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ASSESSMENT

PLANNING THE CLASSROOM


TEST

Presented by Dr. Z. Dedovets


12.08.2014

The Power of Testing

Just as medical test help diagnose and treat


patients, rigorous and meaningful education
assessments can help ensure the academic
health of all students

McGiffert

Gandal &

Test

Measurement

Evaluation

Testing Terminology

Test: a formal, systematic, usually paper-and-pencil


procedure for gathering information.

Test is the presentation of a standard set of questions to


be answered.

Measurement: the process of quantifying or assigning a


number to performance.

Using observation, rating scales, or any other devise that


allows us to obtain information in a quantitative form is
measurement.

Testing Terminology

Evaluation is the determination of congruence


between performance and objectives.

Evaluation : a systematic process for the collection


and use of information from many sources to be
applied in interpreting the results and in making value
judgments and decisions.

Purposes of Classroom Tests

Purposes of Classroom Tests

Judging students mastery of skills and knowledge

Measuring growth over time

Ranking students in terms of their achievement

Diagnosing student difficulties

Evaluating the teachers instructional method

Encouraging good study habits

Motivating students

Purposes of measurement and evaluation

Measurement and Evaluation help the teacher


The major role of the school is to facilitate
learning. Kinds of changes we wish to obtain in
students are commonly referred to as objectives,
or goals. The method we employ to help students
realize the objectives constitute educational
experiences or instruction. The evaluation
procedures are the means of determining the
extent to which the instruction has been effective.
There is a definite relationship among instruction,
objectives, and evaluation.

Schematically,
we can represent this relationship as follows:

Objectives

Educational
Experiences

Evaluation
Procedures

Objectives determine the instructional procedures and the


method used to evaluate both educational experiences and
evaluation procedures. At the same time, evaluation and
educational experience help clarify the objectives, and the
learning experiences help determines the evaluative procedure
to be used.

Evaluation procedures aid the teacher; (1) they help in providing


knowledge concerning the students entry behaviors; (2) they
help in setting, refining, and clarifying realistic goals for each
student; (3) they help in evaluating the degree to which the
objectives have been achieved; and (4) they help in
determining,
evaluating, and refining the instructional techniques.

Measurement and Evaluation help the student

Measurement and evaluation aid the student by (1)


communicating the teachers goals, (2) increasing
motivation, (3) encouraging good study habits, and (4)
providing feedback that identifies strengths and
weaknesses.
It is important to point out that we never measure or
evaluate students. We measure or evaluate characteristics
or properties of students : their scholastic potential,
knowledge of algebra, honesty, perseverance, ability to
learn, and etc.

Classification
of classroom assessment
Formative
Summative

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u0nSW3W4MW0

Formative and Summative Assessment

Formative Assessment

Assessment for learning


How can students improve?
How can they close or bridge the gap?
Weeden, Winter and Broadfoot (2002)
In a formative evaluation (assessment for learning),
teachers use information about student
achievement to monitor progress and plan further
instruction.

Formative Assessment

Short and simple tasks;


Not assigned marks or grades;
Monitoring learning progress;
Pinpoint learning difficulties;
Focus is on growing and developing skills.

Summative Assessment

Assessment of learning
What is students current performance?
Weeden, Winter and Broadfoot (2002)
In a summative evaluation (assessment of learning),
teachers make judgments about student achievement at
the completion of the learning process. Teachers use
the results of summative evaluation to determine final
grades.

Summative Assessment

Given at the end of a unit, term or years;

Grades the attainment of learners;

Determines the extent to which objectives were


achieved;

Contributes evidence to the effectiveness of courses


and teachers.

Planning Classroom Test


1. Specify the instructional objectives
Blooms Taxonomy of objectives
2. Preparing the Table of Specifications

Bloom's Taxonomy

Before we examine question types, it's beneficial if we establish


a common language for discussing cognitive processes. If we
hope to assess specific levels of student mastery of course
content, we will need a framework for describing those levels.
Bloom's taxonomy is a system created to improve testing
precision by categorizing cognitive functioning into distinct
levels. Appropriate questions could then be developed to
assess the desired level. Psychologist Benjamin Bloom
developed this system at the University of Chicago in the late
1940s. His goal in formulating this classification was to
increase precision in the discussion of educational goals
among teachers, administrators, and researchers.

Bloom's levels are:

Knowledge

Low

Comprehension
Application
Analysis
Synthesis
Evaluation

High

"Taxonomy" is simply a system of categorizing and


organizing. In this case, the taxonomy is hierarchical;
each level is subsumed by the higher levels. In other
words, a student functioning at the "application" level
has also mastered the material at the "knowledge" and
"comprehension" levels.

Level
Knowledge

Learner Action

Question Cues

Recall content in the exact form

List, define, label,

that it was presented.

identify, name.

Memorization of definitions,
formulas, or procedures are
examples of knowledge-level
functioning.
Comprehension Restate material in their own

Application

Describe, associate,

words, or can recognize


previously unseen examples of
a concept.

categorize,
summarize.

Apply rules to a problem,


without being given the rule or
formula for solving the problem.

Apply, calculate,
illustrate, solve.

Level

Learner Action

Question Cues

Analysis

Break complex concepts or

Analyze, compare, separate,

situations down into their

order, explain.

component parts, and analyze


how the parts are related to
one another.
Synthesis

Evaluation

Rearrange component parts to Combine, modify, rearrange,


form a new whole.

"what-if.

Evaluate or make judgments

Assess, decide, grade,

on the worth of a concept,

recommend, explain, judge.

object, etc. for a purpose.

Types of Test Question

Multiple-choice Questions

Matching Questions

True/False Questions

Short-Answer Questions

Essay Questions

Multiple-choice Questions

Multiple-choice item consists of two parts. The first is the


stem, which can be a question or an incomplete statement.
The second part consists of several options from which to
select the correct answer. The options should include one,
and only one, correct response and several incorrect
options, or distractors.
Advantages:
Multiple-choice items allow the instructor to sample a
large amount of content in a single test.
These items can be scored easily and objectively. Scores
on multiple-choice test are less influenced by guessing
than are scored on true-false tests. These items are
versatile because they can measure understanding at
several cognitive levels in the taxonomy categories.

Multiple-choice Questions

Disadvantages:
Writing good items with plausible distractors can be very
time consuming for the instructor.
This item type takes more time for the student to read and
understand.
These items may discriminate the creative, verbal student.
Scored can be affected by students reading ability and
the instructors writing style.
This item type can raise the score of the student who can
recognize rather than produce the correct answer.

Multiple-choice Questions

Blooms Levels:
Knowledge
Comprehension
Application
Analysis

Multiple-choice Questions
An incomplete statement followed by several answer
choices.
Example 1
The first president of the United States, _____, was
known as the
Father of his country.
a.
b.
c.
d.

Thomas Jefferson
Abraham Lincoln
George Washington
Theodore Roosevelt

Multiple-choice Questions
Example 2.
______ is a country in South America.
a. Russia
b. Mexico
c. Japan
d. none of the above

Matching Questions

Matching questions involve paired lists that require


students to correctly identify, or match, the relationship
between the items.
Advantages:
Matching items can assess a large amount of information
in a confined space on the exam page; if developed
carefully, the probability of guessing is low. To decrease
that probability further, avoid equal-sized lists by including
a few distractor items in the second (answer) column.

Matching Questions

Disadvantages:
Matching assesses recognition rather than recall of
information.
Most Appropriate For:
Assessing student understanding of related information.
Examples of related items include states and capitals,
terms and definitions, tools and uses, and events and
dates.
Blooms Levels:
Knowledge
Comprehension

Matching Questions
Example 1:

Directions: On the line next to each author in Column A, place


the letter of the type of writing in Column B for which the
author is best known. Answers in Column B may be used
once, more than once, or not at all.
Column A
______1. Agatha Christie
______2. Isaac Asimov
______3. Erma Bombeck
______4. Walt Whitman
______5. Stephen King
______6. James Michener

Column B
A. History
B. Horror
C. Humor
D. Mystery
E. Poetry
F. Science Fiction
G. Tragedy

Matching Questions
Example 2:
Column A
______1. And
______2. Dog
______3. Jump
______4. She
______5. Quickly

Column B
A. Adjective
B. Adverb
C. Conjunction
D. Noun
E. Preposition
F. Pronoun
G. Verb

True/False Questions

True/false questions present a statement, and prompt the


student to choose whether the statement is truthful. Students
typically have a great deal of experience with this type of
question.
Advantages:
True/false questions are among the easiest to write, and can be
scored electronically.
Disadvantages:
True/false questions are limited in what kinds of student
mastery they can assess. They have a relatively high probability
of student guessing the correct answer (50%). True/false also
assesses recognition of information, as opposed to recall.

True/False Questions

Most Appropriate For:


Factual information and naturally dichotomous information
(information with only two plausible possibilities).
Dichotomous information is "either/or" in nature. Examples
include male/female, analog/digital, and internal/external.

Bloom's Levels:
Knowledge
Comprehension

True/False Questions
Example 1
T/F

A virus is the smallest known organism.

T/ F

An atom is the smallest particle of matter.

Yes / No

In the equation 2x + 5 = 9; x equals 3.

Yes / No

Acid turns litmus paper red.

True/False Questions
Example 2:

The University is centrally located in the city with sufficient


student parking.

According to the President, teachers in rural areas should


be first to receive salary increases.

Short-Answer Questions

Short-answer questions are constructed-response, or


open-ended questions that require students to create an
answer. Short-answer items typically require responses of
one word to a few sentences. Fill in the blank and
completion questions are examples of short-answer
question types.
Advantages:
Short-answer questions assess unassisted recall of
information, rather than recognition. Compared to essay
questions, they are relatively easy to write.

Short-Answer Questions

Disadvantages:
Short-answer items are only suitable for questions that can be
answered with short responses. Additionally, because students
are free to answer any way they choose, short-answer questions
can lead to difficulties in scoring if the question is not worded
carefully. Its important when writing short-answer questions
that the desired student response is clear.
Most Appropriate For:
Questions that require student recall over recognition. Examples
include assessing the correct spelling of items, or in cases when it
is desirable to ensure that the students have committed the
information to memory (medical students, for example, will require
recall of information more than recognition by the nature of their
jobs).
Blooms Levels:
Knowledge
Comprehension
Application

Short-Answer Questions
Example 1:
What is the name of the author of Moby Dick?
(Herman
Melville)
What is the formula for hydrochloric acid?

(HCL)

What is the value of x in the equation 2x + 5 = 9?

(2)

Short-Answer Questions
Example 2:
Define the vocabulary words listed below:
_________________________________Vegetarian
_____________________________________Vegan
_____________________________________Carnivore
_____________________________________ Herbivore

Essay Questions

Essay items, like short-answer, are constructed- response


questions. However, essay answers are typically much
longer than those of short-answer, ranging from a few
paragraphs to several pages.
Advantages:
Essay questions are the only question type that can
effectively assess all six levels of Blooms Taxonomy. They
allow students to express their thoughts and opinions in
writing, granting a clearer picture of the level of student
understanding. Finally, as open-ended questions, they
assess recall over recognition.

Essay Questions

Disadvantages:
There are two main disadvantages to essay questions:
time requirements and grading consistency. Essays are
time-consuming for students to complete, and require
careful instructions on the part of the test writer. Scoring
can be difficult because of the variety of answers, as well
as the halo effect (students rewarded for strong writing
skills as opposed to demonstrated mastery of the
content).

Essay Questions

Most appropriate for:


Assessment that cannot be accomplished with other question
types. Because essays are the only question types that can
effectively assess the highest levels of student mastery, they
are the only option if the goal of testing is the assessment of
synthesis and evaluation levels.
Blooms Levels:
Knowledge
Comprehension
Application
Analysis
Synthesis
Evaluation

Essay Questions
Examples:

Education comes not from books but from practical


experience.

An understanding of the past is necessary for


solving the problems of the present.

Types of Question
Multiple-choice

Blooms Levels
Knowledge
Comprehension
Application

Matching

Analysis
Knowledge
Comprehension

True/False

Knowledge
Comprehension

Short-Answer

Knowledge
Comprehension
Application
Knowledge
Comprehension
Application
Analysis
Synthesis
Evaluation

Essay

What is a Table of Specification (TOS)

A two-way grid that lists major areas of content to be


covered by the test and major kinds of abilities to be
developed and tested.

A grid which outlines the plan or blueprint of the test


to ensure that it is consistent with the teaching goals
both in content and levels of analyses expected.

Why use a table of specifications?

To help teachers focus their instruction (plan a unit of


work);
To ensure a fair and representative sample of questions
(balanced test);
To allow the teachers to construct a test which focuses on
key areas and weights those different areas based on their
importance (score and emphasis);
To identify the achievement domains being measured;
To assist students develop better understanding of material
and improve their study skills.

A Step by Step Example of the


Development of a Table of Specification
(TOS)
Step 1: List the contents
For example
The students are to be tested on a story they
have read. The questions will relate to:

The story

The characters

Step 2: List the objectives


For example
General objective: the students will understand
the story.
Specific Objectives:
1. They will state certain facts about the plot.
2. They will explain in their own words certain
underlined words and phrases.
3. They will state certain facts about the
characters.
4. They will write characters sketches.
5. They will compare two characters.
6. They will evaluate the characters.

Step 3: Classify the objectives


Using Blooms classification for the above
objectives, they relate to:

Knowledge
Comprehension
Synthesis
Analysis
Evaluation

Step 4: Prepare a grid

1. Place your content areas in column 1, and your


classifications in row 1.
2. Extend your grid one space below contents,
and one space beyond your classifications to be
used for totals. (See Table 1.1.)
3. Enter each objective in the appropriate box
according to its content and classification. (See
Table 1.2.)

Table 1.1: The Empty Grid


Classification

Contents

Story

Character

Knowledge

Comprehension

Analysis

Synthesis

Evaluation

Table 1.2: Grid with Objectives Entered


Classification

Contents
Story

Knowledge

Compreh
ension

Analysis

Synthesis

Evaluation

Obj._____

Obj___

Obj___

Obj.____

Obj.____

(i)

(ii)

(iv)

(vi)

(iii)
Character

(v)

___

Step 5: Decide on the relative importance of each level,


and weight it accordingly
This should reflect the emphases you placed in your teaching
and the overall importance of tasks at each level. Weighting
can be done either by using percentages or score points. Use
whichever you are more at ease with.
My example will use score points. For this particular test I
might decide that I stressed knowledge more than the other
levels, then placed some emphasis on comprehension and
analysis, but very little on synthesis and evaluation. This might
lead me to decide that, out of 50 score points for the entire
test, I will allot
1. 20 points to knowledge
2. 10 points to comprehension
3. 10 point to analysis
4. only 5 points to synthesis
5. only 5 points to evaluation
I now enter these figures in the final row of my table in the
appropriate columns (Table1.3).

Table 1.3: Grid with Weightings for Each Level


Knowledge Compre Analysis
Classifihension
cation

Contents
Story

Character

Obj._____

Obj___

(i)

(ii)

(iii)
20

Obj___

(v)
10

10

Synthesis

Evaluation

Obj.____

Obj.____

(iv)

(vi)

___

50

Step 6: Weighting objectives

In order to decide how many points to give to each


objective, I now examine how many objectives fall in each
column, and share the score points between them. This
should be done to leave whole numbers, or else the
scoring of the final test will be very complicated. For
example, in the knowledge column there are two
objectives, which will therefore receive 10 points each; if
there were three objectives here, it would be better to allot
scores 7,7, and 6, or perhaps 6,6,8 rather than 6.666. In
such a case, the test constructor would have to decide
which objective merited the higher score.
Enter these points on your grid (Table 1.4).

Table 1.4: Grid with Objectives Weighted


Knowledge Compre Analysis
Classifihension
cation

Contents
Story

Character

Obj._____

Obj___

Synthesis

Evaluation

Obj___

Obj.____

Obj.____

(v)
10

(iv) 5 (vi) 5

10

(i) 10 (ii)
(iii) 10
20

10

10

50

Step 7: Total the scores for the separate content areas

In the final column of the grid add up the total number of


points
you have given each content area. Ask yourself whether
these totals are a reasonable distribution of the scores in
relation to your teaching. If you decide so, then your grid is
complete.
If you decide that the distribution is inaccurate, you must
adjust your plans at this time. You may have to change the
weighting of one or more of the classifications, or you may
even decide to test more objectives. If your test is to have a
proper balance, you must sort out these problems now.
Remember there is no magic formula for deciding how many
points go where. It is up to you as a teacher and test
constructor to arrive at a reasonable solution. Table 1.5
shows a completed grid.

Table 1.5: The Finished Grid


Knowledge Compre Analysis
Classifihension
cation

Contents
Story

Character

Obj._____

Obj___

Obj___

Synthesis

Evaluation

Obj.____

Obj.____

(i) 10 (ii)
(iii) 10
20

10

10

20

(v)
10

(iv) 5 (vi) 5 30

10

50

References
1.

Brown, Frederick, G. (1971). Measurement and


Evaluation. Itasca, Ill.: F.E. Peacock

2. Krathwohl, David R., Bengamin S. Bloom, and Bertram B.


Mesia (1964). Taxonomy of Educational Objectives (two
vols: The Affective Domain & The Cognitive Domain). New
York: David McKay.
3. Wolansky, William, D. (1985). Evaluating Student
Performance in Vocational Education. Ames, Iowa: Iowa
State University Press.
4. William A. Mehrens, Irvin J. Lehmann (1991)
Measurement and Evaluation in education and
Psychology, Michegan State University

THANK YOU
for
YOUR ATTENTION