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5/8/2016

BIOLOGICALEVIDENCE

BIOLOGICAL EVIDENCE
AlsoseeTOXICOLOGY

Safety&Contamination
MoistBlood,Large
Saliva
BookingProcedure

ImpoundingOfficer
MoistBlood,Small
Semen
EvidenceOfficerProcedure

BloodEvidence
DriedBlood
RapeKits
Destruction

******CAUTION******
AIDShasashortlifespanwhenexposedtoair.However,HEPATITIScanliveforyearsintheopenair.Hepatitiscontaminatedevidence
hasbeenfrozenandthawedyearslater.Theviruswasshowntostillbealive.

DONOTTAKECHANCES.ALWAYSUSEGLOVESANDWHENPOSSIBLE,FACEPROTECTION.

GENERALINFORMATION
Biologicalfluidssuchasblood,semen,andsalivaarefrequentlyencounteredasphysicalevidenceinmanytypesofcriminalinvestigations
suchashomicides,sexualassaults,assaults,androbberies.

Sinceblood,semen,andsalivaoriginateasliquids,theyquicklycoatorpenetratesurfacestheyaredepositedon,andwhendriedtheyare
difficulttoremove.Becausenotwohumansaregeneticallythesame(exceptforidenticaltwins)thesebodyfluidsareuniquetotheperson
theyoriginatedfrom.ByperformingDNAanalysisofthesefluidsorstains,ageneticmarkerprofilecanbeobtainedthatisessentiallyspecific
tothatindividual.

BecauseDNAanalysislendsitselftoacomputerizedidentificationsystem,aConvictedOffenderDatabasehasbeenestablishedwhichallows
theforensiclaboratoriestoenterDNAprofilesfromevidencesamplesforcomparisontotheDNAprofilesobtainedfromotherunsolved
crimesorfromconvictedviolentoffenders.Thisdatabaseisoneofthelatestforensictechnologiesaidingintheidentificationofsuspectsin
caseswherenosuspecthasbeendeveloped.

ThetypeofDNAanalysiscurrentlyperformedonbiologicalmaterialcanyieldmuchinformation.ThetablebelowliststhosethingsthatDNA
analysiscandetermineandthoseitcannot.

DNAanalysiscan:
AssociateevidenceDNAtoapersonandgive
thefrequencyofoccurrenceinarandom
population
Positivelyexcludeapersonfrombeingthe
donorofevidenceDNA
DeterminethegenderofanevidenceDNA
http://www.iape.org/emanual/biological_evidence.htm

DNAanalysiscannot:
Determinetheageorraceoftheperson
whodonatedthesample
Determinehowoldthesampleis
Determinehowthesamplewasdeposited
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donor
Determinethatthebiologicalmaterialisfroma
human

(seeCrimeSceneInvestigations
BloodstainPatternAnalysis)
Determinewhetherornotforcewasusedin
asuspectedrapefromtheanalysisof
semenevidence

SafetyandContaminationPrevention
CurrentDNAtechnologyallowsforverysmallamountsofsampletobeanalyzed.Forexample,abloodstainthesizeofasharpenedpencil
pointmaybeenoughtoperformDNAanalysison,aswouldtheresidueamountofsweatandskincellsontheinsiderimofaballcap.
Becauseofthis,inadvertentcontaminationoftheevidenceispossibleifyoudonottakeprecautions.
Weargloves,amaskandeyeprotectionwhilecollectingbiologicalsamples.
Changeglovesfrequentlyoranytimeyourglovesarecontaminatedwithbiologicalmaterial.Changeglovesafterhandlingeachsample
toeliminatepotentialcrosscontamination.
Donottouchthetipsofcottonswabswithyourfingers.
Avoidcontaminatingyourswabsbygettingthemdirty,talkingoverthem,blowingonthemtomakesamplesdryfaster,etc.
Donottouchyourwaterdropperbottletiptoanysurfaceorevidence.
Cleantools(suchasscissorsortweezers)thatyoumightusetocollectevidencewitha10%bleachsolutionanddrythoroughly.

GeneralCollectionGuidelines
Ingeneral,wetormoistbiologicalevidenceshouldbedriedifpossibleandpackagedintopapercontainers.Paperpackagingpreventsthe
evidencefromdegrading,sowrappingtheevidencefirstinplasticthenplacingthatinsidepaper(orviceversa)defeatsthepurpose.Markthe
packagingwithaBIOHAZARDlabel.

Rulesofthumbforlongtermstorageofbiologicalevidenceisrefrigeratewetorliquidevidenceandfreezedryevidence.

UVLightSearches
Manyofficerschosetouseanultraviolet(UV)light,Woodslamp,orotheralternatelightsourcetoassistinthesearchforbiologicalstains.
Suchdevicescanbehelpfulinasearch,giventhatmanybiologicalstainssuchassemenandsalivamayfluoresce,orappearbright,when
viewedwithUVlightinadarkenedroom.However,therearethreeimportantpointstorememberwhenusingaUVlighttoassistyoursearch
forbiologicalstains:

1. Anumberofothermaterialsmayalsofluoresce,suchasurine,stainsfromfoodordrink,laundrydetergent,andmanyother
substances.

2. NotallsemenorsalivastainswillnecessarilyfluorescewithaUVlight.
3. BloodwillnotfluorescewhenviewedwithaUVlightrather,itwillappeardark.

BloodEvidence
Bloodevidenceiscommoninviolentcrimes.InadditiontoDNA,bloodcontainscellsandproteinsthatallowthelaboratorytoperformthe
http://www.iape.org/emanual/biological_evidence.htm

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followingexaminations:

1. Testingcandetermineifbloodishumanornonhumaninorigin.
2. Thespecificanimalfamilycanbedeterminedfornonhumanblood.

CollectingLiquidorMoistBloodLargeQuantity

1. Saturateseveral(5to10)sterilecottonswabswiththeblood.Allowswabstoairdry.
2. Venousbloodwillcoagulatesoitisimportanttocollectagoodmixofclottedcellsandserum.
3. Thedriedswabscanbeplacedinapapercontainer(e.g.paperenvelopeorbag).
4. Donotlickenvelopeseals,asthisisasafetyandcontaminationhazard.
5. Swabscanalsobeplacedinapipettetoprotectsamplewhiledrying(seephotobelow).
6. Oncedrytheswabandpipettecanbeplacedinapaperenvelope.

CollectingLiquidorMoistBloodSmallQuantity

1. Foreachseparateblooddrop,stainorsmear,theinvestigatorshoulduseonlyonebloodswabtocollectasample.Onebyone,use
swabstocollecttheblood,concentratingthebloodontoeachswab.

2. Allowswabstoairdry.
3. Thedriedswabscanbeplacedinapapercontainer(e.g.paperenvelopeorbag).
4. Properlylabelandsealthecontainer.Donotlickenvelopesealsasthisisasafetyandcontaminationhazard.

CollectingDriedBlood
Ifthestainedobjectistransportable,submittheitemintact.Driedbloodmayflakeoffanobject,sobecarefultosealallopeningsofa
package.Ifitisnottransportable,collectthebloodbyoneofthefollowingmethods.

Swabbing

1. Moistenasterilecottonswabusingdistilledwaterortapwater(ifusingtapwatercollectaseparatesampleofjustthewater).
2. Shaketheswabtoremoveexcesswater.
3. Gentlyswabthestainwiththemoistenedswabtipuntiltheswabthoroughlyabsorbstheblood.Continuecollectingthestainuntilitis
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eithercompletelycollectedorasufficientnumberofswabs(atleast46)havebeensaturated.
4. Allowtheswabstothoroughlyairdry.
5. Thedriedswabscanbeplacedinpapercontainer(e.g.envelope,paperbag)andsealed.
6. Selectanunstainedareaadjacenttothesuspectedbloodstainandcollectasampleinthesamemannerasdescribedabove.This
samplewillserveasanegativecontrol.

Cutoutthestain
Thismaybedesirablewhenthedriedbloodstainisonanobjectsuchastheupholsteryofacarseatoroncarpeting.Useaclean,sharpknife
orscissorstoexcisethestainedarea.Includeareasthatareunstainedinyourcuttingforuseasanegativecontrol.Packageintoapaper
envelopeandseal.

Rememberthatyoumaybeliableanytimeyoudestroyproperty.

SalivaEvidence
Salivastainsarenotusuallyevidentfromavisualexamination.However,certaintypesofevidencefrequentlycontaintracesofsaliva(e.g.
cigarettebutts,gummedsurfacesofenvelopes,chewinggum,bitemarks,skiand/ornylonmasks,etc.).

CollectingSalivaEvidence
Ifthestainedobjectistransportable,submittheitemintact.Ifitisnottransportable,suchasbitemarksonabody,collectthesalivastaininthe
followingmanner:

1. Moistenasterilecottonswabwithdistilledortapwater.
2. Shaketheswabtoremoveexcesswater.
3. Gentlyswabthesuspectedsalivastain.
4. Allowtheswabtothoroughlyairdrypriortopackaginginapaperenvelopeandseal.
5. Selectanunstainedareaandcollectasampleinthesamemannerasdescribedabove.Thisswabwillserveasanegativecontrol.

SemenEvidence
Whentheperpetratorofasexualoffenseisamale,semenstainsmaybefoundonthevictimaswellasonclothing,bedding,rags,upholstery
andotherobjects.

CollectingSemenEvidence

1. Carefullyrecoverallsuspectedstainedmaterial.Eachitemofevidenceshouldbepackagedseparatelyandcarefullytopreventlossof
anytraceevidencethatmaybepresentandtopreventcrosscontamination.

2. Airdryalldampstains.Considermarkingthelocationofadampstainontheevidenceitself,asitmaynotbevisiblewhendry.
3. Cleanpapershouldbespreadundertheitemtocatchanydebris,whichmaybedislodgedduringthedryingprocess,andbetween
itemshangingnexttoeachothertopreventcrosscontamination.Packageeachitemseparatelyinpaperbagsorenvelopes,alongwith
anypaperused.
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4. Ifthesemenstainisonanobjectthatcannotbeeasilysubmittedtothelaboratory,requestforensicsstafftorecoverthestain.

IMPOUNDINGOFFICERPROCEDURES

1. Whenbloodisseized,theinvestigatorshouldusethefollowingstoppercolors:
a. BACgray
b. Bloodfortypingred
c.BloodforDNApurple
2. Clothingandbedding,whichcontainbodyfluids,willbeplacedinfiberbagsfortransportationtotheEvidenceProcessingRoom.
(Fiberbagsareavailableintheseniordeputy/corporalcars).Considerationshouldbegiventoplacingthefiberbagintoaplasticbag
fortransportation.
3. Ifaplasticbagisused,logtheitemintoevidence.
4. Ifliquid(urineorbloodinavial),itmustberefrigerated.SealthevialsorcontainersinaSecurePakbox.Submitintoevidencelocker
#1(therefrigerator)individuallockedbox.
5. Keepurinecontainersandbloodvialsinseparatecontainers.
6. Anyitem,suchasswabs,clothing,oranythingthatmaycontainbodyfluidsshallbeairdriedpriortopackaging.
7. Completetheevidencetagandattachittothepackaging.AttachaBioHazardstickertoallitemsofevidencethatmaycontain
bodyfluids.
8. CompletetheForensicServicesReport,placeblue&yellowcopiesinbasketinEvidenceProcessingRoom.
9. Completethepropertyevidencereport.
10. Placetheproperlypackagedevidenceintotheappropriatelocation.Notethelocationonthepropertyevidencereport.
11.PlacewetitemscontainingbodyfluidsinlockerAandBintheLawEnforcementCenteranddonotpackage.RefertoClothing
(impoundingofficer#2)foradditionalinformation.
12. Selectthecorrectsizebag(s)forpackaging,completeandattachtheevidencetag.Leavethepackaginginthelockerwiththeitemsto
bepackaged.(Ifthereisachancethatthepackagingwillbecomewet,leaveit(packaging)withanevidenceofficer,orinanother
locker.
13. Donotcominglevictim/suspectclothingwithinthesamelocker.
14. PlacetheyellowandgreencopyofthepropertyevidencereportinthepropertyevidencebasketintheEvidencePackagingRoom.

EVIDENCEOFFICERPROCEDURES
STORAGE:

1. Afteritemscontainingbodyfluidhavedried,theevidenceofficershallfurtherpackagetheitems.
2. Placeonebarcodeontheitemandthecorrespondingbarcodeonthepropertyreceipt.
3. Placetheiteminalocationbestsuitedtotheitem,andareaspecifiedbytheevidenceroomguide,seeEvidenceRoomMap.
4. PhysiologicalevidencewithapotentialtobeusedforDNAtestingshouldbestoredinthedesignatedbiohazardareaorplacedintothe
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freezer.
5. Liquidblood(suchassamplesintesttubes)shouldonlyberefrigerated.
6. Itemswithbloodyfingerprintsshouldnotberefrigeratedorfrozen(thiscandestroytheprints).
7. Usingthebarcodereader,scanthebinlocation,andthenscanthebarcodethatisaffixedtotheitem.
8. Placetheiteminnumericalorderwithinthebinsintherefrigeratorandfreezerbycasenumber.

******CAUTION******
AIDShasashortlifespanwhenexposedtoair.However,HEPATITIScanliveforyearsintheopenair.Hepatitiscontaminatedevidence
hasbeenfrozenandthawedyearslater.Theviruswasshowntostillbealive.

DONOTTAKECHANCES.ALWAYSUSEGLOVESANDWHENPOSSIBLE,FACEPROTECTION.

DISPOSAL:

1. Upondispositionrequestauthorizationfrominvestigatingofficer.
2. UponexpirationofStatuteofLimitation,requestauthorizationfrominvestigatingofficer.
3. ReleasetheitemtotheownerIFAPPROPRIATE.
4. Biohazardsnotreleasedtoownerswillbedisposedofinanappropriatebiohazardbin.Itemstoolargeforanonsitebiohazardbinwill
bedestroyedattheMarionCountyWasteManagement.(Seedestructionitem29)
BIOLOGICALDOSANDDONTS

DOairdryitemsbutkeepfromfansorextremeheat.Fansmaydislodgetraceevidence.
DOsubmitentireitemswithsuspectedbloodstainstothelaboratoryifpossible.
DOobtainoralswabstandardsfromallinvolvedpersons
DOrefrigeratespecimen(s)containingliquidblood.Allotheritemsmaybekeptinstorageatroomtemperatureand
lowhumidity.
DOmarkpackagewithbiohazardwarningsymbolandlabel.
DONTsubmitpartiallydriedobjectssincedecompositionwilloccur.
DONTputstaineditemsintoplasticbags,vials,orotherairtightcontainers.
DONTattempttoremovestainsfromclothorfromsmallsolidobjects.
DONTmixseparatedriedstains.Packageeachindividualiteminapaperbagorbox,sealandlabel.
DONTplaceevidenceinthetrunkofacarsinceextremeheatmaymake
bloodunsuitablefortesting.
DONTfreezeliquidbloodstandards.
DONTallowspecimenstobeexposedtodirectsunlight.

TOXICOLOGY
Duringinvestigationswhenthereiscausetobelievethatanindividualmayhavebeenundertheinfluenceofalcoholand/ordrugs,efforts
http://www.iape.org/emanual/biological_evidence.htm

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shouldbemadetoobtainbloodand/orurinefortoxicologicalanalysis.Incaseswhereitisnecessarytodeterminethelevelandeffectof
alcoholontheindividual,bloodisthespecimenofchoice.Urinemaybetestedforthepresenceofalcohol,howeveritisnotalegally
recognizedtestingmediumforbloodalcoholdeterminationsandthereforeapercentageofalcoholwillnotbereported.Incaseswherethe
useofcontrolledsubstancesorotherdrugsisinquestion,urineisthespecimenofchoice.

Timeisoftheessencewhenexaminingbloodforthepresenceofdrugsmanydrugsleavethebloodveryrapidlyandmaybedifficulttodetect
ormayyieldnegativeresults.Drugsareingreaterabundanceinurineandthereforemorereadilyscreenedforthanblood.Whenthereisa
questionastowhichmediumisbest,collectbothbloodandurine.

BloodAlcohol
TheStatecrimelaboratorynolongerrecommendsthecollectionofsequentialblooddraws.Testimonygivenatthetimeoftrialwillbeexactly
thesamewhetherthereisoneblooddrawormany.

***Normally,thelaboratorywillnottestbloodforalcoholcontentifabreathtesthasbeenadministered***

Collection,Packaging,andStorage
Atleast10milliliters(onetube)ofbloodshouldbecollectedinacommerciallyavailablegraytoptubethatcontainssodiumfluorideand
potassiumoxalateorEDTA.BloodAlcoholSpecimenKitscanbepurchasedforpackagingandsecuringthebloodtube.Contactthestate
crimelaboratorytoorderthesekits.

PerOAR333.13.026(2)(c)aspecimenlabelingsystemmustbeemployedwhichassuresunequivocalmatchingofthespecimenwiththe
personfromwhomitwascollected.Thetubemustbelabeledwiththeindividualsname,date,andtimeoftheblooddraw.Careshould
alwaysbetakentomaintainproperchainofcustodybythesealingandlabelingofevidence.Hospitalstaffmustuseagraystopperonthe
bloodvials.

Bloodshouldbesubmittedtothestatecrimelaboratoryassoonasreasonablypossible.Otherwisethebloodsampleshouldberefrigerated.
Ifthecrimelabattachesalabelwithstoragerecommendations,besuretheyarefollowed.Ifnolabelisattached,thesamplecanbestored
perSheriffsOfficenormalevidencehandlingprocedures.

Urine

1. Quantitationoftheamountofdrug(s)inaurinesampleisnotperformedbecauseurinedrugconcentrationscannotbecorrelatedtoa
levelofimpairment.
2. Includesuspecteddruginformationandconsideradrugrecognitionevaluationbyadrugrecognitionexpert(DRE)inconjunctionwith
obtainingaurinesample.

DrugsTestedinRoutineToxicologicalAnalysis
Opiates(e.g.morphine,codeine,etc.)
Amphetaminelikedrugs(e.g.amphetamine,methamphetamine,MDMA,etc.)
Barbiturates
Benzodiazepines(e.g.Valium,Librium,etc.)
http://www.iape.org/emanual/biological_evidence.htm

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Marijuana
Cocaine
Otherbasicdrugs(e.g.methadone,antihistamines,etc.)
Propoxyphene
Otherpharmaceuticaldrugs(e.g.Prozac,Soma,etc.)

Collection,Packaging,andStorage
UrineCollectionKitsareprovidedbytheOregonStatePoliceandshouldbeavailableatallintoxilyzerlocations.Thesekitscanalsobe
obtainedthroughtheOSPstockroombycalling5033784348.

Urinesamplesshouldbecollectedintheplasticscrewtopcontainerprovidedinthekit.Besurethelidistightlysecured,andsealandlabel
thecontainerwiththeindividualsname,date,andtimethesamplewascollected,makingnoteofthetemperatureoftheurinespecimen.

Securetheurinecupintheplasticbagprovidedtocontainanypossibleleaks,andthenputthebaginthebox.Itshouldbenotedthaturine
thatleaksintotheplasticbagmaynotbeanalyzed.Urineshouldbesubmittedtothestatecrimelaboratoryassoonasreasonablypossible.
Otherwisetheurinesampleshouldberefrigerated.Urineevidencereturnedbythecrimelaboratoryshouldbestoredasindicatedonthe
attachedlabel.Ifnolabelisattached,thesamplecanbestoredperSheriffsOfficenormalevidencehandlingprocedures.

Ifyoususpectadaterapedrug(e.g.GHB,Rohypnol,ketamine,etc.),inhalants(e.g.paintthinner,gasoline,etc.),orLSDwereused,this
mustbespecificallynotedontheForensicServicesRequest.Thesedrugsarenotroutinelytestedforinatoxicologyanalysis.

Revised04/25/07

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