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1. Solvent flux through a polyamide membrane in an RO module is 1151 /m2.

h at a
pressure differential of 110 bar. Calculate the water and solute flux if it is to
desalinate a 4 % NaCl solution at a pressure difference of 110 bar.
a.

Calculate the water and solute flux if it is used to desalinate a 4% NaCl


solution at an operating pressure difference of 80 bar. The salt rejection is
nearly 100% and the osmotic pressure of 3% NaCl is 17.62 bar. The
polarization modulus can be taken as unity.

b.

The same module is used to desalinate a 3.5% solution of another salt. The
polarization modulus is estimated to be 3.0 and the salt rejection is 0.99. If
the osmotic pressure of the solution is 18 bar, calculate the water and salt
flux at an applied pressure difference of 75 bar.

Ans:
(a) Pure water flux, Jw = Lp P = 0.115 m3/m2.h = L * 110 bar
Lp = 1.04 x 10-3 m3/m2.h bar
Water flux for 4% NaCl
Concentration polarisation modulus, M = Cm/Cb = 1
Cm=Cb = 4 % solution
Salt rejection coefficient R = 1, Salt concentration in the permeate, Cp=0.
Osmotic pressure difference between the feed and permeate
= (17.62)(4/3) = 23.5 bar.
Water flux, Jw = Lp( P-

) = 1.04 x 10-3(80-23.5) = 0.0588 m3/m2.h

(b) Water and Salt flux for 3.5% salt solution


Concentration polarization modulus, M = Cm/Cb = 3.0
Cm=(3.0)(3.5) = 10.5%; R=0.99
Cp = (0.01)(10.5) = 0.105%

Given:

=18 bar for a 3.5% solution, the osmotic pressure difference between the

feed and the permeate


=(Cm-Cp)(18/3.5) = (10.5-0.105)(18/3.5) = 53.46 bar
Water flux, Lp( P-

) = 1.04 x 10-3 (75-53.46) = 0.0224 m3/m2.h

Salt flux = JwCm(1-R) = 0.0224 x 105 kg/m3 x (1-0.99) = 23.52 g/m2.h


The feed side mass transfer coefficient can be calculated as

= exp

(10.5 0.105)
= exp (
(3.5 0.105)

= 1.12

2. A feed containing a whey protein is to be concentrated from 0.01 (M) to 0.1(M) by


an UF unit. The process is being carried out at 25 . The solute rejection is 95%.
If the upstream pressure is 4.2 atm (gauge) and the downstream pressure is
essentially atmospheric, find out the effective pressure driving force at the start and
at the end of the operation. Find also the percentage reduction of solvent flux at the
end of the operation. Effect of concentratin polarization may be ignored.
Ans:
Rejection of 95% is assumed to remain constant.
Permeate concentration at the start = (0.01) (1-0.95) = 0.5 x 10-3 (M)
Since, the concentration polarization is negligible, the concentration at the upstream
face of the membrane equals bulk concentration. This is equal to 0.01 (M).
Effective osmotic pressure,

= RT C
= (0.0821) (298) (0.01-0.0005)
= 0.232 atm

Upstream (feed side) pressure is 4.2 atm.


Effective pressure driving force ( P-

) = (4.2 0.232) =3.968 atm

At the end of operation, when the bulk concentration is 0.1 (M), the effective pressure
driving force = 4.2 (0.0821)(298)(0.1)(0.95) = 1.876 atm
The solvent flux is proportional to pressure difference. Therefore, the percentage
reduction of solvent flux
=

3.968 1.876
100
3.968
= 52.72%

3. A feed with glucoamylase enzyme is being purified in a cross flow UF module.


The liquid phase mass transfer coefficient at the membrane surface is estimated to
be 2.5 x 10-5 cm/s. The bulk concentration of solute is 0.35 mass %. If the solvent
water flux across the membrane is 0.38 m3/m2.h. Calculate the polarization

modulus and the concentration of the enzyme in the liquid at the membrane
surface. The membrane has a distributed pore size and solution rejection is 95%. If
the diffusivity of enzyme is 6.7 x 10-7 cm2/s, calculate the film thickness.
Ans:
Solvent water flux, Jw = 0.38 m3/m2.h = 0.38/3600 = 1.05 x 10-4 m3/m2.s
Solute Rejection, R = 0.95
Concentration polarisation modulus,

2
3

"#
"$

%&' ( *) )
+

(
, -./0, 1%&' ( ) )
*+

1.05 1004
)
66.69
2.5 1005
=
=
= 15.58
04
1.05 10
4.28
(1
0.95 + 0.95)exp (
)
2.5 1005
exp (

Solute concentration at the membrane surface


Cm = 15.58 * Cb = 15.58 * 0.35 = 5.45 mass %
Thickness of the mass transfer film
=D/kL = (6.7 x 10-7 cm2/s)/(2.5 x 10-5 cm) = 0.0268 cm
4. An experiment is being carried out to study the microbial population characteristics
of water using MF. Polyamide membrane having a thickness of 80 8m and average

porosity of 9=0.35 is used. Pure water flux through the membrane is 30 m3/m2.h at

a pressure drop of 1.2 bar at 25 . The average pore size is estimated to be 1 8m.
Calculate the tortuosity factor of the pores and the resistance to flow offered by the
membrane. The viscosity of water at 25 is 0.9 cP.
Ans:
For pure water flux, the poiseullie equation is given as
:

9; < >
>
=
=

328= ? 8@2

Given d = 1 8m = 10-6 m; 8= 0.9 cP = 9 x 10-4 kg/m.s; P = 1.2 bar = 1.2 x 105 Pa;
x = 80 8m and Jv = 30/3600 m3/m2.s

Substituting the values in the above equation and solving for tortuosity factor
we get, = = 2.2.
The resistance to flow Rm is also given by the same equation which is 1.6 x 1010 m-1.

5. A dialysis process is being designed to recover a certain solute from a dilute


solution having solute concentration of 2.0 x 10-2 kg mol/m3 through a membrane
to a solution having a solute concentration 0.3 x 10-2 kg mol/m3. The membrane is
1.59 x 10-5 m thick. The distribution coefficient is 0.75l; diffusivity of solute
through the membrane is 3.5 x 10-11 m2/s. The mass transfer coefficients in the
upstream and downstream are 3.5 x 10-5 m/s and 2.1 x 10-5 m/s respectively.
Calculate
a. The individual resistance, total resistance and the total percent of
resistance of two films.
b. The flux at steady state and the total area in m2 for a transfer of 0.01
kg.mol.solute/h.
Ans:
(a)
AB

Where >2 =

DE#FE

The flux AB =

<
1
1
1
C"/ + >2 + C"<

(H.5 /IJKK )(I.L5)


/.5M/IJN

<.I/IJO 0 I.H/IJO

K
K
K
P.NKQJN K.RNKQJR O.KKQJN

= 1.65 x 10-6 m/s

= 2.492 100S kg mol solute/s.m2

Therefore, individual resistances are 2.85 x 104 s/m, 6.06 x 105 s/m and 4.76 x 104 s/m
and total resistance is 6.823 x 105 s/m.
(b) Flux at steady state as calculated above is 2.492 x 10-8 kg mol solute/s. m2.
= 2.492 x 3600 x 10-8 = 8.9712 x 10-5 kg mol solute/h.m2.
Therefore, for transfer of 0.01 kg mol solute/h, total area required =
(0.01)(105 )
= 111.5
8.9712

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