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Testbankfor

ReasoningAboutNumbersandQuantities
and
ReasoningAboutAlgebraandChange

BelowwehavelistedassessmentitemsformostsectionsofPartI:ReasoningAboutNumbers
andQuantitiesandPartII:ReasoningAboutAlgebraandChange.Theitemswereselectedfrom
thosethatinstructorsusedwhileusingthematerialsoverseveralyearsatSanDiegoState
University.Forsomesections,thereareveryfewitems.Thenumberofitemsisrelatedbothto
thenumberoftimesthattheparticularsectionofthemodulewaspilotedandtotheemphasis
giventothematerial.Spacehere,ofcourse,isreducedfromthatprovidedonactualtestsor
quizzes.
ThetestbankisaWorddocumentratherthanaPDFdocumentsothatyoucanselectitemsfor
testswithouthavingtoreenterthem.
Sometestitemsaresimilartoprevioustestitems.Theyprovidetheopportunitytouseslightly
differentitemsondifferentversionsoftests.Also,sometestitemsaremoredifficultthanothers,
andtheyaremarkedwithanasterisk.However,youmaynotagree,andthusitisimportantthat
youcheckeachitemtobesurethatitisofthelevelofdifficultythatyouwishtohaveinyour
examination.
Request:TheitemsaredifferentforPartsIandII.PartIhastextitemsforsectionswhereasPart
IIitemsarelistedforeachchapter.Also,PartIanswersareembeddedinthesetoftestitems,
whereasanswersforPartIIareattheendofthesetoftestitems.Wewouldappreciate
informationfromusersconcerningwhichformatismoreuseful.
Pleasenote:Weoftenusethefollowingdirectionsfortrue/falseitemsonexams,anditshouldbe
includedinthedirectionsofanyexamgiventhatcontainssuchitems
ForeachofthestatementsbelowindicatewhetherthestatementisTrueorFalsebyCIRCLINGthe
properword.IFTHESTATEMENTISFALSE,THENBRIEFLYEXPLAINWHYITIS
FALSEORRESTATEITSOTHATITISTRUE.

Chapter1ReasoningaboutQuantities
1.1WhatIsaQuantity?and
1.2QuantitativeAnalysis
1.Whatisaquantity?Giveanexample.Whatisapossiblevalueforyourexample?

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E.g.,Thelengthofthisroomisaquantity.Apossiblevalueis20feet.
2.Name5quantitiesthatyouhavedealtwithsofartoday.
E.g.,distancefromhometoclass,timespenttravelingfromhometoclass,amountof
gasolinepurchased,amountofmilkdrunkatbreakfast,amountofmoneyspentona
Starbuckscoffee,etc.
3.Name3quantitiesthatrelatetoyou,andtellhowtheyaremeasured.
E.g.,weight(inpoundsorkilograms),height(ininches),armspan(inches),shoesize
(standardsizesforshoes),waistsize(ininches),etc.
4.

Wouldstudentmotivationbedifficultoreasytoquantify?Explain.
Tellhowyoumightgoaboutquantifyingstudentmotivationinthisclass.
Probablydifficult.Factorsinfluencingmotivationmightincludeneedforapassinggrade,
desiretounderstandcontent,parentalpressure,peerpressure,etc.Ascale(suchas1low
to10high)couldbedesignedtomeasurethesefactors.

5.

Listatleastfiverelevantquantitiesthatareinvolvedwiththisproblemsituation.For
eachquantity,ifthevalueisgivenwriteitnexttothequantity.Ifthevalueisnotgiven,
writetheunityouwouldusetomeasureit.
PatandLileftthestartinglineatthesametimerunninginoppositedirectionsona400
meterovalshapedracetrack.Patwasrunningataconstantrateof175metersper
minute.Theymeteachotherforthefirsttimeaftertheyhadbeenrunningfor1.5
minutes.HowfarhadPatrunwhenLicompletelyfinishedonelap?
Sampleanswers(quantity,valueorunitifvalueunknown;otherunitspossiblee.g.,
secondsinsteadofminutes):
Lengthoftrack,400meters
Patsspeed,175metersperminute
Timeuntiltheymeetforfirsttime,1.5minutes
DistancePathastraveledwhentheymeetforfirsttime,meters
DistanceLihastraveledwhentheymeetforthefirsttime,meters
Lisspeed,metersperminute
TimeforLitorunonelap,minutes
TimeforPattorunonelap,minutes
DistancePathasrunwhenLifinishedonelap,meters
(Theabovearerelevanttoonesolution,butthefollowingarequantitiesin
thesituationaswell.)
DifferenceintimesforonelapforPatandLi,secondsorminutes
Differenceinspeeds,PatandLi,metersperminute

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6.

Carryoutaquantitativeanalysisofthefollowingproblemsituationbyansweringeachof
thequestionsthatfollow.
Jenniegotonthefreewayat2:00PM,usingtheentranceclosesttoherhome,and
traveledat55mphtotheCollegeAvenueexit,wheresheturnedoffat2:12PM.Her
roommateCassiehadfinishedhermorningclassesandwasheadedhomeaboutthesame
time.CassieenteredthefreewayfromtheCollegeAvenueentranceat2:08PM,and
traveledtothehomeexitat60mph.WhattimedidCassiearriveattheexitramptogo
home?
a.Whatquantitiesherearecritical?
b.Whatquantitiesherearerelated?
c.WhatquantitiesdoIknowthevalueof?
d.WhatquantitiesdoIneedtoknowthevalueof?
a.Jenniesstartingtime,Jenniesexittime,timeJennietraveled,speedJennietraveled,
distanceJennietraveled,Cassiesstartingtime,distanceCassietraveled,speedCassie
traveled,timeCassietraveled.
b.Allinpartaarerelated,butindifferentways.
c.Jenniesstartingtime,Jenniesexittime,speedJennietraveled,Cassiesstartingtime,
speedCassietraveled
d.TimeJennietraveled,distanceJennietraveled(=distanceCassietraveled),timeCassie
traveled,togetCassiesexitramptime.

7.

Considerthisproblemsituation:
Theschoolcafeteriaisreadytoservetwokindsofsandwiches,tunaandham,andtwo
kindsofpizza,pepperoniandvegetarian.Thereare48servingsofpizzaprepared.
Thereare8moretunasandwichespreparedthanthereareservingsofpepperonipizza.
Thereare4fewerhamsandwichespreparedthanthereareservingsofvegetarianpizza.
Altogether,howmanysandwichesareprepared?
a.List8quantitiesinvolvedinthisproblem.
b.Sketchadiagramtoshowtherelevantsumsanddifferencesinthissituation.
c.Solvetheproblem.
Itwillbedifficultforyourstudentstoavoidalgebraortrialanderroronthisproblem;
decidewhetheryouwishtoprohibittheuseofalgebra.Youmightalsoconsideromitting
partc.

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a.E.g.,numberofkindsofsandwiches,numberofkindsofpizza,numberofservingsof
pizzaprepared,differenceinnumberoftunasandwichespreparedvsnumberof
servingsofpepperonipizza,differenceinnumberofhamsandwichespreparedvs
numberofservingsofvegetarianpizza,totalnumberofsandwichesprepared,number
oftunasandwichesprepared,numberofhamsandwichesprepared,numberofservings
ofpepperonipizza,numberofservingsofvegetarianpizza,differenceinnumberof
tunasandwichesandnumberofhamsandwiches
b.Thereareotherpossiblepraiseworthydrawingspossible,butthefollowingsuggests
thesolution(forthetotalnumberofsandwiches)prettyeasily.

48
#PP

#VP
4

8
#TS

#HS

c.Thereare52sandwichespreparedinall.(8+484)
8.

Considerthefollowingproblemsituation:
Twotrainsleavefromdifferentstationsandtraveltowardeachotheronparalleltracks.
Theyleaveatthesametime.Thestationsare217milesapart.Onetraintravelsat65
mphandtheothertravelsat72mph.Howlongaftertheyleavetheirstationsdothey
meeteachother?
Listsixquantitiesintheproblem(notethatyouarenotaskedtosolvethisproblem).Ifa
valueisgiven,writeitnexttothequantity.Ifnovalueisgiven,writeanappropriateunit
ofmeasure.
Samples(quantity,valueorunitifvalueunknown)
Distancebetweenstations,217miles
Speedofonetrain,65milesperhour
Speedofothertrain,72milesperhour
Totalspeedofthetwotrains,milesperhour
Timeuntiltrainsmeet,hours(orminutes)
Distancefirsttrainhastraveledwhentheymeet,miles
Distancesecondtrainhastraveledwhentheymeet,miles

9. Carryoutaquantitativeanalysisofthefollowingproblemsituationbyansweringeachof
thequestionsthatfollow,andthensolvetheproblem:
Abutcherhadtwopiecesofbologna,AandB,withAweighing3andtimesasmuchas
B.Afterthebutchercut1.8poundsoffA,Awasstill 2 13 timesasheavyasB.Howmany
poundsdoespieceBweigh?

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a.Whatquantitiesherearecritical?
b.Whatquantitiesherearerelated?
c.WhatquantitiesdoIknowthevalueof?
d.WhatquantitiesdoIneedtoknowthevalueof?
e.WhatistheweightofB,inpounds?
a.WeightsofpiecesAandBbeforecut;comparison(ratio)ofpiecesbeforecut,
comparison(ratio)ofpiecesaftercut,weightofpiececutfromA.
b.Sameasa,alongwithweightofB.
c.WeightofA,weightcutfromA,ratioofAtoBbeforecut,ratioofAtoBaftercut.
d.WeightofB.

e.Beforecut:

1.8pounds

Aftercut:

PieceA

PieceB

PieceA

PieceB

PieceBmustweigh1.8pounds.
10. Considerthefollowingproblemsituation:
Twoboatssimultaneouslyleftapierandtraveledinoppositedirections.Onetraveledat
aspeedof18nauticalmilesperhourandtheotherat22nauticalmilesperhour.How
farapartweretheyafter2.5hours?
Listfiverelevantquantitiesthatareinvolvedinthisproblem.Foreachquantity,ifavalue
isgiven,writeitnexttothequantity.Ifthevalueisnotgiven,writetheunityouwould
usetomeasureit,anditsvalueifpossible.
Speedoffirstboat;18nauticalmilesperhour
Speedofsecondboat,22nauticalmilesperhour
Distancetraveledbyfirstboatin2.5hours,nauticalmiles;2.5 18=45n.m.
Distancetraveledbysecondboatin2.5hours,nauticalmiles2.5 22=55n.m.
Totaldistancebetweenboatsat2.5hoursnauticalmiles:45n.m.+55n.m.=100n.m.
After2.5hourstheyare100nauticalmilesapart.

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11. MybrotherandIgotothesameschool.Mybrothertakes50minutestowalktoschool,
andItake40minutes.Ifhegetsa49minuteheadstartoneday,canIcatchhimbefore
hegetstoschool?Explain,withoutreferringtoanyshortcutinyourexplanation.(Hint:
Donotdoalotofcalculation.)
No.Brotherneedsonly1moreminutetogettoschool,andin1minute,Icantravelonly
1/40ofthedistancetoschool.
12. Mysistercanwalkfromschooltohomein40minutes.
Icanwalkfromschooltohomein30minutes.ButtodayIstayedforsomeextrahelp,
andmysisterwasalready 25 ofthewayhomewhenIstarted.
IfIwalkatmyusualspeed,canIcatchmysisterbeforeshegetshome?
If"Yes,"exactlywhatfractionofthetriphavetheycoveredwhenIcatchher?
If"No,"exactlywhatfractionofthetriphaveIcoveredwhenmysistergetshome?
Ineithercase,writeenough(words,numbers,drawings)tomakeyourthinkingclear.
_____ (yes/no) Explanation, including fraction of the trip:
No,Icannotcatchupwithmysister.Mysisterhas3/5ofthewaytogo,whichshould
take3/5of40minutes,or24minutesbeforearrivingathome.Butin24minutes,Ican
coveronly24/30or5/6ofthewaytohome.
Onthediagram,mysisterisatthesecondcoloreddot(16minutes)whenIbegin,andhas
24minutesofwalkingbeforearrival.Inthose24minutes,IcanwalkonlytoX.
Locationaftertravelingsomanyminutes
My
sister

16

24

32

40
Home

12

18

24

30

School
Me

(Comment:TheBrotherandIexerciseinSection1.2isusuallymuchmoredifficultthan
either#11or#12,soeitheroftheseisreasonableforatimedtest.)
13. Thebigdogweighs5timesasmuchasthelittledog.Thelittledogweighs2/3asmuch
asthemediumsizeddog.Themediumsizeddogweighs9poundsmorethanthelittle
dog.Howmuchdoesthebigdogweigh?
a.List3quantitiesassociatedwiththisproblem.Ifpossible,givetheassociatedvalue.
b.Drawadiagramtorepresentthequantitiesinthisproblem.
c.Thisdiagramwasprovidedbya5thgrader.Tellwhyitisnothelpful.

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Largedog

SmalldogMediumdog

d.Solvetheproblemandexplainyoursolutionprocess.
a.E.g.,weightoflargedog,weightofmediumdog,weightofsmalldog,largedog's
weightintermsofsmalldog'sweight;smalldog'sweightintermsofmediumdog's
weight.

b.
Largedog:5S
Smalldog:1S(whichis2/3M)

Mediumdog:(Mis3/2ofS)
c.Thediagramdoesnottellanythingabouttheirsizesotherthanwhichwaslargerand
smallerthanthemediumdog.

weighs

d.Ifthemediumdogis9poundsmorethanthesmalldog,thenthemediumdog
weighs27pounds,andthesmalldogweights18pounds. Thelargedog
fivetimesasmuchasthesmalldog,sois5x 18=90pounds.

14. Givetwoquantitiesthatonecouldhaveinmindwhenhe/shesays,"That'sabigathlete!"
Height,weight,popularity,
15.Givetwoquantitiesthatonecouldhaveinmindwhenhe/shesays,Thishasbeenagood
day.
Outsidetemperature,amountofworkaccomplished,amountoftimespentplayingball
and/orpicnicking,.....

1.3ValuesofQuantities
ONTRUE/FALSEITEMS,ASKFORANEXPLANATIONIFFALSE.
1. Thelabelonacanofchickenbrothclaimsthatitsweightis1.4kg.Useyourmetric
knowledgetotellhowmanymilligramsthiswouldbe.
1,400,000mg
2.

Thelargertheunitofmeasureusedtoexpressthevalueofaquantity,thelargerits
numericvaluewillbe.
True

False

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False.Thelargertheunit,thesmallerthenumericalvaluewillbe,fordescribingthe
samemeasurement.
3.

Usingbenchmarks,findanestimateofthefollowingandexplainhowyoudidit.
Thelengthofthislineinmetricunits:

(NOTEtoinstructor:measurethislineasitisprintedoutbeforeusingitinatest.)

4. Completethefollowing:
a) 2.3km=___m

2300

b) 2cm=___km

0.00002

c) 2.14g=___kg

0.00214

5.

Whatmetricprefixmeansonehundredth?____________

centi

6.

IfaPascalissomeunitofmeasure,useyourknowledgeofmetricprefixestocomplete:
4kiloPascals=____Pascals.4000

7.

Nameametricunitthatisanalogoustoaquart.Whichislarger?Aliterisslightlylarger.

8.

Nameametricunitthatisanalogoustoayard.Whichislarger?Ameterisslightly
larger.

9. Size1Pampersfitbabieswhoweigh4to6kg.Maggieweighs11pounds.WillSize1
Pampersfither?Justifyyouranswer.(Recallthatakilogramisabout2.2pounds.)
Maggie weighs 5 kilograms and Size 1 Pampers will fit her. (Alternatively, use the 2.2
pounds for 1 kilogram to change the 4 kg-6 kg range to 8.8 pounds-13.2 pounds.)
10.Whataresomeadvantagestousingthemetricsystemofmeasurement?
Themetricsystemallowseasyconversionofunitsbecauseunitsdifferbypowersoften.
Itisusedinscienceforthisreason,inallcountries.Mostcountriesuseitforallmeasures.

1.4IssuesforLearning
1.

Somechildren,whenaskedtosolveastoryproblem,trydifferentoperationsonthe
numbers,andthendecidewhichoneseemstogivethebestanswer.Whatisthedangerof
solvingproblemsinthisway?
Studentswillnotknowwhattheanswermeans.Theydonotunderstandtheproblem,thus
theytrytofindanacceptableanswerfortheteacher,eventhoughtheycannotexplainit.

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2. Manyteachersteachkeywordsforsolvingwordproblems.Whatarethelimitationsof
thisstrategy?
Sameanswerasabove.Also,keywordscanbemisleadingtheyonlyworkpartofthe
time.
3.Usediagramstosolvethefollowingproblems.(Hint:Usestripdiagramssuchasinthe
exercisesfor1.4.)
a.Jessecollectsstamps.Henowhas444stamps.Hehasthreetimesamanystampsfrom
EuropeancountriesashedoesfromAsiancountries.Howmanyofhisstampsare
fromEuropeancountries?
b.SilviaandJuanarebuyinganewtableandnewchairsfortheirdiningarea.Chairs
witharmrestsare$45;thosewithnoarmsare$8.50cheaperThetableis4timesas
muchasachairwithoutarmrests.Iftheybuyatableandsixchairs,twowitharms
andfourwithout,whatisthetotalpricetheypay?
c.Joelives8milesfromcampus.Jimlives2milesfurtherawayfromcampusthatJoe
does.Ifeachdrivesacartocampus,howmanymilesaltogetherdoJoeandJimdrive
toandfromcampus?
d.AGrade34elementaryschoolclassroomhas29students.Thereare7morethird
gradersthantherearefourthgraders.Howmanystudentsarethereineachgrade?

a.European
Asian

b.Chairswitharmrests
Chairswithoutarmrests

444inall,so111Asianand333European

$45
$8.50

Table
2x$45+4x($45$8.50)+4x($45$8.50)=$382
c.Joe
Jim

8miles

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2miles
Jimdrives10milesoneway,so20milesbothways,andJoedrives16
milesbothways,sotogethertheydrive36milesperday.
d.18inthirdgrade,11infourthgrade

3rdGrad
7st29studentsinall
th
4 Grade

Grade3has18students,Grade4has11students.

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Chapter2NumerationSystems
2.1WaysofExpressingValuesofQuantities,and
2.2PlaceValue
ONTRUE/FALSEITEMS,ASKFORANEXPLANATIONIFFALSE.
1. IstheoldGreeknumerationsystem(=1,=2,=3,etc.)aplacevaluesystem?
Explain.No.Aplacevaluesystemrequiresthattheplacementofthesymbolhave
meaning,whichisnottrueoftheGreeksystem.
2. MostpresentdaysocietiesusetheHinduArabicnumerationsystem.TrueFalse
True
3. Howmanytensarein7654?Howmanywholetensarein7654?765.4,765
4. Howmanyhundredsarein23?Howmanywholehundreds?0.23,0
5. Howmanytenthsarein1.03?Howmanywholetenths?10.3,10
6. Howmanyonesarein4352.678?Howmanywholeones?4352.678,4352
7. Inbaseten,3421isexactly__________ones,isexactly__________tens,isexactly
___________hundreds,isexactly___________thousands;also,3421isexactly
___________tenths,isexactly___________hundredths.
Inbaseten,3421isexactly3421ones,isexactly342.1tens,isexactly34.21
hundreds,isexactly3.421thousands;also,3421isexactly34210tenths,isexactly
342100hundredths.
8. Inbaseten,215.687isexactly__________ones,isexactly____________tens,is
exactly____________hundreds,isexactly_____________thousands;also,3421is
exactly___________tenths,isexactly___________hundredths.
Inbaseten,215.687isexactly215.687ones,isexactly21.5687tens,isexactly
2.15687hundreds,isexactly0.215687thousands;also,215.687isexactly2156.87
tenths,isexactly21568.7hundredths.
9. (Romannumerals)IX=____________tenandXI=____________ten9,11
10. 34,597has345wholethousandsinit.

True

False

False.34,597has34thousandsinit.(Or,ifyouhaveemphasizeddescribingtheexact
number,34,597has34.597thousandsinit.)
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11.34.597has345wholetenthsinit.

True

FalseTrue

12.56has560tenthsinit.

True

FalseTrue

13.23has230hundredthsinit.

True

False
False.Ithas2300hundredthsinit.

14.45has4500hundredthsinit.

True

False

True

15.632.1has632.1onesinit.

True

False

True

16.Asoapfactorypacks100barsofsoapineachboxforshipment.Ifthefactorymakes
15,287barsofsoap,howmanyfullboxeswilltheyhaveforshipment?Explain.
152,becausethereare152hundredsin15,287.
17. Howmany$10billscouldonegetfor$10million?

A.1,000,000B.100,000 C.10,000

D.1000E.NoneofAD A

18. Howmany$100billscouldonegetforabilliondollars?
A.100,000,000B.10,000,000C.1,000,000D.100,000E.NoneofADB
19.Howmany$100billswouldmake$45billion?

450,000,000

20.Judysays,"Well,hundredthsaresmallerthantenths.So0.36issmallerthan0.4."
CommentonJudysreasoning.
AlthoughJudydoeschoosethesmallernumbercorrectly,herreasoningisrisky.Ifthe
numberswere0.56and0.4,usingjustherreasoningwouldgiveanincorrectchoicefor
thesmallernumber.
21. Gradythinksthat0.36isbiggerthan0.4because36isbiggerthan4.Commenton
Gradysreasoning.
Gradyisreasoningasthoughthenumberswerewholenumbers.Gradydoesnot
recognizethat4tenthswillbebiggerthan3tenthsandonly6hundredths
22.Ateachergaveherclassthechallengetofindhowmanywaysthenumber423.1couldbe
thoughtabout.Followingarefourchildrensanswers.Foreachanswer,markwhetherit
iscorrectorincorrect.Ifitisincorrect,pleaseexplain.
Dalesanswer:423.1couldbethoughtaboutas42,310hundredths
a)IsDale'sanswercorrectorincorrect?Correct__Incorrect__

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b)IfDalesanswerisincorrect,pleaseexplaintheerror.
Patsanswer:423.1couldbethoughtaboutas400onesand23.1tenths
a)IsPat'sanswercorrectorincorrect?Correct__Incorrect__
b)IfPatsanswerisincorrect,pleaseexplaintheerror.
Lesleysanswer:423.1couldbethoughtaboutas41tens,12ones,and11tenths
a)IsLesley'sanswercorrectorincorrect?Correct__Incorrect__
b)IfLesley'sanswerisincorrect,pleaseexplaintheerror.
Jansanswer:423.1couldbethoughtaboutas420tensand31tenths
a)IsJan'sanswercorrectorincorrect?Correct__Incorrect__
b)IfJansanswerisincorrect,pleaseexplaintheerror.
Dalesanswer:a)Correct
Patsanswer:a)Incorrectb)400onesand231tenths,or
Lesleysanswer:a)Correct
Jansanswer:a)Incorrectb)420onesand31tenths,or

2.3BasesOtherThanTen
ONTRUE/FALSEITEMS,ASKFORANEXPLANATIONIFFALSE.
1. Forwholenumbers,anytwodigitnumeralinbasefiverepresentsasmallernumberthan
thesametwodigitnumeralinbasetwenty. True False
True
2. Inbasebthereareb1differentdigits.True

False

False.Therearebdigits:0,1,2,3,...b1.
3. Thesearethedigitsthatareneededforabasesevenplacevaluesystem:0,1,2,3,4,5,6,
7.
True
False
False;7isnotadigitusedinabasesevenplacevaluesystem.
4. Inbaseb,3+2b3+bwouldbewritten________________.

2013b

5. Aplacevalue,basetwentysystemwouldrequire_____digits.

20

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6. 524eight=__________ten

340ten

7. 287ten=__________four

10133four

8. 1012five=______________inbaseten.

132ten

9. 32ten=_______________inbasefour.

200four

10. 2.31four=________________asamixednumberinbaseten.

13
2 16
ten

11. 6 23 inbaseten=__________inbasethree.

20 10 three , or20.2 three

12. 1ten=____twelve

1twelve

59.6tenor 59 5 ten
3

13.214.3five=___inbaseten
14. 29ten=___inbasethree

1002three

15. 7ten=___inbasenine

7nine

16. 203.6ten=____________five

1303.3five

17. 2003five=_____________ten

253ten
3

50.6ten,or 50 5 ten

18. 200.3five=_____________ten
19. Write49teninbaseseven.

100seven

20. Dothe"translations"inpartsAD.Showyourwork.
A.3102five=_____________ten
B.310.2five=_____________ten
C.203.6ten=____________five
D.(basesixpieceswithsmall
blockastheunit)

402
80.4or 80 5
2

1303.3

=______________ten336

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21. Youarelivingandworkingonaplanetthatusesonlybasefive.Howmanyfivedollar
billscanyougetfor$1234.20five?Writeyouranswerinbasefivesinceyouarelivingon
theplanet.Writeenough(numbers,words,...)tomakeyourthinkingclear.
123.Asinbaseten,1230five=123x10five=123fives.Moresymbolically,
1234.20



So:inbase5,$1234.20fiveis:123fives,+somethingsmall)
22.Inbasefive,thetwowholenumbersimmediatelybefore2001fiveare_________fiveand
____________five.
1444and2000(eitherorder)
23. Ifyouarecountinginbasefive,whatwouldbethenextsixnumeralsafter2314five?
2320,2321,2322,2323,2324,and2330
24. Ifyouhavebeencountinginbasefive,whatwouldthefivenumeralsbefore2314five
havebeen?
2304,2310,2311,2312,2313
25. Writehowmanyfingersyouhave,inbasefive.Inbasetwo.Inbaseten.Inbase
20five.1010two.10ten.
26.Whichislarger?21fouror21five?Explain.

Whenanumeralhasmorethanonedigit,itwillvaryinvalueifwrittenindifferentbases
becausetheplacevalueswilldiffer.21four=9tenand21five=11ten
27. Consider:x=81765fifteenandy=81765thirteen.Whichofxandyisgreater?Explain.
xbecauseeachdigitotherthantheonesplacerepresentsmoreinbasefifteenthanin
basethirteen.
28. Consider:x=74213sixteenandy=74213fourteen.Whichisgreater,xory(orarethey
equal)?Explain.xbecauseeachdigitotherthantheonesplacerepresentsmore.

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29. Considerx=0.3147eightandy=0.3147nine.Whichofxandyisgreater?Explain.(Be
careful.)
Consideronlyx=0.3eightandy=0.3nine.0.3eight= 83 inbase10and

xislarger.

0.3nine= 93 inbase10. 83 islargerthan 93 .Extendingthisreasoning,xislarger.


30. Writeanalgebraicexpressionfor204b.Answer: 2b 2
31. Ifabaseeightflat=1,thenumeral______________wouldgivethenumericalvalueof
thesmallcube.(Youmaygiveyouranswereitherinbaseeightorinbasetenjustmake
clearwhich.)
1

0.01eight,or 64 inbaseten
32.Baseeightpieces,withthesmallcube(adothere)isunit
astheunit.

=______________ten1220ten
33. Sketchthewoodenpiecesthatshow1203seven,andgivetheEnglishwordsforthebase
tenvalueofeachdifferentsizedpieceofwood.
Answer:withlargedotrepresentingasmallcube,astheunit.
33.

largecube= 7 3 ,orthree
hundredfortythree
flat= 7 2 ,orfortynine
smallcube=1,orone

(smallcube=1;nolongs)
4

34. Writethebasebnumeralfor2b +b +3b+1.20131b


35. Writeout32004minthealgebraicformofthelastitem.
Answer: 3m 4
36. Thebestcoinstouseinthinkingaboutthefirstthreewholenumberplacevaluesinbase
fivewouldbethepenny,thenickel,andthequarter.
TrueFalse

True

37. Thebestcoinstouseinthinkingaboutthefirstthreewholenumberplacevaluesinbase
tenwouldbethepenny,thedime,andthehalfdollar.
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True

False

False.Bestwouldbethepenny,thedime,andthesilverdollar
*38.If10000ten+10b=10023ten,whatisbaseb?
b=23.(Thegivenequationgives10b=10023ten10000ten,or10b=23ten
i.e.,b=23.)
39. Defineyourunitandsketchbaseblockstorepresent32.67eight.
Usingtheflat=1,3largecubes,2flats,6longs,7smallcubes.
40. Sketchthewoodenpiecesthatshow1203nine,andgivetheEnglishwordsforthebaseten
valueofeachpieceofwood.
Answerto40:

largecube=sevenhundred
twentynine;
flat=eightyone
smallcube=one

61.

41. 53sixnamesthesamenumberaswhichofthesebasetennumerals?
A.186B.183C.12D.85

E.33

E.NoneofAD

42. Inbaseten,111fivewouldbewritten...
A.421B.155

C.31 D.21

43. Thebasebnumeral321bmeans...
A.3.b2+2.b1+1

B.3.b3+2.b2+1.b1

D.3.b+2.b+1

E.NoneofAD

C.6b

44. Inbasefive,32tenwouldbewritten...
A.152five

B.112fiveC.62fiveD.17five

E.NoneofAD

45. Thebasetwonumeral100twoequalsthebasetennumeral...
A.1100100

B.1011100

C.8

D.4

E.NoneofAD

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46. Inbaseten,32fourwouldbewritten...
D
A.400

B.200C.122

D.14

E.8

47. Thebasefournumeral11.1fourcouldbewritteninbasetenas...
A. 33 14

B. 33 101

C. 11 14

D.5 14 E.NoneofAD

48. Thebasetendecimal18.5couldbewritteninbasesixas...

A.10.5six

B.20.3six

C.30.3six

D.128.5sixE.NoneofAD

49. Thebasetenfraction 14 equalswhichbaseeightnumeral?


A.0.2eightB.0.14eightC.0.02eightD.1.4eightE.NoneofAD

*50.If31b=28ten,thenb=...

A.4

B.5 C.7D.9E.Thisisimpossibleforanywholenumberb.

51. Whatbasedoesthefollowingcountingworkin:
1,2,3,4,10,11,12,13,14,20,21,
Basetwo

Basefour

Basefive

Basesix

Basefive

52. Whichofthefollowingisthebasetenfractionrepresentationfor1.21four?
9
16
these.A

A.1

B.1

3
4

C.1

21
100

D.1

3
5

E.Noneof

2.4OperationsinDifferentBases
1. Writeanadditionequationfor(#fingers)+(#toes)=(answer)insomebaseotherthan
baseten.
(Samples)Basefive:20+20=40
Basethree:101+101=202
Baseeight:12+12=24
2. 3five2five=_______five

11five

3.Whatis34five23five?

6
1 11
23 fiveor1 13 ten

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4. Show3fourx21fourusingdrawingsofbasefourmaterials(cubes,flats,longs,singles).
Showallthestepsinvolved,includingtheintermediatesteps.Makeclearwhatyour
choiceofoneis.
Usingthesmallcubeastheunit:Firstshowthreegroups,eachwith2longsand1small
cube.Combinethethreesmallcubes,andthenthesixlongs,finallytradingfourlongs
for1flat,leaving2longsandthe3smallcubes.123four
5.A.Add24five+33fiveinbasefive.(Thenumbersarealreadywritteninbasefive,so
thereshouldbenoconversionsdone.)
B.Howwouldyouillustratethiswiththebasefiveblocksusingdrawingsandshowing
theintermediatesteps?
A.112five
B. With the small cube = 1, first drawing shows 2 longs, 4 small cubes and 3
longs, 3 small cubes. Next, five of the seven small cubes are traded for a long,
giving six longs and 2 remaining small cubes. Next, five longs are traded for a flat,
giving 1 flat, 1 remaining long, and the 2 remaining small cubes, or 112 five.
6.A. 0.5ten=________eight.
C. 84ten=________three

B. 312.2four+22.3four=________four
D. 2fivex43five=________five

E. 33.3six=________ten
A. 0.4eight

B. 1001.1four

C. 10010three

D. 141five

E. 21.5 ten

*7. Determinethepossiblevalue(s)forbaseb:

321b
234b
43b

b=six(11b4b=3b,or3b+4b=11b)
1
8. Totherightisapartiallycompletedaddition,writteninconnection
214five
withwoodenpieces.Atthetimeoftheworktotheright,what
piecesofwoodwouldbedisplayed,ifthesmallblockistheunit?
+33five
(Drawingsorworddescriptionsareokay.)
2
Finishthenumericalcalculation.(Youdonothavetodraw
thewoodenpiecesfortherestofthework.)
Twoflats,fivelongs,and2smallcubes,atthetimeofthework.(Thetradeofthefive
longsforaflatisnotreflectedintheworkyet.)Finalsum:302

9. 241six
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+135six

420six

10. 127nine

58nine

58nine

11. 4.4five

13.2five

+3.3five
12. 0.24seven

0.06seven

100.2six

0.15seven
13. 21six

+35.2six
13.Usedrawingsofmultibaseblockstoillustrate231ten+87ten
Answerusingasmallsquare/blockastheunit:

.......

Placetogetherthentradetenlongsforaflat:

........

Answer:Usingsmallsquares(dotshere)astheunit:puttheonestogethertoform8ones;
putthetens(longs)togethertoform11tens;trade10tensfora100(flat).Onewould
nowhavethreehundreds(flats),oneten(long),andeightones.Theansweris318.
14.Usedrawingsofmultibaseblockstoillustrate32five+23five
Answer:thesmallsquareisbeingusedastheunit

..
...

.....

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Thefivesmallsquarescanbetradedforafive(long)leaving0ones.Therearenowsix
longs.Fivewouldbetradedforaflatoftwentyfive,leavingonefive(long).Theanswer
istherefore110five
15. WhatbasedoesthefollowingadditionNOTworkin:13+13=26
A.Basesix

B.Baseseven C.Baseeight

D.Baseten

E.Itworksinallofthesebases.

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16.Whatstepiswronginthefollowing(baseeight):
13Eight

x12Eight

20

30

100

156
A.6

B.20 C.30

D.100

E.None

17. A.Subtractthefollowinginbasefive.Showallyourwork:

221five
42five

11

2211

42
124
B.UseyourworkinpartAtoexplainhowthewayweregroupinbasefivesubtractionis
similartothewaythatweregroupinbasetensubtraction.
Wefirstconsidertheones.Regroupingmaybenecessarytosubtract,asinA,wherewe
regroupedtomakesixones,andagainwhenweregroupedtomakesevenfives.
18.Usedrawingsofbasetenblockstoshowthat3x15=45
Usingthelongastheunit(althoughanotherunitcouldbeselectedhere)
Grouptenlongstogetafourthhundred,andananswerof45.

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Chapter3UnderstandingWholeNumberOperations
3.1AdditiveCombinationsandComparisons
1. Two basketball coaches, A and B, are talking.
AsaystoB:"Yourtallestplayeris6inchestallerthanmytallestplayer!"
BsaystoA:"Yes,butyoursecondtallestplayeris8inchestallerthanmysecondtallest
player."
AsaystoB:"Hmm.Mysecondtallestplayeris4inchesshorterthanmytallestplayer."
Makeadrawing,andtellthedifferenceinheightsofCoachB'stwotallestplayers.
Drawing:
Diff.inheights,CoachB's_____
Thereareseveralpossiblearrangements.Belowisonethathelpstoseethatthe
differenceaskedfor(BTvsB2T)is18inches.Studentsmayassignanarbitrarynumber
totheheightofBstallestplayerratherthanrelyontheirdrawing.Pointoutthatthey
haveunnecessarily(probably)ignoredtheirdrawinginarrivingattheiranswer.
6"
4"

?
8"

BT

AT

A2T

B2T

2.

Todeterminehowmucholderyourfatheristhanyou,youneedtomakeanadditive
comparisonofhisandyourages.
True
False
True

3.

MargeboughtseveraltypesofcandyforHalloween:MilkyWays,TootsieRolls,Reese's
Cups,andHersheyBars.MilkyWaysandTootsieRollstogetherwere6morethanthe
Reese'sCups.Therewere4fewerReese'sCupsthanHersheyBars.Therewere12
MilkyWaysand28HersheyBars.HowmanyTootsieRollsdidMargebuy?
List5quantitiesinvolvedinthisproblem.
Sketchadiagramtoshowtherelevantsumsanddifferencesinthissituation.
Solvetheproblem.

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Thefivequantitiesareusuallyeasy:E.g.,thenumberforeachtypeofcandy,andsome
oftheexplicitcomparisonsmentioned.Hereisadiagram,withthededucednumbersof
barsinparentheses,giving18TRs(startwiththeHBs,thendeterminetheRCs,thenthe
TR+MWtotalandfinallytheTRs).
(30)

#TR

(18)

#MW
12

#RC
(24)

#HB
28

4. Theschoolcafeteriaisreadytoservetwokindsofsandwiches,roastbeefandpeanut
butter,andtwokindsofpizza,cheeseandvegetarian.Thereare60servingsofpizza
prepared.Thereare8fewerroastbeefsandwichespreparedthanthereareservingsof
cheesepizza.Thereare6morepeanutbuttersandwichespreparedthanthereareservings
ofvegetarianpizza.Alltogether,howmanyservingsofsandwichesareprepared?
a.List8quantitiesinvolvedinthisproblem.
b.Sketchadiagramtoshowtherelevantsumsanddifferencesinthissituation.
c.Solvetheproblem.
Again,dependingonwhetheryouhaveusedtheearlier,similarproblem,manyofyour
studentswillusealgebraortrialanderroronthisproblem;wesuggest,fornow,
prohibitingalgebra.Youmightalsoconsideromittingpartc.Buttheproblemcanbe
solvedwiththeuseofadrawing,asseenbelow.
a.Numberofkindsofsandwiches,numberofkindsofpizza,numberofservingsofpizza
prepared,differenceinnumberofroastbeefsandwichespreparedvsnumberofservings
ofcheesepizza,differenceinnumberofpeanutbuttersandwichespreparedvsnumberof
servingsofvegetarianpizza,totalnumberofsandwichesprepared,numberofroastbeef
sandwichesprepared,numberofpeanutbuttersandwichesprepared,numberofservings
ofcheesepizza,numberofservingsofvegetarianpizza,differenceinnumberofroast
beefsandwichesandnumberofpeanutbuttersandwiches,totalnumberofservingsof
pizzaandsandwiches,
b.Thereareotherpossiblepraiseworthydrawingspossible,butthefollowingsuggests
thesolution(forthetotalnumberofpizzaservingsandsandwiches)prettyeasily.
c.Thenumberofsandwichesis(60+6)8=58.

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60
8

#CP

#VP
#RB

#PB

5. AlocalcommunitycollegehastwosectionsofMath210(SectionsAandB),andtwo
sectionsofMath211(SectionsCandD).Together,SectionsCandDhave46students.
SectionAhas6morestudentsthanSectionD.SectionBhas2fewerstudentsthan
SectionC.HowmanystudentsarethereinSectionAandSectionBalltogether?
a.Foreachgivenvaluewritethequantitynexttoit.
b.Sketchadiagramtoshowtherelevantsumsanddifferencesinthissituation.
c.Solvetheproblem.Showallyourworkhere.
a.46students,totalnumberofstudentsinCandD
6students,differenceinnumbersofstudentsinAandD
2students,differenceinnumbersofstudentsinBandC

b.(sampledrawing)

46
2

D
B

c. (462)+6=50studentsforSectionsAandBtogether

3.2WaysofThinkingAboutAdditionandSubtraction
1. Herearetwowordproblems.Howdotheydifferconceptually?
Silviahad14books,andthenreceived4morebooks.Howmanybooksdoesshehave
now?

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Silviahas14booksononeshelfand4booksonanother.Howmanybooksareonthe
twoshelves?
Inthefirst,thereisanactionimplied.Inthesecondthereisnot.Becauseitisharderto
actoutthesecondproblem,inmaybemoredifficultforsomeyoungchildren.
2. Afirstgradeteacheralwaysreadssubtractionstatementssuchas75=2tohisclass
asseventakeawayfiveistwo.Thatis,healwaysreadstheminussignastakeaway.
Commentonwhythismightnotbeagoodpractice.
Readingonlyastakeawayignoresthefactthatothersituationscomparisonand
missingaddendmightalsoinvolvesubtraction.
3. Writeamissingaddendproblemusing$35.95and$19.50.
Variouspossibilities.Eachshouldinvolveanadditionsituationdescribableby19.50+n
=35.95(orn+19.50=35.95).
4. Supposeyouareusingtoothpickstoactoutthefollowingstoryproblem:
Jackhad8candybars.Billhad4.
a.HowmanymorecandybarsdidJackhavethanBill?
b.Howmanytoothpickswouldyouneedtoacttheproblemout?Explainyouranswer.
Whattypeofsubtractionisthis?
a.4
b. 12, because there are the two separate amounts; this situation involves an additive
comparison.
5. Fora,b,andcbelow,state:
1)theoperationyouwouldusetoanswerthequestion,
2)thesituationinwhichtheproblemfits,and
3)anexpressionwhichyieldstheanswer,withtheanswercircled.
a.Susanhas$175.Shewantstogoonaskiingtripthatcosts$250.Howmuchmore
moneydoessheneed?
b.Johnis6ft1in.tallandSteveis5ft9in.tall.HowmuchtallerthanSteveisJohn?
c.Karenhasfourfishinheraquarium.Sheputsthreemorein.Howmanyfisharein
theaquariumnow?

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a. 1) subtraction
b.1)subtraction
c.1)addition

2) missing addend
2)comparison
2)join

3) 250 175 = 75 (75 circled)


3)6159=4(4circled)
3)4+3=7(7circled)

6.Ritaisgiventhisproblem:Zettahas$39,butsheneeds$78tobuyajacketshewants.
Howmuchmoredoessheneed?
Rita'sreply:"79minus40is39,sosheneeds$39."
ExplainRita'sreasoning.Whatisyourreactiontothismethodofdoingtheproblem?
Ritahasincreasedtheminuendandsubtrahendbythesameamount,sothedifference
staysthesame.(Thinkofacomparisonsubtractiondrawing,eventhoughthisisa
missingaddendsetting.)
7. FileneisaskedWhatis79minus32?"Sheresponded:8to40,30to70,and9more,so
theansweris47.
ExplainFilenesreasoning.Whatisyourreactiontothismethodofdoingtheproblem?
Fileneisusingwhatissometimescalledshopkeepermath"(seethenextproblem).She
countsupfrom32to40(8),40to70(30),then9moreto79,andaddsupthenumbers8,
30,and9.
8.Abillforschoolsupplieswas$87.35.Joshpaidwithtwo$50bills.Rikki,atthecash
register(onewhichdidnottellthechangetobegiventothebuyer),countedJoshs
change.40,50,$1,and$10makes$100.
HowmuchchangedidJoshreceive?Inwhatcurrency?Isthatwhatheshouldhave
received?
Joshreceivedanickel(to40cents),adime(to50cents)thenprobablytwoquartersto
make$1,thenatendollarbill,whichwouldaddupto$11.65.Thiswasnotcorrect;he
shouldhavereceived$12.65.Afterthecoins,Joshshouldhavebeengivenanotherdollar.
40,50,88,89,90,and100isprobablywhatthecashiersaid,distinguishingcoinsfrom
billsasshehandedthemout.
9. a.Makedrawingsofcircular"pizzas"toillustrate62,takeawayview.
Thedrawingshouldshow6circles,with2beingremovedbyarrowsorotherwisemarked
outinsomeway.
b.Achildisshown9applesand6oranges,andaskedHowmanymoreapplesthan
oranges?"Shesaysthatapplesandorangesaredifferentthings,andsoshedoesnt
understandthequestion.Whatmightyoudotohelpher?

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(Onepossibleway....)Lineuptheapplesthentheorangesbelow,andaskhowmany
applesdonthaveanorangepartner,thenaskwhethertherearemoreapplesthanoranges,
andhowmanymore.

10. Finishthestorysothatyourquestioncouldbeansweredbythegivencalculation,andso
thatyourstoryinvolvestheviewgiven.
a.62.5,missingaddend."Thetwojoggersdecidedtorunatthebeach...
b.62.5,comparison."Thetwojoggersdecidedtorunatthebeach...

a.Theyusuallyrun6miles.Howmuchfartherdotheyhavetorun,iftheyhavealready
run2.5miles?
b.Oneruns6milesandtheotherruns2.5miles.Howmuchfartherdoesthefirst jogger
runthanthesecondjoggerdoes?

11. Ineachofthefollowing,whichwayofthinkingaboutsubtractionisinvolved?
a.Thisstoryproblem:"Basketballscore:Aztecs82,Opponents69.Byhowmany
pointsdidtheAztecswin?"
b.Thefollowingthinking/drawingstrategy(sometimesusedwithchildrenhavingtrouble
withtheirbasicsubtractionfacts):
For157,think
ofgoing"upthe
hill,"goingto10
alongtheway

a.comparison

+5
+3

15

10

(add3togetto10,then5moretogetto
15)So,157=8
________________________

b.missingaddend

12. Giveourlabel(e.g.,takeaway,etc.)forthesituationineachstoryproblem,andwritethe
equationyouwouldwritefortheproblem.Hint:Howwouldyouactitout?
a.UniversityXwantstoenroll5000newfreshmen.Itcurrentlyhasenrolled4275new
freshmen.HowmanymorefreshmendoesUniversityXneedtoenroll?
b.Thisyear'sbudgetis$1.6million.Lastyear'sbudgetwas$1.135million.Howmuch
largeristhisyear'sbudgetthanlastyear's?
a.missingaddend.4275+n=5000(or50004275=n)
b.comparison.1.6M1.135M=n
13. a.Finishthisstoryproblemsothatitinvolvesacomparisonsubtractionthatcouldbe
solvedby5 3 12 .
Youmade5gallonsoflemonadeforaschoolparty...
b.Forthesameproblem,finishtheproblemtosothatitinvolvesatakeawaysubtraction.

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c..Forthesameproblem,finishtheproblemtosothatitinvolvesamissingaddend
subtraction.
Samplesa......and 3 12 gallonsofKoolAid.HowmuchmorelemonadethanKoolAid
didyoumake?
b.Attheparty,thepeopledrank 3 12 gallonsofthelemonade.Howmuchofthelemonade
wasleftaftertheparty?
c. 3 12 gallonsweremadefromfrozenlemonadeandtherestfromfreshlemons.How
muchofthelemonadewasmadefromfreshlemons?
14. a.Finishthisstoryproblemsothatitinvolvesacomparisonsubtractionthatcouldbe
solvedby2612.
Laresahad$26whenshewentintothestore....
b.Forthesameproblem,finishtheproblemtosothatitinvolvesatakeawaysubtraction.
c.Forthesameproblem,finishtheproblemtosothatitinvolvesamissingaddend
subtraction.
Samples
a......andherfriendTishahad$12.HowmuchmoredidLaresahavethanTisha?
b.Sheboughtawalletfor$12.Howmuchdidshehaveleft.
c.Shehad$12andthenreceivedcashforbabysitting.Howmuchdidsheearnbaby
sitting?
15. Givetherestofthe"familyoffacts"fork3=p.
Anyorder:

3+p=k

p+3=k

kp=3

3.3ChildrensWaysofAddingandSubtracting
1. Followingisonlythestartofachild'swork(inbaseten).Whatseemslackinginthis
child'sunderstanding?

402
506

39

149
3

Thechildseemstobeunawareofwhatsubtractionmeans,andisjustworkingwiththe
subtractionofthedigitsinthecolumnwithoutregardtotheorder.Shedoesnothave
placevalueunderstanding.

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2. Performthefollowingusingthe"equaladditions"method,asusedbyonestudentinthe
samplesinyourtextbook.

432
287
41312
3 2 98 7
145
OR:Addingatentothe2tomake12,andatentothe80tomake90,thententenstothe
30tomake13tens,and1hundredtothe200tomake300,allowsallthesubtractions(12
7,139,43),giving145.

3. Theworkoftwostudentsisshownbelow.Eachstudent"invented"themethodused,that
is,itwasnottaughttothestudent.Foreachstudentfigureoutwhatthestudentwas
thinkingwhiledoingtheproblem.Then(i)workthesecondproblemusingthesame
methodasthestudent,and(ii)commentonthestudent'smethodintermsofthe"number
sense"exhibited.

a.

732
245
513

(i)8341
4567

(ii)

b. 19x35.Well,20x35islike10x35twotimes,sothat's350twotimes,which
is700.Butthat's2035sandIonlywant19ofthem.So700minus30is670
minus5is665.
(i)21x43
(ii)
a. (i)4226
(ii)Thisstudentiscalculatinglargersmallerineachplacevalue,
ignoringwhatisbeingsubtractedfromwhat.Thestudentisshowingno
number
sense,orawarenessofwhatsubtractionmeans.
b. (i)903:2043=860:860+43.860+40=900.900+3=903.(ii)This
studentisshowingexcellentnumbersense(andoperationsense,inthat
he/she
knowsthat21 fortythreescanbeobtainedbyadding20forty
threesandanother
43),inworkingwithplacevaluesindependently,
andinafashionthatshows
awarenessofeasynumbers.
4 Isthischild'sthinkingallright?Ifitis,completethesecondcalculationusingthechild's
method.Ifthethinkingisnotallright,explainwhynot.

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(given)(childdoes)
secondcalculation(orexplanationifnotok)
675
677
453
198
200
295
477
Okay.Secondcalculation(incolumns):458300=158
5. Avisitortoafirstgradeclassroomsawateacheraskachildtosolvethisproblem:Jaime
gets$5aweekforkeepingtheyardingoodshape.Heissavinghismoneyforthe
countryfair.After4weeks,howmuchhashesaved?
Shethinkstoherself:Thisisamultiplicationproblem,andfirstgradershavenotyetbeen
taughtmultiplication,sotheycantanswerthisproblem..ButafterafewminutesLiLi
saythattheansweris20.Sheexplainshowshedidthisproblemandshedidnotdoany
formalmultiplication,muchtothevisitorssurprise.Whatdidshemostlikelydotofind
theanswer?
Sheprobablyusedrepeatedaddition:5and5is10,and5moreis15,and5moreis20.
Thisvisitoralsosawanotherproblemthechildrenworked:8milesofhighwayarebeing
paved.Iftheworkerspave2milesaday,howlongwillittakethemtopaveall8miles?"
Shethought:Thisisadivisionproblemandfirstgradershavenotyetlearnedtodivide.
ButthenBelindasaidthatitwouldtake4days.Howdoyousupposesheexplainedthis
answer,withoutusingdivision?
Sheprobablysubtracted2from8fourtimes,untilshereached0,thencountedthe
numberoftimesshesubtracted24times.
6.

Felishawasaskedtofind413248.Hereishowshedidthisproblem:
413
248
5
30
200
165
Isheranswercorrect?Explainwhatshewasdoing.Find94563789usingthismethod.

Yes,heransweriscorrect.Shewasfindingpartialaddends,usingnegativenumbers,then
addingthepartialaddends.
9456
3789
3
30
300
6000

5667
ReasoningAboutNumbersandQuantitiesTestBankItemswithAnswers
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7.

Asecondgradeboyisaskedtosubtract6455,writtenvertically.Thechildthinks
abouttheproblemandthenwrites9.Heexplainshisthinkingbysaying,"6takeaway5
is1,Imean,60takeaway50is10.5takeaway4is1and10takeaway1is9.Ishe
correct?Usehisthinkingtofind243124.
Heiscorrect.200100is100.4020is20.43is1.1201is119.

8.

Zenaidaisaskedtoadd428and686,inverticalform.ShebeginsbysayingSix
thousandplusfourthousand...Theinterviewersthenaskedherwhatcolumnthesixand
fourarein,andsheidentifiesitasthehundredscolumn.Shebeginsagainbysaying4
hundredplus6hundredistenhundredandwritesbelowtheline:110.Shethensayswe
havetodotens.20plus80equals100andplacesthatunderthe110.Shethenadds8and
6andwrites14andwritesthatbelowthe100.Adding,shesaysitis224.
WheredoesZenaidagowrong?Discussherplacevalueunderstanding.
Zenaidaisontherighttrackandappearstohavesomeknowledgeofplacevalue,butitis
notstrongenoughtocarryherthroughthisproblem.Sheaddsfromlefttoright,
indicatingthateithershedoesknowthestandardalgorithm,orjustprefersthismethod.
Hermajorerrorwastowritetenhundredas110,probablythinkingtenandahundredis
10hundred.

9. HereisBen'swork:
2

3
1

40 17
108
209

30 2

9
203

IsBensmethodcorrect?MakeupanothersubtractionproblemthatwouldleadBento
applyhissamemethod.ThenfinishthecalculationasBenwould.ShowtheworkBen
woulddo.

Various.Thestoryproblemshouldinvolvea0inthemiddleofwhatwillbethe
minuend.Benwillincorrectlyrenameorborrowfromthehundredsplacedirectlyto
theonesplace.
10. Find21+49usinganemptynumberline.Answerbelowforoneway.
+40
+4 +5

21616570
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11.Find509239usinganemptynumberline.Answerbelowforoneway.
200
30
5

270300500505509

12. Astudentwrotethefollowinganswertoherproblem9534:

9534=
9535=60
601=59
Sotheansweris59

Analyzethisstudentsthinking.
Thestudentnoticedthat35iscompatiblewith95,butaftersubtracting35theanswer
wouldhavetobeadjusted.Unfortunately,shedoesnotrealizethatinsubtracting35,she
hasalreadysubtracted1toomuch,andthat1shouldbeaddedto60,notsubtractedfrom
it.

3.4WaysofThinkingAboutMultiplication
1.a.Makesketchesfor3 6and6 3andcontrastthem.
b.Makesketchesof 12 6and6 12
a. The3 6drawingshouldshow3groupsof6things,suchas3sixpacksofasoft
drink,or3setsof6objectsofsomekind.The6 3sketchshouldclearlyshow6setsof
3things,ora3 6arraythatturnedonitssideis6 3.
b.The 12 6shouldclearlyshow6objects,with 12 ofthemdesignatedeitherasthree
objectsorashalfofeachofthesixobjects,suchas6circlesofwhich3areshaded.The6
12 shouldshow6objectsthatarehalved,suchas6semicircles.
2. Adesignerofwomensmixandmatchclothingdesigns3stylesofskirts,2pairsof
pants,3typesoftops,and4stylesofjackets.Howmanydifferentoutfitscouldbe

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purchased,ifeachoutfithasaskirtORpants,atop,andajacket?(Assumethatawoman
willnotwearaskirtandapairofpantsatthesametime.)
(3+2)34=60,orpossibly(334)+(234)=36+24=60.
3. Aclothesdesignerdesignswomen's"mixandmatch"wardrobewith2stylesofskirts,1
pairofpants,3typesoftops,and2stylesofjackets.Howmanydifferentoutfitscould
bepurchased,ifeachoutfithasaskirtorpants,atop,andajacket?
(2+1)32=18
4. Mitchelldecidestogethiscarpaintedandtobuynewhubcaps.Heselects5colorshe
likesand3stylesofhubcaps.Thenhedecidestopainttheroofadifferentcolorthanthe
body.Hedecidestolethiswifemakethefinaldecision.Howmanychoicesdoesshe
have?Explainyouranswer.
(54)3=60,assumingcolorcompatibility.
5. Makeupastoryproblemaboutabakesale,sothattheproblemcouldbesolved
a.by 43 (Noticetheorder.)
b.by 12 .
a.Variouspossibilities.Eachshouldinvolve3/4ofsomequantitywith12asits
numericalvalue.Example:Therewere12chocolatecakes,and3/4ofthemweresold
by10:00.Howmanychocolatecakesweresoldby10:00?
b.Variouspossibilities,buteachshouldinvolve12amounts,eachwithnumericalvalue
3/4.Example:Theyhad12cakes,andby10:00theyhadsold3/4ofeachcake.How
muchcakehadtheysoldby10:00?
6. Makedrawingsofcircular"pizzas"toillustrateeachofthefollowing.
a.34,arrayb. 13 6,fractionalpartofanamount
a.Threerows,orsets,eachwith4pizzas.(NOT4setsof3each)
b.Sixpizzas,withsetsoftwodelineatedandoneofthosesetsindicated,ORwith1/3of
eachpizzaindicated.(Contrastcontinuouspizzaswithdiscretechildren,say.)
7. Giveourlabel(e.g.,takeaway,etc.)forthesituation,andwritetheequationforsolving
thisproblem.
"Acoffeeshophas4kindsofpastriesthatyoulike.Youalwaysdrinkcoffee,tea,or
milkwithyourpastry.Inhowmanywayscouldyouplaceapastryplusdrinkorder?"
Fundamentalcountingprinciple.43=n

8. Makeupastoryproblemthatcouldbesolvedby16 12 .(Chooseyourowncontext.)
Beattentivetotheorderofthefactors.

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Various.Lookforsituationsinvolving16halves,nothalfof16.

9. Finisheachstorysothatyourquestioncouldbeansweredbythegivencalculation,and
sothatyourstoryinvolvestheviewgiven.Bealerttotheorderofthefactors.
a.64,repeatedaddition."Youarelookinginaphotoalbum...
b.48,fundamentalcountingprinciple.Theicecreamshopoffersforfreeoneofnuts,
sprinkles,orchocolatesauce(youdon'thavetotakeone,ofcourse)witheachcupofice
cream...
c.6 12 ,repeatedaddition."Youworkinacandyshop...
Samples:a.andnoticethat4picturesfitonapage.Howmanypictureswouldbeon6
pages?
b.Youhave8favoritekindsoficecream.Inhowmanywayscouldyouorderacupof
icecream?
c.Onecustomerboughthalfpoundboxesforgiftsfor6colleagues.Howmanypounds
didthecustomerget?
10.Theproductofanumbernbyanyothernumbermdifferentfrom0isalwaysgreaterthan
n.
True

False

False.Ifmisa(positive)fractionlessthan1(andnisapositivenumberwedont
usuallytakeoffifthisisomittedbecauseatthisstageonlynonnegativenumbershave
beenthefocus),theproductmnwillbelessthann.1/2x6is3and3<6.

3.5WaysofThinkingAboutDivision
1. a.Thisisatypicalproblemfromanelementarytextbook:
Jasmineworksinabookstore.TodaythreeboxesofHarryPotterbooksarrived.There
are144booksineachbox.Jasmineistoldtostackthebooksinpilesinanareaofthe
bookstore.Sheistoldtoputthebooksinto16piles.Howmanypilescanshemake?
Whatinterpretationofdivisionisrepresentedinthisproblem?
b.WhatifthequestionchangestoSheistoldtoput27booksineachpile?What
interpretationofdivisionisnowrepresented?
a.Thereare432books.Shecoulddothisproblembyputtingonebookdown16times,
thenasecondbookontop16times,etc.Thisisthepartitiveorequalsharing
interpretationofdivision.

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b.ThistimeJasminewouldput27booksinapile,then27inanotherpile,etc.Sheis
takingaway27booksatatime,andshecandothis16times.Thisisthequotitiveor
measurementorrepeatedsubtractioninterpretationofdivision.
(Admittedly,ifJasmineisworkinginabookstore,sheprobablyknowsenoughtosimply
divided432by27orby16.Buttodothat,shemusthavesomeideasaboutdivisionthat
shelearnedinschool,doingproblemsofbothtypes.)
2.

Makeupastoryprobleminvolvingquantitiesoficecreaminanicecreamstore,sothat
theproblemcouldbesolvedbythecalculationsgiven:
a.Canbesolvedby 2 .
b.Canbesolvedby 16 .
c.Canbesolvedby 43 .
Samples:a.Howmany1/8quartservingscanyougetfrom2quarts?
b.Thestoreputs1/8quartoneachcone.Howmanypintswouldtheyusefor16cones?
c.Thestorestocks24differentkindsoficecream.Threefourthsofthemarechanged
everymonth.Howmanykindsarechangedeverymonth?

3.

Ifaisanynumberotherthan0,then1aislessthan1.True False
False.Ifaisa(positive)fractionlessthan1,then1aisgreaterthan1

4. Underarepeatedsubtractioninterpretation, 43 means
_______________________________________________
Thequotientis____________.Verifyandexplainyouranswerwithasketch.
howmany1 12 sarein,ormake, 43 ?Theansweris 12 .Thesketchshouldshowthe
answer, 12 ofone1 12 ,isin 43 .

5. a.Decidewhichtypeofdivisionthefollowingwordproblemisdepictingandexplain
yourreasoning.

Mr.Burke'sclassof24fourthgradersisdoingaprojectonkeepingtheenvironment
clean.Thereare6differenttopicsthestudentsneedtoexplore,andMr.Burkewantsthe
samenumberofstudentstoexploreeachtopic.Howmanystudentswillbeineach
groupwhereeachgroupexploresadifferenttopic?
b.Writeanotherwordproblemthatillustratestheothertypeofdivisionusingthesame
contextastheproblemabove.

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a.Sharingequally,orpartitive,division.The24studentsaretobeputinto6equalsized
groups.
b.(Repeatedsubtraction,ormeasurement,division)The24studentsaretobeputinto
teamsof6toworkonprojectsaboutkeepingtheenvironmentclean.Howmany
projectswillMr.Burkehavetograde?
6.

Writeawordproblemfor375forwhichtheanswerwouldbe2.
Sample:Thirtysevenchildrenwanttoplayagamethatinvolvesteamsof5players.
Howmanychildrenwontbeonateam(butmaygettobesubstitutes)?

7. Considerthisproblemsituation,whichwouldinvolvedividingby3:
"Youareputtingreadingbookson3shelvesinyourclassroom.Sothebookslookneat,
youputthesamenumberoneachshelf.Howmanybookswillbeoneachshelf?"
Writeanotherproblemsituationaboutthereadingbooks,sothatyourprobleminvolves
anotherwayofthinkingaboutdivisionby3.
Sample:Thereadingbooksareprettybig,soyourassistantscancarryonly3atatime
fromthestoragecloset.Howmanytripstothestorageclosetwillyourassistantsneed?
8. Writetwowordproblemsaboutcars,sothatthefirstproblemshowstherepeated
subtractionmeaningofdivision,whilethesecondproblemshowsthepartitiveorsharing
meaningofdivision.
Samples:(Repeatedsubtraction,ormeasurement)Thebigbaghas48plasticcars,tobe
putintobagsholding6carseach.Howmanybagsofcarswilltherebe?(Partitive,or
sharing)Thebigbaghas48plasticcars,tobesplitfairlyamong6youngsters.How
manycarswilleachyoungsterget?
9. Writeawordproblemfor375forwhichtheanswerwouldbe7.
Sample:Thirtysevenchildrenwanttoplayagamethatinvolvesteamsof5players.
Howmanyteamscanbeformed?
10. Circleeachwhichisundefined:06,60,00,andexplainwhyany
undefinedone(s)isundefined.Ifthesymbolisdefined,tellwhatitequals.
Undefined:60and00.Explanationsshouldreflectyouremphasisinclass,most
likelythroughexaminationofarelatedmultiplicationcheck.06=0.
11. Finishthefollowingstorytomakestoryproblemsthatcouldbesolvedbytheindicated
calculation.
"Thefarmerhasa 3 12 acreorchardoforangetrees....

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a. 23
b. 3 12
c. 3 12
Samples:a.Sheandherworkershaveharvested2/3oftheorchard.Howmanyacres
havetheyharvested?
b.Ifshewantstoreplaceallthetreesovera5yearperiod,howmanyacresshouldshe
plantoreplaceeachyear?
c.Onesprayerfuloffertilizercancover0.8acre.Howmanysprayerfulswillsheneed
tocoverthewholeorchard?
12. Makedrawingsofcircular"pizzas"toillustrate 4 12 3,sharingequally.
Thereshouldbe41/2pizzasshown,withmarkstoshowhoweachofthreeequalshares
gets11/2pizza.Justshowing41/2pizzasandthen11/2pizzaisnotagoodanswer.

3.6ChildrenFindProductsandQuotients
1. Isthischild'sthinkingallright?Ifitis,completethesecondcalculationusingthechild's
method.Ifthethinkingisnotallright,explainwhynot.
(child'swork)
secondcalculation(orexplanationifnotok)
124
132
15

14
1000
200
40
500
100
20
1860
a.Okay.Secondcalculation(incolumns):1000+300+20+400+120+8,
sum=1848.
2.Fieshafinds32 54asfollow:
54

32
1500
120
100
_8
1728
a)WhichistrueofFieshasmathematicalsteps?

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__Fieshasstepsare
mathematicallycorrect.

__Fieshasstepsare
mathematically
flawed.

__IcannottellifFieshasstepsare
mathematicallycorrector
flawed.

b)Understandingofmultiplication
__Fieshadoesn'tappearto
understandmultiplication.

__Fieshamayormaynot
understand
multiplication.

__Fieshashowsgoodunderstanding
ofmultiplication.

c)IfFieshasstepsaremathematicallycorrect,useherwayofthinkingtosolve2453.
Iftheyarenot,explainhowFieshasreasoningisflawed.
Fiesha:a)Reasoningokay
b)Showsgoodunderstandingofmultiplication.
c)Probably(incolumns)1000+60+200+12insomeorder;sum=1272
3.Amyfinds32 54asfollows:
54is4morethan50,sofind3250andadd4backtoget1728.
a)WhichistrueofAmysmathematicalsteps?

__Amysstepsare
mathematicallycorrect.

__Amysstepsare
mathematically
flawed.

__IcannottellifAmysstepsare
mathematicallycorrector
flawed.

b)DoesAmyshowunderstandingofmultiplication?
__Amydoesn'tappearto
understandmultiplication.

__Amymayormaynot
understand
multiplication.

__Amyshowsgoodunderstanding
ofmultiplication.

c)IfAmysstepsaremathematicallycorrect,useherwayofthinkingtosolve2453.If
theyarenot,explainhowAmysreasoningisflawed.
Amy:a)Reasoningprobablyokay,althoughthephrasingisnotperfect(shouldbeadd
four32sback).
b)Showsgoodunderstandingofmultiplication.
c)Probably2053,plus453.

4. Antonioasks,WhenImultiply[forexample,4923,shown
totheright],whydoIhavetoputinthe0[pointstothezeroin
980]?

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49
23
147
980
page39

WhatwouldyousaytoAntonio?

1127

The980comesfrom2049,soitisanumberoftens.
5. Followingisanexampleofachild'swork.Youaretostudytheworkandthentojudge
thestudentsunderstanding.
Hirowasaskedtodivide4240by6.Hisworkisshownbelow.
Hiro'swork:

7
6 R4
6 4240
42
040
36
4

a)IsHiro'sworkcorrectorincorrect?Correct__Incorrect__
b)Iftheworkisincorrect,pleaseexplainhow.
a)Hirosworkisincorrect.b)Inconsideringthe04(thenumberoftensleft),Hiro
forgottonoteinthequotientspacethatthereare0tensfor406.

6.

Considerthefollowingworkofastudent:
84
A.Thereisanerrorwiththe20
x45
B.Thereisanerrorwiththe400
20
C.Thereisanerrorwiththe160
400
D.Thereisanerrorwiththe320
160
E.Thereisnoerrorwiththisstudentswork

320
900
7.

Useanonstandardalgorithmtocalculate128x67.
Variousmethods,giving8576astheproduct.Weusuallygetthelongversion(sixpartial
products).

3.7IssuesforLearning:DevelopingNumberSense
1.

Ineachpair,choosethelarger.Explainyourreasoning.Yourjustificationshouldappeal
tonumberandoperationsense,nottocomputation.

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a. 1838 + 517

or

1836 + 514

b. 612 29

or

613 34

c.0.578

or

0.002+0.0328

a.1838+517becauseeachaddendislargerthanthecorrespondingonein1836+514
b.61334because61229isthesameas61330,OR613isonly1morethan612,
butsubtracting34ratherthan29morethanovercomesthat.
c. 0.578becausethesumoftheaddendsinthesecondsumwillnotreach0.5.
2.Iamanumberwith21tens,14ones,and11tenths.WhatnumberamI?
225.1
3.Tellwhythefollowingareincorrect:
a. 310
225
980
375
1895

b.28070=40
c.4800.4=120

a. Theones'columnaddsto10,notsomethingendingin5.
b. Thereareonly4seventiesin280.
c. Thereare480onesin480,sotherewillbefarmore0.4sthanthatin480.

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Chapter4SomeConventionalWaysofComputing
4.1OperatingonWholeNumbersandDecimalNumbers
1.

Show333523withascaffoldingalgorithm,thenbythestandardalgorithmandshow
howeachnumberinthestandardalgorithmisassociatedwithnumberinthescaffolding
algorithm.

145
23 3335
23 3335

2300
100
23
1035103
460 20
92

575
115
460
20
115
115
0
69
3
46
2
46
___
0
145
Inthesecondalgorithm,the23actuallyis2300,yielding100inthequotient.The103
isactually1030,fromwhich920(thatis23x40,which460twice,makingthefirst
divisioneasier)issubtracted,leaving115inbothalgorithms.Inthefirstalgorithm,115
23isdoneintwosteps,andinonestepinthesecondalgorithm,bothtimesyielding5.The
firstscaffoldingalgorithmcouldbedoneinmultiplewaysyieldingthesameresult.
2. Usethescaffoldingmethodtocompute588317.
Somethingalongthelinesofthefollowing,whichunnecessarilygivesthebestguesses
foreachplacevalue(oneofthetalkingpointsforthescaffoldingalgorithm):
17 5883 |
5100 | 300
783|
680|40
103|
102|6
1346
3. Show,using32428,howtoworkfromthescaffoldingalgorithmtothestandard
algorithm.

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Similarto1.Studentsworkshouldshowanawarenessofthescaffoldingalgorithm
formattoanabbreviatedformtotheusualUSform.
4. Do32467usingthemethodofwritingallpartialproducts.Whatdoesthisalgorithm
havetoofferthatthestandardalgorithmdoesnot?
Insomeorder,12000+1800+210+800+120+14(=14944).Thisalgorithmshould
makesensesinceittakesintoaccounttheplacevalueofeachdigit.
5.Useanonstandardalgorithmtofind240five+314five,butshowingallpartialsums.
Thisworkisalldoneinbasefive
240
+314
4
100
1000
1104
6.

Nametwopositiveandtwonegativeaspectsoflearningnonstandardalgorithms.
Samples:PositivesPracticereasoningabouttheoperationsandplacevalues;ifstudent
generated,theycanmakesensetothem;encouragesamakesenseviewof
mathematics;canbemoreefficientinselectedcalculations.NegativesTimeawayfrom
conventionalalgorithms,whichalwayswork;studentswhoattempttojustmemorizethe
techniqueswithoutunderstandingthemwilllikelygarblethem.

7.

Makeadrawingofbasetenmaterialsthatshowstheinitialsetupfor3130.2.Make
clearwhat=1.Donottaketimetodrawallthelaterstepsofthecalculationwiththe
basetenmaterials.
Withthelong=1,thedrawingshouldshowfirstthreegroups(rowsarenice),with1
largecube,3flats,and2smallcubesineachgroup.

8.

Drawhowonewouldactout20062(takeawayview)tosupporttheusualrightleft
algorithm,withbasetenmaterials.Makeaseparatedrawingforeachstep(addstepsif
youneedthem).

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Initially

second

third

fourth

(etc.asneeded)

Initially,2flats.Second,tradeaflatfor10longs.Third,tradealongfor10smallcubes,
giving1flat,9longs,and10smallcubes.Fourth,takeaway(xout,say)2smallcubes
andthen6longs,leaving1flat,3longs,and8smallcubes.
9.

Drawhowonewouldactout20062(comparisonview)tosupporttheusualrightleft
algorithm,withbasetenmaterials.Makeaseparatedrawingforeachstep(addstepsif
youneedthem).
Initially,2flats,andinarowbelow6longsand2smallcubes.Inthetoprowtrade1flat
for10longs,andthenoneofthelongsfor10smallcubes,giving1flat,9longs,and10
smallcubesabovethe6longsand2smallcubes.Comparingthetworows,startingwith
thesmallcubes,showsthat(fortheconventionalrightleftalgorithm)thetoprowhas8
moresmallcubes,3morelongs,and1moreflat.

10. Youdecidetointroduceyourfourthgraderstothelongdivisionalgorithmwithonedigit
divisors,usingbasetenmaterialsand963.Youalsowanttouseastoryproblemthat
theywouldfindinterestingasthebasisfortheirwork.
a.Fromthepracticalstandpointofactingoutthecalculation,whichwayofthinking
aboutdivisionrepeatedsubtractionorsharingequallyshouldyouuseinyourstory
problemfor963?
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b.Writesuchastoryproblem(involving963).
c.Showhowyouwouldactoutyourstoryproblem,withdrawingsofthebaseten
materials.
d.Writeasecondstoryproblemfor963,involvingadifferentwayofthinkingabout
divisionfromthewayofthinkinginyourstoryprobleminpartb.
e.Answeradifyouweretouse960320insteadof963.
a.Sharingequallyismorepracticalfor963,sinceactingoutthatcalculationwith
repeatedsubtractionof3swouldbeunwieldy.
b.Various.The96shouldbeputinto3(equalsized)amountsorgroups.
c.With9longsand6smallcubes,dealthemouttothreelocationsequally.You
wouldstartwiththelongstoillustratetheusualalgorithm.
d.Various.Thistimethesituationshouldcallforhowmanygroupsofsize3arein,or
make,agroupof96.Noticethattheunitsforthe3andthe96shouldbethesame.
e.For960320,repeatedsubtractionismuchmorepractical,etc.
11.Astudentplacesmultibaseblocksonthetableasfollows:
then

Writewhichcalculationthatthestudentmightbedoing,withanexplanation:
A.226+49
B. 226+49
C.226124
D.226118
Wefirstsee226.Toadd49,the12oneswouldfirstbeplacedtogetherandreplacedby
onelongand2ones.Thatisnotdonehere.Tosubtract49,thefirststepwouldbetobreak
alonginto10ones,butthatisnotdonehere.Tosubtract124,Icanremove4ones,butI
needtochangeoneflatto10longsbeforeIcansubtracttens.Thisisdonehere.To
subtract118,thefirststepwouldbetochangeonelongto10ones.Thatisnotdonehere.
Thus,Ciscorrect.
12. Whatwouldthenextlinebe,inaRussianpeasantcalculationof23624?
Youdonothavetodothecompletealgorithm.
23624
111248

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13. TheRussianpeasantmethodformultiplyingusestwobasicprocesses:
doublingand_______________________.

halving.

14. Belowisaworkedoutcalculationof31342,usingthelatticemethodfor
multiplication.Explainwhythemethoddoesgivethecorrectnumberinthetensplace
(thecircled4).(Note:Somecurrenttextbooksusethisalgorithmtoteachmultiplication
ofwholenumbers.)
3 1 3 x

1 12 04 1 2 4
3 06 0 2 0 6 2
1 4 6

Thecircle4comesfromthediagonal2+0+2.Thetop2comesfrom34(0)=12(0),so
that2isdescribinganumberoftensintheproduct.The0comesfrom32=06,and
4
showsthatthatpartialproductdoesnotcontributeawholenumberoftenstotheproduct.
Thebottom2comesfrom1(0)2=2(0),showingthatitiscountingthenumberoftens
fromthatpartialproduct.
15.Writeawordproblemthatwouldrequiresolving5404.
Example:Agrandmotherhad4grandchildren.Shehad$540togiveasChristmasgiftsto
thechildren,whoallreceivedthesameamount.Howmuchdideachgrandchildreceive?
16.Considerthisarithmeticproblem: 4 25
a.Writeastoryproblemwheretheanswerwouldbe6.
Possible:Jakewasbuyingschoolsuppliesforhisfourchildren.Heboughtapackof
25pens.Ifeachchildreceivedthesamenumberofpens,howmanycouldeachchild
receive?
b.Writeastoryproblemwheretheanswerwouldbe7.
Possible:Twentyfivechildrenwheregoingonafieldtrip.Parentsescortingthe
childrenallowednomorethanfourchildrenineachcar.Howmanycarswereneeded?
c.Writeastoryproblemwheretheanswerwouldbe1.
Possible:Jakewasbuyingschoolsuppliesforhisfourchildren.Heboughtapackof
25pens.Afterdividingthemevenlyamonghischildren,witheachchildgettingthe
maximumamountpossible,howmanypensdidhehaveleftforhimself?
d.Writeastoryproblemwheretheanswerwouldbe6 14

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Possible:Carolynhad25yardsoffabrictomake4identicalcostumesforaplay.How
muchfabricdidsheallocateforeachcostume?

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Chapter5UsingNumbersinSensibleWays
5.1MentalComputation
1. Describe3differentwaysthatyoucouldMENTALLYcalculate1625.
Somepossibleways:4455=4545 =2020=400
(1025)+(625)=250+150=400
(1620)+(165)=320+80=400
16 100
4 =4100(afterdividing16by4)=400
2. Foreachofthefollowing,MENTALLYcalculatetheEXACTANSWERandwriteitin
theblank.UseEXCELLENTNUMBERSENSE.Thenwriteenoughtomakeclear
howyouthought.
a.

3618+24722618472=________Thinking:

b.

(2529)+(2511)=________Thinking:

a.3000Thinking:36182618=1000.1000+2472=3472.3472472=3000
b.1000Thinking:Given=25(29+11)=2540=25410=10010.
3. Givetheexactanswermentally:73.8+511.37+2473.8.Writehowyouthought.
535.37,takingadvantageofthesubtractionof73.8andtheaddend73.8,thenworking
withthe11+24.
4. DescribehowyouwouldMENTALLYcomputetheEXACTresultineachofthe
followingwithoutusingthestandardalgorithm:YOURDESCRIPTIONSHOULDBE
CONCISEANDINCLUDETHEEXACTRESULT.
A.

234119

Description:

B.

12%of150

Description:

Description:

Samples:
A.115Changeto235120,thenworklefttoright.
B.182%of150is3,and12%of150is6timesasmuchasthat.
C.10 25 willgivethesamenumber,and 15 of25 is5.
C.

25

5. Showhowyouwouldmentallycomputetheexactresults:
A.

30002575

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B.

0.75x24

C.

2413+247

Samples:A.425

B.18
C.480

Oneway:2575+25=2600,plus400togetto3000.
Secondway:Add25toeachtochangeto30252600.
3/4of24.1/4of24is6.36=18
Given=24(13+7)=2420.

IFYOURSTUDENTSDONOTKNOWORDEROFOPERATIONS,REFERTHEM
TOTHEAPPENDIXWITHAREVIEWOFPROCEDURES.
6.

Showhowyouwouldmentallycompute:
A.0.7524
B.3412+348
C.34581734400+1734
A.18,from3/4of24
B.680,from34(12+8)
C.3058,from3458400(theothertermsgive0)

7.

Givetheexactanswerbymentalcalculation.Thenwritedownyourthinking.Youare
askedforasecondwayofthinkinginpartsBandC.
a.479.38+18.9+2.4479.38=____________Thinking:
b.12125=________Onewayofthinking:Asecondwayofthinking:
c.1714897=________Onewayofthinking:Asecondwayofthinking:
d.20%of45=____________Thinking:
e.24750=___________Thinking:

a.21.3Thinking:Thefirstandlastgive0,soitisonlyamatteroffinding18.9+
2.4,which=20+13tenths,or20plus1and3tenths.
b.1500Oneway:34125=3(4125).Asecondway:34255=
3(425)5.Studentsoftenoffer10125=1250plus2125=250,so
thatswhyweaskfortwowayshere.

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c.817 Oneway: Changeto1717900byadding3toeach. Secondway


(missingaddend):897+3=900.Plus814more(perhapsinsteps).817.
d.9Thinking:1/5of45.
e. 18000Thinking:24750=247510.2475=6475=6300=
1800.
180010=18,000.Ofcourse,therearemanyotherways,suchas
24(1000250)=24,00024 x 250 but 24 x 250 = 6 x 4 x 250 = 6 x 1000 =
6000. Finally, 24,000 6000 is 18,000.
8.

Apersoncanreasonablycalculatetheexactanswerto1563198mentallyby...
A.countingonhis/herfingers
B.calculating1565200
C.calculating15652002
D.calculating1600200
E.Thiscalculationisimpossibletodomentally.

9. A person who is calculating the exact answer to 18 15 mentally starts by calculating 2


15. The person would finish the mental calculation by calculating...
A.930
D.604.5

B.2710
C.367.5
E.NoneofADworks.

10.Foreach,describetwodifferentstrategiesforperformingthefollowingcomputation
mentally.
a.

29+58

b.7428

c.8 15

Somepossibleanswers:
a.30+57=87;20+50is70,plus9is79,plus1is80,plus7is87
b.7630=46;7424is50,4moreis46
c.4 30=120;8 10+8 5is80+40is120;8 5=40,40 3=120

11.Determinethefollowingmentally,writingenoughtomakeyourmentalworkclear.
a.40%of80

b.15%of300

c.20%of14

d.100%of71

e.5%of60

f.120%of20

g.15is25%of?

h.14is50%of?

a.32

b.45 c.2.8

d.71

e.3 f.24 g.60

h.28

12.Tellhowonemightmentallycomputethefollowing:
a.25x104
b.25%of104

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c.200%of104
d.200%largerthan12
e.200%aslargeas12
Eachcanbedoneinavarietyofways.Herearesomepossiblilities:
a.25x 100+25x4is2500+100is2600or
1

100
4

x 104=100x26=2600

b. 4 of104is 4 of100+ 4 of4is25+1is26.


c.Twice104is208.
d.100%largerthan12is24,so200%largerthan12wouldbe36.
e.Twiceaslargeas12,so24.

5.2ComputationalEstimation
NOTE:Onlyafewwaysareshowntoestimateacalculation.Otherwaysmayalso
becorrect.Calculatorsshouldnotbeallowedforitemsinvolvingestimationor
mentalcomputation.
1.

Showhowyouwouldestimate:
a.
b.
c.
d.

391612
0.74798
32%of19
196%of25

Possibleanswers:
a.Round391to400and612to600;400600=240,000
b.Around3/4of800,whichis600
c.6isagoodestimatebecauseathirdof18is6.
d.Justunder50,because225.(Also,sinceitis4%of25,or1,lessthanthat,theexact
answer,49,isfairlyeasy.)
2

Usingbenchmarks,findanestimateofeachofthefollowingandexplainyourreasoning.
a.7.5%of$594.
b.0.32147(67.557%of89.4853)
c. 2 89

d.5.812
a.45.7.5%is3/4of10%;10%of600is60,and3/4of$60isabout$45.

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b.20.Theestimateshouldbeabout1/3of2/3of90,orabout1/3of60.
c.About31/2.Almost3,plusabout1/2of1
d.About1/2.612is1/2.
3. JoeBluewasestimating92x31.Hesaidthatrounding31to30thentaking92x30
(whichis2760)isabetterestimatethanrounding92to90andthentaking90x31(which
is2790),becauseinthefirstcaseyoulostonly1byrounding31to30,butinthesecond
caseyoulost2byrounding92to90.ExplainhowJoe'sreasoningisincorrect.Your
answershouldshownumbersense.
Estimating9231via9230willbeoffby92.Estimating9231via9031will
beoffbyonly231,or62.
4. Foreachofthefollowing,MENTALLYobtainanESTIMATEoftheanswerandwriteit
intheblank.UseEXCELLENTNUMBERSENSE.
Thenwriteenoughtomake
clearhowyouthought.
a.34%discountonan$89suitcase._________Thinking:
b.0.2643,135___________Thinking:
c.61334______________Thinking:
d.74.35%11950.9837______________Thinking:
e.(1201.79424.3%)+0.0423______________Thinking:
a.About$30.Thinking:34%isabout1/3,and$89isabout$90.1/3of$90is$30.
b.About11,000.Thinking:0.26isabout1/4;round43,135to44,000.
c.About20000.Thinking:601/3of1000=20000.
d.About900 Thinking:3/412001
e.4800Thinking:12001/4.Definitelytakeoffpointsforanswerssuchas
4800.0423.)
5. Is401.99lessthan,equalto,orgreaterthan20?Explain,showingyourunderstanding
ofameaningofdivision.
. Greaterthan20,sincetherewillbemore1.99sin40thanthereare2s.
6. WhyisthisstudentNOTshowinggoodnumbersense,inestimating
249.738+48.246?
"Well,249isabout250,and48isabout50.250+50is300.Then.738+.246isabout
1.So,myestimateis301."

Inusing250and50forthewholenumberparts,thestudentisalreadymakinganover
estimate.Workingwiththedecimalswouldonlymaketheestimatefartheroff.

7.

0.7614987x159.23842isabout...

A.1.2

B.12

C.120D.1200E.NoneofAD

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C(from3/4of160)
8.

1.334496x301.66isclosestto...
A.400B.391

9.

C.390

D.40

E.39

278.4132987x 0.2617944285isabout...
A.7

B.70

C.700

D.7000

E.NoneofAD

10. Oftheestimateslisted,whichisbestfor0.3347876x629.847291143?
A.1800

B.180

C.200

D.210

E.240

11. Usenumbersenseinlocatingthedecimalpointintheanswer.Explainyourthinking
briefly.
a.77.52.84=2207Explanation:
b.1002.63.6=2785Explanation:

a.220.7Explanation:Theproductisabout803=240.
b.278.5Explanation:Thequotientisabout10004=250.

12. Youareusingacalculatorthatcanshowonly8digitsofananswer.Whenyoufinish,
yourealizethatyouforgottopressthedecimalpointsintheoriginalnumbers.Show
wherethedecimalpointsgo,andexplainhowyouknow,usingnumbersense(nopaper
pencilcalculation).
a.9.87429637.21945=62920896Thinking:
b.413.6982424.92617=16596944Thinking:
a.6292.0896 Thinking:Theproductshouldbearound10630=6300.
b.16.596944Thinking:Thequotientshouldbearound40025,or16(howmany
25smake400).
13. Showexcellentnumbersenseinestimatingthefollowing.Writeenoughtomakeyour
thinkingclear.
a.75.48% 883.375 567
566 isabout____________.
Isyourestimate(lessthan,equalto,greaterthan)theexactanswer?(Don'tfigurethe
exactanswerout!)______________because
b.32%of$595.45
c.60%of$271
d.8752

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a.About660:3/48801.Sinceeachofthenewfactorsislessthantheoriginal,660
willbelessthantheactualanswer(Asidefromacalculator:Theexactanswerisa
bitmorethan667.949).
b.About1/3of$600is$200
c.$150:3/5of$250,or$180from2/3of270.
d.4500from9050
14. CompanyXbought17,569truckloadsworth$24,598each.CompanyYbought24,598
truckloadsworth$17,569each.Whichcompanypaidmore,andhowdoyouknow?
Thecompaniespaidthesame.1756924598=2459817569.
15. Bettywasaskedtogiveherbestestimatefor25%of7991.8.
Sheestimatesbytaking 14 of8000,whichis2000,andtaking 14 of0.8,whichis0.2.
Therefore,herestimateis2000.2
CommentonBettysreasoning.
Bettydoesnotseemtorealizethatinusing8000for7991.8,the0.8isalreadyinvolved.
(Shelikelyusedthe8000forjustthe7991.)Using8000introducesanerrorthatwould
onlybeexaggeratedbyaddinganumbersenseless1/4of0.8.Anotherpointthatmaynot
havecomeupinclassisthatreportinganestimatewithtenths,like2000.2,impliesthat
theestimateisquiteclose,downtothenearesttenth.Thatclearlyisnotthecasehere.
16. 42,189511,264isabouthowmanypercent?
A.8% B.12.5% C.80%
D.125%

E.NoneofAD

Afrom40500=(405)100=8100=8%
17. Estimatethefollowingwithabriefexplanation:
a. 65%of37
b. 140%of52
c. 18%of971
d. 43 %of120=___(decimal)
a.24from2/3of36
b.70from7/5of50
c.195from1/5of975(200probablyokay,from1/5of1000)
d.1.2from0.01from3/4beingcloseto1,anumberthatiseasytocalculatewith.
18. Usebenchmarkstoestimatethefollowing.Explainhowyouestimated.
a. 60%of$271
b. 8752
c. 32%of$595.45

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a.$1503/5of$250,or$180from2/3of270.
b.4500from9050
c.About$200.1/3of$600
19.ESTIMATEtheindicatedquantityandtellhowyoudidit.
a.15%of$51.07
b.25%of1998
c.125%of47
d.48%of212
e.4%of201
a.10%of50is5,and5%of50is2.5,sotheanswerisabout7.5.
b. 14 of2000is500.
c.100%of47is47; 14 of48is12,sotheanswerisabout59.
d.Halfof212is106(orhalfof200is100)
e.4x200is800,so8;or1%of200is2so4%is42is8.

5.3EstimatingValuesofQuantities
1.Approximatelyhowlongisthislinesegment,ininchesorincentimeters?Besuretoname
themeasuringunityouuse.
_________________________________________________________
Whatbenchmarkdidyouuse?
Measurethislinesegmentbeforeyougiveittostudents.
2.Nameanitemthatcostsapproximately$500,000.
A.Acar

B.ajetplane

C.anicehome

D.Astereo

C.

3.Nametwotypesofestimatesyouuseinyourdailylife.
Couldbelengthoftimetodrivetocampus,amountofmoneytofilltankwithgas,
amountofmoneyneededatcashregister,costofmealsforaweek,etc.
4.

Usingbenchmarks,findanestimateofthetimeitwouldtake,averaging50mphfor8
hoursaday,todriveacrosstheUnitedStates.

EstimatingthatthedistanceacrosstheUSisabout3000miles,thetripwouldtake3000
50=60hours,or608=71/2drivingdaysof8hourseach.

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5.4UsingScientificNotationforEstimatingValuesofVeryLargeandVery
SmallQuantities
1.Writeinscientificnotation.
a.38,000,000,000

b.382.45

10

c.0.000000000456
2

a. 3.8 10

b.3.824510

10

c4.5610

2. a.Theearthis150,000,000,000metersfromthesun.Writethisinscientificnotation.
b.Thespeedoflightis300,000,000meterspersecond.
c.Adustparticleis0.000000000753kg.
11

10

a.1.510 b.310 c.7.5310

3.Howmanysecondsdoesittakelighttoreachtheearthfromthesun?Expressyouranswer
inscientificnotation.(Seeitem2forrelevantdata.)
11

1.510
minutes.

10

310 =1510 310 =510 or500seconds;alittleover8

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Chapter6MeaningsforFractions
6.1UnderstandingtheMeaningsof
1.

a
b

Usediagramstoshowthat 43 isthesameas34.LABELTHERELEVANTPARTSOF
YOURDIAGRAMANDEXPLAINTHEEQUIVALENCE.
3
4

couldbedrawnasonewholebrokeninto4equalsizepieces,wherethreeofthe
fourthswouldbeindicatedinsomefashion.Thesketchfor34shouldshow3wholes
with,forsharingdivision,eachmarkedintofourths.Eachsharewouldget1fourthfrom
each,oratotalof3fourthsofawhole.

2.

Circletheletterofanyofthefollowingregionsthatiscuttoshowfourths.Ifachoice
doesNOTshowfourths,explainwhynot.
A.

B.

C.

D.

A,B,andDdonotshowfourths.Ineachofthesecases,thefourpiecesdonotallhave
thesamearea.
3.Showntotherightis 1 43 yardsofcarpet.Sketch(fairly
accurately)1yardofcarpetand 3 13 yardsofcarpet.Ifthe
pieceofcarpetshownsellsfor$28,howmuchshould9
yardscost?
1yardwouldbe4/7oftherectangularregion,then31/3wouldbe31/3ofthose.
9yardsshouldcost$144(if7/4yardscost$28,each1/4yardcosts$4,so1yardcost
$16).
4.

TFFractionsarealwayslessthan1.(ExplainifF.)
False,althoughthepartwholeinterpretationmightleadonetothinkso.Afractionsuch
as 54 ismorethanone.

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5. Tochange3 14 toafraction,acommonruleistocalculate34,add1,andwritethat
answerover4:3 14 =

(3

= 13
4 .Useanumberline(andwordsasyouneedthem)to

explainwhythatrulemakessense.

Cuteachunitintofourequalpieces.Thenthe3=
6.

(3

,plusthe 14 ,give3 14 =

(3

Makeadrawingthatshows2 45 ,iftheshapetothe
rightis1.

Just2regionslikethis,alongwith4/5ofanother
7.Iftheheartsshownrepresentonly 25 ofthechocolate
heartsyougaveawayonValentine'sDay,howmany
chocolateheartsdidyougiveawayinall?

8.

A.8

B.28

C.30 D.50

E.NoneofAD

Iftheapplesshownare 43 oftheapplesusedforpies,
howmanyappleswereusedforpiesinall?
A.3B.9C.16D.24E.NoneofAD

9.

If 43 oftheapplesshownin#8abovewereredapples,howmanyoftheappleswerered?
A.3B.9C.16D.24E.NoneofADB

10.Mark 53 onthisnumberlineasA.Mark 53 onthenumberlineasB.


0

Lookforgrossinaccuracies.Ifthenumberlineshows5,theitemis"trickier."
11.IsArdissreasoningcorrect?Explain.
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Shannon:"Istillhavehalfmyspellingwordstolearnand 43 ofmyvocabularywordsto
learn."
Ardis:Well, 43 ismorethanahalfbecause 12 .So,youhavemorevocabularywords
thanspellingwordsstilltolearn."
No,unlessthenumberofspellingwordswasthesameasthenumberofvocabulary
words,givingunitsofthesamesize.
12.BillandTomhavepiecesoflandthatarethesamesize.Eachplantsflowersonpartof
hisland,asshowninthesketches.
TheshadedpartshowsBill's
flowers.
flowers

Theshadedpartshows
Tom'sflowers.

flowers

Whohasmorelandinflowers?
A.BillandTomhavethesameamountoflandinflowers.
B.Billhasmorelandinflowers.
C.Tomhasmorelandinflowers.
D.Onecannotdeterminewhohasmorelandinflowers.
Explainyourchoice.
C. Tom has more land in flowers than Bill, because he has 3/7 of his land and Bill has
only 3/8 of his (equal-sized piece of) land.
13.PatandDanaliketoarguewitheachotheraboutmathematicsproblems.Theydiscuss
thefigurebelow:

Pat: Theshadedregionisoneandahalftimesasmuchastheunshadedregion.
Dana:Wait!Ithinkthattheunshadedregionis 23 oftheshadedregion.
Who is correct? Why?

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Both are correct. They are using different unitsPats is the unshaded part, and Danas is
the shaded region.
14.a.Makeadrawingtheshows 25 ofadiscretewhole.
b.Makeadrawingof 25 ofacontinuouswhole.
a.Thewholemustconsistof5(or10,or)objects,with2(or4intwopairs,or)
designatedinsomeway.
b.Thewholemustbecontinuous,suchasalineorrectangle,dividedinto5equalparts,
with2designatedinsomeway.
50
53
50
15. Given 10
and 13
,whyareweabletocancelthezerosin 10
,butwearenotableto
53
cancelthe3sin 13 ?
50


The0srepresentfactorsof10, 10
,andacommonfactorcanbeignored.Butthe3s
53
in 13 donotrepresentcommonfactors.

16. Usedrawingswithrectanglestoshowthat

a. 58
b. 43
c. 1 43

a.Adrawingofarectangledividedinto16equalparts:10partswillbeshadedfor 58 ,but
7
only7partsfor 16

b.Thiswillrequirearectangledividedinto12equalparts. 43 willrequire9oftheparts,
whereas 23 willrequireonly8oftheparts
c.Tworectangleseachdividedinto4equalparts:1 43 willrequire7ofthoseparts,
whereas 64 willrequireonly6oftheparts.
7

17 Usethepartwholenotionoffractionstoexplainwhy 13
Thefirstfractionhassmallerpiecesthanthesecond.

18. Namethreewaysofthinkingaboutthesymbol 87 .
Someexamples:aspartofawhole,7of8equalpartsofacircularregion;as78;asa
ratio;asaprobability;7of8discreteobjects;...
19. Writeastoryprobleminwhich 53 istreatedasapartwholefraction,withdiscrete
quantities.
e.g.,Jorgehad5candybars.3ofthemwereSnickers.Whatfractionofhiscandybars
wereSnickers?

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6.2Equivalent(Equal)Fractions.
1.

=whichoneoronesofthefollowing?
400




i. 500
ii. 12
iii. 64
iv. 20
Explain:

15

80

25

Allareequal,sincethefractionsinthemareequaltothoseintheoriginal.

2.

Howwouldyouconvinceachildwithvisualevidencethat 23 ?
Weusuallyexpectadrawingof2/3ofaregion,andthenaddedmarkstothatortoacopy
cuttingeachthirdintotwoequalpieces,giving4/6forthesameamountasthe2/3.

4
5

3.Achildsays,"Myteachersaystoput=between 43 and 68 ,butIthink 68 isbigger."


Howmightthechildbethinking?Whatwouldyoudonext?
Thechildisprobablyfocusingonthelargernumeratorandlargerdenominatorin6/8.
Onecouldmakeadrawingtoshowthatthetwofractionsareequal.
4. Howwouldyouconvinceachildwithvisualevidencethat 12 ?
Weusuallyexpectadrawingof1/2ofaregion,andthenaddedmarkstothatortoacopy
cuttingeachhalfintosixequalpieces,giving6/12forthesameamountasthe1/2.

5. Usesketchestoshowthat:
20

A. 15
B. 73
Therearedifferentways;followyourexpectationfromclasswork.Samples
A.Show11/3,markthethirdstomake4/3visible,thencuteachthirdinto5equal
pieces,givingfifteenths.
B.Show3/7andthencuteachseventhinto3equalpieces,givingtwentyfirsts.
6.Namethreecommondenominatorsforthefractions
7
5
7
9
7
a. 83 and 12
.
b. 72
and 144
c. 40
and 60
a24,48,72...b.144,288,432,....c.120,240,360,...
7.Writethesimplestfractionformforeach:
z

9
a.

b.

a. 95

b. y

x2

8. Puttheseinorder,smallesttolargest,usingthesymbols<,>,and=
15
300
11
300
3 6
19 400 16 401 8 8
11
300
6
15
83 < 16
< 300
401 < 400 = 8 < 19

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6
9
203
9. Puttheseinorder,smallesttolargest: 200
303 9 12 300
200
6
303 9

203
9
300
12

10.a.Giveanumberbetween 73 and 47 .
8
8
b.Giveanumberbetween 111
and 113
.
7
8
c.Giveanumberbetween 114
and 113
.
9
d.Whichnumberiscloserto1: 10
and 10
9 ?
6
a. 73 islessthanhalfand 47 isgreaterthanhalf,so 12 isbetween;OR 73 = 14
and 47
8
7
= 14
so 14
isbetween 73 and 47 .
8
b. 112
7
8
7
8
8
c. 114
< 114
.114thsaresmallerthan113ths,so 114
< 114
< 113
.
9
1
1
1
1
9
d. 10
is 10
awayfrom1,and 10
9 is 9 awayfrom1. 10 < 9 so 10 isclosertoone.
7
11.Whichoftheseisarationaleforcomparing 73 and 11
?(Youcanchoosemorethan
oneanswer.)

a.Theyarethesamebecause73=4and117=4.
7
7
b. 11
ismorethan 12 and 73 islessthan 12 so 73 < 11
33
7
3
c. 73 = 77
and 11
= 49
77 so 7 issmaller.

d.Seventhsarebiggerthaneleventhsso 73 islarger.
e.Equalbecauseeachfractionisfourpartsawayfromone.
b.andc.

6.3RelatingFractions,Decimals,andPercents
1. Fillintheblankcellsinthetablebelowsothatthenumbersineachrowareequivalentto
thegivenone:
Fraction
a.

Decimal

Percent

13
20
b.

0.00089

c.

12.25%

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43
4

d.

a.
0.65
b.89/100,000
c.1225/10000(mightbesimplifiedto49/400)0.1225
d.
10.75
2. WhatistheexactdecimalequivalentofA. 25 ?___
A.0.4
B. 0.285714
3. Whatisthefractionequivalentof
A.651/1000

65%
0.089%
1075%
B. 27 ?___

A.0.651?___B.0.44444...?___

B.4/9

4. WhatisthepercentequivalentofA. 12
5 ?___
A.240%

B.0.00035?___

B.0.035%

5. Circleeachfractionthathasaterminatingdecimal,withoutcalculatingthedecimal.
A.

B.

C.

AandChaveterminatingdecimals(7isafactorofnumeratoranddenominatorinCand
sothatfractioncanbesimplified.)Cmaybemoredifficultthanshouldbeonan
examinationunlesssimilaroneshavebeenusedinclass.
6. TF 183 canbewrittenasaterminatingdecimal.(ExplainifF.)
F
7.

a.Write 56.38 asafraction.


a. 5582
99

8.

Thefraction=1/6,whichhasfactorof3inonlythedenominator.
b.Write7.453asafraction.

7453
b. 1000

TFIfthefollowingisfalse,correctitsothatitistrueinsomenontrivialway:
If D = 0.742 , then 100D = 74.200.
F then 100D = 74.242 .

9.

Asafraction,1.4=
A. 14 B. 57

14
C. 100

41
D. 10

E.NoneofAD

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10. NUMBERSENSEITEMnocalculatororhandcalculationandnodecimals.Putthese
121
inorder.Explainyourdecisiononlyfor 101
300 and 360 .
141
280

smallest

101
300

1000
1.3% 121
360 3000

_______________

__________largest

121
101
141
360
300
280
121 121
101
Thinkingfor 101
300 and 360 : 360 and 300 arebothgreaterthan1/3,by1/360and1/300,
121
respectively.Since1/300isgreaterthan1/360, 101
300 isgreaterthan 360 .

1.3%

1000
3000

11. Puttheseinorder,smallesttolargest:0.03 0.0295


0.0295

0.03

0.1

0.1

0.13999

0.13999

14
12. Puttheseinorder,smallesttolargest:8.5%1.7 15
11 8 110%

8.5% 110%

15
11

1.7

14
8

13. Puttheseinincreasingorderwithoutanyhandcalculation:
0.0239
81.2%
0.0239

11
40

211
392

200
31

81.2%

14. Givethreedecimalsbetween2.3456and2.3457.Ifitisnotpossible,explainwhynot.
Samples:2.34561,2.34562,2.345601(infinitelymanypossibilities)
15. Writeeachofthefollowingasafractioninthe whole#
whole# form,ifitispossible.Ifitisnot
possible,explainwhynot.
A.9.6534=_________B.96.6534=_________
96534
A. 10000
(maybesimplifiedto 48267
5000 )

B. 956869
9900

16. Givethreedecimalsbetween0.301and0.302.Ifitisnotpossible,explainwhynot.
Samples:0.3011,0.3012,0.30189(manyotherpossibilities)

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17.Foreachcomparison,usenumbersensetoorderthesefractionsanddecimals.Useonly
thesymbols<,=and>.
1
2
1
9
0.1 17
35 8 3 5 0.85 10 59%

0.1

1
8

1
5

17
35

59% 23

9
0.85 10

18. a.Whataretherationalnumbers?
b.Howaretheydifferentfromtheirrationalnumbers?
integer

a.Rationalnumbersarenumbersthatcanbeexpressedintheform nonzerointeger (ifonly


wholenumber
nonnegativerationalnumbershavecomeup,accept nonzerowholenumber
).

b.Irrationalnumbersarenumbersthatcannotbeexpressedinthatform.(Sufficientfor
now.)
19. Asadecimal,0.525%is...

A.525.B.52.5C.5.25D.0.525E.0.0525F.NoneofAE

20. Asapercent,5.35is...
A.0.535%B.5.35%C.53.5% D.535%E.NoneofAD

21. Asadecimal,1.775%is...
A.0.01775B.0.1775C.1.775 D.17.75E.NoneofAD
22. 1.5%=...A.150

B.15

C.1.5 D.0.15E.0.015

23.15%=...
A.150

B.15

C.1.5

D.0.15

E.NoneofA.D.D

6.4EstimatingFractionalValues
1. Usingbenchmarks,findanestimateofeachofthefollowingandexplainhowyoudidit.
1
7
13
a.Thesumof 23
, 15
, 59 ,and 12
. Mythinking:

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b. 15

Mythinking:

c. 87

Mythinking:

d. 7 67

Mythinking:

a.About2.Thefirstfractionisnegligiblecomparedtotheothers,thesecondtwo
fractionsareabout1/2each,andthelastfractionisabout1.
b.Alittleunder11/2.Mythinking:7/15isabitsmallerthan1/2,and11/12isabit
smallerthan1
c.Alittlelessthan2.Bothfractionsareslightlylessthan1.
d.328 4
2. Afractioniscloseto 12 whenthenumeratorisclosetotwotimesthedenominator.
True

False

False.whenthedenominatorisclosetotwotimesthenumerator,ORwhenthe
numeratorisabouthalfthedenominator.
*3. Afraction ab iscloseto 43 whenthreetimesthenumeratorisclosetofourtimesthe
denominator.
True

False

False.whenfourtimesthenumeratorisclosetothreetimesthedenominator.Or,
whenthenumeratorisabout3timesonefourthofthedenominator.
*4. Howcanyoutellwhenafractioniscloseto 14 ?Donotrefertodecimalnumbers.
Whenthenumeratorisabout1/4ofthedenominator,ORwhenthedenominatorisclose
to4timesthenumerator.
5. Showhowyouwouldmentallycomputetheexactresults:
a. 73

b. 17

18

c. 24 100%=___
3
8

d.11424 =___

Mythinking:
Mythinking:
Mythinking:
Mythinking:

a.21/8First+third=1;othertwo=11/8.
b. 1 57 Thesecondandfourthfractionsgive1.
c.Exactly15.Thefirsttwofractionsgiveaproductof30(3/4of40).30x1/2=15.

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d,Exactly895/8.11424is90;903/8=895/8.
6. Foreachofthefollowing,obtainanestimateoftheanswerandwriteitintheblank.Use
excellentnumbersense.Writeenoughtomakeclearhowyouthoughtaboutthe
problem.

a.68 43 2 15
16 =___

Mythinking:

7
11
b.4 16
+5 12
2 18 =___

Mythinking:

7
c.301 16
=___

Mythinking:

3
d.Thesumof 11
23 , 27

5
,and 16

Mythinking:

a.About23,from693
b.About81/4,fromunder41/2plusunder6,less21/8.101/22=81/2mightbe
closeenough.
c.About600,fromhowmany1/2smake300.
d.About3/4from1/2+negligible+1/4
7
isabout...
7. 1 12

A.8 12

B.8

C.7 12
24

D.6 24
48

E.NoneofAD

B(thefirstandthirdfractionsgiveanother1exactly)
8. 20%of150is 13 of...
A.10 B.90C.120

D.250E.900

B.20%of150is30,and30is1/3of90
9
9. Whichislarger, 97 or 11
?Provideajustificationforyourchoicethatdoesnotreferto
decimals.
7/9is2/9lessthan1,and9/11is2/11lessthan1.Sinceninthsarelargerthanelevenths,
2/9islargerthan2/11.So7/9isfartherunder1than9/11is,and9/11islarger.
8
10. Whichiscloserto 12 : 15
or 73 ?Explainyourreasoning.
8/15ishalfafifteenthmorethan1/2,and3/7ishalfaseventhlessthan1/2.Since
seventhsarelargerthanfifteenths,3/7willbefartherawayfrom1/2than8/15is,thatis,
8/15willbecloserto1/2.

11. Circleeachthatiscloseto,orequalto, 13 .(Noexplanationisrequired.)


0.2six

0.2sixis 3 inbase10.40/119(about40/120)isabout 3
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47
*12. Whichfractionislarger, 38
48 or 60 ?Explainwithoutusingdecimalsorcommon
denominators.

Thefirstfractionis2/48,or1/24,morethan3/4,andthesecondis2/60,or1/30,more
than3/4.Since1/24>1/30,thefirstfraction,38/48,islarger.
13.Whichfractioniscloserto0: 18 or 19 ?Explain(withoutreferringtodecimals).
1/9,becausecuttingawholeinto9equalpartswillgivesmallerpiecesthancuttingthe
wholeinto8equalpartswillgive.
14. Whichfractioniscloserto1: 18 or 19 ?Explain(withoutreferringtodecimals).
1/8,fromthereasoningin#13,1/8willbecloserto1because1/9iscloserto0.
15. Whichfractionisclosertoonehalf: 18 or 19 ?Explain(withoutreferringtodecimals).
1/8,fromthereasoningabove,andthefactthatbotharelessthan1/2.
16. Whichfractioniscloserto1: 78 and 89 .
Focusingonthemissingpartshowsthat7/8isfartherbelow1than8/9is,so7/8is
closerto1.
29
*17.Whichvalueislarger: 17
40 pound,or 64 pound?Explainyourthinking,showingyour
understandingoffractionsandofbenchmarks(notdecimalsorcommondenominators).

Usingabenchmarkof1/2pound,17/40is3/40under1/2and29/64is3/64under1/2.
Sincefortiethsarelargerthansixtyfourths,3/40>3/64,so17/40willbemoreunder1/2
than29/64willbe.29/64poundsislarger
18. Whichisthegreatervalue: 169 ofacup,or 15
28 ofacup?Explain,showingyourgraspof
fractionsandbenchmarksandwithoutusingdecimalsorcomplicatedcommon
denominators.
Usingabenchmarkof1/2cup,9/16is1/16morethan1/2,and15/28is1/28morethan
1/2.Sincesixteenthsarelargerthantwentyeighths,9/16islargerthan15/28.
*19.Whyis 23 abetterbenchmarkthan1is,foransweringthisquestion:"Whichislarger,
23
17
30 or 21 ?"(Youdonothavetoanswerthequestioninquotationmarks.)
Withabenchmarkof1,onehastocompare7/30and4/21differentsizesofbasic
piecesaswellasdifferentnumbersofthem(the7smallerpiecesmightormightnotbe
largerthanthe4largerpieces).So1isnotagoodbenchmark.Butwith2/3asa
benchmark,itisamatterofcomparing3/20and3/14,forwhichonlythesizeof
twentiethsvsfourteenthsneedbeinvolved.

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20. Namegoodfractionbenchmarksforthefollowingpercents:
a. 48%
b. 165%
c. 9%
a.1/2

b.12/3or5/3c.1/10(possibly1/11withreallygoodnumbersense)

11
13
21. Whichislarger, 13
or 15
?Justifyyouranswerwithoutreferringtodecimalnumbersor
findingcommondenominators.

13/15islarger.11/13is2/13lessthan1,and13/15is2/15lessthan1.Sincefifteenths
aresmallerthanthirteenths,2/15issmallerthan2/13,so13/15islessfarunder1than
11/13is.
22. Foreachofthefollowing,tellwhichislargerbyreferringtobenchmarks.Foreach
problem,showthebenchmarkused.
a. 43 or 49

3
b. 10
41 or 11

a.3/4,benchmark1/2
b.3/11,benchmark1/4(3/11>3/12=1/4,10/41<1/4)
23. Foreachofthefollowing,findafractionbetweenthetwogivenfractionsandshowhow
youfoundit.Donotusedecimalnumbersorcommondenominators.
5
a. 21
and 11
40

7
8
b. 13
and 11

a.1/45/21<5/20=1/4,and11/40>10/40=1/4
b.2/3.7/13isbarelyover1/2,and8/11>8/12=2/3.
24. Ineachcasetellwhichislargerbyreferringtobenchmarks.Explainwhatyoudid
makingclearwhatyourbenchmarkis.(Donotusecommondenominators.)
7
a. 15
or 47 ofthedistance?

8
7
b. 27
or 18
ofthosevoting?

a.4/7ofthedistance,since4/6>1/2but7/15<1/2.
b.7/18ofthosevoting,since8/27<9/27=1/3,but7/18>6/18=1/3.

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Chapter7ComputingwithFractions
7.1AddingandSubtractingFractions
1.

Makeupastoryproblemthatcouldbesolvedby 3 12 andillustratesthecomparison
viewofsubtraction.
Variouspossibilities,butineachthetwoquantitiesshouldbedistinct,asin,Onerecipe
callsfor 3 12 cupsofsugar,andanothercallsfor 2 13 cupsofsugar.Howmuchmoresugar
doesthefirstrecipecallforthanthesecond?

2.

Makeupastoryproblemthatcouldbesolvedbycalculating123 48 13 .
Variouspossibilities,e.g.,Velmahad123feetofribbonandused48 13 forpackagebows.
Howmuchribbondoesshehaveleft?

3.

Followingisanexampleofachild'swork.Youaretostudytheworkandthentojudgethe
studentsunderstanding.
Ronawasaskedtosubtract 2 58 from 4 18 .Herworkisshownbelow.

Rona'swork:

4 18

2 58 = 2 58
1 68

a)IsRona'sworkcorrectorincorrect?Correct__Incorrect__
b)Iftheworkisincorrect,pleaseexplainhow.
a)Incorrect b)Inchanginga1fromthe4intoeighths,Ronadidtheusualbasetenplace
valueborrowingratherthanthecorrect8/8+1/8.
4.Fouridenticalpizzasaresharedamong3people.Show2waysthatthepizzascouldbecut.
i.Cuteachintothreeparts;eachpersongets1/3ofeachpizza:4/3or11/3pizzas
ii.Cutoneintothreeparts.Eachpersongetawholeone(3/3)plusanotherthird;11/3
pizzas.(Therearemanymoreways,butperhapscomplex.)
5. Usingarectangularregionastheunit,illustrateeachofthefollowing:
a. +
b. +
c.
Samples:a.Startwith2/3ofarectangularregionshaded,thencutwithmarks
perpendiculartothemarksforthirdstogivesliversthatarefifths(andsmallboxes
fifteenths).4/5wouldentail4sliversor12smallboxes.Butthereareonly5smallboxes
left,so3smallboxes,or3/15,ofanotherwholeisneeded.
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b.SimilartopartA,exceptthateachaddendismorethanonewhole.29/10whenallthe
workisdone.
c.Easiestistorecognizethat10/8=5/4=11/4,butthatmaynotberegardedasfair.
Show10/8withparallelcuttingmarksandshadingonthetworectangularregions.That
shouldmakerecognizablethat1/2is4/8,whichcanthenbexedoutfromthe10/8.
6. Explainastrategyyoucouldusetomentallycomputetheexactanswer:
a.2 83 +5 14 +3 87 +2
b.2 45 +3 16 +5 23 1.8
c.3 12 2 83
a.Thewholenumbersgive12,and3/8+7/8give11/4which,withtheother1/4gives 1
1/2.131/2.
b.24/51.8is2.81.8is1.1/6+2/3is1/6+4/6is5/6.Now:1+3+5+5/6is95/6.
c.1/2is4/8.Sothedifferenceis11/8.
7.Whyisacommondenominatorneededtoaddandsubtractfractions?
Becausefindingequivalentfractionsthatallowacommondenominatordallowustoadd
andsubtract d1 units;thatis,wehavethesameunittouseforeachfraction.
8. Threechildrentookahike,carryingoneheavybackpack.Onechildcarriedthebackpack
for 83 ofthehike,andasecondcarrieditfor 16 ofthehike.Forwhatpartofthehikedid
thethirdchildcarrythebackpack?Whichchildcarriedthebackpackforthegreatestpart
ofthehike?
3
8

9.

,sothethirdchildcarriedit 2411 ofthehike,thegreatestpart.

Jodymows 18 oftheyardandthentakesabreak.Afterthebreak,Jodymowsanother 13 of
theyardandstopsforlunch.Afterlunch,Jodymowsanother 16 oftheyardandthengoes
swimming.WhatpartoftheyarddoesJodystillhavetomow?
Answer: 18

mowed,sothereisstill 83 oftheyardtomow.

10. Thetruckfarmerhasplanted 13 ofafieldincherrytomatoes, 15 ofthefieldinlarge


tomatoes,and 27 ofthefieldinpopcorn.Thefarmerplanstoplantsweetcorninthe
remainingpartofthefield.Aboutwhatpartofthefieldwillbeinsweetcorn?

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Plantedalreadyis 13
sweetcorn,aboutafifthofthefield.

19
ofthefield,leaving 105
ofthefieldfor

11. Emmywantstoreadanassignedbookinfourdays.Shereads 23 ofthebookthefirstday


butonly 151 ofthebooktheseconddayandanother 151 ofthebookonthethirdday.
a.Whatpartofthebookmustshereadthefourthday?
b.OnwhichdaydidEmmyreadthemost?
a.Shehasread 23

,soshemustread 13 ofthebookthefourthday.

b.Shereadthegreatestpartofthebookonthefirstday.
12. Judyhasa10pagepapertowrite.Thefirstdayshewrites 1 12 pages,takesabreak,and
thenwrites 3 43 pagesmore.Thenextdayshewritesanother 2 13 pages.Howmanypages
doesshestillhavetowrite?
Shehaswritten 1 12 pages,soshestillhas 10 pagestowrite.
13. a.Onthenumberlinebelow,showwhere 47 + 12 wouldbe.LabelitA.
b.Onthesamenumberline,showwhere 47 12 wouldbe.LabelitB.

012

0B1A2

7.2MultiplyingbyaFraction,and
7.3DividingbyaFraction
1.

3
Useadrawingtohelpexplainwhy 43 isequalto
.Beexplicit.

Inthefinisheddrawing,theunithas
beencutinto47equalpieces,and
theanswerpartis35ofthem.
2.

x x x x x
x x x x x
x x x x x

Iftwonumbersaremultiplied,theirproductisgreaterthan(orequalto)eachnumber.
(ExplainifF.)TrueFalse

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FIf(thefactorsarepositiveand)oneofthefactorsisanumberlessthan1,thenthe
productwillbelessthantheothernumber.
3. Donnyisaskedtosolvethefollowingproblem:Ifcheeseis$1.89perpound,howmuch
does0.67poundcost?
Circletheexpressionthatcorrectlyrepresentstheproblem.
A.1.89+0.67
B.1.890.67
C.0.671.89
D.0.671.89
E.1.890.67
F.0.671.89
G.NoneofAF
D
4.

WhichofAEwouldbestlocatethepointfor0.89 nonthenumberline(npositive)?
A

5.

65%
ofn

C D

WhichofAEwouldbestlocatethepointforn0.89onthenumberline(npositive)?
A
B
E
C D

65%
n
ofn
E
ABCDEFG

6.
0

Whichletterisonthemostlikelyplacefor
a. 12 2?b. 58 of 12 ?c. 43 d.1 23 e. 14
a.Fb.Bc.Dd.Ge.E
7. a.Shadein 43 of 23 ofthisrectangle,asthoughyouwereactingitout:

b.Showexactlywherethe 23 is.Itis 23 ofwhat?__________


c.Showexactlywherethe 43 is.Itis 43 ofwhat?__________
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a.Mostcommonshouldbe,first2/3isshaded,thenwithcuttingmarksperpendicularto
thefirstmarks,3/4ofthe2/3doubleshaded.Continuingthemarksforthe3/4ofthe
2/3cutsthewholerectangleintotwelfths,andthedoubleshadedpartisclearly6/12.
b.2/3ofthewholerectangle.
c.3/4ofthe2/3part.
8.

a.Show1 8 witharectangularregionasthewhole.Writeyouranswerasamixed
number.
3

b.Thenmakeclearhowthefractionpartofyouranswerrelatestoyourdrawing.
a.b.Usingarectangularregioncutintoeighths,mark3/8,thenanother3/8.The
remainingpartisnotenoughforanother3/8,butitis2/3ofanother3/8.So13/8is
2and2/3.Besuretolookforevidenceforb.
9.

Theproductofapositivenumbernbyanotherpositivenumbermisalwaysgreaterthann.
True

False

FalseIfmislessthan1,thentheproductislessthann.
10. Threefourthsofsevenonesisthesameamountasseventhreefourthsofone.
True

False

True

11. DrawapicturethatrepresentsA. 43

B. 25

Possibleanswers:
10.A.

B.

x x
x x
x x

12. Drawapicturethatrepresents:A. 43

x
x

x
x

x
x

B. 25

Similarto#11.Ineachof#11or#12,pointout,ifneeded,thatalthoughtheanswersare
thesame,themeaningsofthetwoproductsaredifferent.Youmaywishtoreview
commutativepropertyofmultiplicationlanguage.

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13. Workingonhissummertan,Zonkerleaves 45 ofhisskinexposed.Hehasonlyenough


lotiontocoverhalfofhisexposedskin.Whatpartofhisbodywillbeunprotected?
Drawaneatlylabeleddiagramdisplayingyoursolution.
Itshouldbeclearfromthedrawingthat4/5wasshownfirst,then1/2ofthat,thenadded
segmentstocutthewholeregioninto(10)equalpieces.4/10,or2/5,ofhisbodywillnot
beprotected.
14. Usethesecirclestoshoweachdivision.Foreachparttellwhatquestionisbeingasked.
Tellwhatyouranswerisineachcase,andshowhowyouobtainedit.

a.

b.

a.Thequestionis,howmany1/4sarein7/8.So7/8ofthecircularregionshouldbe
shown,with1/4sthenbeingmarkedoff.Therewillbe3full1/4s,andhalfofanother
1/4,in7/8.
b.Thequestionis,howmany3/8sarein1/4.So1/4ofthecircularregionshouldbe
shown.Thereisnotawhole3/8inthat1/4,onlyapartofa3/8.Ghostingintherest
ofa3/8andthe1/8markingsshouldshowthatthereis2/3ofa3/8in1/4.
Trytodetectstudentswhodothecalculationbutcannotshowthemeaninginthe
drawings.
15. Whyisdivisionoffractionsconfusingtopeople?Givetworeasons.
Divisionoffractionsdoesnotalwaysmakesmaller.Whyadivisionproblembecomes
amultiplicationissometimesamystery,particularlyforthosewhothinkmultiplication
makesbigger.Whichfractiontoinvertisalsoconfusing,perhapsatalatertime.
16.Isonemeaningof 14 thefollowing:Howmanyonesis 14 of 13 of1?
Ifso,howmuchofaoneorhowmanyones?
1
Yes: 12
ofaone.

17.Isonemeaningof 14 thefollowing:Howmany 13 sof1arein 14 of1?


Ifso,howmany_____thirdsorhowmuchofathirdof1are/isinonefourthof1?

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Yes,thereis 43 ofonethirdof1in 14 of1.


45

35

18.Onemeaningof 59
is:Howmanyonesis 45
59 of 17 of1?

True

False

True

45

35

19. Onemeaningof 59
is:Howmany 17
of1arein 45
59 of1?

True

False

True

25
16
25
20.Onemeaningof 16
19 is:Howmany 17 of1arein 19 of 17 ?
25
False.Itshouldread,Howmany 17
of1arein 16
19 of1?

21. Useexcellentnumbersenseinestimating(1201.79424.3%)+0.0423gives____.
4800(NOT4800.0423)
22. Thestagecoachrobbershavea12mileheadstartonthesheriff'sposse.Butthesheriff's
possehasfasterhorses,sothepossecatchesupby 43 mileeveryhour.Howmanyhours
willittakethepossetocatchtherobbers?Showyourwork.
Thequestionbecomes,howmany3/4milesaretherein12miles?(Eachoneofthosewill
indicateanhourofcatchuptime.)So,12 43 =16.Itwilltake16hourstocatchup.
23. Tellwhat8 78 3means...
a.withtherepeatedsubtractionormeasurementview:
b.withthepartitiveorequalsharingview:
a.howmany3sarein,ormake,8 87 .
b.howmuchisineachshareif8 87 aresharedequallyamong3.
24. TrueorFalse:Division(involvingonlypositivenumbers)alwaysgivesasmalleranswer
thanthenumberbeingdivided.(IfFalse,explain.)
False.Divisionbyanumberlessthan1givesaquotientlargerthanthedividend.
25. Whatcalculationwouldsolvethisstoryproblem?
"Cheese was $2.55 a pound. A woman bought a 0.85 pound package of the cheese.
How much did she pay?"
A.2.55+0.85B.2.550.85C.0.85x2.55D.2.550.85
C

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26. Whatcalculationwouldsolvethisstoryproblem?
"Georgehad 45 ofapie.Heate 23 ofwhathehad.Whatpartofawholepiedidheeat?"
A. 45 + 23

B. 45 23

C. 23

4
5

D. 45 23

E.NoneofADC

27. Whatcalculationwouldsolvethisstoryproblem?
"Shepaid$4.80for 43 poundofcandy.Howmuchdoesthecandycost,perpound?"
A.(4.804)x4 B.4.80x 43
D.4.80+0.75

C.4.80 43

E.NoneofAD

28. Tunacosts70acanatStoreXand80acanatStoreY.Howmuchwill8cansoftuna
cost,if 14 ofthecansareboughtatStoreXandtherestatStoreY?
A.$1.40B.$4.80 C.$5.60
D.$6.20E.NoneofAD
D
29. OnedayJoe'soldcarused 58 quartsofoil.Thenextdayitusedonly 23 asmuchoil.How
manyquartsofoildidthecaruseonthesecondday?
A. 58 B. 23 C. 58
D. 23
E.NoneofAD
B
30. Onday3thecarused1 14 quartsofoil!Butonday4itusedonly60%asmuchasitdid
onday3.Howmanyquartsofoildidthecaruseonday4?

A. 1 14 B. 1 14 C. 53 D. 1 14
E.NoneofAD
C
31. Howmany 23 poundportionscanbeobtainedfrom30pounds?
A.20 B.45
C.60 D.90E.NoneofAD

32.Followingarethreestudentssolutionsto 169 of48.


a.Foreachstudent,firstevaluatethestudentsmathematicalreasoning.Check
whetherthestepsaremathematicallycorrectorflawedorindicatethatyoucannottell.
b.Nextmarkeachstudent'sworkwith"doesn'tappeartounderstand,""mayormay
not understand,"or"showsgoodunderstandingof"multiplicationoffractions.
Jessica:ismorethan,andhalfof48is24andof48is3,so27.
a.Mathematicalsteps:Chooseone.

__Jessicasstepsare
mathematicallycorrect.

__Jessicasstepsare
mathematically
flawed.

__IcannottellifJessicassteps
aremathematicallycorrector
flawed.

b.Understandingofmultiplicationoffractions:Chooseone.
__Jessicadoesn'tappearto
understandmultiplication
offractions.

__Jessicamayormaynot
understand
multiplicationof

__Jessicashowsgood
understandingof
multiplicationoffractions.

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fractions.

c.IfJessicasstepsaremathematicallycorrect,useherwayofthinkingtosolve 83 .
Iftheyarenot,explainhowJessicasreasoningisflawed.
Justin: 169

a.Mathematicalsteps:Chooseone.
__Justinsstepsare
mathematicallycorrect.

__Justinsstepsare
mathematically
flawed.

__IcannottellifJustinssteps
aremathematicallycorrect
orflawed.

b.Understandingofmultiplicationoffractions:Chooseone.
__Justindoesn'tappearto
understandmultiplication
offractions.

__Justinmayormaynot
understand
multiplicationof
fractions.

__Justinshowsgood
understandingof
multiplicationoffractions.

Stacy:of48?916=144;14448=3;93=27.Soof48is27.
a.Mathematicalsteps:Chooseone.

__Stacysstepsare
mathematicallycorrect.

__Stacysstepsare
mathematicallyflawed.

__IcannottellifStacys
stepsaremathematically
correctorflawed.

b.Understandingofmultiplicationoffractions:Chooseone.
__Stacydoesn'tappearto
understandmultiplication
offractions.

__Stacymayormaynot
understand
multiplicationof
fractions.

__Stacyshowsgood
understandingof
multiplicationof
fractions.

Jessica:a)mathematicallycorrect
b)Jessicamayormaynotunderstandmultiplicationoffractions,butshedoesshow
numbersense.
c)Possibly,1/4of32is8,andhalfofthatis4,so12.
Justin:a)mathematicallycorrect
b)Justinmayormaynotunderstandmultiplicationoffractions.
Stacy:a)mathematicallyflawed

b)doesntappeartounderstandmultiplicationoffractions.

33.Finishthefollowingstoryproblemsothatyourquestioncouldbeansweredbythe
1
calculation18 2 :"Youbuy18muffinsforanafterschoolfacultymeeting..
Sample:Theyarelarge,soyoucuttheminto1/2muffinservings.Howmany
servingswillyouget?

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34.Forthisnumberline

B
p

E
2

i)thepointforp+qwouldbeclosesttoA?B?C?D?E?(circle)
ii)thepointforpqwouldbeclosesttoA?B?C?D?E?(circle)
(i)C

(ii)A(sincebothpandqarelessthan1)

35. KarenandSuegobikeriding.Karenbikedfor 3 13 hours,whichwas 23 asmanyhoursas


Sarabiked.HowmanyhoursdidSarabike?
A.2 29 B.2 23
C.4 D.5 E.NoneofAD
D
36. Afterthefamilyhadgone140miles,thechildrenasked,"Arewegettingclose?"The
driversaid,"We'vegoneonly 27 oftheway."Howfardidthefamilystillhavetogo?
A.40milesB.80milesC.350milesD.490milesE.NoneofAD
C
37. Afarmerkeeps40%ofhislanduncultivated.Twothirdsofthecultivatedportionis
plantedwithcorn.Whatfractionoftheentirelandisplantedwithcorn?MAKEA
DRAWING.SHOWYOURWORKCLEARLYANDCIRCLEYOURANSWER.
40%uncultivatedgives60%thatiscultivated,and60%=3/5makesaneasydrawing.
2/3ofthe3cultivatedpieceswillgivethepartofthefieldplantedincorn:2/5.
38.Alexate 12 ofapizza.Tandyate 13 ofwhatwasleft.Finally,Tabbyate 12 ofwhatwas
left.HowmuchofthewholepizzadidTabbyeat?
Alexleaves1/2ofthepizza.Tandyate1/3ofthat,whichis1/6ofthepizza,leaving2/6
ofthepizza.Tabbyate1/2ofthe2/6ofpizza,soTabbyate1/6ofthepizza.
39.Considerthisnumberline:
FH JKL

0AB1
PointsAandBarebetween0and1asindicated.Whichoftheremainingpoints
bestrepresent
a.AxBb.A+Bc.ABd.BA
a.H

b.K

c.F

d.J

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40. Underarepeatedsubtractioninterpretation, 43 means


_______________________________________________
Thequotientis____________.Verifyandexplainyouranswerwithasketch.
howmany1 14 sarein,ormake, 43 ?Theansweris 53 .Thesketchshouldshowthe
answer, 53 ofone1 14 ,isin 43 .

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Chapter8MultiplicativeComparisonsandMultiplicativeReasoning
8.1QuantitativeAnalysisofMultiplicativeSituations,and
8.2FractionsinMultiplicativeComparisons
1. Aratioistheresultofcomparingtwoquantitiestodeterminehowmuchlargeroneis
thantheother.
True
False
Falsetodeterminehowmanytimesaslargeoneis,comparedtotheother.
Notefor25.Refertothesituationdescribedandfillintheblankswiththeappropriate
numbers.Ifnotenoughinformationisprovidedtodeterminethenumberthatshouldgoin
theblank,writeimpossibletodetermine.
2.

AtRiverdaleMiddleSchool, 18 ofthestudentsareintheband.Twooutofeverythree
studentsinthebandaregirls.
a.Thenumberofboysinthebandis__________timesthenumberofgirlsinthe
band.
b.Whatfractionofthestudentswhoplayinthebandareboys?
c.WhatfractionofthestudentsatRiverdaleareboyswhoplayintheband?
d.Thenumberofgirlsinthebandis________timesthenumberofstudentsinthe
school.
e.Whatistheratioofgirlswhodonotplayinthebandtotheboyswhodonotplayin
theband?
(AdiagrammaybehelpfulforpartsC,D,andE.)
a.1/2 b.1/3 c.1/24
d.1/12(or2/24)

3.

e.impossibletodetermine

Fiveofevery6studentsinterviewedfavoredachangeinlibraryhours.
a.Amongthoseinterviewed,whatistheratioofthosewhofavorachangetothosewho
donotfavorachange?_______
b.Amongthoseinterviewed,thereare____timesasmanystudentswhofavorachange
astherearestudentswhodonotfavorachange.
c.Amongthoseinterviewed,thereare____timesasmanystudentswhodonotfavora
changeastherearestudentswhodofavorachange.

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d.Whatfractionofthestudentsinterviewedfavorachangeinthelibraryhours?_____
a.5:1 b.5
4.

c.1/5 d.5/6

AccordingtoaU.S.News/CNNpoll,threeoutof10peoplewentawayonvacationin
August.
a.WhatistheratioofthosewhowentawayonvacationinAugusttothosewhodidn't?
b.WhatpercentofpeopledidnotgoawayonvacationinAugust?
c.Thenumberofpeoplewhodidnotgoonvacationis___timesthenumberwhodid.
a.3:7
b.70%
c.21/3

5.

Maxinepolledherentireclassconcerningthedateforthenexttest.Twelvepeople
preferredthatthetestbegivenonWednesday.Twentyeightvotedtohavetheteston
Friday.
a.WhatfractionoftheclasswantedthetestonWednesday?
b.WhatistheratioofthosewhopreferWednesdaytoFriday?
c.ThosewhowantthetestonFridayarehowmanytimesasmuchasthosewhoprefer
thetestonWednesday?
a.12/40(or3/10)
b.12:28(someonemaygive3:7)
c.21/3

6.

Forthesituationbelow,answerthequestionsandfillintheblanks.Ifyoucannotanswer
aquestion,explainwhy.Ifthequestionasksforanexplanation,giveanexplanation.If
thequestioninstructsyoutodrawarelevantdiagram,besuretolabelit.
Ms.Collin'sclasshas15girlsand18boys.25ofthechildrenhavepets.20ofthe
childrenhavedogs.
a.Theratioofboystogirlsis:___.
b.Thegirlsmakeupwhatfractionalpartoftheclass?___
c.Thenumberofboysis___timesthenumberofgirls.
d.Thenumberofgirlsis___timesthenumberofboys.

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e.Theratioofthenumberofchildrenwhohavepetstothenumberofchildrenwhodo
nothavepetsis___
f.Thenumberofchildrenwhohavedogsiswhatfractionalpartofthenumberof
childrenwhohavepets? ___
g.Ofthechildrenwhohavepets,thenumberofchildrenwhodonothavedogsiswhat
fractionalpartofthenumberofchildrenwhohavedogs?___Drawarelevant
diagramandlabelit.
h.Thenumberofgirlswhohavedogsis___?
i IfIsaid8ofthechildrenhavecats,isthisinconsistentwiththeinformationthatI
havealreadygivenyou?Explain.
a.18:15(possibly6:5)
b.15/33,or5/11
c.11/5
d.5/6
e.25:8
f.20/25,or4/5
g.1/4(lookfordiagram)
h.impossibleto
determine
i.No,somechildrenmayhavebothadogandacataspets.
7. Twolandscapersmowedthelawnofawealthyfamily.Whentheyfinished,landscaperA
hadmowedonly 73 asmuchasthemoreexperiencedlandscaperBmowed.

a.Markonthedrawingofthelawntoshowhowthemowingmighthavebeendone.
b.A'spartis_____timesasmuchasB'spart.
c.A'spartiswhatpartofthelawn?
d.WhatistheratioofA'sparttoB'spart?
e.Iftheyarepaid$150formowingthelawn,whatwouldbeafairsplitofthe$150?
a.Theregionshouldbemarkedinto10equalpieces,with3labeledforAandtheothers
forB.
b.3/7
c.3/10
d.3:7
e.$45forA;$105forB($150forthe10piecesisarateof$15perpiece)
8. IftownAhad12,000morepeoplethanitdoes,itspopulationwouldbe 1 23 timesasbigas
townBisnow.TownBhas45,000peoplecurrently.Whatisthecurrentpopulationof
townA?

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63000,ThelargerAwillhave 1 23 people,sothecurrentAhas75000
12000=63000people.Alternatively,withtheadditional12000,A:B=5:3,sofor
every3peopleBwouldhave,Awouldhave5.SinceBhas45000=315000people,
thelargerAwouldhave515000or75000people.ThecurrentAhas7500012000=
63000people.
9.

AlanandBobstartedmowingarectangularlawn.Aftermowing 43 ofthewholelawnthey
gottiredandstopped.WhentheystoppedAlanhadmowed 27 asmuchasBobhad
mowed.
a.Markthediagramofthelawnbelowtoshowhowmuchofthelawneachboymowed
andlabelthepartswitheachboysinitialtoindicateclearlythepartsmowedbyeach.
b.TheareaoflawnthatBobmowedis______timesaslargeastheareathatAlan
mowed.
c.Alanmowed________ofthetotallawnarea.
d.TheratiooftheareaoflawnBobmowedtotheareaAlanmowedis________.
e.Togethertheywerepaid$12fortheworktheydid.Howmuchmoneydideachboy
getiftheywerepaidproportionallytotheamounttheyworked?Alan___Bob___

a.3/4ofthelawnshouldbeshaded.Thenjustthatportionshouldbecutinto9equal
parts,sincetheA:Bratio2:7says2partsforAlanforevery7partsforBob.So2of
thosepartsshouldbelabeledAand7B.
b.31/2(eitherfromthedrawing,orfromB:A=7:2)
c.1/6(moremarksshow6/36)
d.7:2
e.Alan:$2.67,Bob:$9.33(from$12for9piecesisarateof$11/3perpiece.$22/3
and$91/3wouldbeexactbutdonotfitmoney)
10. Timworked30hourslastweek,whichwas 53 timesasmanyhoursasRobertworked.
a.HowmanyhoursdidRobertwork?
b.Whoworkedmorehours?
c.Whichtypeofcomparisondoesthequestioninpart(b)address,additiveor
multiplicative?

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a.18(adrawingshouldmakeclearthe5:3comparison;Tims30hoursmeanseachof
his5piecescouldbethoughtofas6hours,soRobertstimeis18hours.)
b.Tim(withoutpartA,justfromthegivensentence)
c.Either.IfafollowupquestionhadbeenHowmanymore?thatwouldhavebeenan
additivecomparison
11. Belowisadiagramofacandybarthatisbeingsharedbetweentwopeople:

a.CutthebarintotwopartssothatpartAis 43 ofpartB.
b.PartBis
timesaslargeaspartA.
c.PartBishowmuchofthebar?

d.WhatistheratioofpartBtopartA?

a.Cuttingthebartoreflectthe3:4ratiogives7equalpieces(A3,B4)
b.11/3(eitherfromthedrawingorfromtheB:A=4:3relationship)
d.4/7
c.4:3
12.

a.Cuttherectangleintotworegions,AandB,sothatAis 23 aslargeasB.
b.WhatfractionofthewholerectangleisA?
a.Cuttherectangleinto5equalpieces:Aisthreeofthepieces,Bis2ofthepieces.
b.Ais3/5oftheentirerectangle.

13. 45 ofanamountis40.
a.Howmanypartsisthewholesplitinto?
b.Howmanypartsisthe40splitinto?
c.Howmuchisineachpart?
d.Whatisthefullamount?
a.50
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b.40
c.1/50
d.50/50or1.

PatandRonsplitacake.Pat'sshareis2/3
aslargeasRon'sshare.

12.

a.Sketchfairlyaccuratelyonthe"cake"toshow
Pat'sandRon'sshares.LabelthemPandR.

b.Ron'sshareis____timesaslargeasPat'sshare.
c.Pat'sshareiswhatfractionalpartofthewholecake?_____
d.WhatistheratioofRon'ssharetoPat'sshare?______
a.5pieces,with2forPand3forR.
b.11/2
c.2/5
d.3:2
13. Johnbakedacakeforhissonsbirthdayparty.Attheparty, 27 asmuchwasleftoveras
waseaten.(Adiagrammaybehelpful.)
a.Theremainingportioniswhatfractionalpartofthewholecake?
b.Whatistheratiooftheamountofcakeeatentothewholecake?
Thediagramshouldhave9equalpieces,toreflecttheL:E=2:7ratio.
a.2/9
b.7:9
14. Twopainterspaintawallfromoppositeends.Whentheyfinish,painterPhaspainted
only 23 asmuchasthemoreexperiencedpainterQpainted.

a.Markonthedrawingofthewalltoshowhowthepaintingmighthavebeendone.

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b.Q'spartis___timesasmuchasP'spart.
c.Q'spartiswhatpartofthewall?___
d.WhatistheratioofP'sparttoQ'spart?___
e.Iftheyarepaid$100forpaintingthewall,whatwouldbeafairsplitofthe$100?
a.5equalpieces,2forPand3forQ
b.11/2
c.3/5
d.2:3
e.P$40;Q$60(eachofthe5pieceswouldbeworth$20)
15. Considertheregionbelowasapizzathatisbeingsharedbytwopeople.

a.DividethepizzaintotwopartssothatpartAis 53 ofpartB.
b.PartAishowmuchofthepizza?
c.WhatistheratioofpartBtopartA?
a.8equalpieces,3forAand5forB
b.3/8
c.5:3

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Chapter9Ratios,Rates,Proportions,andPercents
9.1RatioasaMeasure,and
9.2UsingProportionstoCompareRatiosandSolveforMissingValues
1. Anydrivewayrampthatis3.205fthighislesssteepthananyotherrampthatis3.98ft
high.
True
False
FalseThesteepnessalsodependsonanotherdimension,usuallythehorizontallengthof
thedriveway.
2. Onerecipefor8peoplerequires5cupsofflour.Alexpectsonly6peopleandsowants
tocuttherecipesothatitwillserve6.
a.IfAlisthinkingadditively,howmuchflourwillheuse?Explainyouranswer.
b.IfAlisthinkingmultiplicatively,howmuchflourwillheuse?Explainyouranswer.
c.Whichwayisbetter,Al'soryourpartBmethod?Explain.
a.IfAlisusingadditivethinking:86=2,soheshoulduse52=3cupsofflour.
b.Therecipecallsfor5/8cupofflourperperson,sofor6peopleAlshoulduse6(5/8),
or33/4,cupsofflour.
c.ThepartBmethodisbetter,becausetotastethesame,recipesshouldusethesame
proportionsofingredients.Ratesallowthat.
3.

RubenandOfiliaarepaintingthewallsofalargelecturehall.Theymixed2gallonsof
bluepaintwith5gallonofwhitepaintforatotalof7gallonsofpaint.Theyranoutof
paint.Theyestimatedthattheyneededonehalfgallontofinish.Findtheportionofthe
roomwhichhasbeenpainted.
a.Findtheportionoftheroomwhichhasbeenpainted.Drawaneatlylabeleddiagram
displayingyoursolution.
b.Iftheymix1/4gallonofbluepaintwith1gallonofwhitepaint,willthepaintcolors
match?Explainyouranswerbriefly.
c.Suggestwhatamountsofbluepaintandwhitepaintwouldfinishtheroomandmatch
thecolor,perhapswithalittleleftoverfortouchups.
a.Thediagramshouldshowthewalls(probablyonerectangle),markedinto15equal
pieces,sincethe7gallonsis14halfgallons.Theyhavepainted14/15oftheroom
withthe7gallons.

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b.No.Theoriginalratewas2:5whichisthesameas2/5:1.Butif1gallonofwhitepaint
isusedwithgallonofbluepaint,theratiois1/4:1or1:4whichisnotequivalentto
2/5:1.
c.Weneedaratioa:bwherea:bisequivalentto2:5andwherea+b=1/2.gallonblue
paintand5/8gallonofwhitepaintwouldprovidethecorrectratioandthesumis
slightlymorethan,butcloseenoughforthissituation.
4.

Marawasaskedtodrawanisoscelestriangle(atrianglewithtwoequalsides)aspartof
ahomeworkassignment.Shehadastraightedgetodrawstraightlines,butdidn'thavea
rulertomeasurethelengthofhersides.Thus,allshecoulddowaseyeballthecorrect
lengths.Shedecidedtodrawmorethanonetrianglesothatshecouldgotoschoolalittle
early,getaruler,measureallofhertriangles,andselectthe"best"isoscelestriangleto
turnintotheteacher.
SupposeMaradrewthefollowingtriangles:

1.1 in

1.2 in

1.6 in

1.7 in
2.0 in

2.2 in

a.Whichtriangleshouldsheselecttoturnintotheteacher?Why?
b.SupposeMaradrew20trianglesliketheonesshownabove,butofvarioussizes.
Onceshemeasuresthelengthsofthesides,howshouldshegoaboutselectingwhich
triangleisthe"best"isoscelestriangle?
a. Actuallynoneofthetrianglesisisosceles.Thebestlookingonewillhaveitsratioof
designatedsidesclosestto1.Soitisamatterofdecidingwhichof1.1:1.2,1.6:1.7,
and2.0:2.2isclosesttoone.Usingfractionversionsmakesthecomparisonfairly
easy:11/12,16/17,20/22=10/11.Fractionconsiderationsshowthat16/17is
closestto1,sothetrianglewithsides1.6in.and1.7in.willbethebestlookingone.
(Remark:Aswiththesquarenessmeasure,studentsmayinsistonfocusingonthe
additivecomparison.Anexampleofatrianglewithsides0.1in.and0.2in.may
convincethemthatanadditivecomparisonisnotthebestwaytotell.)
b. Sheshouldfindtheonewiththeratioofthesupposedlyequallengthsidesclosestto
1.
5.

TherearefourwaterslidesattheSixFlagsAtlantiswaterpark.Thefollowingarethe
measurementsofthefourwaterslides.Circletheletterofthesteepestslide.

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A.Length:100ft.;height:81ft.

B.Length:60ft.;height:45ft.

C.Length:80ft.;height:70ft.

D.Length:10ft.;height:7ft.

C.Steepnesscanbemeasuredbytheheight:lengthratio.Usingthefractionformsand
numbersense,70:80isthelargestofthefourratios.
6.

a.3bagsofteaareusedwith4cupsofwaterinoneteapot,and10bagsofteawith12
cupsofwaterinanotherteapot.Whichpotwillhavethestrongertea,orwillthetwo
havethesamestrength?Explainyouranswer.
b.5scoopsofcoffeeareusedwith8cupsofwaterinonecoffeepot,while7scoopsof
coffeeareusedwith10cupsofwaterinanothercoffeepot.Whichpotwillhavethe
strongercoffee?Explainyouranswer.
c.Thetwoproblemsaboveweregiventoasixthgradeclass.Whichonedoyouthink
wasmoredifficult,andwhy?
a.The10bagsin12cupswillbestronger,sincethefirstmixturehas3/4bagpercupof
waterandthesecond10/12,or5/6,bagpercupofwater,and5/6>3/4.
b.The7scoops,10cupsofwatercoffeewillbestronger,because7/10scooppercup
ofwatergivesmorecoffeetastethan5/8scooppercupofwaterwill.
c.PartBalmostcertainlywouldbemoredifficultforsixthgraders,becausethe
additivecomparisonsforthetworecipesarethesame,adifferenceof3.And,there
isnotaneasyrelationshipbetweenthequantitiesinpartB,asthereisinpartA:12
cupsis3timesasmuchwateras4cups,sorepeatingthefirstrecipe3timeswould
mean9bagsfor12cups,aweakerteathanwiththe10bagsfor12cups.

7.

Twopaintersonalargeprojectwanttopaintdifferentareasthesamecolor.PainterA
mixes3quartsofredpaintwith2gallonsofwhitepaint,andPainterBmixes5quartsof
thesamekindofredpaintwith4gallonsofwhitepaint.PainterAsaysthetwomixtures
willbethesamecolorandPainterBsayshismixturewillberedderthanPainterAs.
Explainthethinkingofeachone.Whichone,ifeither,iscorrect?Explainyourdecision.
PainterAisusinganadditivecomparison;painterBislookingatthelargeramountof
redpaintinhismixture.Neitherreasoningiscorrect,sinceitistheratioofredtowhite
thatisimportant.ForA,R:W=3:2=(11/2):1,forB,R:W=5:4=(11/4):1,soAs
mixturewillberedder.

8.

Afriendneedsaseriousoperationandisconsideringtwohospitalsthathavethe
followingrecordsforthesurgery:
Successes

Failures

HospitalA

20

HospitalB

50

18

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ThefriendseesthatBhasmoresuccesses,butAhasfewerfailures,andasksyouforhelp
indeciding.Whatwillyousay?
(Assumethatineithercasethenumberofoperationsattemptedisenoughtogivethestaff
sufficientexperience.)Therearedifferentacceptableapproaches,buteachdependson
themultiplicativecomparisoninsomeform.Onewayistochecktherateof#offailures
persuccessHospitalA,F:S=8:20=0.4:1;HospitalB,F:S=18:50=0.36:1,soB
looksslightlybetter,havingalowerfailuretosuccessrate.Oronecouldcomparethe#
successes:#failuresrates.Oronecouldcalculatethepercentsofsuccessesinallthe
cases(A:20/2871%;B:50/6874%).
9.

Terryuses1cupofMr.Spiffyin 1 12 gallonsofwatertocleanthekitchenfloor.What
percentofthecleaningsolutionisMr.Spiffy?(Note:16cups=1gallon)SHOW
YOURWORKCLEARLYANDCIRCLEYOURANSWER.
The11/2gallons,or24cups,ofwater,plusthecupofMr.Spiffygives25cupsof
cleaningsolution.1:25or1/25=4%

10. Makeasketch,andgiveyourexplanation,toillustratethissituation:
Afterabakesale,therewere3identicalwhitecakesleft.Youandyourfriendsplitthem,
butyoutookonly 14 asmuchasyourfriendtook.LabelyourpartM(forme)andyour
friendspartF.
Howmuchofacake(orhowmanycakes)didyourfriendtake?(Givethenumerical
answerthatmakessensehere,andaddanexplanationifthenumericalanswerisnotclear
fromyoursketch.)
Rectangularcakesmaybeeasiertodealwith.Inanycase,themultiplicativecomparison
ofthetwosharesis1:4,sothecakesshouldbecutinto5equalamounts,with1partfor
Mand4partsforF.Thiscuttingcanbedoneintwoways.Thefirstiseasiercuteach
cakeinto5equalpieces.Thesecondisslightlyhardertosketchandthentonamethe
fractionscutthetotalofthe3cakesinto5equalpieces.Ineithercase,Fgets12/5,or2
2/5,cakes(12/5makesimmediatesensewiththefirstmethod;22/5maybemorenatural
forthesecondmethod).
11. Makeadrawingandgiveanexplanationtoillustrateandanswerthissituation:
KarenandSarabothjog.Sarajogged 2 12 miles,whichis 23 asfarasKarenjogged.How
manymilesdidKarenjog?
Each1/3ofKarensdistanceis11/4miles,soKarendistancewas33/4miles.Hereis
onesketch(othersarepossible,ofcourse):

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2
S'sjog

1
2

mi.

K'sjog

12. IftheBrownsweretosaveanadditional$14,000,theywouldhave 1 25 timesasmuch


moneyastheamounttheJoneshaveintheirsavingsaccount.TheJoneshave$65,000.
HowmuchdotheBrownscurrentlyhaveintheirsavingsaccount?SHOWYOUR
WORKCLEARLYANDCIRCLEYOURANSWER.
12/5timesasmuchas$65,000=$91,000.SotheBrownsmusthave$91,000$14,000
=$77,000intheirsavingsaccount
13. Agroupof37personsgoestoaholidaycampfor35days.Theyneedtobuyenough
sugarforthetrip.Theyreadthattheaverageconsumptionofsugaris2.2kgperweekfor
10persons.Howmuchsugardotheyneed?SHOWYOURWORKCLEARLYAND
CIRCLEYOURANSWER.
Oneway:The35daysis5weeks,sotheywillneed52.2=11kgforevery10persons
forthewholeperiod.Sincethereare37persons,theywillneed3.711=40.7kgof
sugarforthecamp.
14. Thepollsternoticedthatforevery40menwhowereinfavorofX,therewere28women
whowereinfavorofX.Accordingtothesefigures,if280menwereinfavorofX,how
manywomenwereinfavorofX?
A.400B.196 C.168

D.40

E.NoneofAD

15. Amachinecanmake700boltsin40minutes.Atthatrate,howmanyboltscanthe
machinemakeinonehour?
A.900B.1050C.2800D.28,000

E.NoneofAD

16. Miguelruns200metersin40seconds;Paulruns150metersin 12 minute.Whoruns


faster?
A.MiguelB.PaulC.Theyrunatthesamespeed.D.Moreinformationisneeded.
C(Eachruns300m/min.,or5m/s.)
17. Johndrives 7 103 milestocampuseachday,whileVanetadrivesonly4milestocampus.
JohndriveshowmanytimesasfarasVaneta?
(73/10):4translatesinto133/40timesasfar.
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18. Youranswerbooksaysthattheprobabilityof
Box1BBW
drawingaBballfromBox1(totheright)isthesame
Box2BBBBBBWWW
asforBox2.
Achildsays,"Theysay2to1givesthesameprobabilityas6to3does,butIdon'tseeit.
IthinkBox2hasalotmorechancesofgivingaB."
Howwouldyoutrytoconvincethechildthat2:1isindeedequalto6:3,usingtheballsin
theboxes(notjustsymbolicallywithnumbers)?
InBox2,drawringstoshowthreeBBWgroups.(RedrawingsothattheWsareunder
theBsmakesthateasier.)
19. Achildsaysthatthetwosituationsbelowwouldgivethesame"chocolateyness,"since
"Eachwayhasonemorespoonfulofchocolatesprinkles."
Situation13spoonfulsofchocolatesprinkleson2scoopsofvanillaicecream.
Situation24spoonfulsofchocolatesprinkleson3scoopsofvanillaicecream.
Giveadrawing(notjustcalculations)thatshouldhelpthechildseethatthe"chocolatey
ness"inthetwosituationswouldbedifferent.(Usewordsasneeded.)
DrawtoshowthatinSituation1,eachscoopgets11/2spoonfuls,andinSituation2,
eachscoopgets11/3spoonfuls.
20. Astoresells48pecanpiesforevery15bananapiesitsells.Atthisrate,ifthestoresells
60bananapies,howmanypecanpieswillitsell?
A.12 B.93

C.120

D.192

E.NoneofAD

21. Thepollsternoticedthatforevery8menwhowereinfavorofaballotmeasure,there
were5womenwhowereinfavorofthemeasure.Accordingtothesefigures,if1200
womenwereinfavorofthemeasure,howmanymenwereinfavorofthemeasure?
A.750B.1197 C.1920

D.2100

E.NoneofAD

22. Clarissaruns240metersin45seconds;Doaruns160metersin 12 minute.Whoruns


faster?
A.Clarissa B.Doa

C.Theyrunatthesamespeed.

D.Moreinformationisneeded.
A.Clarissa:Sheruns360metersinoneminute;Donaruns320metersinoneminute.

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23. Useathreecolumntabletosolvethisproblem.LabelthecolumnsPictureFrames,Cost,
andNotes.
Ifaboxof36pictureframes(allthesamekind)cost$86.40,howmuchwould5frames
cost?(Assumenosaleprice,discountforvolume,salestax,etc.)
Onepossibleanswer.

25.

PictureFrames

Cost

Notes

36

$86.40

given

18

$43.20

halvedeach

$21.60

halvedeach

$7.20

foundathirdofeach

$2.40

foundathirdofeach

$12.00

5(2+0.40)=$10+$2=$12.00

Feliciacanrunamilein4.7minutes.Howlongwouldittakehertorun8miles?
Thisisnotaproportionproblembecauseshecannotconceivablycontinuerunningat
suchaspeedfor8miles.

9.3PercentsinComparisonsandChanges
1.

15%ofagivenamountisthesameas10%oftheamountplus10%oftwicetheamount.
True

False

False .thesameas10%oftheamountplus10%ofhalftheamount.
2.

Terryuses1cupsofMr.Spiffyin 1 12 gallonsofwatertocleanthekitchenfloor.What
percentofthecleaningsolutionisMr.Spiffy?(Note:16cups=1gallon)
The11/2gallons,or24cups,ofwater,plusthecupofMr.Spiffygives25cupsof
cleaningsolution.1:25or1/25=4%(Thisitemisrepeatedfromearlier.)

3.

Whatdoes"thesalestaxrateis 7 43 %"mean?
Thetaxwillbe$7.75forevery$100ofgoods(or73/4forevery1dollarofgoods).

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4.

Youreceive12pointsoutof20onthefirstquiz,15pointsoutof20onthesecondquiz
and60pointsoutof75onthefirstmidterm.
a. Onwhichquizortestdidyouperformbest?Showyourwork.
b.Howwouldyoufindyouraveragescore?
c.Estimatewhatpercentthataveragerepresents.
a.12/20=60%,15/20=75%,60/75=80%,soyoudidbestonthemidterm.
bc.Assumingthatallpointsareweightedequally,addthetotalnumberofpoints
received,andcomparethattothetotalnumberofpointspossible:
(12+15+60)/
(20+20+75)=87/11575.6%(viaestimation:87/11587/111= (9x87)/999
783/1000=78.3%).Incontrast,assumingthataquizhasequalweight asamidterm
(unlikely),(60%+75%+80%)/371.7%(viaestimation:215%3
71%).You
mightwishtoaskyourstudentswhythatsecondaverageislower (equatingtheweights
makesthe60%quizperformancemoreinfluentialthanifthe
averagewerebased
onequalvaluesforeachpoint).

5.

Katheeowedherdad$80andthenpaidoff$24fromhertipearnings.
a.Whatpercentoftheoriginaldebthadshepaid?
b.Whatpercentwasstillowed?
c. Whatwashernewdebtafterthepayment?
Thefollowingeveningshepaidhimanadditional$20fromhertipearnings.
d.Whatpercentofhernewdebtwaspaidoff?
e.Whatwasherdebtafterthelastpayment?
f. Whatpercentofheroriginaldebtisnowpaidoff?
a.30%

b.70%

c.$56

d.35.7%

e.$36 f.55%

6.Ifthisboxrepresents75%ofsomething,modifytheboxsothatitrepresents125%ofthe
samething.

Dividetheboxinto3equalparts,thenaddanadditionaltwopartsofthesamesize.

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7. Themediancostofhousingrose25%inonecityinaparticularyear.Themedianprice
wasthen$360,000.Whatwasthemediancostofhousingattheendofthepreviousyear?
About$288,000.
8. Galaapplesareonsaletoday,at$1.30perpound.Thisisadiscountof30%.Whatwas
thecostbeforethesale?
About$1.86
9.

TheNasdaqclosedat1,590today,offby0.09%.WhattheNasdaqatyesterdays
closing?
About1591.4 (themainideaistocatchincorrectthinkingorpoornumbersense)

10.Estimateeachofthefollowingandexplainhowyouarrivedatyourestimate:
a.79%of$119
b. 0.5%of89kilograms
c.31%of21,343voters
d.121%of$29
Herearesomepossiblewaystoestimate:
a.About80%of$120:10%is$12;8x$12is$96
b.1%is0.9,halfofthatis0.45kilograms
c.Aboutathirdof21,000,so7000voters
d.About$30+$3+$3isabout$36

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Chapter10WhatstotheLeftof0?
10.1AddingandSubtractingSignedNumbers
1. Completethefollowing.Foreachsubtractionproblem,firstrewriteitasanaddition
problem.

b.3+ 5=

f. 2 5=

1
2

j. 17 +(

a. 7+ 8=

e.17 3=
5

i. 4 +

c16+ 14=

g. 139=

11

11
17 )

a. 15

b. 2

e.17 3=17+3=20

h.14 16=

k. 2.64.5

l. 3.172.4

c.2

d. 23

h.14 16=14+16=30

j.0

f. 2 5= 2+5=3

g. 139= 13+ 9= 22
i. 4

d. 21+ 2=

k. 2.6+ 4.5 = 7.1

l. 3.17+ 2.4= 5.57

2. Reorderthesenumbersfromsmallesttolargest:
7.4%

21
5
7 4

5
14

11
6

11
6

1.5

0.2

1.52.8 0.2 1 54
5

0.27.4% 0.2 4 2.8

21
7

3.Completethisfactfamilytable:

3+ 5= 2

3+ 5= 2

2 5=3

5+3= 2

23= 5

4. Isthestatementa+b=/a//b/alwaystrue,sometimestrue,ornevertrue?Explainyour
answer.
Sometimestrue.Ifaispositiveandbisnegativeand|a|>|b|thena+b=/a//b/butifa

ispositiveandbisnegativea+b= (/b//a/).

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5.

Explainhowonecouldusewhite(positive)anddark(negative)chipstomodelthe
following
a. 4+(6)
b. 5(2)
a.

b.

Addingtwowhiteandtwodarkdoesnotchangethevalueinthefirstbox.Thenremove
+

twodarkstorepresentsubtracting2.Thisleavessevenwhites,or 7.
4.

Whichpropertiesdoeseachofthefollowinginvolve?
a.(2+3)+5=(3+2)+5
b.(2+3)+5=5+(3+2)
c.(2+3)+5=2+(3+5)
aandb.Commutativityofadditionc.Associativityofaddition.

10.3MultiplyingandDividingRationalNumbers
1.Does0haveamultiplicativeinverse?Explain.
No,0doesnothaveamultiplicativeinverse.Therewouldhavetobeanumbernsuchthat
0n=1,but0nalways=0.Sononumberwouldworkasthemultiplicativeinverseof
0.
2.

Completethefollowing:

a. 7 8=

b.3 5=

c16 2=

ReasoningAboutNumbersandQuantitiesTestBankItemswithAnswers

d. 21 2=

page98

e.18 3=
1
2

i. 4
a.56

2.

h.4 16=

l. 1.2 2.4

g. 189=

11
17
j. 17 ( 11 )

k. 8.64.3

c. 32

1
4

i. 2 2

b. 15

g. 2

f. 2 5=

h.

d.42

j. 1

f. 5

l. 2

e. 6

k. 2

Continuethefollowingpatternofmultiplicationofintegerswithsixmoreproductsinthe
pattern.Themultipliersdecreaseby_____eachtime.Themultiplicandisalways4.
Theproduct____creasesby_______eachtime.Forthispatterntocontinueworking,
theproductoftwonegativeintegersmustbe_____________________________

3 4=12

2 4=8........

1 4= 4

0 4=0

1 4=4

2 4=8

3 4=12

4 4=16.

Themultipliersdecreaseby__1___eachtime.Themultiplicandisalways 4.The
product__in__creasesby__4_____eachtime.Forthispatterntocontinueworking,the
productoftwonegativeintegersmustbe___positive_________________
3.

Givetheexactanswertoeachofthefollowing,takingadvantageofproperties.Thentell
whichpropertyorpropertiesenabledyoutoanswerthemsoeasily.
a.If213five142five=41401five,then142five213five=______five.
Property(ies):

b. 179
196

________

c.84.96100%=_________

Property(ies):
Property(ies):

d.(548+ 967)+548=_______ Property(ies):


a.41401five
b.179/196
c.84.96
d.967

Commutativepropertyofmultiplication
Identitypropertyofaddition
Identitypropertyofmultiplication
Commutativepropertyofaddition,associativepropertyof
addition,additiveinverseproperty,identitypropertyofaddition

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3.

Matchtheoperationsandthenamesofpropertiesbyplacingthecorrectnumbertothe
leftofthelettersAE.(Notallpropertiesontherightwillnecessarilybeused;somemay
beusedmorethanonce.)
__a.3(2+5)=3(5+2)

1.associativepropertyofmultiplication

__b.3(2+5)=(32)+(35)

2.additiveidentityproperty

__c.4+( 3+ 1)+2=(4+ 3)+( 1+2)3.multiplicativeinverseproperty


__d.5+(8+0)=5+8

4.additiveinverseproperty

__e41=4

5.commutativepropertyofaddition

__f.6+(4+ 4)=6+0
__g. 23

6.associativepropertyofaddition

__h.3 (5 0)=(5 0) 3

8.multiplicativeidentityproperty

__i.3+(2+5)=(3+2)+5

9.commutativepropertyofmultiplication

a.5

b.7

c.6

d.2

7.distributivepropertyofover+

e.8

f.4

g.3

h.9

i.6

10.4OtherNumberSystems
1. Considerclockarithmeticusingaclockwithfournumbers:0,1,2,and3.
a.Completethesetables:
+
0
1
2
3
0
1
2
3

0
1
2
3

b.Doyouthinkthesetofnumbers,0,1,2,3,isclosedunderaddition?Ifnot,providean
examplethatshowsitisnot.
c.Doyouthinkthesetofnumbers,0,1,2,3,isclosedundermultiplication?Ifnot,
provideanexamplethatshowsitisnot.
d.Isthereanadditiveidentity?Ifso,whatisit?
e.Isthereamultiplicativeidentity?Ifso,whatisit?

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f.Does3haveanadditiveinverse?Isso,whatisit?
g.Does2haveamultiplicativeinverse?Ifso,whatisit?
h.Doyouthinkadditioncommutative?Isso,provideanexample.
i.Doyouthinkmultiplicationiscommutative?Ifso,provideanexample.
j.Doyouthinkadditionassociative?Isso,provideanexample.
k.Doyouthinkmultiplicationisassociative?Ifso,provideanexample.
l.Doyouthinkmultiplicationisdistributiveoveraddition?Ifso,provideanexample.
a.

+
0
1
2
3
0
1
2
3
0
0
1
2
3
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
2
3
0
1
0
1
2
3
2
2
3
0
1
2
0
2
0
2
3
3
0
1
2
3
0
3
2
1
b.Thesetisclosedunderaddition.Allsumsare0,1,2,or3.
c.Thesetisclosedundermultiplication.Allproductsare0,1,2,or3.
d.0istheadditiveidentity:anynumberplus0isthatnumber.
e.1isthemultiplicativeidentity:anynumbertimes1isthatnumber.
f.Yes.Theadditiveinverseof3is1:3+1=0,whichistheadditiveidentity.
g.No.Thereisnonumberwhich,ifmultipliedby2,is0.(Allproductswith2asafactor
areeither0or2.)
h.Yes,additioniscommutative.Example:1+3=0and3+1=0
i.Yes,multiplicationiscommutative.Example:2 3=2and3 2=2
j.Yes,additionisassociative.Example:2+(3+1)=(2+3)+1because
theleftsideis2+0=2andtherightsideis1+1=2.
k.Yes,multiplicationisassociative.Example:2 (3 1)=(2 3) 1because
theleftsideis2 3=2andtherightsideis2 1=2.
l.Yes,multiplicationisdistributiveoveraddition.Example:3 (2+3)=
(3 2)+(3 3)because3 1=3and2+1=3.

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Chapter11NumberTheory
11.1FactorsandMultiples,PrimesandComposites,and
11.2PrimeFactorization
1.

Thefollowingsoundsallright,butitisnotalwaystrue.Giveacounterexample.
"Supposethatkisnotafactorofmandkisnotafactorofn.Thenkisnotafactorof
m+n."Counterexample:
Manypossibilities.Sample:3isnotafactor4and3isnotafactorof2.But3isafactor
of4+2=6.

2.

What,ifanything,canyousayabouttheoddnessorevennessofm
a.when5063338misanevennumber
b.when5063338+misanevennumber
a.Nothingcanbesaidaboutm(theproductwillbeevennomatterwhethermisevenor
odd).
b.mmustbeeven.

3.

TF5isamultipleof0.(ExplainifF.)
FAllmultiplesof0equal0,sincem0=0.

4.

Saythesamethingasthefollowingsentence,butusetheword"multiple."
360isafactorofN.
Nisamultipleof360.

5.

Rephrasing:

Ifn=43759462138999999249+764321572,thenisnanevennumber,orisnanodd
number?Explainyouranswer.
niseven.Sincethesquareofanoddnumberisodd,thesumoftheoddandoddwillbe
even

6.

CircleTifthestatementistrue,Fotherwise.
TF

Everywholenumberisamultipleofitself.

T(m=1m)

TF

Itispossibleforanevennumbertohaveanoddfactor.

T(e.g.,12)

TF

Zeroisamultipleofeverywholenumber.

T(0=0m)

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TF
7.

50

30

T( 100 )

2 isafactorof100 .

Does0haveanyfactors?Explainyouranswer._________because
Yes, every number m is a factor of 0, since 0 = 0m.

8.

9.

CircleTifthestatementistrue,Fotherwise.
TF

Everywholenumberisafactorofitself.

TF

Itispossibleforanoddnumbertohaveanevenfactor.

TF

Zeroisafactorofeverywholenumber.

TF

5 isafactorof50 .

20

12

F(0isafactoronlyof0)

T( 50 )

Ofwhatnumbers,ifany,is0amultiple?Explainyouranswer.
0isamultipleofeverynumberm,since0m=0

10. Suppose7isnotafactorofn.Can21beafactorofn?If21canbeafactorofn,givean
exampleforn.If21cannotbeafactorofn,giveanexplanationfrombasicprinciples.
No.If21wereafactorofx,x=(some#)21.But21=37,sothen
xwould=(some#)37and7wouldhavetobeafactorofx.
11. Determinewhethermandnareprimes.Writeonlyenoughtomakeyourdecisionsclear.
a.m=2329(=667)______________because
b.n=133____________because
a.Notaprime(23or29isathirdfactor)
b.Prime,becausenoneof2,3,5,7,11,13,etc.,isafactor(Instructor:Ifyouhave
introducedthe n boundfortestingofprimes,yourstudentshouldstopwith11.)
12. Is245aprimenumber?Explain.______because
No,5isathirdfactor.
13. TFTherearenovaluesofbandcforwhich27b=9c.(Explain,ifF.)
F 27 b and 9 c andallthatisrequiredisthat3b=2c,forwhich
thereareinfinitelymanysolutionse.g.,b=2,c=3;b=4,c=6;b=6,c=9;

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14. TFTherearenovaluesofrandsforwhich11r=9s.(Explain,ifF.)
T(uniquefactorizationintoprimes)
15. IsthereawholenumberMwhichwouldmakethistrue?Ifso,tellwhatMis.Ifnot,tell
whynot.
a.35.52.173=34.174.M
b.24.72.118.22=25.7.116.M
Itmaybeagoodideatocitetherelevanceoftheuniquefactorizationintoprimesresult.
a.Notpossiblebecausetherearealreadytoomany17sontherighthandside.
b. 7 (Noticethatthelefthandsideisnotinitsprimefactorizationform.)
16. Givetheprimefactorizationofn,wheren=4x720x5000.Ifitisnotpossible,explain
whynot.
2 5
m

60

59

17. Isitpossibletofindanonzerowholenumbermsothat14 =2 7
Explain.

?____

No.Since14=27,14toanypowerwillhavethesamenumberof2sas7s.
18. KNOWLEDGEOFNUMBERTHEORYQUESTION;NOCALCULATORS.Without
calculation,explainwhyRomeoandJulietcanorcannotbothbecorrect,whentheyare
talkingaboutthesamelargenumber:
2

Romeo:"Thenumberis71117 376797."
2

Juliet:"Thenumberis31121 376789."
____________because
No,Julietsnumberhas3asafactor,butRomeosdoesnot.Itmaybeagoodideatocite
therelevanceoftheuniquefactorizationintoprimesresult.
2

19. Itiscorrectthat3721164=1217 2937.


Givetheprimefactorizationof372116400(noticetheextratwozeros).
Hint:Donotworktoohard.

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2 4 (Studentsmayoverlookthe12intheoriginalfactorization;despite
thehint,somemaynotrecognizethatthetargetnumberisjust100timestheoriginal
one.)
20. Isthisallright?Ifitis,explainwhy.Ifitisnot,giveacounterexample.
"Ifanumberhasnfactors(n>1),thenthesquareofthenumberhas2nfactors."
No.Studentsshouldhavenotroublefindingacounterexample(theitemisjusttesting
abilitytoreadanifthenandknowwhatacounterexampleis).
21. Whenyouwereaspy,twoofyourpaidinformantsgaveyouthefollowinginformation
aboutthesamesecretcodenumber:
Informant1:"Thecodenumberis3370someoddnumber."
Informant2:"Thecodenumberis3566someevennumber."
Whatcanyoutellfromyourinformants'information?
Theirinformationisinconsistent.Althoughtheknownnumbersdogivethesameprime
factorization,Informant2sevennumberwouldinvolveanotherfactorof2that
Informant1soddnumbercouldnot.
22. Fillintheblankstomakeatruesentence.Ifnonumberoralgebraicexpressionwill
makethesentencetrue,sayso.
a. Anexampleofanumberwhichhasanoddnumberoffactorsis_______.
b.Ifn=138.1710,thentheprimefactorizationof26.nis_____________.
c.3willbeafactorof140000000?000000014ifthemissingdigit,?,is__or__or__.
a.Sample:4
b. 2
c.2or5or8
23. THEORYQUESTION;NOCALCULATORS.Isitpossible,forsomechoiceofpositive
wholenumbersmandn,that45m=15n?Justifyyouranswer.
No. Comparing 45 m , shows that m would have to equal n
because of the 5s and then the 2m n (m and n are to be positive).
24. Everytwodifferentprimenumbersarerelativelyprime.
True
False

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25.TFIfwewritethefirst10,000numbersin6columns,asstartedbelow,then9999would
beinthe5thcolumn.Writeenough(numbers,words)tomakeyourthinkingclear.)
123456
789101112
etc.
False 10000 6 = 1666 R 4, so 10,000 numbers would occupy 1666 full rows and only
4 into the next row. 10,000 would be in the 4th column so 9999 would be in the third
column. Another way to think about this is that the numbers in the first column
always
have the form 6n +1, the second column 6n +2, the third column 6n + 3, the fourth
column 6n + 4, the fifth column 6n + 5, and the sixth column 6n. 9999 = 6 x 1666+3
so9999wouldbeinthethirdcolumn.
26. Tellthedifferencebetween(a)"giveaprimefactorof350"vs"giveaprimefactorization
of350,"andthedifferencebetween(b)"giveanumberthathasanoddfactor"vs"givea
numberthathasanoddnumberoffactors."
a.Giveaprimefactorof350meanstoidentifyonlyoneoftheprimefactorsof350,
whereasgiveaprimefactorizationof350meanstogiveaproductofprimesequal
to350.
b. Give a number that has an odd factor means to find a number that has a factor that
is 3, 5, 7, 9, etc., but give a number that have an odd number of factors means to
find a number such that when you find all of its factors, there are an odd number of
them.
27. Saythesamethingasthefollowingsentence,butusetheword"factor."
Misamultipleof240.

Rephrasing:

240isafactorofM.
28. Put0and2(oneofeach)intotheblankstomakeatruestatement,andexplain.Ifitis
notpossible,explainwhy.
_____isamultipleof_____because_________________________
0,2,because0=02
29 CircleTifthestatementisalwaystrue,Fifitisalwaysfalse,andDifitdependsonthe
valueofavariable.Thevariablenrepresentsapositivewholenumber.
TFDIf27isafactorofn,thennisamultipleof27.

30. Givetheprimefactorizationofn,wheren=137x3000.

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2 3
31. Ineachpart,findawholenumberformtomaketheequalitytrue.Ifitisnotpossible,
explainwhy.Forcredit,yourworkshouldshowanunderstandingofnumbertheory.
a.52 103 176=23 176 m
b.52 76 114=5 356 114 m
a. m = 5 5
b. Not possible, since there are already more 5s on the right-hand side than appear on
the left-hand side.
32. Explain,withoutextensivecalculation,whythefollowingequationcanorcannotbe
correct:
172 192 375=184 414
Itis_______________________because(Inyourexplanationthegraderwilllookfora
clearreferencetoamajortheoreticalresult.)
It cannot be correct, since 17 appears as a factor on the left-hand side, but not on the
right-hand side. Unique factorization into primes says this is impossible.
33. (THEORYQUESTION;NOCALCULATORS)Isitpossible,forsomechoiceof
positivewholenumbersmandn,that35m=25n?Justifyyourdecision.
No, since 35 m involves factors of 7, which cannot appear in the factorization of 25 n .
34. Name the number of factors of each of these numbers and list them, in factored form.
a. 52 173

b.35

a.12:50 17050 171


51 17051 171

50 172

51 172 51 173

52 17052 17152 172


b.6.

50 173

52 173

303132333435(1,3,9,27,81,243)

35.Whatisthelargestprimenumberthatyouneedtotexttocheckfordivisibilityof
a.173

b.982

a. 13because13 13=169whichisthelargestsquaresmallerthan173.
b.31because31 31=961isthelargestsquarelessthan982.

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36.Whenthenumber540iswrittenasaproductofitsprimefactorsintheform a 2b 3c ,what
isthenumericalvalueofa+b+c?Chooseoneofthefollowing:
A.30

B.5

C.6

D.7

C.

11.3DivisibilityTeststoDetermineWhetheraNumberIsPrime
1.

Circlethenumbersthatareprime.Ifanumberisnotprime,listatleastthreefactors
belowthenumber.

392523121161.7312143

Only43isaprime.121=11x11andthesumofthedigitsof5231211adduptoa
multipleof3
2.

Circlethenumbersbelowthatdivide11220.
2,3,4,5,6,8,9,10,12,15,18,20
Allexcept8,9,and18divide11220.

3.

a.Stateadivisibilitytestfor8.
b.Explainwhyyourtestinpartawilldefinitelywork,usingthegeneral7"digit"
number,abcdefginyourexplanation.
a. 8 is a factor of n if and only if 8 is a factor of the number named by the rightmost
three digits.
b. abcdefg and8isafactorof1000(1000=8125),sowhether8
isafactorof abcdefg willdependonwhether8isafactorofefg.

4.

KNOWLEDGEOFNUMBERTHEORYQUESTION;NOCALCULATORS
a.Circleanywhichisafactorof62296715880,whichisequalto
3

2 3 5747 3119 .
15 16

21

75

94

217

n=1931

b.ExplainhowyouknowthatyouranswersinpartAarecorrect,evenwithout
calculation.
a. 15, 21, 94 (=247), and 217 (=731) are the only ones.
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b. By unique factorization into primes, the given factorization gives those prime factors,
and only those prime factors, that are possible for the given number, as well as the
number of appearances of each prime factor. Hence, the prime factors of any
composite factor of the given number can involve only the primes given, and no more
than the number available.
5.

KNOWLEDGEOFNUMBERTHEORYQUESTION;NOCALCULATORS
Circleanywhichisafactorof80000000005332:
3

91215

3,4,6,12.Not5,8,9,and15
6.

Foreachpart,giveanexample,ifoneexists.Ifthereisnoexample,explainwhynot.
a.Awholenumberwhichhas15,21,and1000asfactors,butdoesnothave9asa
factor.
b.Aprimenumberthathas7and19asfactors,andisnotaperfectsquare.
a. Thenumbermusthave23,3,53,and7asfactors,so23x 3x53x7wouldhave15,21,
and1000asfactorsbut9wouldnotbeafactor.(On tests, usually without calculators
permitted, we allow an answer to be left in factored form.)
b. Not possible, if 7 and 19 are factors, there will be more than two factors since 1 and
the number itself are already two factors.

7.

KNOWLEDGEOFNUMBERTHEORYQUESTION;NOCALCULATORS.
Circleeachofthegivenchoicesthatisafactorofthegivennumbern.
n=22.103.711.135
Choices: 8

14

21

28

35

Only21isnotafactor.(Studentsmayoverlookthatnisnotquiteinprimefactored
form.)
8.

Ifitispossible,giveawholenumberthatisrelativelyprimeto24.Ifitisnotpossible,
explainwhy.
There are many possibilities, so long as the number avoids prime factors that appear in
the prime factorization of 24: 2 and 3. Examples: 5, 11, 13, 35, 49, 53,

9.

Stateadivisibilitytestfor4,andexplainwhyitworks.
4isafactorofnifandonlyif4isafactorofthenumbernamedbytherightmosttwo
digits.Thetestworksbecauseanumbercanbeexpressedasacertainnumberof100s,

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pluswhateverisnamedbytherightmosttwodigits.Since4isafactorof100,
divisibilityofthewholenumberwilldependexclusivelyonwhether4isafactorofthe
numbernamedbytherightmosttwodigits.
10. KNOWLEDGEOFTHEORYQUESTION;NOCALCULATORS)

Isitpossible,forsomechoiceofpositivewholenumbersmandn,that75m=25n?
Justifyyourdecision.
No, since 75 m involves factors of 3, which cannot appear in the factorization of 25 n .

11.4GreatestCommonFactor,LeastCommonMultiple
1.Writetheprimefactorizationofeachofthefollowing.(Showyourwork.)
a.1485:
b.792:
c.Nameallcommonfactorsof1485and792(Theycanbeinfactoredform).
d.Whatisthegreatestcommonprimefactorof1485and792?_________
a. 33

b. 2 3

c.3, 32 ,11,33,99 d.11

2. a.Whatistheleastcommonmultipleof1485and792(infactoredform)?
b.Writetwoothercommonmultipleof1485and792.
a. 2 3 b. 2 4 and 2 5 aretwopossibleanswers.
3.

Ifitispossible,giveawholenumberthatisrelativelyprimeto24.Ifitisnotpossible,
explainwhy.
Therearemanypossibilities,solongasthenumberavoidsprimefactorsthatappearin
theprimefactorizationof24:2and3.Examples:5,7,19,35,49,53,(Thisitemis
repeatedfromanearliersection.)

4.

SupposeK= 2 5 ,L= 2 3 M= 2 andN= 4


Nametheleastcommonmultipleofeachofthefollowing(infactoredform).
a.KandL
b.MandN
c.KandM

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d.K,LandN
a. 2 5

b. 2 2

c. 2 5

d. 2 5

5. UsingK,L,M,andNasdefinedabove,namethegreatestcommonfactorofeachofthe
following(infactoredform).
a.KandN
b.KandL
c.MandN
d. K,L,andM
a. 2 2

b. 2 3

c. 2

d.2

6.Writethesenumbersinsimplestform:

7.

a. 26
65

b. 616

c. 129
215

a. 25

b. 7

c. 53

792

a.Usetheprimefactorizationsof345,264,and495tofindtheleastcommonmultiple
ofthethreenumbers.
b.Computethefollowing: 345
495

(Leavetheanswerinfactoredform.)

a. 345 264 495 LCMis


264

b. 345
495

8. Twoneighboringsatellitessendoutsignalsatregularintervals.Onesendsasignalevery
180seconds,andtheothersendsasignalevery280seconds.Ifbothsatellitessendouta
signalat12:00midnightonJanuary1,whenwillbethenexttimethattheybothsendout
asignalatthesametime?
12:42a.m.Thenextsimultaneousoccurrencewillhappenwhenamultipleof180
secondsnextcoincideswithamultipleof280seconds,thatis,attheleastcommon
multipleof180and280.Thiswillfirsthappen2520seconds,or42minutes,later.

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9. Hamburgerpattiescomeinpackagesof16,andhamburgerbunscomeinbagsof12.
Howmanyofeachdoyouneedtobuysothatyouhavethesamenumberofbunsasyou
doofhamburgers?
TheLCMof16and12is48,sobuy3packagesofpattiesand4dozenbuns.
10.Asacharitableservice,yourclassundertakesaprojectwheretheyfillbackpackswith
schoolsuppliesforrecentimmigrants.Thedonationsinclude135notebooks,216pencils,
and81pens.Youwanttouseallthedonationsandincludethesamenumberofeachitem
ineachbackpack.Whatisthelargestnumberofbackpacksyoucanfillandhowmany
itemswillbeineachbackpack?
5notebooks,8pencils,3pensin27backpacks:GCFisthenumberofbackpacks.
11.Twofootballplayersareworkingoutbyrunningaroundatrack.Thefirstcanrunthe
trackin3minutes,andthesecondonecanrunthetrackin4minutes.Iftheybeginatthe
startingpointatthesametimeandruninthesamedirectionatthesamerates,whenwill
thebothbeatthestartingpointagain?
12minutes
12.ThebandhasbeeninvitedtomarchattheRoseParadeandneedtomakemoneytocover
theexpenses.Thedivideupintothreeteamsandshovelsnowfromdrivewaysforfour
daysbeforeChristmas.Thefirstteammade$315,thesecond$240,andthethird$210.
Iftheychargedaflatrateforeachdriveway,whatwasthatrate?
GCF(315,240,210)=15,so$15

ReasoningaboutAlgebraandChange
Chapter12
1. Completion.
A.Asthedemandforhousingincreases,thepriceofhousing________________.
B.SaythatC=10020tdescribestheCelsiustemperatureCvstimetinhours,asaliquid
coolsdown.The20tellsyouthisaboutthesituation:___________________
2. Completeeachsentencewith"increases,"decreases,""doesn'tchange,"or"can'tsayanything
definite,"asappropriate.
Asthesemestergoeson,thenumberofdaysuntilfinalexams_____________.

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Asaperson'speanutbutterconsumptionincreases,hermilestraveledto
work_______________.
Asthespeedofacarincreases,thestoppingdistanceofthecar____________.
Asthenumberofcalculationsincreases,theprobabilityofanerror____________.
3. Whatcoordinategraphingconventionsarebeingviolatedbythefollowinggraphofdata
showingcandybarsalesforthreechildrenwhosoldfordifferentamountsoftime?
No.of
candybars
sold

14
13
12
11
10
3

No.ofhours
spent

4.BelowisagraphforCandle1.
Candle2(graphnotgiven)burnsaccordingtoh=2t+25,wherehistheheightincmt
minutesafterbeinglit.

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Height (cm)

30
27
24
21
18
15
12

Candle 1

9
6
3
0

Time (min.)

12 15 18 21 24 27 30 33 36 39 42 45 48 51

A.Whichcandle,1or2,burnsatafasterrate?Explain.
Candle___because
B.WriteanequationthatdescribesCandle1'sheighthvstimeburningt.
h=_________________
C.Ontheabovecoordinatesystem,drawthegraphfortheburningofCandle2.
(h=2t+25)Whatinformationdoesthe25give?
D.ExactlyhowmanyminuteswillCandle2last,afteritislit?_________minutes
E.Ifthetwocandles,1and2,arelitatthesametime,willtheyeverbethesameheight
(beforetheybothburnout)?If"Yes,"tellwhen(approx.).If"No,"tellwhynot.
5. Thebowlingplaceisundernewownership!Thenewownersplantochargeforshoesball
rentalandofcourseforeachgame,sothattheirdollarincome,I,fromabowlerwhorents
shoesballandwhobowlsngamesisI=2n+2.5.
A.Howmucharetheyplanningtochargeforshoesballrental?______

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Thatplandidnotwork,sothey
wanttotryanewplan(graphto
theright).
B.Howmuchwilltheychargeper
game,underthenewplan?

Cost($)

8
6

______

C.Willtheymakemoremoney
underthenewplan?Explain.

6.Abakerykeepsrecordsandmakes
graphsofitscookieproduction.Tothe
rightarepartialgraphsfortwodays.

2
1

6 #of
games

Numberof
cookies
Tuesday
10000

A.Writeastorythatmighttellwhat
happenedonTuesday.Donot
introduceanynumbersbesides
thoseindicatedforTuesday.

Friday
0

8 Numberof
hours

B.WhatistheslopeforFriday'sgraph,andwhatdoesthatslopemeanaboutthecookie
situation?Showyourwork.
Slope:________Meaning:
7. Anewcandleis12incheslongandburns3inchesevery20minutes.Inagraphshowingthe
heightofthecandleasitburnsminutebyminute,whatistheslope?Whatdoesthatslope
meaninthissituation?
Chapter13
1. Completion.
A.Ataspeedof80m/min,Dudecango170metersin___minutes_____sec(exactly).
B.Foraturtletripofnfeetin10seconds,turtle'sspeedis_____________.
C.Atripofmfeetataspeedof25feetpersecondtakes_________seconds.
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2. TFThisisanacceptablestoryforthe

Distance
travelled

graphtotheright:"Irodemybikeup
ahillandthendowntheotherside."
time

3.
Story:WileyCoyote,Jr.,leftschoolataslowbutsteadypace,headingforhiscave.
Whenhewasonethirdofthewaytothecave,herealizedthathehadforgottenhismath
book,soheranbacktoschooltogetit.Whilehewasatschoolheplayedforawhile
withsomeothercoyotes.Hethenrealizedthathewouldbelateforsupper,sohestarted
joggingatasteadyratetowardthecave.Abouthalfwaytothecave,hethoughtthathe
wasstillgoingtobelate,soheranfasterandgottothecaveintimeforsupper.
Drawtwoqualitativegraphsforthestory,oneshowingWiley'sdistancefromthecavevs.
timesinceheleftschool.ThesecondgraphshouldshowWiley'stotaldistancetraveledvs.
timesinceheleftschool.Thetwographsshouldbecoordinatedsothatcorrespondingtimes
lineup.

Distancefrom
cave

0
Totaldistance
traveled

Timesince
leftschool

Timesince
leftschool

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4.(notthesameas#3involvesspeed)
Story:WileyCoyoteleftschoolataslowbutsteadypace,headingforhiscave.Whenhe
wasonethirdofthewaytothecave,herealizedthathehadforgottenhismathbook,sohe
ranbacktoschooltogetit.Whilehewasatschoolheplayedcheckersforawhilewith
someothercoyotes.Hethenrealizedthathewouldbelateforsupper,sohestartedjogging
atasteadyratetowardthecave.Abouthalfwaytothecave,hethoughtthathewasstill
goingtobelate,soheranfasterandgottothecaveintimeforsupper.
Drawtwoqualitativegraphsforthestory,oneshowingWiley'sdistancefromthecavevs.
timesinceheleftschool.ThesecondgraphshouldshowWiley'sspeedvs.timesinceheleft
school.Thetwographsshouldbecoordinatedsothatcorrespondingtimeslineup.Donot
worryaboutnegativespeeds.

Distancefrom
cave

Timesince
leftschool

Speed

Timesince
leftschool

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5. WhenisthespeedgreateratAoratB?

distance
travelled

Greaterat____because
A

time

6. Completeaqualitativedistancetimegraphforthefollowingstory.Makeclearwhatyour
distancerefersto.
"Wileyisinhiscaveandthenwalksslowlytowardacanyon,planningtomakea
trapforRoadrunner.Halfwaythere,hestopsforashortrest.Thenhejogsonto
makeupforlosttime.Whenhegetstothecanyon,herealizesthatitisalmosttime
forAnimalPlanetonTV,soherunsasfastashecanbacktothecave."
7. "WileywalkedoutofthecavetowardRoadrunner'susualrestingspot,andafterawhile
startedslowlycrawlingtosneakuponRoadrunner.RoadrunnersawWiley,however,and
withWileyclosebehindranveryfaststraighttoasecrethidingplacerightnexttoWiley's
cave."
Makequalitativegraphsforthestoryonthefollowingthreecoordinatesystems.The
systemsarealignedsothatyourgraphcanshoweventsatthesametimeforthedifferent
quantities.
Wiley'sdistance
fromcave

time

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Wiley'stotal
distance

time
Roadrunner'sdistance
fromthecave

time

8. Givetheindicatedcompaniongraph,ineachcase.
A. distance

B. speed

time
speed

time
distance

time

time

9. A.Writeashortstorythatwouldyieldthisgraph.

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distance

time

B.WriteashortstorythatwouldyieldthegraphinpartA,butwithspeedonthevertical
scaleinsteadofdistance.
10.Belowisaflaskforwater:Sketchagraphtoshowtherelationshipofthevolumeofthe
waterintheflaskandtheheightofthewateraswaterispouredintotheemptyflaskina
steadystream.

height
volume

Chapter14
1. Puttheletterofthegraphfromtheright
thatwouldbemostlikelytobelongto
thegivenequation.
___y=2x+7
___y=2x+7

A
y
B
C

D
E

___y= 22
33 x
41
___y= 50
x

2. Writeanequationforeachofthese,andastoryforthegraphinpartB.

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A.Ourdogeats 12 poundofdogfoodeveryday.Webuyabagthatweighs24pounds.
Whatamount,A,remainsafterddays?
Equation:A=

y
B.
25
Equation: y =

20

10

Storyforthegraph:
3.OrdinarilyittakesBrother20minutestogofromhometoschool,andittakesSister16
minutestogofromhometoschool.Eachchildwalksatasteadyrate.TodayBrotherleft
homeat8:00a.m.andsogota3minuteheadstartonSister,wholeftat8:03.

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A.DrawagraphtoshowthepercentofthedistancetoschoolthatSisterhascoveredvs.
thetime.LabelthegraphS.
Percentofdistance
toschool(p)

100

50

10
8:00

8:05

8:10

8:20

8:15

Time

B.Onthecoordinatesystemabove,drawasecondgraphtoshowthepercentofthe
distancetoschoolthatBrotherhascovered.LabelthegraphB.
C.Accordingtoyourgraphs,willSistercatchupwithBrother?Ifso,howdoyouknow,
andwhendoesshecatchup?Ifnot,howdoyouknow?
D.WhatistheslopeofBrother'sgraph,andwhatdoesthatslopemean,inthissituation?
Slope:

Means:

4. OrdinarilyittakesBrother20minutestogofromhometoschool,andittakesSister16
minutestogofromhometoschool.TodayBrothergota2minuteheadstartonSister.
home

school

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A.DrawagraphtoshowthepercentofthedistancetoschoolthatSisterhascoveredvs.
thetimethatSistertravels.LabelthegraphS.
Percent of distance
to school (p)

100

50

10
0

10

Time Sister
travels (t)

15

B.Onthecoordinatesystemabove,drawasecondgraphBtoshowthepercentofthe
distancetoschoolthatBrotherhascovered,usingSister'straveltimescaleasthe
clock.Thefirstpoint,takingintoaccountBrother'sheadstart,isshown.(Besureto
noticethatthehorizontalaxisscaleisforSister'straveltime.)
C.Accordingtoyourgraphs,willSistercatchupwithBrother?Ifso,howdoyouknow,
andwhendoesshecatchup?Ifnot,howdoyouknow?
5. Showyourworkforcredit.
Mr.CooljoinsRabbitandTurtleinanOverandBackrace,200meterseachway.
Rabbit:Speedover50m/s;timeback10seconds
Mr.Cool:Timeover8seconds;speedback40m/s
Turtle:Thesamespeedbothways,butherestedfor5secondsafterthe
first200meters.
A.WhoofRabbitandMr.Coolfinishedfirst?______________
Work:
B.WhatwasRabbit'saveragespeedfortherace?_____________
Work:

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C.WhatwasTurtle'sspeedwhenhewasmoving,ifTurtletiedRabbit(rememberthat
Turtlerestedfor5sec)?
Work:
6.ChickenjoinsTurtleandRabbitinOverandBack.TheyrunanOverandBackrace,with
knowndataasinthedrawingbelow.

Turtle

60feetpersecondover>
<7.5sec.togoback

Rabbit

300ft.
oneway
300ft.
oneway

25ft./sec.forthefirst100ft.over,6sec
forthenext200feetover>
300ft.
Chicken
oneway
<75feetpersecondback

A.Goingthesamespeedoverandback,Rabbitjustbarelywontherace.Whatwas
Rabbit'sspeed?Explainyourthinking.
B.WhatwasChicken'saveragespeedforthewholeoverandbacktrip?Showyour
work.
7.WileyjoinedRabbitandTurtleinanOverandBacktrip,200meachway.Showyourwork.
Rabbit:Over20m/s;back4s
Wiley: Over8s;back40m/s
Turtle:Thesamespeedbothways.
A. WhoofRabbitandWileyfinishedfirst?
B. WhatwasTurtle'sspeed,ifhetiedRabbit?
C. WhatwasRabbit'saveragespeed?______
D. UseonecoordinatesystemtoshowqualitativespeedvstimegraphsforRabbit's
(markwith____),Wiley's(markwith......),andTurtle's(markwithxxxx)speeds
overandback.

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speed(m/s)

time(s)
8. AchickenandasquirreljointheturtleandtherabbitinOverandBack.TheyrunanOver
andBackrace,withknowndataasinthedrawingbelow.

Chicken

4sec.forthefirst100ft.over,6sec.forthenext200ftover
<75feetpersecondback

300ft.

Squirrel

40feetpersecondover>
<5secondstogoback

300ft.

Turtle

60feetpersecondover>
<71/2secondstogoback

300ft.

Rabbit

300ft.

A.Goingthesamespeedoverandback,therabbitjustbarelywontherace.Whatwas
therabbit'sspeed?Explainyourthinking.
B.Whocameinsecond,third,andfourth?(Indicateties,ifany.Noexplanationis
required.)
Second____________
Third___________ Fourth___________
C.Atthehalfwaymarkoftherace(300feet),whatwastheorderoftheanimals?
(Indicateties,ifany.Noexplanationisrequired.)
Leader_________Second__________Third________Fourth________
D.Whatwasthechicken'saveragespeedover?________

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9. Anew"Over"distanceissetat100feet.TheRabbittakes5 12 secondstogoover,andcomes
backat40feetpersecond.WhatshouldtheTurtle'sspeedbe,sothattheanimalstie?Write
enoughsothatyourthinkingisclear.
Rabbit'sspeed_______
10.

A.Someonebuysafewcandybarsat55eachandseveralothersonsaleat35each.Is
theaveragepriceforthecandybars45?Explainbriefly.
______________because
B. Astoresellstwosizesofsoftdrinksalargefor$1.10,andasmallfor$0.90.Friday
thestoresold236softdrinks.Themanagerreasons,"The$1.10and$0.90givean
averageof$1.Sowemusthavetakenin$236fromsoftdrinksonFriday."Isthe
managercorrect/incorrect?Explaininsomedetail.
______________because

11.

Tellwhethereachiscorrect,andexplainwhyorwhynot.
A.Fundraiser:"Wegotwodonationsof$5000andtwoof$1000each!That'san
averageof$3000perdonation!"
______________because
B.Qualitycontroltrainee:"Oneshipmenthad1%oftheitemsdefective,andanother
shipmenthad5%defective.That'sanaverageof3%defective."
______________because

12.Thereisa(common)error,orsomeconfusion,ineachofthefollowingsituations.Findthe
error/confusion,andexplainwhysomethinkingwas"off,"eventhoughthepersonthoughtthe
thinkingwasallright.
A.Beforesummerschoolastudenthadcompleted96units,withagpaof2.9.The
studenttakestwo3unitcoursesinsummerschoolandgetsanAandaB,a3.5gpa.
Thestudentispleasedoncalculatingandfindingthenewgpatobe3.2.
B.Ateenagersayssheneverhasanythingnicetowear.Herparentstellhershecanbuy
4newblousesforherbirthday,buttokeeptheaveragepriceat$25(orless).Thegirl
findssome$40blousesshereallylikesandcalculatesfrom=25thatx=10.Soa$40

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blouseanda$10blousewouldgiveanaverageof$25.Sheishappytofindan
acceptable$10blouseonasaletable.Shebuysitandthreeofthe$40blousesin
differentcolors.
C.Apersonboughtausedcarandwantstocheckitsgasmileage.Forthefirstfewfill
ups,shecovered823milesandgot24.4milespergallon.Thenextfillup,after240
moremiles,took6gallons,soshegot40milespergallon.Shecalculates==32.2
mpgandfeelsmuchbetter.
D.Abegot94outof100ononetest,butonly26outof50onasecond.Hefigureshe
has94+26,or120,outof150,andfindsthattobe80%.Hence,hecannot
understandwhyhisteacher'sgradebookshowsadifferentresult:94%,52%,which
giveanaverageof==73%.
(Choosecarefully,basedonyourclassworkand/ordiscussions.)
13.Expressthegeneralpropertyinalgebrathateachillustrates,usingvariables.
A. (400+25)x3=(400x3)+(25x3)
B. (57x16)+(43x16)=(57+43)x16
C. (600+32)4=(6004)+(324)
75

D.

14.Namethepropertyorpropertiesthatjustifyeachofthefollowing.
A. (700+60+3)+(200+30+5)=(3+5)+(60+30)+(700+200)
B. 5x(17+3)=(5x17)+(5x3)
C. 984+(717+563)=984+(563+717)
D. (56x89)x 113
113 =56x 89
E. 75 + ( 23 + 75) = 23 (Hint:Morethanoneproperty!)
F.

1
3

G. 26

52
52

= 26

H. 5x(17x3)=5x(3x17)
15.Testeachofthefollowingalgebrastatementstoseewhethertheyappeartobetruein
general.Ifastatementappearsalwaystobetrue,drawadiagramtojustifythestatement.
Addanexplanationifthediagramisnotselfexplanatory.Ifastatementisnottruein
general,giveacounterexample.

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A. ba

B. (a
C. (a
D. (a
E. (a
16.Ineachpartusethegiven,correctalgebraicstatementstoanswerthecalculation.
A. (x impliesthat14seventeenx21seventeen=_________seventeen.
B. (2x impliesthat23eleven x21eleven=________eleven.
C.(Bonus)WhatotherbasescouldbeusedinpartsAandB?
17.

A. Itiscorrectthat12ninex32nine=384nine.Howmightthatinform(x+2)(3x+2)?
B. Explainthe"might"inpartAbyconsidering4ninex 13nine=53nine.Giveanother
calculationthatwouldmisinformanalgebraicexpression.Bonus:Whydoes4ninex13nine=
53nine,oryourcalculation,giveanincorrectideaforalgebra?
18.Calculatethesumandproductofthepairsofpolynomials.
A. 4 x 2
B. 5x
19.Makeadrawingtojustify a(b .
20.TFThe"balance"diagramtotherightshows

x+2=x3.(Ifitisnottrue,giveacorrectequation.

21.Makeadrawingofabalanceforthefollowingequation.Solvetheequationbyshowing
actionswiththebalance,onestepatatime.4x+5=5x+3
22.Usespecificvaluesformandnin (a m )n togiveabasisforjustifyingthat a 2 .
1

22'.Use a m tojustifydefining a 2 .
23.Use

am

asthebasisfordefining a 0 and a fornonzerovaluesfora.


n

24.Showyourmasteryoftheconventionalorderofoperationsbyevaluatingeach.
A. 6+3x7(2+1)5
B. 1043x2+1
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C. 1043x(2+1)
D. f(3),forf(x)=4x27x+2
E. g(2),forg(x)=93x5x3
25.Finisheachstoryproblemsothatitcanbedescribedbythegivenequation.
A. 50n=16"Jamalhad50piecesofpaper."
B. 3n+16.99=37"JosewentshoppingandboughtaCDfor$16.99"

Chapter15
1. Givethe100thandthenthentriesfortheselists,assumingthepatternscontinue.
A.12,22,32,42,52,100th________

nth_________

B. 3,5,7,9,11,

nth_________

100th________

C. 2 12 ,4,5 12 ,7,8 12 ,10,100th________

nth_________

2. Doeseachofthefollowinggiveafunction?Explainyourdecisions.
A. Associatewitheachwholenumbernitsthirdpowern3.
B. Assigntoeachpersoninthetownhis/hercurrentlastname.
C. Assigntothelastnamesofpeopleintown,thefirstnames.
3. Findalikelyfunctionruleforeachofthefollowing.Showyourwork.
A.

B.

x
2
3
4
5

f(x)
15
19
23
27

x
1
2
3
4

f(x)=

y=

C.

D.
x
4

g(x)
29

x
0

y
14
11
8
5

y
5

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3
1
2

21
5
13

1
2
3
4

g(x)=

6
9
14
21

y=

4. Explainwhyyouranswerto3Amightnotbecorrect.
5.Twostudentshavebeenlookingforafunctionruleforthedatatotherightbelow.
n|f(n).
13
25
38
412

Akeena:"Igotf(n)= 12 n(n+1)+2."
Bea:"Yes,butmymomworkedalongtimeonitandsaid
f(n)= 12 n(n+1)+2+(n1)(n2)(n3)(n4).Let'saskthe
teacher."
You(theteacher):

6. Achildismakingspacemoduleswithantennasfromtoothpicks:

etc.
1room
module
(6tpicks)

2room
module
(11tp)

3room
module
(16tp)

Thechildwonders,Howmanytoothpickswouldittaketomakea100roommodule
withantennas?!
Youranswer,andajustificationforit:
7. (takehome.Instructor:Thisisexercise25in15.1.)Figureoutashortcutforsquaringa
numberendingin5.Herearesomefreedata:352=1225752=5625152=225
452=2025

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8. (takehome)Hereareexamplesofashortcutformentallysquaringanumber:
2

Example1.76 .Gototheclosestmultipleof10here,for76,plus4to80.Thengothe
oppositewayfrom76butthesameamount,minus4,to72.Multiply80and72mentally:
2

5760.Addthesquareoftheupdownnumber4.5760+16=5776.76 =5776.
2

Example2.62 .Goto60(down2).Thengoupfrom62by2:64.60x64=3840.
2

Addthesquareof2.62 =3844.
2

Example3.57 .Goto60,then54.60x54=3240.Add3 .57 =3249.


2

Example4.198 .200x196=39200.Add2 .39204(=198 ).


2

A.Usetheshortcuttocalculate37 mentally,andthenwritethementalstepsyoudid.
B.Giveajustificationthatthemethodworksforsquaringanyn.Labeltheupdown
numberx.(Instructor:Cautionsolutionrequiresalittlealgebra.)
9.
TheHikers'SupplyCompany's
SnackMixRecipe
Ingredients: 3cupsofnuts
1cupofraisins
2cupsofM&Ms
Combineandmixwell.Yield:9packagesofsnackmix.
A.Howmanycupsofingredientsarein1packageofsnackmix?______Explain.
B.WhatfractionalpartofeachpackageofsnackmixisM&Ms?_____(Noexplanation
required.)
C.Whatfractionalpartof2packagesofsnackmixisM&Ms?_____(Noexplanation
required.)
D.HowmanycupsofM&Msarein2packagesoftrailmix?_____Explain.
E.Ifyouneed24packagesofsnackmix,whatquantitiesofnuts,raisins,andM&Msdo
youneed?(Noexplanationrequired,butshowyourwork.)
________ofnuts;________ofraisins;________ofM&Ms

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10. Anewmachinegives5choconut
heartsforevery4chocolatebarsand 12 cup

choc
bars

ofnutsputintothemachine(nothingislost
inthemachine).

nuts

Solvebyreasoning.Yourreasoningmay
involvecalculations,butnotbyjust
calculatingwithaproportion.

A.Howmanyheartswouldthemachinegivefor18barsandtherightamountofnuts?
_____Reasoning:
B.Howmanycupsofnutswouldbetherightamount,for18bars?
_____Reasoning:
C.Anorderfor48heartscomesin.Howmanybarswillthatordertake?
_____Reasoning:
11.Whatisthedifferencebetweenanarithmeticsequenceandageometricsequence?
12.Supposeg(x)=3x2,andh(x)isdefinedbyMachineXto
theright.Givetheoutputif10istheinputtothe
combination
A. firsth(x),theng(x).

input
Add4totheinput,
andthendouble
thatsum.

B. firstg(x),thenh(x).

output

13.Whatdoesitmeantosay,"'Combination'offunctionsisnotcommutative"?
14.Illustratewithdrawingsof"machines"that"combination"offunctionsisassociative.

AnswersforTestBankItems,ReasoningaboutAlgebraandChange
Chapter12
1. A.increases.
B. thetemperaturegoesdown20Celsiusdegreeseachhour.
2. decreases;doesn'tchange;increases;increases
3. Mainly,thescaleonthehoursspentaxisisnotinincreasingorder.Thatthescaleonthe
verticalaxisdoesnotstartat0issometimesdone,sothatislessserious.
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4.

5.

6.

7.

A. Candle2becauseitburnsatarateof2cmperminute,butCandle1burnsatarateof
1
only 3 cmperminute.
1
B. h= 3 t+15
C.(Graphshouldstartat(0,25)andhaveslope2.Itgoesthrough(12.5,0).)
D. 12.5
E. Yes,theywillbethesameheight(13cm,notrequired)after6minutes(fromeither
thegraphoralgebraicwork).Asolutionfromthegraphmaybeoffabit.
A.$2.50
B. $3.50(usingtheclearestgraphpoint$14for4games)
C.Yes,ifthebowlerbowlsmorethan1game.Butifthebowlerbowlsjust1game,the
firstplanmakesmoremoney.(Thegraphscrossbetween1and2games.)
A. (sample)OnTuesday,thebakeryhad10000cookiesatthestartandbakedmore
cookiesatasteadyrateduringthe8hourshift.
B.1250Thisslopemeansthatthebakery'scookieinventorywentdownby1250cookies
everyhour,onFriday.
slope: 203 Thatslopemeansthatthecandleburnsby 203 incheveryminute.

Chapter13
1.

A.2minutes7.5seconds
n
B. 10 feetpersecond(lookforunit)
m
C. 25 orm25
2. F(Distancetraveledwouldnotdecrease;thestorywritermayhavethegraphaspicture
misconception.)
3. Graphssomethinglikethefollowing.Judgerelativedistancesaccordingtothestandards
yourclassworkhasset.

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Distancefrom
cave

D
E

0
Totaldistance
traveled

Timesince
leftschool

Possiblefinepoints:
Bshouldinvolvesame
distanceasA.
Cflat;anyduration
Ddistanceslightlyless
thanA,Bdistance.
EsamedistanceasD.
Overall:nondecreasing

E
D

A
0

Possiblefinepoints:
Ashouldbe1/3oftheway
downto0.
Bshouldshowfasterspeed
thanA.
Cflat;anyduration
Ddowntoabout1/2ofthe
wayto0.
EfasterspeedthanD.

Timesince
leftschool

4. Graphssomethinglikethefollowing;negativeslopesnotcalledfor.
Distancefrom
cave

D
E

Timesince
leftschool

Speed

E
A
0

B
C

Timesince
leftschool

Finepoints(speed):
Recall:Negativeslopes
notrequired.Adjustifyou
haveemphasized.
Bheightshouldbegreater
thanheightforA.
DvsBheight?,but
Eheightshouldbe
greaterthanheightforD.

5. Bbecauseforagivenintervaloftime,moredistanceiscovered.

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6. Hereisagraphfordistancetocavevstime.Agraphfordistancefromcavevstimeisalso
allowed,butineithercasethestudentlabeltheverticalaxis.
Distanceto
cave

Time

7.
Wiley'sdistance
fromcave

Wiley'stotal
distance

Rrunner'sdistance
fromcave

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8.

9.

A. Speedtimegraphshouldhavetwohorizontalsegments,withthefirstonehaving
greaterheight.(Adjust,ifyouhaveemphasizednegativespeeds.)
B. Distancetimegraphshouldhavealinesegmentforfirstpart(startingatorigin),with
secondpartmadeupofacurveupward.
A. (sample)WileywasoutbyhislookoutpointwhenhethoughthesawRoadrunner,
soWileyransteadilyfartherawayfromthecaveuntilhewassure.ItwasRoadrunner!
ThenWileyransteadilybacktothecavetogetanet,andthenranevenfasterbacktohis
lookoutpoint.Eventhoughhelookedandlooked,hedidnotseeRoadrunner.
B. (sample)Wileyranoutofhiscaveatasteadilyincreasingspeed,andthenslowed
downataconstantrate,lookingforRoadrunner.HesawRoadrunnerandstopped,but
immediatelyranatanfasterandfasterspeeduntilhereachedhisstartingspeed,andthen
keptrunningatthatspeed.

10.Thegraphshouldbecurvedupward,withtangentshavingincreasingslopesasthevolume
increases.(Ifyourstudentsshouldexpectapostfillingcontinuation,thentheheightstays
constantaftertheflaskisfilled.)

Chapter14
1. Inorder:A,B,E,D
2.

3.

4.

5.

A. A=24 2 d,oralgebraicequivalent
B. y=5x+15Samplestory:Joehas$15andcanclear$5anhourpaintinganelderly
neighbor'sfence.HowmuchwillJoehaveafterxhours?
A. Sister'slineargraphSshouldstartat(8:03,0)andgoto(8:19,100)
B. Brother'slineargraphBshouldstartat(8:00,0)andgoto(8:20,100).
C. Thegraphsshouldintersectaround(8:15,75),showingthatSistercatchesupat8:15
(12minutesafterstarting)
D. TheslopeforBis5,meaningthatBrothercovers5%ofthedistancetoschoolevery
minute.
A.GraphSshouldbestraight,joining(0,0)and(16,100).
B. GraphBshouldbestraight,joining(0,10)and(18,100).
C. Thegraphsshouldintersectaround(8,50),showingthatSistercatchesup8minutes
aftershestarted(atthehalfwaypoint).
A.Mr.Cool(13secondsvs.14secondsforRabbit)
400
m/s(Lookforunit.)
B.
14
400
m/s(Lookforunit.)
C.
9

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6.

7.

A. Turtle'stimewas12.5seconds(andChicken's14seconds),givingTurtleanaverage
speedof48ft/s.SoRabbitmusthavebeengoingslightlyfasterthan48ft/s.
600

B.
14 ft/s
A.Wiley(13secondsvs14secondsforRabbit)
400

B.
14 m/s(Lookforunit.)
4
C. 28 7 m/s
D. speed(m/s)

xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

W
T

R:10s+4s
W:8s+5s
T:7s+7s

W
R

time(s)

8.
A. Chickentakes14seconds;Squirrel,12.5seconds;andTurtle,12.5seconds.So
600
Rabbitwasgoingslightlyfasterthan 12.5 ft/s.
B. SquirrelandTurtletieforsecond,andChickenisfourth.
C. After300feet,Twasfirst(5s);Rsecond(6.25s);Sthird(7.5s);andCfourth(10s).
D. 30ft/s
9. 25ft/s(5 12 s+2 12 s=8sforthe200ft)
10.
11.

12.

A.No,becausethenumbersforthekindsofcandybarsboughtaredifferent.
B. Incorrect,becausethenumberssoldofthesizeswerelikelydifferent.
A.Correct,becausethereisthesamenumberofeachsizeofdonation.
B.Incorrectprobably,becausetheshipmentsmighthaveinvolveddifferentnumbersof
items.
A.Theerrorliesinnotrecognizingthattheindividualgpasarebasedondifferent
numbersofunits.Thenewgpaisonlyslightlygreaterthanthe2.9(about2.93).
B.Again,theerrorliesinnottakingintoaccountthedifferentnumbersoftypesof
10
blousesbought.Theaverageisactually dollarsperblouse.
C. The40mpgisbasedononly240miles,whereasthe24.4mpgisbasedon823miles,
sotheaverageshecalculateddoesnotrecognizethatthempgbasedonthegreater
distancewillhaveagreaterinfluenceontheoverallaveragethanthemgpbasedonthe
823

240miles.(Theoverallaverageis mpg.)

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D.Theteacherchosetoweightthetwoexamsthesameandsousedthepercents.Abe's
methodwouldhavethe50pointexamcontributeonly50of150totalpoints,ratherthan
100%ofapossible200%.
13.Choicesoflettersmayvaryfromthosehere,ofcourse,andquantifiersmaybeincluded,
dependingonyouremphasis.

14.

15.

A. (a+b)xc=(axc)+(bxc),or(a+b)c=(ac)+(bc)orjustac+bc
B. (axb)+(cxb)=(a+c)xb
C. (a+b)c=(ac)+(bc)
a

D.
(comparepartsCandD)
A.Commutativityandassociativityofaddition
B. Distributivity(ofmultiplicationoveraddition)
C. Commutativityofaddition(notassociativity)
D.1isthemultiplicativeidentity
E. Commutativityandassociativityofaddition;additiveinverseproperty;0isthe
additiveidentity
F. Distributivity(ofmultiplicationoveraddition)
G. 1isthemultiplicativeidentity
H. Commutativityofmultiplication(notassociativity)
A. Nottrueingeneral;studentshouldhaveshownacounterexample
B. True.Samplediagram:
a

a+b

then

c
c+d

16.

17.

d
(a+b)(c+d)

ac

d
bd

C. Nottrueingeneral;studentshouldhaveshownacounterexample.
D. Nottrueingeneral;studentshouldhaveshownacounterexample.
E. Nottrueingeneral;studentshouldhaveshownacounterexample.
A. 294seventeen(Letx=17inthealgebraicequation.)
B. 483eleven
C. Anybasesinwhich9(partA)or8(partB)arelegitimatedigits.
A.(x+2)(3x+2)mightequal3x2+8x+4.
B. Thegivenbasenineexpressionwouldimply(x+2)(3x+2)=5x+3.Asecond
exampleshouldsuggestanincorrectalgebraicresultalso.Theproblemisthat4ninex3nine
=13nine,andthe1influencesthenextplacevalue.NoticethatinpartA,thereisnosuch

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influencefromanyofthebaseninemultiplications2 x2=4,2 x3=6,1x3=3,and1


x
2=2,with6+2=8stillinvolvingonlyoneplacevalue.
A.Sum 4x 2 ;product12x 3 ,oralgebraicequivalents.
B. Sum2x+1;product15x2+53x+42,oralgebraicequivalents

18.

19.Oneway:Rectangularregionwithwidthaandlengthb+c+d.Theab,ac,andad
subregionscanbemarked.
20.

Fx+2=3x

21.Onepanshouldhave4boxes,preferablywitheachlabeled"x",and5singles.Theotherpan
shouldhave5boxesand3singles.Thebalanceworkshouldshowtheremovalof4xand3
singlesfromeachpan(eitherorder),withx=2thesolution.
1
Let m Then (a 2 )2 So a 2 ,whensquared,givesa.Thatis,
1

22.

a 2 mustbe a .
1

22'. a 2 a 2 ,so a 2 mustequal a .


1


23.Lettingm=n, 1
.Andsowithm=0, a


24.

25.

A. 26
1
B. 8 3
C. 6
D. 13
E. 55
Samples:A."Afteraweekofschool,hehad16piecesleft.Howmanypiecesdidhe
use?"Or(comparisonsubtraction),"Jamalhad16piecesmorethanJerry.Howmany
piecesdidJerryhave?"
B. "and3pairsofsocks.Hespentexactly$37ontheitems.Howmuchwaseach
pairofsocks?"

Chapter15
1.

2.

A.1002;10n+2
B. 201;2n+1
1
C. 151; 1 2 n+1
A.Yes;eachwholenumberisassignedtoexactlyoneperfectcube.
B. Yes;eachpersonisassignedexactlyonelastnameatatime.
C. No;agivenlastnamemightbeassignedtomorethanonefirstname.Forexample,
SmithmightbeassignedtoJosephandalsoKendra.

ReasoningAboutNumbersandQuantitiesTestBankItemswithAnswers

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3.

A.f(x)=4x+7
B.y=3x+17
C. g(x)=8x3
D. y=x2+5
4. Someotherrulemightalsodescribethesedata.
5. "Bothfunctionrulesarecorrectforthedatagiven.Weneedmoredatatoseewhichone,or
perhapsevensomeotherone,isbetter."
6. 501(thenroommodulewouldtake5n+1toothpicks).Onejustification:Forthe100room
module,theantennastake2x100toothpicks,thetopsandbottomsoftheroomstake2 x100,
andtheroomdividerstake100+1.Sothetotalis2 x100+2 x100+(100+1),or501.A
similarargumentgives2n+2n+(n+1),or5n+1,forthenroommodule.
7. Reportswillvary,andsomewilllikelyuseanexample.Hereisoneversion:Takethe
numberoftensandmultiplyitbythenextlargernumber.Writethatdown,andwrite25after
that.Inanotherversion,onesquaresthenumberoftens,addsthenumberoftenstothat,
writesthesumdown,andwrites25afterthat.Itistobehopedthatstudentsaskfora
justification.Ajustificationcanbebasedon(10n+5)2=100n(n+1)+25,or100(n2+n)+25.
8.
9.

10.

A. 40x34=1360,32=9,1360+9=1369
B. (n+x)(nx)+x2=n2x2+x2=n2
6
2
A. 6cupsofingredientsmake9packages,so1packagehas 9 , or 3 , cupofingredients.
2

1
B. BecauseM&Msmakeup 6 oftheingredients, 3 ofeachpackagewillbeM&Ms.
1
C. 3
2
4
D. 9 of2cups= 9 cupofM&Ms .
24
2
2
1
E. ( 9 =2 3 recipesneeded)8cupsofnuts, 2 3 cupsofraisins, 5 3 cupsofM&Ms
4 12 hearts(18barswouldmake 4 12 recipes)
A.
4 12 cups
B.
3
3

C.
48heartswouldbe485=9 5 recipes,so 9 5
chocolatebarswillbeneeded.

11.Inanarithmeticsequence,eachentryafterthefirstisobtainedbyaddingthesamenumberto
thepreviousentry.Inageometricsequence,eachentryafterthefirstisobtainedby
multiplyingthepreviousentrybythesamenumber.
12.

A.82

B.64

13.Theorderinwhicha'combination'offunctionsiscarriedoutcangivedifferentresults.
(E.g.,see#12.)

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14.Lookforthree"machines"combineddifferently.(Machine1afterMachine2)afterMachine
3versusMachine1after(Machine2afterMachine3).

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