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Erika Oertle

Positive Behavior Support Plan


SPED 428- Spring 2016

Definition of specific behavior in operational terms:


MA is disengaged when academic content is uninteresting and non-compliant in
response to adult prompts. Following these behaviors, MA exhibits off task behaviors.
These behaviors include stomping of feet, huffing and puffing, leaning back in her chair,
putting her head down on the table, and talking out of turn. These sessions of noncompliant behavior last anywhere from 5 to 25 minutes, and occur approximately 10
times a day. These behaviors pose a daily distraction to other students in the classroom,
especially those students who sit in close proximity to MA.
MA attends public school at Franklin Elementary School. MA is 10 years old and
is currently enrolled in the 5th grade. MA is an intelligent and loving young girl. Based on
a recent psychology analysis, MA has been considered to have a mild form of ADHD.
She is a very active and has a bubbly personality. She holds a lot of potential and is
making progress in the areas of Math and Reading. However, her behaviors hold her
responsible for the inadequate progress she is displaying in and out of the classroom. MA
is stubborn and poorly organized. Her behaviors make it hard for her to concentrate,
given the state of her mood. She often needs breaks in order to regain focus. She is
distracted by other peers in her class and has a hard time following directions. MA
exhibits disrespectful behavior when subject matter is boring or not relevant and calls out
when it is not her turn. MA often needs reminders to sit up and stay focused, given her
inadequate motivation.

Literature Review:
Effects of a Collaborative Behavior Management Plan on Reducing Disruptive Behaviors
of a Student with ADHD (R. Burley and R. Walker, 2013)
This article discussed the effectiveness of a token economy when implementing
behavior management plans that are effective. A study was conducted on a sixth grade
student who was diagnosed with ADHD. The student exhibited behaviors that were
defined as getting out of his seat, raising his hand out of turn, and interrupting other
classmates, causing a distraction. It was concluded that he was showing these behaviors
based on the positive reinforcement he was receiving from the students. Once teachers
had noted these behaviors, a behavior plan was put into place. Drawing was noted to be a
preferred activity of the student so the teachers decided to use this as a reward for
following classroom rules. Based on the students behavior in accordance to the
classroom rules, the student was rewarded with attention from the teacher. Based on the
implementation of the plan, the students behavior improved drastically, leading the
professionals to conclude that their intervention plan was appropriate and effective.

Increasing On-Task Behavior Using Teacher Attention Delivered on a Fixed-Time


Schedule (Riley, McKevitt, Shriver, & Allen, 2012)
This article discussed a study that was conducted by a teacher who utilized a
fixed-time delivery to increase two of her students on-task behaviors. The teacher would
provide praise to the students every five minutes. This article talked about the importance
of a fixed-time delivery system, used as a means of collecting and creating a schedule for
specific students. If the students were showing off-task behaviors, the teacher would use

redirection strategies. The results of the study indicated that they fixed-time strategy was
an effective way to increase the students on-task behaviors. More research must be
conducted on this strategy; however, the teacher who utilized the strategy felt that it was
an effective way to reduce distractions in the classroom and to increase positive
behaviors.
A Comparison Mystery Motivator and the Get Em On Task Interventions for Off-Task
Behaviors (Kraemer, Davis, Arndt, & Hunley, 2012)
This article discussed and compared two positive behavior support intervention
plans, Mystery Motivator and Get Em On Task. The article included a study of two fifth
grade classes that used both interventions to determine which program was more
effective. I found this article to be interesting and relevant because the Mystery Motivator
provides students with a mystery reward for exhibiting positive behaviors. The study
showed improvement in targeted behaviors when students were not aware of the reward
that they would be receiving. The Get Em On Task motivator was a computer signaling
program that teachers could use in their classrooms to monitor behavior. This program
sends a random signal once the signal sounds and scans the classroom to give points to
students that are exhibiting on task behaviors. Studies conducted in this article concluded
that both strategies effectively reduce the amount of off-task behaviors that students
showed.

A Comparison of Self-Monitoring With and Without Reinforcement to Improve On-Task


Classroom Behavior (Davis, Dacus, Bankhead, Haupert, Fuentes, & Zoch, 2014)

This article discussed a study conducted to analyze the effects of a selfmonitoring reinforcement intervention on classroom behavior. The student was a
typically developing high school student who was demonstrating difficulty remaining on
task during classroom instruction. The student was observed three different times in the
classroom setting. During the baseline data collection, the subject was taught to selfmonitor given no reinforcement in order to measure on-task behaviors. Then, the subject
was asked to self-monitor plus a reinforcement, in which a tangible reinforcement was
provided for positive behaviors. The study concluded that the subject exhibited more on
task behaviors when asked to self-monitor, given a tangible reinforcement.

Parent Involvement, Emotional Support, and Behavior Problems: An Ecological


Approach (McCormick, Capella, OConnor, & McClowry, 2013)
This article stresses the importance of parent involvement in elementary
education, in regards to students with problem behaviors. A study was conducted to
analyze the connection between classrooms with less teacher emotional support and the
amount of communication between home and school when related to students higher
levels of behavior. Past research has indicated that parent involvement has identified a
generally positive association between parents engagement in their childrens education
and the students outcomes. Based on the results of this experiment, significant relations
between home-school communication and behavior problems were attenuated in
classrooms with higher levels of observed teacher emotional support. This study
indicated the importance of parental involvement for those especially facing behavior
problems.

Baseline Data Collection:


I am currently in an internship at Franklin Elementary in an inclusion/resource
setting with a Special Education teacher. The special educator teaches block periods of
Reading and Mathematics instruction. She is guided with the instruction of one additional
instructional assistant and shares her caseload with another full time special educator.
There are also 3 additional assistants that assist in student instruction throughout the day.
Students from first, second, fourth, and fifth grade all push into the classroom throughout
different times of the day in order to receive instruction in Reading and Mathematics. I
was given the opportunity to work with another student; however, I chose to work with
MA given the opportunity to observe a very unique and typical behavior. MA is a
member of this inclusion setting that I intern in and I was able to observe her throughout
the course of the day in both Reading and Mathematics. I was able to observe her
interactions with other students as well as with all of the staff present in the room. I
formally observed MA on 5 different days during a 15-30 minute period of time in order
to create an accurate baseline data collection. I observed MA during our Morning Work
and Reading instruction. I noted that during each one of these observations, the behavior
was present. Aside from these consistent blocks of instruction, I was interested to see if
the behavior existed outside of the classroom, with this, I observed MA during transitions
into specials and recess periods as well as her Science and Social Studies instruction
periods. I took handwritten notes on charts and recorded my observations on ABC charts
that I created. I listed the different behaviors as they occurred during each observational
measure. I recorded how many times the behavior transpired, the antecedent, and

summarized a reaction consequence based on the behaviors. This was recorded over a
thirty-minute period of time. Her baseline data provided me with a baseline of where to
gauge my project. It also allowed for me to see what behaviors occurred most frequently,
and from there, I would create an implementation plan shaping these behaviors. The
baseline data indicated that MA exhibits common behaviors in the same session on a
daily basis on an average of 3 times per observation period. The baseline data also
indicated other behaviors that MA exhibits that lead to her non-compliance behaviors
such as staring off, laughing, huffing and puffing, and leaning back in her chair.
Following these observations, I also reviewed MAs files and her 504 plan with
my mentor teacher and the school guidance counselor. I met with service providers to
review her files in order to gain a better sense of her home life as well. It was evident that
MA has made some improvement in the areas of Math and reading. However, MA has
noted no improvements in her behaviors in and outside of the classroom. Following a
brief conversation with mom prior to implementing the behavior plan, I learned that MA
has a rough home life. She finds it hard to get along with her sister and mother and only
follows direction from her dad and grandmother. MA is defiant towards their orders,
which makes it harder to manage her behavior outside of the classroom. Many of MAs
behaviors stem from the relationship that she shares with another student in the room.
Recently she has created a relationship with another boy in the classroom, making it
harder for her to focus and remain on task. It is evident that her behaviors are attention
seeking when he is present. MA often will come to school very hyper and frustrated with
her family. This leads me to believe that these behaviors also occur at home. Therefore,

behavioral interventions need to be consistent at home as well as in the classroom in


order for MA to avoid having these non-compliant behaviors.
My data displayed a pattern that was consistent throughout each thirty-minute
time sample. MAs behaviors consistently relied on disengaged, non-compliant behaviors.
Thus resulting in other behaviors that were triggered by this such as disrespect towards
authority figures. After sitting down and reviewing MAs files, the Special Education
teacher and I found that MAs home life was a big factor in her behaviors.

Student Name: MA

Observation Date: 02/17/2016 (informal)

Observer: Erika Oertle

Time: 9:30-11:30am

Activity: Whole class


instruction/independent practice/small
group work
BEHAVIOR

Class Period: Morning Work/Reading

# OF
TIMES

Broad problem: NonCompliant behaviors towards


adults
Specific events within behavior:
- Kicking and stomping
feet when entering room
- Head down on table,
hands over face
- Attitude
- Staring off, talking to self

CONSEQUENCES
-

The teacher reminds MA (2x)


She is given verbal warning (2x)
She was warned that this behavior
would not warrant breaks throughout
the rest of the day if it continued and
not earn reward
Verbal warnings given to regain her
attention again (4x)
Asked to leave room for break once
too distracted, removed from
instruction

Hypothesis of Functional Intention:


MAs functional intentions behind her problem behaviors are non-compliant,
attention seeking behaviors. MA has been diagnosed with ADHD as well as deficits in
verbal processing and executive functioning. MA becomes non-compliant towards adults
when prompted to do something she does not desire. Many of these behaviors stem from
MAs inability to gain the desired attention from a staff member in the classroom. MA
will express her frustrations through the stomping of her feet, turning of her back, and
head down on the desk. Her intention of the behavior is to gain attention from adults and
other students in the classroom. Her classmates are also conditioned to her behaviors so
they very rarely react when she exhibits these problem behaviors. These behaviors were
noted during my baseline data collection throughout my informal observations of MA and
are supported in my ABC data charts.
Replacement Behavior:

1. What is it the student should be doing?


a. MA will transition smoothly into instructional activities and specials
without any non-compliant behaviors. MA should follow directions and
comply with the teachers prompts when asked to participate or complete
an assignment in a timely manner. MA will be given the opportunity to
utilize a fidget during instruction in order to keep her focused. She will
also be allowed to earn breaks and incentives in order to ensure that she is
focused and engaged and emitting positive behaviors.
2. How will you teach the replacement behavior?
a. I will teach the replacement behaviors by modeling the correct behaviors. I
will remind MA that these behaviors are an inappropriate way to earn
rewards. I will reinforce the use of a token economy to ensure that MA is
aware of appropriate behaviors and rewards that warrant these appropriate
behaviors. This will help her when transitioning into activities and content
areas. It will also help her to self-monitor and regulate her behaviors. I
will encourage MA to work for different rewards at the completion of each
day in order to provide options. As soon as I see MA acting out in a way
that is non-compliant to these interventions, I will immediately remind her
of what is expected of her. I will encourage her to act appropriately and
model this behavior with other adults and peers. These replacement
behaviors will be modeled, taught and reinforced every day in the
classroom setting, cafeteria, during specials, transition periods, and as well
as at dismissal.
3. When will you teach it?
a. I will teach these replacement behaviors at the beginning of the day,
before we begin instruction and our morning work. I will promote positive

praise towards appropriate behaviors that MA demonstrates for example:


following directions, being respectful towards adults, and being aware of
her surroundings. I will ensure that all of my staff is on board with my
while keeping these behaviors consistent with MA.
4. How will you know when the student has learned it?
a. I will know when MA has learned the replacement behaviors when her
non-compliant behaviors decrease to the point where she is following
directions and complying with all teacher given directions and prompts.
MAs need for stimulation and attention through stomping, huffing and
puffing, and calling out will also decrease. MA will demonstrate an
improvement while in the process of learning these replacement behaviors.
MAs ability to express her feelings and ideas appropriately during
instruction will increase as well as her ability to communicate effectively
her wants and needs in order to exhibit complaint behaviors.

Positive Behavior Supports:


Based on the data and support, I have chosen to implement 3 distinct positive supports
that will emit the replacement behavior. After careful consideration of the data and MAs
interests, I have decided to choose the following supports.
1. The first positive behavior support that I will put into plan is a Self-Monitoring
Evaluation Chart. MA will self-monitor and record herself over a 15 minute
partial interval period where she will record appropriate and inappropriate

behaviors during this time. At the completion of the 15 minutes, MA will record a
check or minus sign, indicating whether she as exhibiting positive and appropriate
behaviors that are being implemented. I will record the time samples with a
simple stopwatch and she will be cued to record at these time intervals. I will also
be collecting and taking my own observations and notes.
2. The second positive behavior support that I will put into plan is a token economy.
Based on MAs performance throughout the day, she will choose and earn
incentives according to her results. She will work towards goals, based on the
guidelines we set when she comes in each and every morning. These goals will be
tracked throughout the day through the use of her time interval chart and she will
earn these incentives accordingly. Giving her the choice to choose her incentives
will motivate her.
3. The third positive behavior support that I will put into plan is a communication
system with her mother. At the completion of everyday, her mother will receive a
copy of the time interval chart as well as a handwritten evaluation of MAs
behavior that day. This will encourage MA to make improvements in her
behavior, knowing that her mother is aware of her actions. It will also hold MA to
a higher expectation.
Data Collection and Visual Representation:
Below you will the collection sheets that represent all of the data gathered during
the three weeks that the positive behavior supports were implemented. The chart
represents each day that the plan was implemented, the date, a check or (-) indicating
whether MA earned the points, and the overall day that MA had based on the points

documented. These charts also indicated the incentives that were earned based on the
results of her points.
Visual Representation of Behavior: Chart:
The chart below represents the dates of implementation of this plan and the
average amount of times that MA exhibited behaviors that were on task and compliant
based on 15-minute time intervals.

Date

# of Times

3/21/16
3/22/16
3/23/16
3/24/16
4/4/16
4/5/16
4/6/16
4/7/16
4/8/16

8
9
11
12
6
2
4
2
1

4/11/16
4/12/16
4/13/16
4/14/16
4/15/16

4
4
5
3
1

Visual Representation of Behavior: Pie Model:


Based on the data, I chose to use a pie model in order to provide the best
representation of the average number of times MA exhibited the behavior using her
partial interval collection sheet.

Below are the

3 weeks of

implemented data
given the
the baseline data.

data conducted from

Data Summary and Interpretation:


According to the data represented in both the charts and graphs above, I believe
that the positive behavior supports I chose to implement with MA were appropriate and
an effective means of measure. On the average, Michelle would receive 9 out of 15
stickers daily, exhibiting appropriate behaviors and improvements in my data collection
methods. On average, Michelle exhibited 10 off-task, non-compliant behaviors in the first
week of the implementation plan. During the second week, Michelle exhibited an average
of 3 off-task, non-compliant behaviors. During the third week, Michelle exhibited an
average of 3.4 off-task, non-compliant behaviors. I did however find inconsistencies in
my data concerning days where Michelle was absent. This inconsistency showed
inaccurate results for that day when the plan was implemented. This behavior support
indicated positive results, however, if done differently, I would implement a more
consistent time sample that included shorter intervals of time, for example 6 minute
intervals and for every 5 minutes that MA exhibited appropriate behaviors, she would
earn a reward, rather than at the end of the day. This would create a pattern that would be
more consistent with MAs behaviors. This would also allow me to see the behaviors
occurring more frequently based on the short time samples. MA showed more progress
on certain days, depending on the incentive that she chose to work for. For example,
when she chose to work for candy, she exhibited the replacement behaviors in a more
consistent manner. However, when she worked for things such as a walking break or
computer break, she was not as motivated to exhibit these behaviors, therefore indicating
that the reward played a huge factor in her intrinsic motivation.

When beginning the implementation plan, MA responded positively to the plans


and the individual attention she received from me. MA received continuous praise when
modeling appropriate behaviors. This showed me that when providing with her praise and
giving her individual attention, she exhibited these replacement behaviors more
consistently. This satisfied her need for attention. It is important to note that MA also
enjoyed choosing her incentive that she would work towards for that day, thus satisfying
her need for control. On the first day that the plan was implemented, MA exhibited 8 out
of 15 off task, non-compliant behaviors, given a 15-minute time interval that was
measured using a timer. Data continued to show on average 8 to 9 off task, non-compliant
behaviors. However, as the weeks continued and MA was adjusting to the
implementation plan, the data indicated a decline in the amount of non-compliant, off
task behaviors that MA was demonstrating. On April 14th, MA only exhibited 3 noncompliant, off task behaviors throughout the entire school day, thus indicating that the
positive supports that were put in place were effective.
In addition to the Partial Interval plan and the feedback that I provided to both
MA and her mother each day, MA was very receptive to the conversations we had each
morning, reminding her of her positive behavior and the appropriate ways to act in
school. MA was able to create a routine check in system where she would find me after
school in order to discuss her performance throughout the day. Here, we would discuss
the outcome of her self-monitored chart and the positives and negatives of her day. The
ultimate goal of this self-regulation technique was to recognize her wants and needs and
hold her accountable for her actions. By doing this, Michelle took responsibility for her
behaviors and was able to talk to me about the areas in which she could improve on. Each

day, we discussed incentives that were tailored to her preferences as opposed to rewards
that were given to her by mom or other service providers. MA was honest about her
behaviors, which indicated that this self-monitoring support was an effective method of
data collection. Each morning, MA and I would set obtainable goals on her data
worksheet, based on the amount of appropriate behaviors that she would exhibit
throughout the day. It was interesting to note MAs honestly during her evaluations at the
completion of each day. MA would indicate whether she felt that she had a good or bad
day and would explain why. On days when MA would not earn her rewards, it was
evident that she was frustrated with herself. This motivated her to come in the next day
and work that much harder for her incentive.
Lastly, I would like to commend myself on the most essential behavior support I
implemented and that was the relationship that I created with MAs mother. At the
completion of each day, I would send home a copy of the data collection along with a
hand written note, documenting MAs progress throughout each instructional and
transition period. This document would draw attention to both the positives and negatives
of MAs day and what was done to keep her focused and on task. Her mother was very
receptive to the supports that were implemented and commended me on the progress that
she had seen throughout the course of the implementation period. It was important to
always provide feedback in a positive manner, even when MA did not exhibit the
expected behaviors. MAs mother also responded well to my interest in helping MA make
improvements in these areas. She expressed concerns with her behaviors at home and I
had drawn attention to the fact that MAs behaviors were improving in school. I made
suggestions and shared implementations that I found to be most effective when working

with MA. Her mother was once again very receptive to these suggestions and decided to
implement several of them with her at home. MA was aware that at the end of the day,
her mother would receive a copy of her data sheets. This helped her to be more aware of
her behaviors. This established that accountability factor, which she is working to make
improvements towards.
Although MA had a few bad days and exhibited a few infractions in the process
of the implementation plan, data and results drew to the conclusion that she was
successful in emitting the replacement behavior. MA will transition smoothly into
instructional activities and specials without exhibiting any non-compliant behaviors. MA
should follow directions and comply with the teachers prompts when asked to participate
or complete an assignment in a timely manner. On Friday, April 8th, I observed MA for
30 minutes during our morning work period while my plan was being implemented.
During this time, I was looking to see if MA would emit compliant behaviors and be
more on task during instruction. MA was independently working on her morning journal
when I observed her, and for the full thirty minutes she was focused, productive, and
respectful. It was important to note that during this time, her best friend ZL was in the
room attempting to talk to her, however, she remained focused and insisted on completing
her work. There were other days when I informally observed MA during instructional
periods. She did not emit such positive behaviors. Due to the fact that MA is not
medicated for her ADHD, it makes it hard for her behaviors to be consistent. She often
exhibits erratic behaviors that are unpredictable, which create inconsistencies in the
implementation process. It would be fair to say that this the behavior supports that I
established for MA were overall, successful, however, when noting MAs background and

the inconsistent nature of her behaviors, I expected their to be inconsistencies throughout


the plan. I implemented this plan for 14 days, so these results were as expected.

Reflection:
How did you grow in your knowledge, skills, and dispositions in classroom
management?
The completion of this project has helped me grow tremendously in my knowledge,
skills, and dispositions in the area of classroom management. MAs current behavior plan,
the time interval behavior chart, holds MA accountable for her behaviors. Given the
opportunity to self-monitor throughout the day, MA has mad progress towards emitting
the positive behaviors implemented. Given the circumstances that exist at home and
MAs home life, MA is not held accountable for her behaviors at home. This creates
inconsistencies in the expectations that are set at home and at school. In order for things
to be entirely successful, expectations need to be consistent in order for the positive
behaviors to continue. I have learned the importance of being aware of a students needs
when implementing plans that are appropriate and measurable. When considering the
most appropriate supports to provide to MA, I provided her with choices on the
incentives that she would earn. I found this to be a successful method in order to
eradicate some of the negative behaviors. Before implementing this plan, MA would be
asked to take a break when she exhibited negative behaviors that were distracting towards
others. This created more negative behaviors, as MA would feel singled out. However, I
made sure to provide variability to MA and make her aware that this plan would help her
to be more successful in and out of school. This was also preparing her for the big

transition into the middle school in just a few months. Aside from behavior management
tools and the importance of choosing appropriate supports, I learned the importance of
data collection and effective communication with related service providers and parents. I
found the data collection piece to be an essential component to this project. Before
implementing the plan, it was crucial to collect baseline data. This baseline data would
help collect observable and measurable definitions of the behavior and then implement
supports that were appropriate. Based on effective communication, I have learned this in
all aspects of my experience with working with this project. Keeping in constant contact
with MAs mother, made this implementation plan more successful. It also helped to
make her aware of the goals that MA was working towards in school. Her mother
appreciated the feedback that was given and used it to begin her own plans for MA to
emit positive behaviors at home as well.
Plans for Maintenance and Generalization of the Positive Behavior Support Plan:
After reviewing the success of my behavior plan and how engaged MA has
become with it, I have chosen to extend it until I am finished interning at Franklin
Elementary School. Both MA and her parents have expressed how much they appreciate
the plan that I have created. They feel as though it is effective and it would be detrimental
to MAs progress and her transition into Middle School in the upcoming months. I plan to
keep implementing the plan with all of the behavior supports I utilized in this project
(behavior chart, fidgets, and incentives) in the exact same way I did for the purpose of
this project. I think it will also be interesting to notice the improvements as we continue
to implement and work towards emitting these positive behaviors more frequently.
What are two things you might do differently if you were to repeat this project?

If I were to repeat this project, I would have preferred to formally observe MA


more than just one time during the implementation of my plan. Even though the behavior
chart provided me with valuable data, I would liked to have collected more data prior to
the implementation of this plan as well as during the plan in order to choose the best
supports. It would have also been interested to construct a different self-monitor program
that could have measured MAs behaviors in shorter intervals. Given the frequency of her
behaviors, I think this collection method would have been a more effective measurement
of the frequency and severity of her behaviors. Given shorter intervals, MA would be
held to a higher expectation and would earn more frequent incentives rather than just at
the end of the school day.
I would have also liked to implement my supports during specials, lunch and
recess in order to note if the behaviors are emitted during these times. Given my schedule
and my inability to observe MA during these times, it left room for inconsistences in the
data collection. If I were given the opportunity to shadow MA throughout the entire
school day, I would observe more accurate results. It would have been interesting to
compare the structure of the classroom as compared to the unstructured environment that
exists at recess and lunch. Comparing this data and creating supports to put in place
would have been something that I would have done differently when completing this
project.

Work Cited:

Burley, R., & Walker, R. (2012) Effects of a Collaborative Behavior Management Plan
on Reducing Disruptive Behaviors of a Student with ADHD, Teaching
Exceptional Children Plus,1(4), 1-13.
Davis, T. N., Dacus, S.,Bankhead, J.,Haupert, M., Fuentes, L., Zoch, T., & Lang, R.
(2014). A Comparison of Self-Monitoring With and Without Reinforcement to
Improve On-Task Classroom Behavior. Journal Of School Counseling, 12(12), 123.
Kraemer, E.E., Davis, S.C., Arndt, K., & Hunley, S. (2012) A comparison of the mystery
motivator and the get em on task intervention for off-task behaviors, Phycology
in the Schools, 2 (49), 163-175.
McCormick, M. P., Cappella, E., O'Connor, E. E., & McClowry, S. G. (2013). PARENT
INVOLVEMENT, EMOTIONAL SUPPORT, AND BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS.
Elementary School Journal, 114(2), 277-300.
Riley, J.L., McKevitt, B.C., Shriver, M.D., & Allen, K.D. (2012) Increasing on-task
behavior using attention delivered on a fixed-time schedule. Journal of
Behavioral Education, 3(20). 149-162.