensions pertaining to economic relationships,
sustainability and universal human rights.

Power, Authority and Decision Making

Culture and Community

Examining the concepts of power, authority and


decision making from multiple perspectives helps
students consider how these concepts impact
individuals, relationships, communities and
nations. It also broadens students understanding
of related issues, perspectives and their effect on
citizenship and identity. A critical examination of
the distribution, exercise and implications of
power and authority is the focus of this strand.
Students will examine governmental and political
structures, justice and laws, fairness and equity,
conflict and cooperation, decision-making
processes, leadership and governance.
This
examination develops a students understanding of
the individuals capacity in decision-making
processes and promotes active and responsible
citizenship.

Exploring culture and community allows students


to examine shared values and their own sense of
belonging, beliefs, traditions and languages. This
promotes students development of citizenship and
identity
and
understanding of
multiple
perspectives, issues and change. Students will
examine the various expressions of their own and
others cultural, linguistic and social communities.

Economics and Resources


Exploring multiple perspectives on the use,
distribution and management of resources and
wealth contributes to students understanding of
the effects that economics and resources have on
the quality of life around the world. Students will
explore basic economic systems, trade and the
effects of economic interdependence on
individuals, communities, nations and the natural
environment.
Students will also critically
consider
the
social
and
environmental
implications of resource use and technological
change.

Program Rationale and Philosophy


Alberta Education, Alberta, Canada

GENERAL AND SPECIFIC OUTCOMES


The general and specific outcomes provide an
organizational structure for assessment of student
progress in the social studies program. These
outcomes follow the progression of learning that
occurs at each grade level.

General Outcomes
General outcomes identify what students are
expected to know and be able to do upon
completion of a grade/course. General outcomes
have been identified within each grade/course.

Specific Outcomes
Specific outcomes identify explicit components of
values
and
attitudes,
knowledge
and
understanding, and skills and processes that are
contained within each general outcome within
each grade/course.
Specific outcomes are
building blocks that enable students to achieve
general outcomes for each grade/course. Where
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appropriate, examples have been identified as an


optional (e.g.) or required (i.e.) component of the
specific outcome.
At the 1012 levels, all
bracketed items are required components of the
specific outcome.
OUTCOMES RELATED TO VALUES AND
ATTITUDES
The goal of social studies is to foster the
development of values and attitudes that enable
students to participate actively and responsibly as
citizens in a changing and pluralistic society.
Attitudes are an expression of values and beliefs
about an issue or topic. Respect, a sense of
personal and collective responsibility, and an
appreciation of human interdependence are
fundamental to citizenship and identity within
local, national and global communities.
Developing an ethic of care toward self, others
and the natural world is central to these
commitments.
OUTCOMES RELATED TO KNOWLEDGE
AND UNDERSTANDING
Outcomes related to knowledge and understanding
are fundamental to informed decision making.
Knowledge and understanding involve the breadth
and depth of information, concepts, evidence,
ideas and opinions.
OUTCOMES RELATED TO SKILLS AND
PROCESSES
The specific outcomes for skills and processes
provide opportunities for students to apply their
learning to relevant situations and to develop,
practise and maintain essential skills as their
learning evolves within a grade/course and from
grade to grade/course to course.
The skill
outcomes are grouped into the following
categories for organizational purposes:

Dimensions of Thinking
Social Participation as a Democratic Practice
Research for Deliberative Inquiry
Communication

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Dimensions of Thinking
In social studies, students acquire and develop
thinking strategies that assist them in making
connections to prior knowledge, in assimilating
new information and in applying learning to new
contexts. The following dimensions of thinking
have been identified as key components in social
studies learning:
Critical Thinking
Critical thinking is a process of inquiry, analysis
and evaluation resulting in a reasoned judgment.
Critical thinking promotes the development of
democratic citizenship. Students will develop
skills of critical thinking that include:
distinguishing fact from opinion; considering the
reliability and accuracy of information;
determining diverse points of view, perspective
and bias; and considering the ethics of decisions
and actions.
Creative Thinking
Creative thinking occurs when students identify
unique connections among ideas and suggest
insightful approaches to social studies questions
and issues. Through creative thinking, students
generate an inventory of possibilities; anticipate
outcomes; and combine logical, intuitive and
divergent thought.

Program Rationale and Philosophy


Alberta Education, Alberta, Canada

Historical Thinking
Historical thinking is a process whereby students
are challenged to rethink assumptions about the
past and to reimagine both the present and the
future. It helps students become well-informed
citizens who approach issues with an inquiring
mind and exercise sound judgment when
presented with new information or a perspective
different from their own. Historical thinking skills
involve the sequencing of events, the analysis of
patterns and the placement of events in context to
assist in the construction of meaning and
understanding, and can be applied to a variety of
media, such as oral traditions, print, electronic
text, art and music.
Historical thinking allows students to develop a
sense of time and place to help define their
identities. Exploring the roots of the present
ensures the transmission and sharing of values,
and helps individuals to realize that they belong to
a civil society. Historical thinking develops
citizens willing to engage in a pluralistic
democracy and to promote and support democratic
institutions.
Geographic Thinking
Possessing geographic thinking skills provides
students with the tools to address social studies
issues from a geographic perspective. Geographic
thinking skills involve the exploration of spatial
orders, patterns and associations. They enable
students to investigate environmental and societal
issues using a range of geographic information.
Developing these spatial skills helps students
understand the relationships among people, events
and the context of their physical environment,
which will assist them to make choices and act
wisely when confronted with questions affecting
the land and water resources.
Decision Making and Problem Solving
Students develop the ability to make timely and
appropriate decisions by identifying the need for a
decision, then weighing the advantages,
disadvantages and consequences of various
alternatives. Decision making involves reserving
judgments until all the options and perspectives
have been explored; seeking clarity for a variety
of choices and perspectives; examining the causeProgram Rationale and Philosophy
Alberta Education, Alberta, Canada

and-effect relationship between choices; and


basing decisions on knowledge, values and
beliefs.
Problem-solving processes in social studies help
students develop the ability to identify or pose
problems and apply learning to consider the
causes and dimensions of problems. These skills
help develop thinking strategies, allowing students
to determine possible courses of action and
consequences of potential solutions for a problem
that may have multiple or complex causes and that
may not have a clear solution. Activities such as
simulations, debates, public presentations and
editorial writing foster the development of these
skills.
Metacognition
Metacognition is thinking about thinking. It
involves critical self-awareness, conscious
reflection, analysis, monitoring and reinvention.
Students assess the value of the learning strategies
they have used, modify them or select new
strategies, and monitor the use of reinvented or
new strategies in future learning situations. In this
respect, students become knowledge creators and
contribute to a shared understanding of the world
we live ina key feature of democratic life and
commitment to pluralism.

Social Participation
Practice

as

Democratic

Social participation skills enable students to


develop effective relationships with others, to
work in cooperative ways toward common goals
and to collaborate with others for the well-being
of their communities. Students will develop
interpersonal skills that focus on cooperation,
conflict
resolution,
consensus
building,
collaborative decision making, the importance of
responsibility and the acceptance of differences.
Development of these skills will enhance active
participation in their communities. Activities in
this regard could include social action and
community projects, e.g., church groups, Amnesty
International, Mdecins sans frontires (Doctors
Without Borders).

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Research for Deliberative Inquiry


Purposeful deliberation and critical reflection are
essential skills and processes for democratic
citizenship and problem solving. In social studies,
the research process develops learners who are
independent, self-motivated problem solvers and
co-creators of knowledge. Developing research
skills prepares students for the world of work,
post-secondary studies, lifelong learning and
citizenship in a complex world. These skills also
enhance and enrich the process of identity
formation as students critically reflect on their
sense of self and relationship to others. The
foundations of the research process are the
application of acquired skills, the selection of
appropriate resources and the use of suitable
technology.
The Infusion of Technology
Technology encompasses the processes, tools and
techniques that alter human activity. Information
communication technology provides a vehicle for
communicating, representing, inquiring, making
decisions and solving problems. It involves the
processes, tools and techniques for:

gathering and identifying information


re-representations of dominant texts
expressing and creating
classifying and organizing
analyzing and evaluating
speculating and predicting.

Selected curriculum outcomes from Alberta


Learnings Information and Communication
Technology (ICT) Program of Studies are infused
throughout the social studies program of studies
and are indicated by this symbol . Further
information regarding the Information and
Communication Technology Program of Studies is
contained within that program of studies.

reading, writing, viewing and representing, as well


as the use of communication technologies for
acquiring and exchanging information and ideas.
Oral, Written and Visual Literacy
Through the language arts, human beings
communicate thoughts, feelings, experiences,
information and opinions and learn to understand
themselves and others. Speaking, writing and
representing are used in the social studies program
to relate a communitys stories and to convey
knowledge, beliefs, values and traditions through
narrative history, music, art and literature.
Reading, listening and viewing in social studies
enables students to extend their thinking and their
knowledge and to increase their understanding of
themselves and others. These skills provide
students with a means of accessing the ideas,
perspectives and experiences of others.
The language arts enable students to explore,
organize and clarify thoughts and to communicate
these thoughts to others.
Media Literacy Skills
Contemporary texts often involve more than one
medium to communicate messages and as such,
are often complex, having multi-layered meanings.
Information texts include visual elements such as
charts, graphs, diagrams, photographs, tables,
pictures, collages and timelines. Media literacy
skills involve accessing, interpreting and
evaluating mass media texts such as newspapers,
television, the Internet and advertising. Media
literacy in social studies explores concepts in mass
media texts, such as identifying key messages and
multiple points of view that are being
communicated, detecting bias, and examining the
responsibility of citizens to respond to media
texts.

Communication
Communication skills enable students to
comprehend, interpret and express information
and ideas clearly and purposefully. These skills
include the language arts of listening, speaking,
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Program Rationale and Philosophy


Alberta Education, Alberta, Canada

SCOPE AND SEQUENCE


The core concepts and six strands of the Alberta Social Studies Kindergarten to Grade 12 Program of
Studies are reflected in each grade/course. The structure provides continuity and linkages from grade to
grade/course to course. In addition, the general outcomes in each grade/course are components of the
one central theme reflected in the grade/course title.
Grade

Grade Title and General Outcomes

Linkages and Sequencing

Kindergarten

Being Together
K.1 I Am Unique
K.2 I Belong

Kindergarten emphasizes a strong sense of


identity and self-esteem and is a students
introduction to citizenship.

One

Citizenship: Belonging and Connecting


1.1 My World: Home, School, Community
1.2 Moving Forward with the Past: My
Family, My History and My Community

Grade 1 is an introduction to active and


responsible citizenship and introduces the
concept of community.
The concept of
historical thinking is applied to the study of
community.

Two

Communities in Canada
2.1 Canadas Dynamic Communities
2.2 A Community in the Past

Grade 2 expands on the concept of community


through
an
examination
of
specific
characteristics of communities in Canada.
Building on the introduction of historical
thinking in Grade 1, Grade 2 students will
examine how a community changes over time.

Three

Connecting with the World


3.1 Communities in the World
3.2 Global Citizenship

Grade 3 continues to build on the knowledge of


community and citizenship by examining
diverse communities in the world. Grade 3
students will be introduced to the concepts of
global citizenship and quality of life.

Four

Alberta: The Land, Histories and Stories


4.1 Alberta: A Sense of the Land
4.2 The Stories, Histories and People of
Alberta
4.3 Alberta: Celebrations and Challenges

Grade 4 introduces specific geographic skills


through an examination of Alberta and its
cultural and geographic diversity. Linkages to
literature and the continued development of
historical thinking are reinforced through
stories and legends.
Archaeology and
paleontology are also introduced in Grade 4 to
further develop historical thinking skills.

Five

Canada: The Land, Histories and Stories


5.1 Physical Geography of Canada
5.2 Histories and Stories of Ways of Life in
Canada
5.3 Canada: Shaping an Identify

Grade 5 examines the foundations of Canada


through its physical geography, the ways of life
and heritage of its diverse peoples. Grade 5
presents events and issues that have impacted
citizenship and identity in the Canadian context
over time.

Six

Democracy: Action and Participation


6.1 Citizens Participating in Decision
Making
6.2 Historical Models of Democracy:
Ancient Athens and the Iroquois
Confederacy

Grade 6 emphasizes the importance of active


and responsible participation as the foundation
of a democratic society. Students will examine
how the underlying principles of democracy in
Canada compare to those of Ancient Athens and
the Iroquois Confederacy.

(continued)

Program Rationale and Philosophy


Alberta Education, Alberta, Canada

Social Studies (K12) /11


(2005)

(continued)

Grade

Grade Title and General Outcomes

Linkages and Sequencing

Seven

Canada: Origins, Histories and Movement


of People
7.1 Toward Confederation
7.2 Following Confederation: Canadian
Expansions

Grade 7 provides a comprehensive examination


of Canadian history preceding and following
Confederation. The concept of intercultural
contact is introduced through an examination of
migration and immigration. Grade 7 forms the
foundation for the continued dialogue on
citizenship and identity in Canada.

Eight

Historical Worldviews Examined


8.1 From Isolation to Adaptation: Japan
8.2 Origins of a Western Worldview:
Renaissance Europe
8.3 Worldviews in Conflict: The Spanish
and the Aztecs

Grade 8 expands on the concept of intercultural


contact and continues to develop historical
thinking skills through an examination of past
societies in different parts of the world.

Nine

Canada: Opportunities and Challenges


9.1 Issues for Canadians: Governance
and Rights
9.2 Issues for Canadians: Economic
Systems in Canada and the United States

Grade 9 focuses on citizenship, identity and


quality of life and how they are impacted by
political and legislative processes in Canada.
The role of economic systems in Canada and
the United States will also be examined.

Grade

Course Titles

Linkages and Sequencing

Ten

10-1 Perspectives on Globalization


10-2 Living in a Globalizing World

Grade 10 explores the origins of globalization,


the implications of economic globalization and
the impact of globalization internationally on
lands, cultures, human rights and quality of life.

Eleven

20-1 Perspectives on Nationalism


20-2 Understandings of Nationalism

These are the proposed titles for the Grade 11


and Grade 12 programs of study, currently
under development.

Twelve

30-1 Perspectives on Ideology


30-2 Understandings of Ideologies

12/ Social Studies (K12)


(2005)

Program Rationale and Philosophy


Alberta Education, Alberta, Canada

GRADE 7: Canada: Origins, Histories and Movement of Peoples


OVERVIEW

RATIONALE

Grade 7 students will explore the origins, histories


and movement of peoples who forged the
foundations of Canadian Confederation. They will
examine how the political, demographic, economic
and social changes that have occurred since
Confederation have influenced ways in which
contemporary Canada has evolved.

Through an examination of events preceding and


following Confederation, Grade 7 students will
acquire an understanding of how Canada has
evolved into a multicultural, bilingual, pluralistic
and diverse society; and they will appreciate how
these dimensions of Canada have affected
citizenship and identity over time.

TERMS AND CONCEPTS


assimilation, colony, demographics, Great
Deportation, immigration, imperialism, migration,
National Policy, settlement, Treaty of Paris,
urbanization

General Outcome 7.1

General Outcome 7.2

Toward Confederation

Following Confederation: Canadian


Expansions

Students will demonstrate an understanding and


appreciation of the distinct roles of, and the
relationships among, the Aboriginal, French and
British peoples in forging the foundations of
Canadian Confederation.

Students will demonstrate an understanding and


appreciation of how the political, demographic,
economic and social changes that have occurred
since Confederation have presented challenges and
opportunities for individuals and communities.

Local and Current Affairs


In order to allow opportunities for students to engage in current affairs, issues and concerns of a local
nature, the program of studies provides the flexibility to include these topics within the time allotted for
social studies.

Grade 7
Alberta Education, Alberta, Canada

Social Studies /1
(2006)

Benchmark Skills and Processes


The following benchmark skills and processes are provided here as outcomes to be achieved by the end of
Grade 9.

critical thinking and


creative thinking
historical thinking
geographic thinking
decision making and
problem solving
cooperation, conflict
resolution and
consensus building
age-appropriate
behaviour for social
involvement
research and
information
oral, written and
visual literacy
media literacy

2/ Social Studies
(2006)

Dimensions of Thinking
determine the validity of information based on context, bias, source,
objectivity, evidence and/or reliability to broaden understanding of a topic or
an issue
analyze selected issues and problems from the past, placing people and events
in a context of time and place
interpret thematic maps to analyze economic and political issues
take appropriate action and initiative, when required, in decision-making and
problem-solving scenarios
Social Participation as a Democratic Practice
demonstrate leadership in groups, where appropriate, to achieve consensus and
resolve conflicts peacefully and equitably
develop leadership skills by assuming specific roles and responsibilities in
organizations, projects and events within the community
Research for Deliberative Inquiry
reflect on changes of perspective or opinion based on information gathered and
research conducted
Communication
communicate in a persuasive and engaging manner through speeches,
multimedia presentations and written and oral reports, taking particular
audiences and purposes into consideration
examine techniques used to enhance the authority and authenticity of media
messages
Grade 7
Alberta Education, Alberta, Canada

7.1

Toward Confederation

General Outcome
Students will demonstrate an understanding and appreciation of the distinct roles of, and the relationships
among, the Aboriginal, French and British peoples in forging the foundations of Canadian Confederation.

Specific Outcomes
Values and Attitudes
Students will:
7.1.1 appreciate the influence of diverse Aboriginal, French and British peoples on events
leading to Confederation (C, I, TCC)
7.1.2 appreciate the challenges of co-existence among peoples (C, CC, I, LPP)
Knowledge and Understanding
Students will:
7.1.3 compare and contrast diverse social and economic structures within the societies of
Aboriginal, French and British peoples in pre-Confederation Canada by exploring and
reflecting upon the following questions and issues:
What were the different ways in which Aboriginal societies were structured (i.e., Iroquois
Confederacy, Ojibwa, Mikmaq)? (CC, I, LPP)
How did the structures of Aboriginal societies affect decision making in each society
(i.e., role and status of women, consensus building)? (CC, TCC, PADM)
What were the social and economic factors of European imperialism? (CC, I, TCC)
In what ways did European imperialism impact the social and economic structures of
Aboriginal societies? (ER, GC, PADM, TCC)
How was European imperialism responsible for the development of Acadia, New France and
British settlements? (I, GC, PADM)
Who were the key figures in the French exploration and settlement of North America?
(CC, LPP, TCC)
What roles did the Royal Government and the Catholic Church play in the social structure of
New France (i.e., governor, intendant, Jesuits, religious congregations)?
(ER, GC, PADM, LPP)
Who were the key figures in the British exploration and settlement of North America?
(CC, LPP, TCC)
What role did the British government play in the settlement of North America?
(PADM, ER, LPP, GC)
7.1.4 assess, critically, the economic competition related to the control of the North American
fur trade by exploring and reflecting upon the following questions and issues:
How did the First Nations, French, British and Mtis peoples interact with each other as
participants in the fur trade? (TCC, ER, LPP)
How did the fur trade contribute to the foundations of the economy in North America?
(ER, LPP, TCC)
C Citizenship
ER Economics and Resources
LPP
CC Culture and Community
PADM

Grade 7
Alberta Education, Alberta, Canada

I
The Land: Places and People
Power, Authority and Decision Making

Identity
GC Global Connections
TCC Time, Continuity and Change

Social Studies /3
(2006)

How was Britains interest in the fur trade different from that of New France?
(TCC, ER, GC)
How was economic development in New France impacted by the changing policies of the
French Royal Government? (PADM, ER, GC, TCC)
What was the role of mercantilism before and after the 1763 Treaty of Paris? (ER, TCC)

7.1.5

assess, critically, the political competition between the French and the British in
attempting to control North America by exploring and reflecting upon the following
questions and issues:
In what ways did conflicts between the French and the British in Europe impact North
America? (TCC, LPP)
How did conflicts between the French and the British in Europe become factors in the Great
Deportation of the Acadians in 1755? (I, C, LPP, GC)
To what extent was the Battle of the Plains of Abraham the key event in achieving British
control over North America? (TCC, LPP, GC)
How was British North America impacted by rebellion in the 13 colonies and by the
subsequent Loyalist migration? (LPP, ER, TCC)

7.1.6

assess, critically, how political, economic and military events contributed to the
foundations of Canada by exploring and reflecting upon the following questions and issues:
What was the role and intent of Chief Pontiac in controlling British forts? (PADM, TCC)
How was the Royal Proclamation of 1763 an attempt to achieve compromise between the
Aboriginal peoples, the French and the British? (PADM, TCC)
How did the Qubec Act of 1774 contribute to the foundations of Canada as an officially
bilingual country? (PADM, TCC)
What was the role of Chief Tecumseh in the War of 1812? (PADM, TCC)
How did the War of 1812 contribute to British identity in Canada? (I, LPP, TCC)
How did the War of 1812 contribute to defining Canadas political boundaries?
(LPP, TCC, I)
How was the Great Migration of 18151850 in Upper Canada and Lower Canada an attempt
to confirm British identity in the Province of Canada? (LPP, I, TCC)
How was the Act of Union of 1840 an attempt to resolve the issues raised by the 1837 and
1838 Rebellions in Lower Canada and Upper Canada? (PADM, LPP, I, TCC)
To what extent was Confederation an attempt to provide the populations of Qubec and
Ontario with increased control over their own affairs? (PADM, LPP, TCC)
To what extent was Confederation an attempt to strengthen the Maritime colonies?
(GC, TCC, LPP)

C Citizenship
ER Economics and Resources
LPP
CC Culture and Community
PADM

4/ Social Studies
(2006)

I
The Land: Places and People
Power, Authority and Decision Making

Identity
GC Global Connections
TCC Time, Continuity and Change

Grade 7
Alberta Education, Alberta, Canada

7.2

Following Confederation: Canadian Expansions

General Outcome
Students will demonstrate an understanding and appreciation of how the political, demographic, economic
and social changes that have occurred since Confederation have presented challenges and opportunities
for individuals and communities.

Specific Outcomes
Values and Attitudes
Students will:
7.2.1 recognize the positive and negative aspects of immigration and migration (GC, LPP, C, I)
7.2.2 recognize the positive and negative consequences of political decisions (PADM)
7.2.3 appreciate the challenges that individuals and communities face when confronted with
rapid change (I, CC, LPP)
Knowledge and Understanding
Students will:
7.2.4 assess, critically, the role, contributions and influence of the Red River Mtis on the
development of western Canada by exploring and reflecting upon the following questions
and issues:
What factors led to Louis Riels emergence as the leader of the Mtis? (TCC, PADM, I, CC)
What similarities and differences exist between the causes of the Red River Resistance in
1869 and the causes of the second Mtis uprising in 1885? (TCC, PADM, LPP)
How did the Government of Canadas response to the Red River Resistance and the second
Mtis uprising solidify Canadas control of the West? (TCC, PADM)
To what extent were the Red River Resistance and the second Mtis uprising means to
counter assimilation? (PADM, I, C)
What were the Mtis, First Nations, French and British perspectives on the events that led to
the establishment of Manitoba? (TCC, PADM, I, CC)
How was the creation of Manitoba an attempt to achieve compromise between the Mtis,
First Nations, French and British peoples? (TCC, PADM, I, LPP)
To what extent were the Manitoba Schools Act and evolving educational legislation in the
Northwest Territories attempts to impose a British identity in western Canada?
(I, PADM, TCC)
7.2.5 evaluate the impact of Confederation and of subsequent immigration on Canada from 1867
to the First World War by exploring and reflecting upon the following questions and issues:
What factors led to the purchase of Ruperts Land in 1869? (TCC, PADM, LPP)
How did the National Policy determine the economic and demographic aspects of Canadian
expansion? (TCC, ER, PADM, LPP)
How did changing demographics resulting from Clifford Siftons immigration policies affect
the collective identity of Francophones in communities across western Canada?
(I, TCC, PADM)
C Citizenship
ER Economics and Resources
LPP
CC Culture and Community
PADM

Grade 7
Alberta Education, Alberta, Canada

I
The Land: Places and People
Power, Authority and Decision Making

Identity
GC Global Connections
TCC Time, Continuity and Change

Social Studies /5
(2006)

How did Asian immigrants contribute to the development of Canada (i.e., Chinese railway
workers)? (TCC, CC, LPP)
In what ways did the building of the Canadian Pacific Railway affect the growth of Canada?
(TCC, PADM, ER, LPP)
What was the role of the North West Mounted Police in the development of western
Canada? (PADM, TCC)
What strategies were used by the government to encourage immigration from Europe?
(GC, LPP, TCC)
What strategies were used by religious communities and missionaries to encourage
migration and immigration to western Canada from eastern Canada and the United States?
(TCC, LPP, GC)
What impact did immigration have on Aboriginal peoples and on communities in Canada?
(GC, CC, I, TCC)
How did communities, services and businesses established by Francophones contribute to
the overall development of western Canada (i.e., health, education, churches, commerce,
politics, journalism, agriculture)? (ER, TCC, CC, PADM)
How did immigrants from eastern Europe contribute to the development of western Canada
(i.e., health, education, churches, commerce, politics, journalism, agriculture)?
(CC, ER, TCC, PADM)
To what extent was agricultural activity a key factor in the population growth of western
Canada? (TCC, LPP, ER)
What factors led to British Columbias joining Confederation? (TCC, LPP, PADM)
What factors led to Prince Edward Islands joining Confederation? (TCC, LPP, PADM)
How were the needs of varied populations considered through the creation of Alberta and of
Saskatchewan? (LPP, TCC, PADM)
What were the underlying reasons for the negotiation of the numbered treaties?
(C, I, LPP, TCC)

7.2.6 assess, critically, the impacts of social and political changes on individual and collective
identities in Canada since 1918 by exploring and reflecting upon the following questions
and issues:
What were the reasons for, and the consequences of, Newfoundlands joining
Confederation? (PADM, TCC, I)
How did joining Confederation impact the citizens of Newfoundland? (C, I, PADM)
What are the social and economic effects of the changing roles and images of women in
Canadian society (i.e., right to vote, working conditions, changing family structures)?
(ER, I)
What challenges and opportunities have emerged as a result of increases in the Aboriginal
population in western Canada? (LPP, CC, C, I)
How has the Official Languages Act contributed to bilingualism in Canada? (PADM, C, I)
How have Canadian immigration policies contributed to increased diversity and
multiculturalism within the Canadian population? (PADM, GC, C, I)
What strategies and conditions are needed for the Franco-Albertan community to counter
assimilation? (CC, I, PADM)

C Citizenship
ER Economics and Resources
LPP
CC Culture and Community
PADM

6/ Social Studies
(2006)

I
The Land: Places and People
Power, Authority and Decision Making

Identity
GC Global Connections
TCC Time, Continuity and Change

Grade 7
Alberta Education, Alberta, Canada

7.2.7

assess, critically, the impact of urbanization and of technology on individual and collective
identities in Canada by exploring and reflecting upon the following questions and issues:
What impact has increased urbanization had on rural communities in Canada? (LPP, CC)
How did the emergence of large factories in Canada contribute to the development of
Canadas economy? (ER, PADM)
In what ways did technological advances contribute to the development of Canada
(e.g., aviation, farming equipment, radio transmissions, electronics, multimedia)? (ER,
PADM)
What effects have La Socit Radio-Canada (SRC) and the Canadian Broadcasting
Corporation (CBC) had on Canadian identity? (I)

C Citizenship
ER Economics and Resources
LPP
CC Culture and Community
PADM

Grade 7
Alberta Education, Alberta, Canada

I
The Land: Places and People
Power, Authority and Decision Making

Identity
GC Global Connections
TCC Time, Continuity and Change

Social Studies /7
(2006)

SKILLS AND PROCESSES FOR GRADE 7


Alberta Educations Information and Communication Technology (ICT) curriculum is infused throughout
the social studies program of studies. Selected ICT outcomes are suggested throughout the program and
are indicated by this symbol .

DIMENSIONS OF THINKING
Students will:
7.S.1

develop skills of critical thinking and creative thinking:


determine the validity of information based on context, bias, source, objectivity, evidence
and/or reliability to broaden understanding of a topic or an issue
evaluate, critically, ideas, information and positions from multiple perspectives
demonstrate the ability to analyze local and current affairs
re-evaluate personal opinions to broaden understanding of a topic or an issue
generate creative ideas and strategies in individual and group activities
access diverse viewpoints on particular topics, using appropriate technologies

7.S.2

develop skills of historical thinking:


analyze historical issues to form or support an opinion
use historical and community resources to organize the sequence of historical events
explain the historical contexts of key events of a given time period
distinguish cause, effect, sequence and correlation in historical events, including the longand short-term causal relations of events
create a simulation or a model, using technology that permits the making of inferences
identify patterns in organized information

7.S.3

develop skills of geographic thinking:


construct and interpret maps to broaden understanding of issues, places and peoples of
Canada (i.e., elevation, latitude and longitude, population density, waterways)
use geographic tools, such as geographical information system (GIS) software, to assist in
preparing graphs and maps
interpret historical maps to broaden understanding of historical events
define geographic challenges and issues that lead to geographic questions
access and operate multimedia applications and technologies from stand-alone and online
sources; e.g., GIS

7.S.4

demonstrate skills of decision making and problem solving:


predict outcomes of decision-making and problem-solving scenarios from multiple
perspectives
propose and apply new ideas and strategies, supported with facts and reasons, to contribute to
problem solving and decision making
articulate clearly a plan of action to use technology to solve a problem
identify appropriate materials and tools to use in order to accomplish a plan of action
use networks to brainstorm, plan and share ideas with group members
evaluate choices and progress in problem solving, then redefine the plan of action as
necessary

8/ Social Studies
(2006)

Grade 7
Alberta Education, Alberta, Canada

SOCIAL PARTICIPATION AS A DEMOCRATIC PRACTICE


Students will:
7.S.5

demonstrate skills of cooperation, conflict resolution and consensus building:


assume various roles within groups, including roles of leadership where appropriate
identify and use a variety of strategies to resolve conflicts peacefully and equitably
consider the needs and perspectives of others

7.S.6

develop age-appropriate behaviour for social involvement as responsible citizens


contributing to their community:
support and participate in activities and projects that promote the well-being and meet the
particular needs of their community

RESEARCH FOR DELIBERATIVE INQUIRY


Students will:
7.S.7

apply the research process:


develop a position that is supported by information gathered through research
draw conclusions based upon research and evidence
determine how information serves a variety of purposes and that the accuracy or relevance of
information may need verification
organize and synthesize researched information
formulate new questions as research progresses
integrate and synthesize concepts to provide an informed point of view on a research question
or an issue
practise the responsible and ethical use of information and technology
include and organize references as part of research
plan and conduct a search, using a wide variety of electronic sources
demonstrate the advanced search skills necessary to limit the number of hits desired for
online and offline databases; for example, the use of and or or between search topics and
the choice of appropriate search engines for the topic
develop a process to manage volumes of information that can be made available through
electronic sources
evaluate the relevance of electronically accessed information to a particular topic
make connections among related, organized data and assemble various pieces into a unified
message
refine searches to limit sources to a manageable number
analyze and synthesize information to produce an original work

COMMUNICATION
Students will:
7.S.8

demonstrate skills of oral, written and visual literacy:


communicate information in a clear, persuasive and engaging manner, through written and
oral means
use skills of informal debate to persuasively express differing viewpoints regarding an issue
elicit, clarify and respond appropriately to questions, ideas and multiple points of view in
discussions
listen to others in order to understand their perspectives

Grade 7
Alberta Education, Alberta, Canada

Social Studies /9
(2006)

offer reasoned comments related to a topic of discussion


use selected presentation tools to demonstrate connections among various pieces of
information
7.S.9

develop skills of media literacy:


analyze the impact of television, the Internet, radio and print media on a particular current
affairs issue
detect bias on issues presented in the media
examine techniques used to enhance the authority and authenticity of media messages
examine the values, lifestyles and points of view represented in a media message
identify and distinguish points of view expressed in electronic sources on a particular topic
recognize that information serves different purposes and that data from electronic sources
may need to be verified to determine accuracy or relevance for the purpose used

10/ Social Studies


(2006)

Grade 7
Alberta Education, Alberta, Canada

Glossary of Terms and ConceptsGrade 7


The following terms and concepts are contained within the general and specific outcomes in the grade.
The definitions are provided to facilitate a better understanding and more effective application of the
social studies concepts presented.
assimilation

Process by which an individual or minority group loses its original


culture when absorbed into another culture; in the context of colonialism,
a policy of total integration of colonies into the colonizing country.

colony

Territory that is dominated by a foreign country.

demographics

Data that pertains to the population of a given region or country.

Great Deportation

British uprooting of up to 12 000 Acadians from their homes in


Nova Scotia in October 1755. Confiscation of the land, homes, cattle
and other belongings of Acadians was authorized by the British Crown.

immigration

Movement of people intending to establish a home and gain citizenship


in a country that is not their native country.

imperialism

Policy of a country or empire to extend its authority or domination by


political, economic or military means.

migration

Movement of people from one region of a country to another.

National Policy

Policy put in place by the government of John A. Macdonald, consisting


of three major elements: a) the implementation of a series of tariffs to
protect Canadian producers and products; b) the launching of the
Canadian Pacific Railway to connect the central provinces to the Pacific
coast by railroad; and c) the establishment of immigration policies aimed
specifically at populating western Canada.

settlement

Establishment of people in a newly colonized region.

Treaty of Paris

Also known as the Royal Proclamation, the treaty signed in 1763 to mark
the end of the Seven Years War. Through this treaty, France ceded its
North American territories to England, with the exception of St. Pierre
and Miquelon.

urbanization

An increase in the number of people residing in cities and an extension


of urban boundaries to include areas that were previously rural.

Grade 7
Alberta Education, Alberta, Canada

Social Studies /11


(2006)