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vm Example 2.4: A short antenna with a uniform current distribution in free space has IdL=3x10 Am. Calculate |Eg| for 0=90° and 9=0° if 2 = 10 cm and r=200 cm ‘assuming far field components. Solution : For far-field zone, the component of E in ay direction is given by = IdLsin® .- sp [e] T onl Fr0e, ‘Simplifying, F = Ldbsino jp [i8 Be eee [El 2n Putting B= hoe and B= mi 0 i {PLsn® (a me) ZE] Fe E= {eno (E} a E i {00x (3) eth a Hence the magnitude of the component Eg is given by dL) sin@ EI = W841 =soni( 5) ee é 3x10 __sin90 10x10"? 100x10-* Ey = 0.2827 Vim mmm) Example 2.2: The radiation resistance of an antenna is 72 9 and loss resistance is of 8. What is the directivity if the power gain is 30. Solution : The efficiency of antenna is given by ‘The power gain of the antenna is given by, Spmax = Tea max Hence directivity is given by, Hence directivity (i dB) is given by Goan (4B) = 1089 [Gyn] 100689 (3338) = 152288 dB Examples with Solutions Example 2.8 : A lossless quarterwave monopole antenna is situated above a perfectly conducting ground plane and is driven from 300 MHz source with the amplitude of 100 V. Calculate the average power radiated if the antenna impedance is (365+) 21.25) and internal resistance of source is 50 0. Solution : The equivalent circuit is as shown in the Fig. 223. son: FSF%ana ' (96:5 + j21.25)! 100 V at 300 ME Fig. 223 Applying KVL, i(60)+i(36.5-+ 21.55) = 100 i[s654+)2155] = 100 100 865+ j 21.55 i = 11222-13.8° A = 112A Hence the average power radiated is given by T, 23.006 W 0 wm Example 2.7 : If the noise figure of the antenna at room temperature is 1.1 4B, what is the effective noise temperature. Solution : Given T, = room temperature = 290 K Fin dB) = 11 4B By formula, ify * 160 L1 = 10 logy ) Fe Antilog 0 (Tp a) 1.2882 Hence effective noise temperature is given by, T. = (F~1)T, = (1.2882 - 1) (290) = 83.58 K wm> Example 2.9: The radiation efficiency of a certain antenna is 95%, The maximum radiation intensity is 0.5 W/Sr. Calculate the directivity of the antenna if (1) yyy = 0.4 W and (i Pay = 03 W Solution: Given 7 = 0.95, U,,,, = 0.5 W/Sr (a) The radiation efficiency of an antenna is given by, Pad ne Phaput Pad 095 = 78 Pag = 038 W The directivity of an antenna interms of the radiation intensity is given by, Umax 05 7038) ar. (b) The directivity of an antenna is given by, = 16.5346 p = Umax _ 05 20,9439 ym> Example 2.11: An antenna has radiation resistance of 72.0, a loss resistance of 8 0 and a power gain of 12 dB. Determine antenna efficiency and directivity. Solution : Antenna radiation efficiency is given by, Read rad + Ross The power gain is given by, Gpmax (in dB) = 12 dB . G, ie Gpmax = Antilog yg| > Now the power gain can be expressed as, Gpmax = Ir*Ga max ~ Sema _15. a = 17.6099 & Ge Hence the directivity in dB is given by Gg inax (in 4B) = 10 log yo (17.6099) = 12.4575 4B ump Example 212: A maximum current carried by A; antenna is 125 A, calculate the power radiated by antenna, radiation resistance and efficiency, if lass resistance is 1. Solution : For antenna, dL = + The radiation resistance is given by, j = 0.4934. The maximum current carried by the antenna is 125 A. Hence the value of rms. current is given by, lima = eal coms = Be Hence the power radiated by antenna is given by, Poa = Read Vn, ~ (04934) (88:38)? ad rms, = 88.38 A = 3.8539 kW For the antenna, loss resistance is given 1 Q. Hence the antenna efficiency is given by, a, = Bad 2 0484 Wy Shag “oa 0.33 Hence the antenna efficiency of 4/40 antenna carrying maximum current of 125 A is 33%, my Example 2.17: A dipole having a length of 3 cm is operated at 1 GHz. The efficiency factor K = 0.6. Calculate the radiation resistance, antenna gain and effective aperture. Solution : ft) iii) Antenna gain Gp =" Gp max Now maximum directional gain for a short dipole is given by Gpmax = 15 sin? 6 But gain is maximum in @=90° direction. Coan * 18 Thus antenna gain Gp = n(1.5) = (06) (15) = 09 iw a, = seen 503" = 0.01074 m? mm> Example 2.21: The radiation resistance of an antenna is 729 and the loss resistance is 80 What is its directivity if the power gain is 16. Solution : Given Ryg = 72% Riggs = 8 2, Gp = 16. By definition, efficiency of antenna, is given by, Prad *Ploss rad * Ross Substituting values of Rag and Rigg, » we get, nn Me = Fee = HOF Now the power gain and the directivity are related as G, : 16 = 09xG4 mexGy Directivity = Gg = 17.7778 Directivity in dB is given by, Gg = 10 logyolGg] = 10 logio(17.778) = 12.4987 dB inc) im Example 2.22 : Calculate the effective length of the 2/2 antenna if R,,j =73.2, Aemax =01322 and No =120% 2. Solution : The alternative formula for maximum effective aperture is given by, Aedmax 4B ‘rad Uy = Mea Ras No Ler L = 03172 m ‘off Example 2.23 : Calculate maximum effective aperture of antenna operating at wavelength Of L75 meters and with a directivity of 150. Solution ; The maximum effective aperture of antenna is given by, Oma * (omen) 73)? x (dn = 10S (Ac)ma = 36556 m? ump Example 2.24: Calculate front-to-back ratio of an antenna which radiates 3.5 KW power in most optimum desired direction and 0.5 kW in opposite direction. Express answer in dB. Solution : FBR - Power radiated in desired direction ~ ‘Power radiated in opposite direction ~ 35x103 5 05x10 To express FBR in dB, we can write, FBR (in dB) = 10 logyg (FBR)=10 log) (7) = 8451 dB mi ~— Example 2.25 : A Hertzian dipole of length 2 m operates at 2 MHz. Find radiation efficiency if copper conductor has 0=57%10° Ofm, y., = 1 and radius r= 1 mm. Solution : A Hertzian dipole of length | = 2 m is made up of copper conductor in the form of round wire of radius r = 1 mm as shown in the Fig. 2.25 (a). = Skin depth @ ) From the Fig. 2.25 (a) we can conclude that the current is confined to the skin depth & ‘Then if the skin depth is considerably smaller than the radius r, at high frequency such as 2 MHz the effective cylindrical shell can be considered as rectangular slab of width equal to the circumference (21) and the thickness 8 as shown in the Fig. 2.25 (b). Then the resistance at high frequency is given by, 1 R= J; wheres = (2x1) (5)= area 1 1 -t Vane JRF on) Jrftyo Substituting value of & in expression of R, we get, But 8 Lriig 1 [ty ~o@mr) ~Inry 0 ® R= Putting values of all the terms, 2 [rx2x108 x 4x mx (2x mx1x10™ R= 187317 ma aw R ‘The radiation efficiency is given by, Prad ™ * poyP ‘ad * Poss But Pros = 17 R and Pag ® I? Rig Rasa Ps Ne = gts ° Raat ‘Thus radiati ion resistance is given = wre (dt 2p Rg = 80% (ty =80n' lids = 140.36 ma Putting values of R,,q and R in equation (3), we get, 104.36x10> —__10436x10 _. 9.3577 104.36%10-8 +187317 10 em Hence the percentage radiation efficiency of a Hertzian dipole made of copper conductor is 35.77%. imp Example 2.26 : A half wove dipote is 7 m long If ts loss resistance is 1.5.0. Calculate (0 Radiation resistance (R,) (i) Antenna efcency (9) Solution: Given d= Am, Ri, = 152 ‘The radiation resistance of antenna is given by, tas ef me] soa The antenna efficiency is given by, R, 3.5091 aise eo 5091 = 0.7005 Rag +Riggs 35091415 Hence the antenna efficiency is 70%. mip Example 2.27 : Find length of half wave dipole at 30 Miz, Solution : Given f = 30 MHz We know that the velocity of light is given by, caha im Example 2.28 : Calculate the power radiated in the free space by 2/16 dipole. If the dipole carries current given by i=100.cos et, what is its radiation resistance. Solution : jm COSI = 100 cosiot =. Ty, = 100 The power radiated by dipole is given by, 1. af z 100%(%/16)/* x P, ad = 15.4212 kW x Pad = "03 = 0 120% 5x ‘The radiation resistance is given by, Rad " gs al& = i 1 8 j mm Example 2.29 : Calculate the radiation resistance of a 2/8 dipole antenna. Calculate ficiency of the antenna if the equivalent loss resistance of antenna is 2.5.2 Solution ; The radiation resistance of antenna is given by, Rad 8 oe nairs ee k, et soxat(42T Rag = 123370 But equivalent loss resistance is Rj,,, = 259 Hence antenna efficiency is given by, R, ad 12397 _ = agsis N* RagtRpe | 12337425 ~ ‘The antenna efficiency is 0.8315 or 83.15%. ‘ma Example 2:30 : The radial component of the radiated power density of an infinitesimal 2 dipole of length I < < hat a distance + meter is given by Ay °°" Wm?, where Ay is the r peak wile of & power density, © is usual spherical co-ordinate and 2. ¢ wavelength. Determine the total radisted power and the maximum directivity of the antenna. (RTU : 2004, 2005) Solution : The total power radiated can be expressed interms of its radial component as, Pad = . vas = J Pay sn oavee on ee Pas = Aa[ 4] ea [ jun? oco-5] Pag = Sag W Now, But the maximum radiation occurs at 0 3. Hence maximum radiated power density is given by, A 2 Pan = SB Wie But average power radiated is given by, a The maximum directivity is given by, », Ao z Come, = Pitt nF Dmwx = Pe mm Example 2.31: A thin dipole antenna is 2/15 long. If its loss resistance is 15 2, find radiation resistence and efciency. (RTU : 2006) + OE a Solution : Given : dL = 75, Riggs = 150 ‘The radiation resistance of antenna is given by, Rag = 8072 BY <2 ‘The antenna efficiency is given by, Rag, 35002 Rig + Rigg” 35092415 0.1896 ne Hence antenna efficiency of thin dipole antenna of length 4/15 m is 18.96 %. im Example 2.32: A dipole antenna is being fed by a source having source resistance of 50 Q If the conducting loss of antenna is 5 mW for 20 mA current, then what is its ficiency and radiated power ? (RTU : 2003) Solution Given : Rource = 50:2 Tims = 20mA Progy = 5 mW Assuming impedance matching between source and a dipole antenna, the radiation resistance of antenna is given as, Rrat = Reouree = 500 Now Pros = Tims. Rios 5x10? = (20 x 10°F Riggs & Rigg = 1259 Hence antenna efficiency is given by, = Rad a 1 Rea tRis Hence antenna efficiency is 0.8 or 80 % The power radiated by antenna is given by, Prd = Vems. Read (20 x 1074)? - (60) 0.02 W = 20 mW 1 mp Example 2.33 : A 150 kHz transmitier feeds a 100 m vertical aerial against ground. if the equivalent loss resistance is 3.0, find + # Radiation resistance it) Radiation efficiency. «TU: 200) Solution : Given : f = 150 kHz = 150 x 10° Hz Ry = 3.2 Lg = 100m The radiation resistance is given by, Lae Raa = 160 wey 2 Reg © 160 x x2x 100 3x08 350x105 Rag = 394780 Hence radiation efficiency is given by a