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Period 3: c. 1815 to c. 1914

Why 1815: Defeat of Napoleon and Congress of Vienna
Why 1914: World War I
Big Events: Congress of Vienna, ConservaDvism, Scramble for Africa,
Industrial RevoluDon, NaDonalism, RevoluDons of 1848, Alliance

Map of Europe 1800


Map of Europe 1900

KC 3.1: The Industrial Revolu8on spread from Great Britain to the

con8nent, where the state played a great role in promo8ng industry.

All countries in Europe, had some level of industrializaDon, but it was most rapid
in Great Britain and then Germany
By 1870, the European market uctuaDon led to more and more governmental
involvement in the manage of the economy include: protecDve taris, military
procurements, and colonial conquests

I. Great Britain established its industrial dominance through the

mechanizaDon of texDle producDon, iron and steel producDon, and new
transportaDon systems
Britains had a ready supplies of coal, iron, and other essenDal raw materials
Economic insDtuDons and human capital helped Britain lead the process of
industrializaDon, largely through private iniDaDve

Britains leadership: Crystal Palace at the Great Exhibi8on of 1851: worlds rst industrial fair.
It covered 19 acres and contained 100,000 exhibits

Britains parliamentary government promoted commercial and industrial interests


II. Following the BriDsh example, industrializaDon took root in

conDnental Europe, someDmes with state sponsorship

France moved to industrializaDon at a more gradual pace, with government

support and will less dislocaDon of tradiDonal methods of producDon

Government support of industrializa8on: Canals: Government would use the money from
taxes and taris to construc8on canals throughout the ci8es, also railroad. These could then
be used to transport goods and people.

IndustrializaDon in Prussia allowed that state to become the leader of a unied

Germany, which subsequently underwent rapid industrializaDon under
government sponsorship.
Zollverein: A Germany customs union, in 1834, eliminated tools on rivers and roads among
member states. By 1853, all German states except Austria had joined the union

A combinaDon of factors including geography, lack or resources, dominance of

landed elites, serfdom, and inadequate government support accounted for
eastern and southern Europes lag in industrial development

Lack of adequate transportaDon: The lack of governmental support and a lack of

infrastructure building by private individuals, le^ the eastern and southern Europeans
without the necessary roads, bridges, or canals to move goods. Countries like Russia had the
challenge of needing so much investment.

III. During the second industrial revoluDon(c. 1870-1914), more areas of

Europe experienced industrial acDvity, and industrial processes
increased in scale and complexity.
MechanizaDon and the factory system become predominant by 1914
New technology, communicaDon, and transportaDon including railroads
resulted in fully integrated naDonal economies, more urbanizaDon, and truly
global economic network
Mass produc8on: The assembly line and interchangeable parts made mass produc8on a
Internal Combus8on Engine: This made the steam engine obsolete and paved the way for
smaller and lighter engines and faster transporta8on, and eventually the automobile

VolaDle business cycles in the last quarter of 19th century led corporaDons and
governments to try to manage market through monopolies, banking pracDces,
and taris.


KC 3.2: The experiences of everyday life were shaped by

industrializa8on, depending on the level of industrial development in
a par8cular loca8on
IndustrializaDon promoted the development of new socioeconomic classes,
especially the proletariat and bourgeoisie
Economic changes also led to the rise of trade and industrial unions
More people moved to ciDes
The relaDonship between the government and people began to shi^ as
governments made more policies to protect child and universalize educaDon
Middle-class women withdrew from the workforce, while working-class women
increased their parDcipaDon as wage-laborers
IndustrializaDon and urbanizaDon changed peoples concepDon of Dme, trade
unions assumed responsibility for the social welfare of working class families,
leisure Dme increased
Despite conDnued inequality and poverty, the average standard of living

I. IndustrializaDon promoted the development of new classes in the

industrial regions of Europe
Industrial areas developed disDnct social classes, proletariat and the
Less industrialized areas, dominance of agricultural elites persisted
Mutual aid socieDes and trade unions

II. Europe experienced rapid populaDon growth and urbanizaDon,

leading to social dislocaDons.
Beder harvests, industrializaDon promoted populaDon growth, longer life
expectancy, and lowered infant mortality
UrbanizaDon led to overcrowding in ciDes, while rural areas suered declines in
available labor and weakened communiDes


III. Over Dme, the Industrial RevoluDon altered the family structure and
relaDons for bourgeois and working-class families
Bourgeois: More focused on nuclear family and the cult of domesDcity
By the end of the century, wages and quality of life for the working class
improved because of laws restricDng labor, social welfare programs, improved
diets, and the use of birth control
Factory Act of 1833: Reduced the number of children in factories and slowly reduced women
in the factories and mines

Economic moDvaDons for marriage were replaced by companionate marriage

Leisure Dme centered increasingly on the family or small groups
Sports clubs and arenas: Teams sports con8nued as a way to spend leisure 8me, but sports
became more professionalize and people shiUed from par8cipa8on to observa8on

IV: A heightened consumerism developed as a result of the second

industrial revoluDon

IndustrializaDon and mass markeDng increase the producDon and demand for
consumer goods
Department stores: Constructed of new materials, iron columns and plate-glass windows,
department stores oered consumers an endless variety of goods

New ecient modes of transportaDon and other innovaDons created new

industries, improved the distribuDon of goods, increased consumerism

Railroads: These allowed people to live farther away from the factories and alleviated the
strain in the urban areas
Leisure travel: People began to get more free 8me and started to travel outside of the city or
away from their homes. En8re industries developed that were central on travel des8na8ons.

V. Because of the persistence of primiDve agricultural pracDces and land-

owning paderns, some areas of Europe lagged in industrializaDon while
facing famine, debt, and land shortages

Irish potato famine: The potato crop failures were caused by late blight, a disease
that destroys both the leaves and the edible roots. It led to massive emigra8on,
about 1.6 million ed Ireland.


KC 3.3: The problems of industrializa8on provoked a range of

ideological, governmental, and collec8ve responses.
French and industrial revoluDons triggered dramaDc poliDcal and social
consequences and new theories to deal them
ConservaDsm, liberalism, socialism, naDonalism, and even romanDcism
Responses to socioeconomic changed reached a culminaDon in the revoluDons of 1848, but
failure of these uprisings le^ issues unresolved well in the 20th century
Labor unions developed and used collecDve acDon to demand rights and universal surage.
Feminists and suragists peDDoned and staged protests demanding rights for women
PoliDcal parDes emerged as vehicles for advocaDng reform or reacDng to changing
NaDonalism acted as one of the most powerful engines of poliDcal change
Early naDonalism emphasized shared historical and cultural experiences that o^en
threatened tradiDonal elites
Over the course of the 19th century, leaders recognized the need to promote naDonal unity
through economic development and expanding state funcDons

I. Ideologies developed and took root throughout society as a response

to industrial and poliDcal revoluDons

Liberals emphasized popular sovereignty, individual rights, and enlightened self-

interests but debated the extent to which all groups in society should acDvely
parDcipate in its governance
An8-Corn Law League: A group that developed to ght against the corn laws which had
imposed high taris on imported grain. The 19th century liberals were looking for less
governmental interven8on in the economy. Robert Peel, leader of the Tories, persuaded his
associates to support free trade principles.

Radicals in Britain and republics on the conDnent demanded universal male

surage and full ciDzen without regard to wealth or property

Char8sts: This group believed that the solu8on to many societal problems was to make
vo8ng universal to all men and used peaceful methods
Klemens von Me]ernich: Led the Congress of Vienna and was huge advocate of
conserva8sm. He built an alliance with Austria, Prussia, and Russia to crush liberal
movements in Europe

Socialists called for a fair distribuDon of societys resources and evolved from a
utopian to Marxist scienDc criDque of capitalism

Charles Fourier: Utopian socialist who proposed the forma8on of self-contained coopera8ves


ConDnuedI. Ideologies developed and took root throughout society as a

response to industrial and poliDcal revoluDons
Marxism and anarchism
August Babel: Member of the German Social Democra8c Party that espoused revolu8onary
Marxist rhetoric while organizing itself as a mass poli8cal party
Anarchists: Mikhail Bakunin: Believed that small groups of well-trained, fana8cal revolu8onaries
could perpetrate so much violence that the state and its ins8tu8ons would disintegrate

NaDonalism encouraged loyalty to the naDon in a variety of ways

Giuseppe Mazzini: Formed a group called Young Italy with its goal the crea8on of a united Italian
republic. The rebellion of Italians in 1848 and 1849 failed to create a republic, largely because of
the interven8on of foreign powers. However, this idea would be reached in the 1860s
An8-Semi8sm: Karl Lueger: As the mayor of Vienna, he created a problem of an8-Semi8c policies
and blaming Jews for the corrup8on of German culture
Jewish Na8onalism: Theodor Herzl, in 1896, published a book in which he put forth the no8on of a
Jewish state. He received some support for the crea8on of a Jewish community in Pales8ne

II. Governments responded to the problems created or exacerbated by

industrializaDon by expanding their funcDons and creaDng modern
bureaucraDc states
Liberalism shi^ed from laissez-faire to intervenDonist economic and social
policies on behalf of the less privileged
Governments transformed unhealthy and overcrowded ciDes by modernizing
infrastructure, regulaDng public health, reforming prisons, and establishing
modern police forces
Urban Redesign: Ci8es were reconstructed with be]er planning and sanita8on. For example,
Napoleon III were the help of Haussmann designed Paris. The wider ci8es had a prac8cal
purpose, allowing the military to move in and crush rebellions.

Governments promoted compulsory public educaDon to advance the goals of

public order, naDonalism, and economic growth


III. PoliDcal movements and social organizaDons responded to the problems

of industrializaDons.
Mass-based poliDcal parDes emerges as vehicles for change

Conserva8ves and Liberals in Great Britain: These two poli8cal par8es emerged as the two
strongest par8es. At rst conserva8ves faired less services and less vo8ng rights. They traded
terms, but ul8mately both saw the value of expanded vo8ng rights and more services for the

Workers established labor unions and movements that also developed into poliDcal
German Social Democra8c Party: At rst started as a party of socialist, but by 1912 it was the
biggest party in the Germany Reichstag and had become less revolu8onary and more revisionist

Feminists pressed for legal, economic, and poliDcal rights for women

Flora Tristan: She preached the need for the libera8on of women and full equality

Private groups sought to li^ up the deserving poor and end serfdom and slavery

Josephine Butler: Objected to laws that unfairly punished women, especially the Contagious
Disease Acts that punished women, but not men for the spread of venereal disease
Young Pros8tutes: Young women that felt like they had no other work opportuni8es besides
becoming pros8tutes, many groups a]empted to help these young pros8tutes, because they leU
that they were deserving poor. Groups dis8nguished behind undeserving and deserving

KC 3.4: European states struggled to maintain interna8onal stability in

an age of na8onalism and revolu8ons.
A^er the French RevoluDon and Napoleon era, the world leaders met to
suppress liberal and preserve a balance of power
RevoluDon swept Europe in 1848, triggered by poor economic condiDons, slow
pace of poliDcal change, and unfullled naDonalist hopes
However, conservaDve leaders held o these revoluDons
New conservaDves emerged that were willing to address some of the demands
of their people
The Crimean War ended the balance of power from the Napoleonic Age and set
the stage of the unicaDon of Italy and Germany; led to the realpoliDk Cavour
and Bismarck
A^er the Crimean War, Russia undertook a series of internal reforms aimed at
achieving naDonalism
A^er the new German Emperor Wilhelm II dismissed Bismarck in 1890,
Germanys diplomaDc approach altered signicantly
A change in diplomacy, the breakdown of alliances, militarism, and naDonalism
led to World War I.


I. The Concert of Europe(or Congress System) sought to maintain the

status quo through collecDve acDon and adherence to conservaDsm.
Medernich, leader of the Concert, used it to suppress naDonalist and liberal
ConservaDves re-established control, through the Principle of IntervenDon of the
Congress, and adempted to suppress movements for change and strengthen
adherence to religious authoriDes
Greek War of Independence: The Greeks had long been controlled by the O]oman Empire,
but revolted in 1830. The conserva8ves of Europe did not like na8onalist revolu8ons, but in
this case were more concerned with weakening the O]oman Empire. So, the Greeks had
support from the big powers.

The revoluDons of 1848 challenged the conservaDve orders and led to the end of
the Concert of Europe

II. The breakdown of the Concert of Europe opened the door for
movements of naDonal unicaDon in Italy and Germany as well as liberal
reforms elsewhere.
The Crimean War demonstrated the weakness of the Odoman Empire and
contributed to the breakdown of the Concert of Europe, creaDng condiDons in
which Italy and Germany could unify
A new breed of conservaDve leaders, including Napoleon III, Cavour, and
Bismarck, co-opted the agenda of naDonalists for the purposed of creaDng or
strengthening the state.
The creaDon of the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary, which recognized the
poliDcal power of the largest ethnic minority, was an adempt to stabilize the
state by reconguring the naDonal unity
In Russia, autocraDc leaders pushed reforms and modernizaDon, which gave rise
to revoluDonary movements
Alexander II: He freed the serfs in 1861 and ins8tuted many reforms, including
zemstvos(which were local governments), reforming educa8on, centralizing the judicial
system, limi8ng the powers of the nobles. However, the Russian secret police s8ll sent
thousands of dissents into exile and Alexander was assassinated in 1881.


III. The unicaDon of Italy and Germany transformed the European

balance of power and led to eorts to construct a new diplomaDc order

Cavours RealpoliDk strategies, combined with the popular Garibaldis military

campaigns, led to the unicaDon of Italy
Bismarck employed diplomacy and industrialized warfare and weaponry and the
manipulaDon of democraDc mechanisms to unify Germany
A^er 1871, Bismarck adempted to maintain the balance of power through
alliances directed at isolaDng France
Three Emperors League: The League of the Three Emperors was an alliance between the
German Empire, the Russian Empire and Austria-Hungary, from 1873 to 1887. Chancellor
O]o von Bismarck took full charge of German foreign policy from 1870 to his dismissal in

Bismarcks dismissal in 1890 led to a system of mutually antagonisDc alliances

and heightened internaDonal tensions
NaDonalist tensions in the Balkans drew the Great Powers into a series of crises,
leading up to World War I
First Balkan War: This comprised ac8ons of the Balkan League(Bulgaria, Serbia, Greece and
Montenegro against the O]oman Empire. The Balkan League won and as a result, captured
and par88oned almost all remaining European territories of the O]oman Empire.

KC 3.5: A variety of mo8ves and methods led to the intensica8on of

European global control and increased tensions among the Great

The European imperial outreach of the 19th century was in some ways a
conDnuaDon of three centuries of colonizaDon, but resulted from the economic
pressures and necessiDes of a maturing industrial economy.
European sDll had strong economic inuence in the Western hemisphere and
increasing dominance in East and Southern Asia
European naDonal rivalries accelerated the expansion of colonies
NoDons of global desDny and racial superiority fed the drive for empires and
technology and medicine made it possible
New imperialism was promoted by interest groups including poliDcians,
military ocers and soldiers
As an example of a new complex phase of imperial diplomacy, the Berlin
Conference outlined procedures for the parDDon of Africa
Some groups in the colonies did resist, and by 1914 anDcolonial movements had
taken root within the non-European world and in Europe itself
Imperialism led to a global exchange of cultures and people



I. European naDons were driven by economic, poliDcal, and cultural

moDvaDons in their new imperial ventures in Asia and Africa

European naDonal rivalries and strategic concerns fostered imperial expansion and
compeDDon for colonies
Search for raw materials and markets drove Europeans to colonize Africa and Asia
Europeans jusDed imperialism through an ideology of cultural/racial superiority

II. Industrial and technological developments facilitated European control

of global empires
Advanced weapons invariably ensured the military superiority of Europeans

Breech-loading rie: A rearm in which the cartridge or shell is inserted or loaded into a
chamber integral to the rear por8on of a barrel. These were faster to reload than the muzzle-
loading rie

CommunicaDon and transportaDon technologies made conquest easier

Advances in medicine supported European control of Africa and Asia by preserving
European lives
Quinine: Used to prevent and treat malaria. This disease had been killing many Europeans that
went to Africa to explore/conquer.

III. Imperial endeavors signicantly aected society, diplomacy, and

culture in Europe and created resistance to foreign control abroad
Imperialism created diplomaDc tensions that strained the alliance system

Fashoda Crisis(1898): The Fashoda Incident or Crisis was the climax of imperial territorial
disputes between Britain and France in Eastern Africa, occurring in 1898. A French expedi8on
to Fashoda on the White Nile river sought to gain control of the Upper Nile river basin and
thereby exclude Britain from the Sudan.

Imperial encounters with non-European peoples inuenced the styles and

subject mader of arDsts and writers and provoked debate about colonizaDon

Paul Gauguin and Pablo Picassos Primi8vism: Primi8vism is a Western art movement that
borrows visual forms from non-Western or prehistoric peoples. This borrowing was an
important development of modern art.
Pan-German League: movement whose goal was the poli8cal unica8on of all people
speaking German or a Germanic language

As non-Europeans became educated in Western values, they challenged

European imperialism through naDonalist movements and/or modernizaDon

Japans Meiji Restora8on: This was the period in Japan when the emperor decided to
embrace Western ways as a way to compete with the West. This period created a very strong
industrial economy in Japan.



Paul Gauguin
Where do we come from?
What are we? Where are we
This painDng is a huge,
brilliantly colored but
enigmaDc work painted on
rough, heavy sackcloth. It
contains numerous human,
animal, and symbolic gures
arranged across an island
landscape. The sea and
TahiDs volcanic mountains
are visible in the
background. It is Paul
Gauguins largest painDng,
and he understood it to be
his nest work.

KC 3.6: European ideas and culture expressed a tension between objec8vity

and scien8c realism on one hand, and subjec8vity and individual
expression on the other.
The romanDc movement of the early 19th century set the stage for later cultural
perspecDves by encouraging individuals to culDvate their uniqueness and to trust
intuiDon and emoDon
Later arDsDc movements such as Impressionism, Expressionism, and Cubism, which
rested on subjecDve interpretaDons of reality, arose from the antudes fostered by
In science, Darwins evoluDonary theory raised quesDons about human nature, and
physicists began to challenge the uniformity and regularity of the Newtonian universe
In 1905 Einsteins theory of relaDvity underscored the posiDon of the observer in
dening reality, while the quantum principles of randomness and probability called the
objecDvity of Newtonian mechanics into quesDon
The emergence of psychology led to invesDgaDons of human behavior
Freuds invesDgaDons into the human psyche suggested the power of irraDonal
moDvaDons and unconscious drives
Many writers and arDsts saw humans as governed by spontaneous, irraDonal forces



I. RomanDcism broke with neoclassical forms of arDsDc representaDon

and with raDonalism, placing more emphasis on intuiDon and emoDon.

RomanDc arDsts and composers broke from classical arDsDc forms to emphasize
emoDon, nature, individuality, intuiDon, the supernatural, and naDonal histories
Francisco Goya: Regarded as the most important Spanish arDst of the late eighteenth and
early nineteenth centuries. Over the course of his long career, Goya moved from jolly and
lighthearted to deeply pessimisDc and searching in his painDngs, drawings, etchings, and
Chopin: A Polish composer and a virtuoso pianist of the RomanDc era, who wrote primarily
for the solo piano.

RomanDc writers expressed similar themes while responding to the Industrial

RevoluDon and to various poliDcal revoluDons

Mary Shelley: Her wri8ngs, like most Roman8c authors, praised imagina8on over reason,
emo8ons over logic, and intui8on over science-making way for a vast body of literature of
great sensibility and passion. In their choice of heroes, also, the roman8c writers replaced the
sta8c universal types of classical 18th-century literature with more complex, idiosyncra8c
characters. They became preoccupied with the genius, the hero, and the excep8onal gure in
general, and a focus on his passions and inner struggles and there was an emphasis on the
examina8on of human personality and its moods and mental poten8ali8es. In Shelleys
Frankenstein, these roman8c ideas are perfectly demonstrated

Goya clearly had in mind for this royal
group the composiDon of Velzquez's
Meninas, which he had copied in an
engraving many years before. Like
Velzquez, he has placed himself at an
easel in the background, to one side of
the canvas. But his is a more formal royal
portrait than Velzquez's: the gures are
grouped almost crowded together in
front of the wall and there is no adempt
to create an illusion of space. The eyes of
Goya are directed towards the spectator
as if he were looking at the whole scene
in a mirror. The somewhat awkward
arrangement of the gures suggests,
however, that he composed the group in
his studio from sketches made from life.



II. Following the revoluDons of 1848, Europe turned toward a realist and
materialist worldview
PosiDvism, or the philosophy that science alone provides knowledge, emphasized
the raDonal and scienDc analysis of nature and human aairs
Darwin provided a raDonal and material account of biological change and
development and inadvertently a jusDcaDon for racialist theories
Marxs scienDc socialism provided a systemaDc criDque of capitalism
Realist and materialist themes and antudes inuenced art and literature as
painters and writers depicted the lives of ordinary people and drew adenDon to
social problems
Fyodor Dostoevsky: Focused on the dicult reali8es of life in Russia. In Crime and
Punishment, he focused on trying to exist in a 8me of poverty and social tension

III. A new relaDvism in values and the loss of condence in the

objecDvity of knowledge led to modernism in intellectual and cultural

Philosophy largely moved from raDonal interpretaDons of nature and human

society to an emphasis on irraDonality and impulse, a view that contributed to
the belief that conict and struggle led to progress

Nietzsche: He proclaimed to the world that god is dead and a]acked the religious
ins8tu8ons for crea8ng a slave mentality amongst the people. He suggested a plan for
becoming what one is through the cul8va8on of ins8ncts and various cogni8ve facul8es, a
plan that requires constant struggle with ones psychological and intellectual inheritances.

Freudian psychology provided a new account of human nature that emphasize

the role of the irraDonal and the struggle between the conscious and
Developments in the natural sciences undermined the primacy of Newton

Planck: Many contribu8ons to theore8cal physics, but his fame rests primarily on his role as
originator of the quantum theory. This theory revolu8onized our understanding of atomic
and subatomic processes

Modern art, including impressionism, post-impressionism, and cubism moved

beyond the representaDonal to the subjecDve, abstract, and expressive



Claude Monet
In the late 1860s, Claude Monet,
Pierre-Auguste Renoir and others
painted in a new style, called
Impressionism by contemporaries.
The name was rst used by criDcs,
viewing a new exhibiDon held in
1874, and was directed precisely
and derisively at a painDng by
Monet of a harbor at dawn, which
he Dtled Impression: Sunrise. This
painDng is a striking example of the
new style.